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2.
Presse Med ; 48(12): e369-e381, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785940

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2015, the vaccine against human Papillomavirus (hPV) was recommended in France for children from 11 to 14 years-old. This study assessed the knowledge of parents from Normandy about this vaccine and measured the impact of an information campaign on their intent to have their children vaccinated. METHODS: Parents from Normandy with children in sixth-grade class, aged 10 to 11, during the 2015-2016 school year were included. The secondary schools were selected in collaboration with academic institutions. The intent to have their child vaccinated was measured with a questionnaire distributed to children in April 2016 and collected from May to June 2016 by school nurses. RESULTS: Among the 16 selected secondary schools, 1428 questionnaires were distributed and 864 (60.5 %) were collected regardless of the gender of the child. Among the 439 girls, 85.9 % were not vaccinated against hPV. The intent to vaccinate was higher when the parent who responded was the mother (P<0.001). Among the parents who took note of the information booklet, 73.7 % found this information useful. There was a significant association between the knowledge about the vaccine against hPV and the intent to vaccinate (P<0.001). The percentage of vaccinated girls was significantly higher when their parents were informed (10.9 % versus 3.2 %). We noticed a significant rise of the intent to vaccinate children when information booklets were distributed (P<0.001). CONCLUSION: The vaccination rate after specific information about vaccination against hPV was significantly higher. The information campaign has thus a significant positive impact.


Assuntos
Intenção , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/uso terapêutico , Pais , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais/educação , Pais/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/história , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vacinação/psicologia
3.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 52: e20190149, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800919

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to analyze cases of complicated varicella and the impact of varicella vaccination in Minas Gerais, Brazil. METHODS: This was a time series study of a territorial basis using data on varicella cases from 2010 to 2016, which was provided by the State Health Department of Minas Gerais on . Descriptive statistics were used for the analysis, and the generalized linear regression model proposed by Prais-Winsten was used for the time tendency, adopting a significance level of 5% and the integrated autoregressive modeling of moving averages. RESULTS: There were 1,635 cases of varicella; out of which cellulitis (44%) was the predominant complication. The home-acquired cases were 38.9% and 464 cases (40.6%) were not previously vaccinated. There was a significant decrease in the incidence coefficient when comparing the pre- and post- immunization periods, from 1.95 cases/100,000 inhabitants in 2010 to 0.24 cases/100.000 inhabitants in 2016 (p<0.05). There was a higher incidence of cases recorded among males, with higher prevalence in the age group of 1-4 years (54.7%). Lethality was higher between 5-9 years of age (44%). Mortality was higher in the age group of 0-4 years and among females (2.58/100,000 inhabitants/year). The overall trend of the incidence coefficient was a decreasing one, with an annual percentage variation. CONCLUSIONS: The number of complicated varicella cases notified decreased, coincidentally, in the post-immunization period. However, the immunization coverage period was restricted for the assessment of the correlation between immunization coverage and incidence.


Assuntos
Varicela/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Varicela/prevenção & controle , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Estações do Ano , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Adulto Jovem
4.
Pan Afr Med J ; 34: 25, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31803340

