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1.
Anticancer Res ; 41(7): 3419-3427, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230137

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Liver metastases are among the principal mortality causes in cancer patients. Dendritic cell immunotherapies have shown promising results in some tumors by mediating immunological mechanisms that could be involved in liver metastases during primary tumor growth. The present study aimed to evaluate the impact of prophylactic dendritic cell vaccination on the liver of mice with 4T1 mouse breast carcinoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adult female Balb/c mice were submitted or not to vaccination with dendritic cells before the induction of 4T1 tumor lineage. Liver tissues from mice were analyzed by flow cytometry (markers CD3, CD4, CD8, CD25, IL-10, IL-12, IL-17, TNF-α, IFN-γ, T-bet, GATA3, RORγt, and FoxP3) and hematoxylin-eosin. The dendritic cell vaccine was differentiated and matured ex vivo from the bone marrow. RESULTS: Prophylactic vaccination reduced areas of liver metastases (p=0.0049), induced an increase in the percentage of total T and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (p<0.0001), as well as FoxP3+ (p<0.0001). It also increased the levels of cytokines IL-10 and IL-17 in helper T lymphocytes (p<0.0001). CONCLUSION: The prophylactic dendritic cell vaccine changed the cell phenotype in the immune response of liver, and it was able to reduce metastases. Cytotoxic T cells and regulatory T lymphocytes were more present, likewise, the production of IL-10 and IL-7 simultaneously, demonstrating that the vaccine can induce a state of control of pro-inflammatory responses, which can provide a less favorable environment for metastatic tumor growth.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/imunologia , Vacinas Anticâncer/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/imunologia , Fígado/imunologia , Animais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/imunologia , Medula Óssea/imunologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Imunidade/imunologia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Fígado/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Vacinação/métodos
2.
Anticancer Res ; 41(7): 3371-3387, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230133

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: We compared the therapeutic efficacy of two recently developed experimental anticancer technologies: 1) in situ vaccination based on local immunotherapy with CpG oligonucleotides and anti-OX40 antibodies to activate antitumor immune response and 2) "Karanahan" technology [from the Sanskrit karana ('source') + han ('to kill')] based on the combined injection of cyclophosphamide and double-stranded DNA to eradicate cancer stem cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The anticancer approaches were compared on three types of mouse malignant tumors with different grades of immunogenicity: weakly immunogenic carcinoma Krebs-2, moderately immunogenic Lewis carcinoma, and highly immunogenic A20 В-cellular lymphoma. RESULTS: Our results indicated that in situ vaccination was the most effective against the highly immunogenic tumor А20. In addition, "Karanahan" demonstrated high efficiency in all types of tumors, regardless of their immunogenicity or size. CONCLUSION: "Karanahan" therapy showed higher efficacy relative to in situ vaccination with CpG oligonucleotides and anti-OX40 antibodies.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/imunologia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Animais , Anticorpos/imunologia , Antígenos de Diferenciação/imunologia , Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Lewis/imunologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Ciclofosfamida/imunologia , DNA/imunologia , Feminino , Linfoma/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos CBA , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/imunologia , Oligodesoxirribonucleotídeos/imunologia , Receptores OX40/imunologia , Vacinação/métodos
3.
Front Immunol ; 12: 701752, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34234787

RESUMO

For more than a year now, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been causing the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic with high mortality and detrimental effects on society, economy, and individual lives. Great hopes are being placed on vaccination as one of the most potent escape strategies from the pandemic and multiple vaccines are already in clinical use. However, there is still a lot of insecurity about the safety and efficacy of vaccines in patients with autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis (MS), especially under treatment with immunomodulatory or immunosuppressive drugs. We propose strategic approaches to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination management in MS patients and encourage fellow physicians to measure the immune response in their patients. Notably, both humoral and cellular responses should be considered since the immunological equivalent for protection from SARS-CoV-2 after infection or vaccination still remains undefined and will most likely involve antiviral cellular immunity. It is important to gain insights into the vaccine response of immunocompromised patients in order to be able to deduce sensible strategies for vaccination in the future.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Esclerose Múltipla/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Vacinação/métodos , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Monitorização Imunológica
4.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 146, 2021 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1277941

