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1.
Med Sci (Paris) ; 36(11): 1034-1037, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151866

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease (COVID)-19 is an emerging pandemic infection whose significant ability to spread in a naïve population is well established. The first response of states to the COVID-19 outbreak was to impose lock-down and social barrier measures, such as wearing a surgical mask or social distancing. One of the consequences of this pandemic in terms of public health was the suspension or slowdown of infant vaccination campaigns, in almost all countries. The indirect effects of COVID-19 may therefore weigh on mortality from measles and polio in developing countries. In this pandemic chaos, the only hope lies in the rapid development of an effective vaccine against severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, acceptance of this vaccine has not yet been won, as beyond the many unknowns that will inevitably weigh around such rapid development, skepticism among vaccine hesitants is growing.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Programas de Imunização/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Programas de Imunização/organização & administração , Programas de Imunização/normas , Programas de Imunização/tendências , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Participação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Participação do Paciente/tendências , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Poliomielite/epidemiologia , Poliomielite/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública/normas , Saúde Pública/tendências , Cobertura Vacinal/organização & administração , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinas Virais/uso terapêutico
2.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35(Suppl 2): 131, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193946

RESUMO

Introduction: Nigeria is the most populous country in the African continent. The aim of this study was to analyze risk factors for COVID-19 prevalence and deaths in all 6 geopolitical regions and 37 States in Nigeria. Methods: we analyzed the data retrieved from various sources, including Nigeria CDC, Nigeria National Bureau of Statistics, Unicef-Nigeria multiple indicator cluster survey and the Institute of Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington. We examined 4 clinical risk factors (prevalence of TB, HIV, smoking and BCG vaccination coverage) and 5 sociodemographic factors (age ≥65, population density, literacy rate, unemployment and GDP per capita). Multivariate modeling was conducted using generalized linear model. Results: our analysis showed that the incidence of confirmed COVID-19 cases differed widely across the 37 States, from 0.09 per 100,000 in Kogi to 83.7 in Lagos. However, more than 70% of confirmed cases were concentrated in just 7 States: Lagos, Abuja, Oyo, Kano, Edo, Rivers and Delta. Case mortality rate (CMR) also varied considerably, with Lagos, Abuja and Edo having CMR above 9 per million population. On bivariate analysis, higher CMR correlated positively with GDP (r=0.53) and to a lesser extent with TB (r=0.36) and population density (r=0.38). On multivariate analysis, which is more definitive, States with higher HIV prevalence and BCG coverage had lower CMR, while high GDP States had a greater CMR. Conclusion: this study indicates that COVID-19 has disproportionately affected certain States in Nigeria. Population susceptibility factors include higher economic development but not literacy or unemployment. Death rates were mildly lower in States with higher HIV prevalence and BCG vaccination coverage.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Vacina BCG , Feminino , Geografia Médica , Produto Interno Bruto/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Alfabetização/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Densidade Demográfica , Prevalência , Utilização de Procedimentos e Técnicas , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
4.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(46): 1748-1752, 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33211676

RESUMO

Pakistan and Afghanistan are the only countries where wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) is endemic (1,2). In 2019, Pakistan reported 147 WPV1 cases, approximately 12 times the number reported in 2018. As of September 15, 72 cases had been reported in 2020. Since 2019, WPV1 transmission has also spread from Pakistan's core poliovirus reservoirs (Karachi, Peshawar, and Quetta block) to southern districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Punjab, and Sindh provinces. Further, an outbreak of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2), first detected in July 2019, has caused 22 paralytic cases in 2019 and 59 as of September 15, 2020, throughout the country. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has substantially reduced delivery of polio vaccines through essential immunization (formerly routine immunization) and prevented implementation of polio supplementary immunization activities (SIAs)* during March-July 2020. This report describes Pakistan's progress in polio eradication during January 2019-September 2020 and updates previous reports (1,3,4). The Pakistan polio program has reinitiated SIAs and will need large, intensive, high-quality campaigns with strategic use of available oral poliovirus vaccines (OPVs)† to control the surge and widespread transmission of WPV1 and cVDPV2.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças , Poliomielite/prevenção & controle , Vigilância da População , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Esquemas de Imunização , Lactente , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Poliomielite/epidemiologia , Vacinas contra Poliovirus/administração & dosagem , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 114, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33175028