RESUMO

Introduction: Estimation of dog population is relevant in Animal Health Planning; some of the benefits include rabies control and possible elimination, estimation of quantity of dog vaccines and drugs required in the state, policy development and implementation. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the population of dogs in Nasarawa state; a local government area (LGA) was randomly selected from each of the three senatorial districts and two wards were selected randomly from the selected LGA's. Three hundred and thirteen questionnaires were administered through face to face interview with dog owners and their dogs in view. Results: Analysis indicated 97.7% of the dogs were local breeds, 1.7% mixed and 0.3% exotic breeds. Guard dogs were 77% and 23% were used for hunting. Majority of the dogs (67.5%) were owned/stray while 32.5% were owned/confined. In Nasarawa state, 21% of the dogs were vaccinated and 79% had no vaccination history. The low vaccination rate indicates possible threat to animal and human health; hunting dogs are possible source of rabies introduction into their immediate communities from contact with wild reservoirs of the virus. Majority of dogs were between 1-5 years (73%) and more female dogs (52.5%) than males (47.5%) were reported. The dog to household ratio was 1.1:1 while the dog to human ratio is 1.1:6. Estimated number of dogs in Nasarawa state was 462,586 dogs. Conclusion: Proper sensitization of dog owners on annual antirabies vaccination against rabies in dogs and postexposure prophylaxis in humans is recommended. The local authorities should institute effective measures for the control of stray dogs to prevent the risk of dog bites and other environmental hazards posed by such dogs. The state government should enact and enforce laws on responsible dog ownership to include compulsory annual vaccination of all dogs. This exercise should be replicated in other states of the federation for a comprehensive national dog ecological data necessary for planning, policy development and implementation.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Propriedade/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinas Antirrábicas/administração & dosagem , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Cães , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria , Projetos Piloto , Raiva/veterinária , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinação/veterinária
5.
S D Med ; 72(10): 438-441, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816202

RESUMO

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a sexually transmitted virus that is the leading cause of cervical cancer world- wide. It is vaccine-preventable. According to the Centers for Disease Control, only 60 percent of girls have started the HPV vaccination series countrywide and only 50 percent of boys have started. South Dakota is below this national average. In an effort to assess - and improve - HPV vaccination rates in our practice a quality improvement effort was undertaken. Two interventions were implemented a month apart: the first was a mailing to the parent(s) of all patients 11-12 years of age during the time period of the intervention; the second was an in-office reminder system for both patients and physicians at the time of an office encounter. After each of the interventions, the immunization rate for one injection was significantly greater than baseline; while slightly higher than baseline, that for those receiving both injections was not statistically different for either intervention.


Assuntos
Infecções por Papillomavirus , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Medicina de Família e Comunidade , Feminino , Humanos , Imunização , Masculino , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , South Dakota , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia
7.
Pan Afr Med J ; 34: 65, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31762929

RESUMO

Introduction: On April 17/2017 Janamora district, Amhara regional state health officials reported an increasing number of people with a cough. The objectives of this study was to investigate the outbreak, describe risk factors and implement control measures. Methods: We conducted a community based unmatched 1:1 case-control study April 22-May 10, 2017. We used a probable case definition (≥2 weeks cough with vomiting, apnea, or inspiratory whoop) to identify suspected pertussis cases. Neighbors of cases were considered as controls. We conducted a door-to-door active case search and reviewed medical records, assessed vaccination status by parental interview or vaccination card. We implemented multivariable logistic regression to identify independent factors associated with the outbreak. Results: We investigated 60 cases and 60 controls. Most (68.3%) of the cases were under the age of 15. The majority (86.6%) of pertussis suspected cases, and 83.4% controls had not received any pertussis vaccine. The overall attack rate was 0.13% and the case fatality rate was 3.3%. The age-specific attack rate for under-five children was 0.33%. Females were more likely to have pertussis (AOR: 2.91; 95% CI: 1.17-7.22), contact with pertussis suspected person (AOR: 6.29; 95% CI: 2.53-15.62) and living in a relatively poorly ventilated house (AOR: 3.01; 95% CI: 1.17-7.70) were also significant risk factors of pertussis. Conclusion: Weak supplementary immunization activities might have contributed to the outbreak. Treating household contacts and integration of diagnostic laboratory test of pertussis into the local health system is of paramount importance to detect outbreaks early on.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Vacina contra Coqueluche/administração & dosagem , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Coqueluche/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Coqueluche/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
8.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 94(11): 2314-2339, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685156