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As in many countries, quantifying COVID-19 spread in Indonesia remains challenging due to testing limitations. In Java, non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) were implemented throughout 2020. However, as a vaccination campaign launches, cases and deaths are rising across the island. METHODS: We used modelling to explore the extent to which data on burials in Jakarta using strict COVID-19 protocols (C19P) provide additional insight into the transmissibility of the disease, epidemic trajectory, and the impact of NPIs. We assess how implementation of NPIs in early 2021 will shape the epidemic during the period of likely vaccine rollout. RESULTS: C19P burial data in Jakarta suggest a death toll approximately 3.3 times higher than reported. Transmission estimates using these data suggest earlier, larger, and more sustained impact of NPIs. Measures to reduce sub-national spread, particularly during Ramadan, substantially mitigated spread to more vulnerable rural areas. Given current trajectory, daily cases and deaths are likely to increase in most regions as the vaccine is rolled out. Transmission may peak in early 2021 in Jakarta if current levels of control are maintained. However, relaxation of control measures is likely to lead to a subsequent resurgence in the absence of an effective vaccination campaign. CONCLUSIONS: Syndromic measures of mortality provide a more complete picture of COVID-19 severity upon which to base decision-making. The high potential impact of the vaccine in Java is attributable to reductions in transmission to date and dependent on these being maintained. Increases in control in the relatively short-term will likely yield large, synergistic increases in vaccine impact.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/terapia , Humanos , Programas de Imunização/métodos , Indonésia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Síndrome , Vacinação/métodos , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
Cell ; 184(13): 3467-3473.e11, 2021 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1252548

RESUMO

We previously reported that a single immunization with an adenovirus serotype 26 (Ad26)-vector-based vaccine expressing an optimized SARS-CoV-2 spike (Ad26.COV2.S) protected rhesus macaques against SARS-CoV-2 challenge. To evaluate reduced doses of Ad26.COV2.S, 30 rhesus macaques were immunized once with 1 × 1011, 5 × 1010, 1.125 × 1010, or 2 × 109 viral particles (vp) Ad26.COV2.S or sham and were challenged with SARS-CoV-2. Vaccine doses as low as 2 × 109 vp provided robust protection in bronchoalveolar lavage, whereas doses of 1.125 × 1010 vp were required for protection in nasal swabs. Activated memory B cells and binding or neutralizing antibody titers following vaccination correlated with protective efficacy. At suboptimal vaccine doses, viral breakthrough was observed but did not show enhancement of disease. These data demonstrate that a single immunization with relatively low dose of Ad26.COV2.S effectively protected against SARS-CoV-2 challenge in rhesus macaques, although a higher vaccine dose may be required for protection in the upper respiratory tract.


Assuntos
Adenoviridae/imunologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Feminino , Imunogenicidade da Vacina/imunologia , Memória Imunológica/imunologia , Macaca mulatta , Masculino , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Vacinação/métodos
6.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(6)2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266401

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 infection and the resulting COVID-19 have afflicted millions of people in an ongoing worldwide pandemic. Safe and effective vaccination is needed urgently to protect not only the general population but also vulnerable subjects such as patients with cancer. Currently approved mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccines seem suitable for patients with cancer based on their mode of action, efficacy, and favorable safety profile reported in the general population. Here, we provide an overview of mRNA-based vaccines including their safety and efficacy. Extrapolating from insights gained from a different preventable viral infection, we review existing data on immunity against influenza A and B vaccines in patients with cancer. Finally, we discuss COVID-19 vaccination in light of the challenges specific to patients with cancer, such as factors that may hinder protective SARS-CoV-2 immune responses in the context of compromised immunity and the use of immune-suppressive or immune-modulating drugs.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Neoplasias/terapia , RNA Mensageiro , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Vacinas Virais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/genética , Vacinas contra COVID-19/uso terapêutico , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Humanos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/imunologia , Pandemias , Estabilidade de RNA/fisiologia , RNA Mensageiro/administração & dosagem , RNA Mensageiro/efeitos adversos , RNA Mensageiro/química , RNA Mensageiro/genética , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Vacinação/métodos , Vacinas Virais/efeitos adversos , Vacinas Virais/química , Vacinas Virais/genética
7.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 22(5): 172, 2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261286