RESUMO

Due to social distancing guidelines and the displacement of both human and material resources to fight the covid-19 pandemic, individuals seeking healthcare services face certain challenges. Immunization programs have already been a worrisome topic for health authorities due to declines in vaccine uptake rates and are now especially affected by the covid-19 pandemic. Disbelief in science, dissemination of fake news about vaccines, socioeconomic vulnerability and social inequality are some of the challenges faced. This commentary article discusses the impacts of the covid-19 pandemic on immunization programs in Brazil. In light of advances (and notability) of Brazil's national immunization program, established in the 1970s, the programs face challenges, such as the recent drop in vaccine uptake rates. In addition to this health crisis, there is also Brazil's current political crisis, which will undoubtedly require assistance from researchers, policymakers and society to be fixed.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Programas de Imunização , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Betacoronavirus , Brasil , Humanos , Pandemias
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33138198

RESUMO

The phenomenon of population ageing observed over recent years involves growing healthcare needs and the limited staffing and financing of healthcare systems, and as such demands some functional changes in the healthcare model in many countries. This situation is particularly significant in the face of a pandemic, e.g., flu, and currently COVID-19.As well as social education, preventive vaccinations are the most effective method of fighting the infectious diseases posing a special threat to seniors. Despite this, the vaccination coverage level in most European countries is relatively low. This is largely due to patients having limited access to vaccinations. In some countries, implementing vaccinations in pharmacies and by authorized pharmacists has significantly improved vaccination coverage rates and herd immunity, while lowering the cost of treating infections and the resulting complications, as well as minimizing the phenomenon of inappropriate antibiotic therapies. This article presents the role of pharmacists in the prevention of infectious diseases, pointing out the measurable effects of engaging pharmacists in conducting preventive vaccinations, as well as analyzing the models of implementing and conducting vaccinations in pharmacies in selected countries, and depicting recommendations regarding vaccinations developed by international organizations. The presented data is used to suggest requirements for the implementation of preventive vaccinations in community pharmacies.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Farmácias , Farmacêuticos/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Betacoronavirus , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33121070

RESUMO

We reviewed the association between seasonal influenza vaccination and the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection or complicated illness or poor outcome (e.g., severe disease, need for hospitalization or ventilatory support, or death) among COVID-19 patients. None of the studies that were reviewed (n = 12) found a significant increase in the risk of infection or in the illness severity or lethality, and some reported significantly inverse associations. Our findings support measures aimed at raising influenza vaccination coverage in the coming months.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral , Vacinação/efeitos adversos , Betacoronavirus , Coinfecção/diagnóstico , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Epidemias/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Vacinas contra Influenza/efeitos adversos , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239860, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33085679

RESUMO

Leigh Syndrome French Canadian (LSFC) is a rare autosomal recessive metabolic disorder characterized by severe lactic acidosis crises and early mortality. LSFC patients carry mutations in the Leucine Rich Pentatricopeptide Repeat Containing (LRPPRC) gene, which lead to defects in the respiratory chain complexes and mitochondrial dysfunction. Mitochondrial respiration modulates cellular metabolic activity, which impacts many cell types including the differentiation and function of immune cells. Hence, we postulated that, in addition to neurological and metabolic disorders, LSFC patients may show impaired immune activity. To gain insight into the quality of the immune response in LSFC patients, we examined the response to the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine by measuring antibody titers to MMR in the plasma. In a cohort of eight LSFC patients, the response to the MMR vaccine was variable, with some individuals showing antibodies to all three viruses, while others had antibodies to two or fewer viruses. These results suggest that the mutations in the LRPPRC gene present in LSFC patients may affect the immune response to vaccines. Monitoring vaccine response in this fragile population should be considered to ensure full protection against pathogens.


Assuntos
Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Doença de Leigh/imunologia , Vacina contra Sarampo-Caxumba-Rubéola/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Doença de Leigh/epidemiologia , Doença de Leigh/genética , Masculino , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Quebeque , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
10.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(40): 1464-1468, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031360