RESUMO

The pretravel management of the international traveler should be based on risk management principles. Prevention strategies and medical interventions should be based on the itinerary, preexisting health factors, and behaviors that are unique to the traveler. A structured approach to the patient interaction provides a general framework for an efficient consultation. Vaccine-preventable diseases play an important role in travel-related illnesses, and their impact is not restricted to exotic diseases in developing countries. Therefore, an immunization encounter before travel is an ideal time to update all age-appropriate immunizations as well as providing protection against diseases that pose additional risk to travelers that may be delineated by their destinations or activities. This review focuses on indications for each travel-related vaccine together with a structured synthesis and graphics that show the geographic distribution of major travel-related diseases and highlight particularly high-risk destinations and behaviors. Dosing, route of administration, need for boosters, and possible accelerated regimens for vaccines administered prior to travel are presented. Different underlying illnesses and medications produce different levels of immunocompromise, and there is much unknown in this discipline. Recommendations regarding vaccination of immunocompromised travelers have less of an evidence base than for other categories of travelers. The review presents a structured synthesis of issues pertinent to considerations for 5 special populations of traveler: child traveler, pregnant traveler, severely immunocompromised traveler, HIV-infected traveler, and traveler with other chronic underlying disease including asplenia, diabetes, and chronic liver disease.


Assuntos
Doença Relacionada a Viagens , Viagem , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Medicina de Viagem/métodos
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 954, 2019 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706275

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mumps is a vaccine-preventable disease but outbreaks have been reported in persons vaccinated with two doses of MMR vaccine. The objective was to describe the demographic features, vaccination effectiveness and genetic mumps virus diversity among laboratory-confirmed cases between 2007 and 2011 in Catalonia. METHODS: Cases and outbreaks of mumps notified to the notifiable diseases system of Catalonia between 2007 and 2011 retrospectively registered were included. Public health care centres provided written immunization records to regional public health staff to determine the vaccination history. Saliva and serum specimens were collected from suspected cases for laboratory-confirmation using real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR (rtRT-PCR) or serological testing. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete SH gene (316 nucleotides) and complete coding HN protein (1749 nucleotides) sequences was made. Categorical variables were compared using the Chi-square or Fisher's tests and continuous variables using the Student test. Vaccination effectiveness by number of MMR doses was estimated using the screening method. RESULTS: During the study period, 581 confirmed cases of mumps were notified (incidence rate 1.6 cases/100,000 persons-year), of which 60% were male. Three hundred sixty-four laboratory-confirmed cases were reported, of which 44% were confirmed by rtRT-PCR. Of the 289 laboratory-confirmed cases belonging to vaccination cohorts, 33.5% (97) had received one dose of MMR vaccine and 50% (145) two doses. Based on phylogenetic analyses of 316-nucleotide and 174-nucleotide SH sequences, the viruses belonging to viral genotypes were: genotype G (126), genotype D (23), genotype H (2), genotype F (2), genotype J (1), while one remained uncharacterized. Amino acid differences were detected between circulating strains and the Jeryl Lynn vaccine strains, although the majority of amino acid substitutions were genotype-specific. Fifty-one outbreaks were notified that included 324 confirmed mumps cases. Genotype G was the most frequent genotype detected. The family (35%), secondary schools (25%) and community outbreaks (18%) were the most frequent settings. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that genotype G viruses are the most prevalent in Catalonia. Most cases occurred in people who had received two doses of MMR, suggesting inadequate effectiveness of the Jeryl Lynn vaccine strain. The possible factors related are discussed.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Vacina contra Sarampo-Caxumba-Rubéola/imunologia , Vírus da Caxumba/genética , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Caxumba/epidemiologia , Caxumba/imunologia , Caxumba/virologia , Vírus da Caxumba/classificação , Vírus da Caxumba/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Saliva/virologia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Proteínas Virais/classificação , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 955, 2019 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706284