RESUMO

Vaccination development and production was an essential question for the prevention and global control of COVID-19. The strong support from governing authorities such as Operation Warp Speed and robust funding has led to the development and authorization of the tozinameran (BNT162b2) vaccine. The BNT162b2 vaccine is a lipid nanoparticle-encapsulated mRNA that encodes for SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, the main site for neutralizing antibodies. Once it binds with the host cells, the lipid nanoparticles enable the transfer of the RNA, causing S antigens' expression of the SARS-CoV-2, conferring immunity. The vaccine is administered as a 2-dose regime 21 days apart for individuals 16 years and older. Pfizer-BioNTech's BNT162b2 vaccine was the first candidate to receive FDA-Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) on December 11, 2020. During phase 2/3 clinical trials, 95% efficacy was reported among 37,706 participants over the age of 16 who received the BNT162b2 vaccination; additionally, 52% efficacy was noted 12 days following the administration of the first dose of BNT162b2, reflecting early protection of COVID-19. The BNT162b2 vaccine has exhibited 100% efficacy in clinical trials of adolescents between the ages of 12 and 15. Clinical trials in pregnant women and children under the age of 12 are expected to also exhibit promising results. This review article encompasses tozinameran (BNT162b2) vaccine journey, summarizing the BNT162b1 and BNT162b2 vaccines from preclinical studies, clinical trial phases, dosages, immune response, adverse effects, and FDA-EUA.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/métodos , Aprovação de Drogas/métodos , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/efeitos dos fármacos , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/metabolismo , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/metabolismo , Vacinas contra COVID-19/efeitos adversos , Vacinas contra COVID-19/metabolismo , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/legislação & jurisprudência , Aprovação de Drogas/legislação & jurisprudência , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Exantema/induzido quimicamente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Vacinação/legislação & jurisprudência , Vacinação/métodos
8.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252332, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256039

RESUMO

In this study, we use an effective word embedding model (word2vec) to systematically track 'vaccine hesitancy' and 'logistical challenges' associated with the Covid-19 vaccines, in the USA. To that effect, we use news articles from reputed media sources and create dictionaries to estimate different aspects of vaccine hesitancy and logistical challenges. Using machine learning and natural language processing techniques, we have developed (i) three sub-dictionaries that indicate vaccine hesitancy, and (ii) another dictionary for logistical challenges associated with vaccine production and distribution. Vaccine hesitancy dictionaries capture three aspects: (a) general vaccine related concerns, mistrusts, skepticisms, and hesitancy, (b) discussions on symptoms and side-effects, and (c) discussions on vaccine related physical effects. The dictionary on logistical challenges includes the words and phrases related to the production, storage, and distribution of vaccines. Our results show that over time, as vaccine developers complete different phase trials and get approval for their respective vaccines, the number of vaccine related news articles increases sharply. Accordingly, we also see a sharp increase in vaccine hesitancy related topics in news articles. However, in January 2021, there has been a decrease in the vaccine hesitancy score, which will give some relief to the health administrators and regulators. Our findings further show that as we get closer to the breakthrough of effective Covid-19 vaccines, new logistical challenges continue to rise, even in recent months.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/psicologia , Aprendizado de Máquina , Recusa de Vacinação/psicologia , Vacinação/psicologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Vacinação/métodos
9.
Life Sci ; 280: 119744, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34174324