RESUMO

Wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) transmission is ongoing only in Afghanistan and Pakistan (1). Following a decline in case numbers during 2013-2016, the number of cases in Afghanistan has increased each year during 2017-2020. This report describes polio eradication activities and progress toward polio eradication in Afghanistan during January 2019-July 2020 and updates previous reports (2,3). Since April 2018, insurgent groups have imposed bans on house-to-house vaccination. In September 2019, vaccination campaigns in areas under insurgency control were restarted only at health facilities. In addition, during March-June 2020, all campaigns were paused because of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The number of WPV1 cases reported in Afghanistan increased from 21 in 2018 to 29 in 2019. During January-July 2020, 41 WPV1 cases were reported as of August 29, 2020 (compared with 15 during January-July 2019); in addition, 69 cases of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2), and one case of ambiguous vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (aVDPV2) (isolates with no evidence of person-to-person transmission or from persons with no known immunodeficiency) were detected. Dialogue with insurgency leaders through nongovernmental and international organizations is ongoing in an effort to recommence house-to-house campaigns, which are essential to stopping WPV1 transmission in Afghanistan. To increase community demand for polio vaccination, additional community health needs should be addressed, and polio vaccination should be integrated with humanitarian services.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças , Poliomielite/prevenção & controle , Vigilância da População , Adolescente , Afeganistão/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Esquemas de Imunização , Lactente , Poliomielite/epidemiologia , Poliovirus/isolamento & purificação , Vacina Antipólio Oral/administração & dosagem , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
Tex Med ; 116(9): 47, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023282

RESUMO

Regardless of whether education takes place virtually or in-person, Texas school vaccination rules remain in effect for the 2020-21 school year, according to the Texas Department of State Health Services. All Texas public schools (and most private schools) and colleges require students to have certain shots before they can attend classes at the beginning of a school year.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/legislação & jurisprudência , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Instituições Acadêmicas , Vacinação/legislação & jurisprudência , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Preveníveis por Vacina/prevenção & controle , Vacinas , Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus , Humanos , Visita a Consultório Médico/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Texas
12.
Lancet Glob Health ; 8(11): e1399-e1407, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33069300

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As of 2018, the rubella vaccine had been incorporated into the national immunisation schedule of 168 countries, representing 87% of the world's population. Countries have used different strategies to reduce the burden of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS), such as vaccinating only females. Given the different strategies, and that 26 countries still had not introduced the vaccine, we analysed global rubella surveillance data to understand rubella epidemiology and the effect of vaccination. METHODS: In this ecological analysis, we evaluated surveillance data on rubella cases that had been reported to WHO from 2007 to 2018, by age, vaccination history, and onset year. Cases were classified as either being vaccine eligible or ineligible on the basis of the country's vaccination strategy and the birth year of the person. We required all cases be confirmed by laboratory testing or that they were epidemiologically linked, and we excluded cases defined only by clinical symptoms. Incidence per million people was calculated by use of World Population Prospects data. FINDINGS: Between Jan 1, 2007, and Dec 31, 2018, from data reported to WHO as of Jan 3, 2020, there were 139 486 reported rubella cases, of which 15 613 (11%) were vaccine eligible. Annual incidence ranged from 13·9 cases per million in 2007 to 1·7 cases per million in 2018. In all years, absolute and proportional global incidence were higher among vaccine ineligible cohorts than eligible cohorts. In vaccine ineligible cohorts, 87 666 (74%) of 118 308 cases were in children younger than 15 years, compared with 8423 (54%) of 15 613 cases in vaccine eligible cohorts. Vaccine ineligible women of reproductive age (WRA) had a higher incidence than vaccine eligible WRA, except in 2011-12. INTERPRETATION: Vaccination has been successful in decreasing the burden of rubella, regardless of the strategy used. WRA remain at risk, but the risk is higher in those countries that have yet to introduce the vaccine. These countries should introduce the rubella-containing vaccine as soon as possible, to eliminate rubella, and to prevent the morbidity and mortality associated with CRS. FUNDING: None.


Assuntos
Saúde Global , Vigilância da População , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Esquemas de Imunização , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/prevenção & controle , Síndrome da Rubéola Congênita/epidemiologia , Síndrome da Rubéola Congênita/prevenção & controle , Vacina contra Rubéola/administração & dosagem , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Bioessays ; 42(11): e2000076, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32869330

RESUMO

Two conundrums puzzle COVID-19 investigators: 1) morbidity and mortality is rare among infants and young children and 2) rates of morbidity and mortality exhibit large variances across nations, locales, and even within cities. It is found that the higher the rate of pneumococcal vaccination in a nation (or city) the lower the COVID-19 morbidity and mortality. Vaccination rates with Bacillus Calmette-Guerin, poliovirus, and other vaccines do not correlate with COVID-19 risks, nor do COVID-19 case or death rates correlate with number of people in the population with diabetes, obesity, or adults over 65. Infant protection may be due to maternal antibodies and antiviral proteins in milk such as lactoferrin that are known to protect against coronavirus infections. Subsequent protection might then be conferred (and correlate with) rates of Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) (universal in infants) and pneumococcal vaccination, the latter varying widely by geography among infants, at-risk adults, and the elderly. Also see the video abstract here https://youtu.be/GODBYRbPL00.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Lactoferrina/fisiologia , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/farmacologia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Geografia , Haemophilus influenzae tipo b/imunologia , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Lactoferrina/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Vaccine ; 38(44): 6882-6888, 2020 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32912643