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identification and knowledge of settings with high prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is important when aiming for elimination of HCV. The primary aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of viremic HCV infection among Swedish prisoners. Secondary aims were to estimate the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and the proportion who have received hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of all incarcerated persons (n = 667) at all prisons (n = 9) in Stockholm County was conducted. All prisoners are routinely offered opt-in screening for HCV antibodies (anti-HCV), HCV RNA, HBsAg, anti-HBs, anti-HBc and HIV Ag/Ab at prison in Sweden. Data on the results of these tests and the number of received HBV vaccine doses were collected from the prison medical records. The parameters of HCV RNA, anti-HCV, and occurrence of testing for HCV were analysed in multiple logistic regression models in relation to age, sex and prison security class. RESULTS: The median age was 35 (IQR 26-44) years, and 93.4% were men. Seventy-one percent (n = 471) had been tested for anti-HCV, 70% (n = 465) for HBsAg and 71% (n = 471) for HIV. The prevalence of anti-HCV, HCV RNA, HBsAg and HIV Ag/Ab was 17.0, 11.5, 1.9, and 0.2%, respectively among tested persons. The proportion of prisoners who had received full HBV vaccination was 40.6% (n = 271) among all study subjects. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of viremic HCV infection among Swedish prisoners in Stockholm County was 11.5%, which is high in comparison to the general population. Therefore, when aiming for the WHO goal of HCV elimination, prisons could suit as a platform for identification and treatment of HCV infection. There is a need to increase testing for blood-borne viruses and to improve vaccination coverage against HBV in Swedish prisons.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Hepatite B/imunologia , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite C/imunologia , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C/sangue , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Prevalência , Prisioneiros , RNA Viral/análise , Suécia/epidemiologia
13.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(45): 1029-1033, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725710

RESUMO

Afghanistan and Pakistan are the only countries that continue to confirm ongoing wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) transmission (1). During January 2018-September 2019 the number of WPV1 cases in Pakistan increased, compared with the number during the previous 4 years. This report updates previous reports on Pakistan's polio eradication activities, progress, and challenges (2,3). In 2018, Pakistan reported 12 WPV1 cases, a 50% increase from eight cases in 2017, and a 31% increase in the proportion of WPV1-positive sites under environmental surveillance (i.e., sampling of sewage to detect poliovirus). As of November 7, 2019, 80 WPV1 cases had been reported, compared with eight cases by the same time in 2018. An intensive schedule of supplementary immunization activities (SIAs)* implemented by community health workers in the core reservoirs (i.e., Karachi, Peshawar, and Quetta) where WPV1 circulation has never been interrupted, and by mobile teams, has failed to interrupt WPV1 transmission in core reservoirs and prevent WPV1 resurgence in nonreservoir areas. Sewage samples have indicated wide WPV1 transmission in nonreservoir areas in other districts and provinces. Vaccine refusals, chronically missed children, community campaign fatigue, and poor vaccination management and implementation have exacerbated the situation. To overcome challenges to vaccinating children who are chronically missed in SIAs and to attain country and global polio eradication goals, substantial changes are needed in Pakistan's polio eradication program, including continuing cross-border coordination with Afghanistan, gaining community trust, conducting high-quality vaccination campaigns, improving oversight of field activities, and improving managerial processes to unify eradication efforts.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças , Poliomielite/prevenção & controle , Vigilância da População , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Esquemas de Imunização , Lactente , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Poliomielite/epidemiologia , Poliovirus/isolamento & purificação , Vacina Antipólio Oral/administração & dosagem , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
Aust N Z J Public Health ; 43(6): 558-562, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617660