RESUMO

Viral respiratory tract infections have significantly impacted global health as well as socio-economic growth. Respiratory viruses such as the influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and the recent SARS-CoV-2 infection (COVID-19) typically infect the upper respiratory tract by entry through the respiratory mucosa before reaching the lower respiratory tract, resulting in respiratory disease. Generally, vaccination is the primary method in preventing virus pathogenicity and it has been shown to remarkably reduce the burden of various infectious diseases. Nevertheless, the efficacy of conventional vaccines may be hindered by certain limitations, prompting the need to develop novel vaccine delivery vehicles to immunize against various strains of respiratory viruses and to mitigate the risk of a pandemic. In this review, we provide an insight into how polymer-based nanoparticles can be integrated with the development of vaccines to effectively enhance immune responses for combating viral respiratory tract infections.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas/química , Polímeros/química , Infecções Respiratórias/prevenção & controle , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Vacinação , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Animais , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Humanos , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Influenza Humana/virologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/virologia , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/virologia , Vacinação/métodos , Vacinas Virais/uso terapêutico
10.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(6)2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34117117

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 infection and the resulting COVID-19 have afflicted millions of people in an ongoing worldwide pandemic. Safe and effective vaccination is needed urgently to protect not only the general population but also vulnerable subjects such as patients with cancer. Currently approved mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccines seem suitable for patients with cancer based on their mode of action, efficacy, and favorable safety profile reported in the general population. Here, we provide an overview of mRNA-based vaccines including their safety and efficacy. Extrapolating from insights gained from a different preventable viral infection, we review existing data on immunity against influenza A and B vaccines in patients with cancer. Finally, we discuss COVID-19 vaccination in light of the challenges specific to patients with cancer, such as factors that may hinder protective SARS-CoV-2 immune responses in the context of compromised immunity and the use of immune-suppressive or immune-modulating drugs.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Neoplasias/terapia , RNA Mensageiro , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Vacinas Virais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/genética , Vacinas contra COVID-19/uso terapêutico , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Humanos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/imunologia , Pandemias , Estabilidade de RNA/fisiologia , RNA Mensageiro/administração & dosagem , RNA Mensageiro/efeitos adversos , RNA Mensageiro/química , RNA Mensageiro/genética , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Vacinação/métodos , Vacinas Virais/efeitos adversos , Vacinas Virais/química , Vacinas Virais/genética
11.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 22(5): 172, 2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34100150

RESUMO

Vaccination development and production was an essential question for the prevention and global control of COVID-19. The strong support from governing authorities such as Operation Warp Speed and robust funding has led to the development and authorization of the tozinameran (BNT162b2) vaccine. The BNT162b2 vaccine is a lipid nanoparticle-encapsulated mRNA that encodes for SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, the main site for neutralizing antibodies. Once it binds with the host cells, the lipid nanoparticles enable the transfer of the RNA, causing S antigens' expression of the SARS-CoV-2, conferring immunity. The vaccine is administered as a 2-dose regime 21 days apart for individuals 16 years and older. Pfizer-BioNTech's BNT162b2 vaccine was the first candidate to receive FDA-Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) on December 11, 2020. During phase 2/3 clinical trials, 95% efficacy was reported among 37,706 participants over the age of 16 who received the BNT162b2 vaccination; additionally, 52% efficacy was noted 12 days following the administration of the first dose of BNT162b2, reflecting early protection of COVID-19. The BNT162b2 vaccine has exhibited 100% efficacy in clinical trials of adolescents between the ages of 12 and 15. Clinical trials in pregnant women and children under the age of 12 are expected to also exhibit promising results. This review article encompasses tozinameran (BNT162b2) vaccine journey, summarizing the BNT162b1 and BNT162b2 vaccines from preclinical studies, clinical trial phases, dosages, immune response, adverse effects, and FDA-EUA.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/métodos , Aprovação de Drogas/métodos , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/efeitos dos fármacos , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/metabolismo , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/metabolismo , Vacinas contra COVID-19/efeitos adversos , Vacinas contra COVID-19/metabolismo , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/legislação & jurisprudência , Aprovação de Drogas/legislação & jurisprudência , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Exantema/induzido quimicamente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Vacinação/legislação & jurisprudência , Vacinação/métodos
12.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 22(5): 175, 2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34114100