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Changchun Changsheng Vaccine Incident (CCVI) occurred mid-2018 and involved irregularities in the manufacture and quality control of diphtheria-tetanus-acellular-pertussis and rabies vaccines. This study investigates vaccine confidence amongst Chinese caregivers and vaccination-service providers (VSPs) six months after the CCVI. METHODS: Quantitative surveys were conducted in January 2019 with 2124 caregivers of children and 555 VSPs in three areas in China. The proportions of respondents who agreed to the four statements from the Vaccine Confidence Index™ were used to measure vaccine confidence. Descriptive and univariate analyses were performed to study the level of vaccine confidence. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 48 caregivers, 43 VSPs and 9 immunization program managers. Interviews were analyzed thematically using a combination of deductive and inductive coding. Media surveillance was conducted to monitor public responses to the CCVI. RESULTS: Media surveillance indicated that public attention to vaccine-related issues increased sharply immediately post-CCVI but declined rapidly thereafter. Six months post-CCVI, 96.0% of caregivers and the same proportion of VSPs reported that vaccination was important and compatible with their religious beliefs. 82.7% and 88.2% of caregivers agreed that vaccines were safe and effective. 92.8% and 94.6% of VSPs agreed that vaccines were safe and effective. Both caregivers and VSPs reported an immediate decline in vaccine confidence post-CCVI. In most cases this trust was regained over time following government and public health responses, however some people remained hesitant about vaccinating their children. Many VSPs were overwhelmed by consultations, workload and psychological pressure after the CCVI. CONCLUSION: After an initial decline, vaccine confidence recovered to pre-incident levels six months after the CCVI. However, some caregivers moved from the higher to the lower end of the vaccine confidence spectrum, pointing to the need to promote the acceptance of vaccination especially given the need for new vaccines to control the coronavirus epidemic.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Corpo Clínico/psicologia , Controle de Qualidade , Retirada de Medicamento Baseada em Segurança , Confiança/psicologia , Adulto , China , Estudos Transversais , Vacinas contra Difteria, Tétano e Coqueluche Acelular/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vacinas Antirrábicas/efeitos adversos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Recusa de Vacinação/psicologia
15.
Vaccine ; 38(45): 7146-7155, 2020 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943265

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic has affected routine immunization globally. Impact will likely be higher in low and middle-income countries with limited healthcare resources and fragile health systems. We quantified the impact, spatial heterogeneity, and determinants for childhood immunizations of 48 million population affected in the Sindh province of Pakistan. METHODS: We extracted individual immunization records from real-time provincial Electronic Immunization Registry from September 23, 2019, to July 11, 2020. Comparing baseline (6 months preceding the lockdown) and the COVID-19 lockdown period, we analyzed the impact on daily immunization coverage rate for each antigen by geographical area. We used multivariable logistic regression to explore the predictors associated with immunizations during the lockdown. RESULTS: There was a 52.5% decline in the daily average total number of vaccinations administered during lockdown compared to baseline. The highest decline was seen for Bacille Cal-mette Guérin (BCG) (40.6% (958/2360) immunization at fixed sites. Around 8438 children/day were missing immunization during the lockdown. Enrollments declined furthest in rural districts, urban sub-districts with large slums, and polio-endemic super high-risk sub-districts. Pentavalent-3 (penta-3) immunization rates were higher in infants born in hospitals (RR: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.04-1.15) and those with mothers having higher education (RR: 1.19-1.50; 95% CI: 1.13-1.65). Likelihood of penta-3 immunization was reduced by 5% for each week of delayed enrollment into the immunization program. CONCLUSION: One out of every two children in Sindh province has missed their routine vaccinations during the provincial COVID-19 lockdown. The pool of un-immunized children is expanding during lockdown, leaving them susceptible to vaccine-preventable diseases. There is a need for tailored interventions to promote immunization visits and safe service delivery. Higher maternal education, facility-based births, and early enrollment into the immunization program continue to show a positive association with immunization uptake, even during a challenging lockdown.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Quarentena , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Tuberculose Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacina BCG/administração & dosagem , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Processamento Eletrônico de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Programas de Imunização/estatística & dados numéricos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Sarampo/imunologia , Vacina contra Sarampo/administração & dosagem , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Sistema de Registros , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/imunologia , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/administração & dosagem , População Rural , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/imunologia , População Urbana , Vacinação/psicologia , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinas Atenuadas/administração & dosagem
17.
Psychol Sci ; 31(10): 1236-1244, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915703