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe and compare vaccination coverage for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (hereafter referred to as Indigenous) adults in 2004-05 and 2012-13, including the impact of national vaccination funding initiatives. METHODS: National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health cross-sectional surveys - 2004-05 (n=5,757) and 2012-13 (n=5,482) - were compared. Self-reported influenza and pneumococcal vaccination coverage among Indigenous adults was analysed by age, remoteness, gender and risk factor status. RESULTS: Influenza vaccination coverage among Indigenous adults in 2004-05 and 2012-13 remained low. While coverage increased for those aged 18-49 years from 23% to 29%, it declined for those aged ≥65 years from 84% to 74%. For remote areas, influenza coverage among those aged 50-64 years declined from 76% to 66%. Pneumococcal vaccination coverage remained very low and declined across all age groups in 2004-05 and 2012-13 (50-64 years: 30% to 23%). For remote areas, pneumococcal coverage declined among those aged 50-64 years from 52% to 32%. CONCLUSIONS: Indigenous adult vaccination coverage for influenza and pneumococcal disease remains unacceptably low. Between 2004-05 and 2012-13, declines occurred in pneumococcal vaccination coverage across all age groups ≥18 years. Despite national funding of influenza vaccine in 2010, there was no increase in influenza coverage, except for the 18-49-year age group. Implications for public health: Current approaches to promote, deliver and monitor vaccination of Indigenous adults are inadequate.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde do Indígena/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Programas de Imunização/normas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos , Cobertura Vacinal/tendências , Adulto Jovem
15.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1222: 69-73, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637606

RESUMO

This study seeks to define the level of antihemagglutinin antibodies, using the hemagglutination inhibition assay (HAI), in the serum of patients, stratified into seven age groups, in Poland during the influenza epidemic season of 2017/18. A quadrivalent influenza vaccine has been introduced in Poland as of this epidemic season, making it possible for the first time to conduct the analysis for four antigens: A/Michigan/45/2015 (H1N1) pdm09, A/Hong Kong/4801/2014 (H3N2), B/Brisbane/60/2008 - Victoria lineage, and B/Phuket/3073/2013 - Yamagata lineage. We found that the level of individual antihemagglutinin antibodies was different among the seven age groups studied; with the highest in patients of 5-9 years and 10-14 years of age. Interestingly, the protection factor, defined as the percentage of people with the level of antihemagglutinin antibodies of at least 1:40 after vaccination or due to a previous infection, was the highest for the antigen A/Hong Kong/4801/2014 (H3N2) in the same age groups (74% and 75%, respectively). Taking into account the dismal 3.6% of the vaccinated population in Poland, these findings point toward the sustained presence of an immune system response in patients after a prior influenza virus infection.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza/imunologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Hemaglutininas , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2 , Vírus da Influenza B , Influenza Humana/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polônia/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(43): e17507, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651854

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate measles antibody level and its associated factors in a healthy Chinese population, so as to provide evidence to measles prevention and control measures in the future.We conducted a cross-sectional survey by using probability proportionate to size sampling (PPS) among a healthy population aged 8 months to 45 years. Information on measles vaccination status was obtained from the vaccination certificates. Serum measles IgG antibody was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Multivariate logistic and linear regression models were used to analysis the associated factors of measles antibody.Of the 663 study subjects, the positive rate, protective rate, and geometric mean concentration (GMC) of measles antibodies were 92.76%, 77.53%, 1612.55 mIU/ml, respectively. The antibody concentration was higher in Han ethnical majority than in Hui minority. The positive rate, protective rate and concentration of antibodies in different age groups and regions were clearly disparate. Age, area, and measles-containing vaccine (MCV) immunization history were the prominent influencing factors of antibody positive rate and protective rate. Ethnicity, age, area, and MVC immunization history were the influencing factors of antibody concentration.Our major findings suggest that, children in rural China, especially in impoverished mountainous regions, were more likely to suffer from delays in measles vaccination. Various measures in optimizing vaccination practices should be implemented in order to prevent possible measles epidemic, even outbreak in these regions.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Sarampo/imunologia , Morbillivirus/imunologia , Saúde da População/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/etnologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Estudos Transversais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Lactente , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Vacina contra Sarampo/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Urologe A ; 58(11): 1353-1360, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31659370

RESUMO

Effective vaccines against various urologically important diseases have been established for a long time, nevertheless, vaccination activities are generally underperformed in urology. Consistently low vaccination rates, e.g. for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines and a widespread vaccination hesitancy characterize the situation especially in men. This article highlights the importance of various aspects of vaccinations in urology and focuses on the improvement of consultation techniques for vaccinations to increase the vaccination rate and acceptance in the future.


Assuntos
Hepatite/prevenção & controle , Programas de Imunização , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus , Urologia/métodos , Cobertura Vacinal , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinas Anticâncer/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Masculino , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Infecções Urinárias/prevenção & controle
18.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1397, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660916

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Travellers visiting friends and relatives (VFR) define a specific population of travellers exposed to higher risks for health and safety than tourists. The aim of this study was to assess differentials in pre-travel health care in VFR travellers compared to other travellers. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed including attendees of the Travel Medicine Clinic of the Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, Barcelona, Spain, between January 2007 and December 2017. RESULTS: Over the 10-year period, 47,022 subjects presented to the travel clinic for pre-travel health care, 13.7% of whom were VFR travellers. These showed higher rates of vaccination against yellow fever and meningococcus, but lower rates for hepatitis A, hepatitis B, influenza, rabies, cholera, polio, typhoid IM vaccine and tetanus vaccine boosters. Regarding malaria prevention measures, results highlighted that VFR travellers, when compared with tourists, were more likely to be prescribed with chemoprophylaxis, particularly with mefloquine, than with atovaquone/proguanil. CONCLUSIONS: Findings from this large-scale study indicated differences in vaccination rates and completion, as well as in chemoprophylaxis for malaria, between VFR and non-VFR travellers, fostering specific interventions for promoting adherence to pre-travel health advice among migrant travellers.


Assuntos
Migrantes/psicologia , Medicina de Viagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Viagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Família , Feminino , Amigos , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Malária/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Espanha , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
Rev Med Suisse ; 15(666): 1807-1811, 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599522

RESUMO

Measles is a disease that was considered as relegated to medical history, since an extremely efficient vaccine had been developed. However, in Switzerland and elsewhere there has been an increasing number of epidemics in the past years, and the highest number of new cases this year. Based on two clinical cases showing very different outcomes, we discuss the disease, its clinic, complications, management, and the challenges remaining in obtaining a sufficient vaccination coverage worldwide as well as in our country.


Assuntos
Exantema/etiologia , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Evolução Fatal , Humanos , Sarampo/complicações , Sarampo/terapia , Vacina contra Sarampo , Suíça/epidemiologia , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(40): 893-896, 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600181

RESUMO

During January 1-October 1, 2019, a total of 1,249 measles cases and 22 measles outbreaks were reported in the United States. This represents the most U.S. cases reported in a single year since 1992 (1), and the second highest number of reported outbreaks annually since measles was declared eliminated* in the United States in 2000 (2). Measles is an acute febrile rash illness with an attack rate of approximately 90% in susceptible household contacts (3). Domestic outbreaks can occur when travelers contract measles outside the United States and subsequently transmit infection to unvaccinated persons they expose in the United States. Among the 1,249 measles cases reported in 2019, 1,163 (93%) were associated with the 22 outbreaks, 1,107 (89%) were in patients who were unvaccinated or had an unknown vaccination status, and 119 (10%) measles patients were hospitalized. Closely related outbreaks in New York City (NYC) and New York State (NYS; excluding NYC), with ongoing transmission for nearly 1 year in large and close-knit Orthodox Jewish communities, accounted for 934 (75%) cases during 2019 and threatened the elimination status of measles in the United States. Robust responses in NYC and NYS were effective in controlling transmission before the 1-year mark; however, continued vigilance for additional cases within these communities is essential to determine whether elimination has been sustained. Collaboration between public health authorities and undervaccinated communities is important for preventing outbreaks and limiting transmission. The combination of maintenance of high national vaccination coverage with measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR) and rapid implementation of measles control measures remains the cornerstone for preventing widespread measles transmission (4).


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Vacina contra Sarampo-Caxumba-Rubéola/administração & dosagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
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