RESUMO

It has become increasingly clear that COVID-19 is transmitted between individuals. It stands to reason that the spread of the virus depends on sociocultural ecologies that facilitate or inhibit social contact. In particular, the community-level tendency to engage with strangers and freely choose friends, called relational mobility, creates increased opportunities to interact with a larger and more variable range of other people. It may therefore be associated with a faster spread of infectious diseases, including COVID-19. Here, we tested this possibility by analyzing growth curves of confirmed cases of and deaths due to COVID-19 in the first 30 days of the outbreaks in 39 countries. We found that growth was significantly accelerated as a function of a country-wise measure of relational mobility. This relationship was robust either with or without a set of control variables, including demographic variables, reporting bias, testing availability, and cultural dimensions of individualism, tightness, and government efficiency. Policy implications are also discussed.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Modelos Biológicos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Comportamento Social , Vacina BCG , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Comparação Transcultural , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
18.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 4(10): 775-789, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946831

RESUMO

Malaria disproportionately affects children younger than 5 years. Falciparum malaria is responsible for more than 200 000 child deaths per year in Africa and vivax malaria is well documented as a cause of severe anaemia and excess mortality in children in Asia and Oceania. For the treatment of malaria in children, paediatric dosing recommendations for several agents, including parenteral artesunate and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine, have belatedly been shown to be suboptimal. Worsening antimalarial resistance in Plasmodium falciparum in the Greater Mekong Subregion threatens to undermine global efforts to control malaria. Triple antimalarial combination therapies are being evaluated to try to impede this threat. The RTS,S/AS01 vaccine gives partial protection against falciparum malaria and is being evaluated in large, pilot studies in Ghana, Malawi, and Kenya as a complementary tool to other preventive measures. Seasonal malaria chemoprevention in west Africa has resulted in declines in malaria incidence and deaths and there is interest in scaling up efforts by expanding the age range of eligible recipients. Preventing relapse in Plasmodium vivax infection with primaquine is challenging because treating children who have G6PD deficiency with primaquine can cause acute haemolytic anaemia. The safety of escalating dose regimens for primaquine is being studied to mitigate this risk.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Artemisininas/uso terapêutico , Bem-Estar da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinas Antimaláricas/uso terapêutico , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Malária/prevenção & controle , Criança , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Malária/epidemiologia , Masculino , Estações do Ano , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 28(3): 178-186, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997472

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to identify the differences in the use of HPV vaccination between female medical students in the Czech and Slovak Republics and their possible causes. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional survey among female students of general medicine in all faculties of medicine in the Czech and Slovak Republics. RESULTS: We obtained 630 questionnaires from the Czech Republic and 776 questionnaires from the Slovak Republic. In the Czech Republic, 65.4% of female medical students underwent HPV vaccination, while in the Slovak Republic, the figure was 21.1%. In the Czech Republic, residency and religion of students did not influence their rate of vaccination. However, in the Slovak Republic, village residency with less than 5,000 inhabitants lowered the probability of vaccination with OR = 0.56 (95% CI: 0.38-0.84), and the Catholic religion lowered the probability of vaccination with OR = 0.40 (95% CI: 0.28-0.57). Czech students were informed about the possibility of vaccination by a paediatrician in 55.7% of cases, while the figure for Slovak students was 26.8%. In the Czech Republic, 75.7% of students participated in regular cervical oncologic screening, while in the Slovak Republic, the figure was 57.7%. Vaccination of relatives would be recommended by 86.5% and 80.5% of Czech and Slovak students, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The adoption of an oncologic prevention programme and the more extensive propagation by paediatricians are probably the medical reasons for the higher HPV vaccination among Czech students. Demographic factors - village residency and religion - are also important.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Vacinação/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , República Tcheca , Feminino , Humanos , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Eslováquia , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
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