RESUMO

A trivalent influenza split vaccine was formulated at high concentration for coating on the transdermal microneedle system. Monovalent vaccine bulks of three influenza strains, two influenza A strains, and one B strain were diafiltrated, concentrated, and lyophilized. The lyophilized powder of each vaccine strain was separately reconstituted and subsequently combined into a coating formulation of high concentration trivalent vaccine. The formulation process converted the monovalent vaccine bulks with low hemagglutinin (HA) concentrations 0.1 mg/mL into a viscous, emulsion containing HA at ~50 mg/mL. This physically stable emulsion demonstrated viscosity 1 poise and 30° contact angle for effective, homogeneous coating on each microneedle. Evaluation of the vaccine antigen HA by SRID and SDS-PAGE/Western blot showed that HA remained stable throughout the vaccine transdermal microneedle system manufacturing process and 1-year ambient storage (25°C). Anti-influenza antibody responses were evaluated by ELISA and hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assay after primary and booster immunization with the vaccine-coated transdermal microneedle systems at either 25-µg or 40-µg total HA. The results showed the induction of serum anti-influenza IgG and anti-HA neutralizing antibodies after primary immunization and significant titer rises after booster immunization for both doses, indicating the dry-coated trivalent vaccine delivered by transdermal microneedle system elicited both primary and recall antibody responses against all three antigen strains. The study demonstrates that the transdermal microneedle system provides an attractive alternative for influenza vaccine delivery with key advantages such as preservative-free and room-temperature storage.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/instrumentação , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/imunologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra Influenza/síntese química , Agulhas , Adesivo Transdérmico , Administração Cutânea , Animais , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Feminino , Cobaias , Vacinação/instrumentação , Vacinação/métodos
14.
Cell ; 184(13): 3467-3473.e11, 2021 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34133941

RESUMO

We previously reported that a single immunization with an adenovirus serotype 26 (Ad26)-vector-based vaccine expressing an optimized SARS-CoV-2 spike (Ad26.COV2.S) protected rhesus macaques against SARS-CoV-2 challenge. To evaluate reduced doses of Ad26.COV2.S, 30 rhesus macaques were immunized once with 1 × 1011, 5 × 1010, 1.125 × 1010, or 2 × 109 viral particles (vp) Ad26.COV2.S or sham and were challenged with SARS-CoV-2. Vaccine doses as low as 2 × 109 vp provided robust protection in bronchoalveolar lavage, whereas doses of 1.125 × 1010 vp were required for protection in nasal swabs. Activated memory B cells and binding or neutralizing antibody titers following vaccination correlated with protective efficacy. At suboptimal vaccine doses, viral breakthrough was observed but did not show enhancement of disease. These data demonstrate that a single immunization with relatively low dose of Ad26.COV2.S effectively protected against SARS-CoV-2 challenge in rhesus macaques, although a higher vaccine dose may be required for protection in the upper respiratory tract.


Assuntos
Adenoviridae/imunologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Feminino , Imunogenicidade da Vacina/imunologia , Memória Imunológica/imunologia , Macaca mulatta , Masculino , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Vacinação/métodos
15.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 146, 2021 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34144715

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As in many countries, quantifying COVID-19 spread in Indonesia remains challenging due to testing limitations. In Java, non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) were implemented throughout 2020. However, as a vaccination campaign launches, cases and deaths are rising across the island. METHODS: We used modelling to explore the extent to which data on burials in Jakarta using strict COVID-19 protocols (C19P) provide additional insight into the transmissibility of the disease, epidemic trajectory, and the impact of NPIs. We assess how implementation of NPIs in early 2021 will shape the epidemic during the period of likely vaccine rollout. RESULTS: C19P burial data in Jakarta suggest a death toll approximately 3.3 times higher than reported. Transmission estimates using these data suggest earlier, larger, and more sustained impact of NPIs. Measures to reduce sub-national spread, particularly during Ramadan, substantially mitigated spread to more vulnerable rural areas. Given current trajectory, daily cases and deaths are likely to increase in most regions as the vaccine is rolled out. Transmission may peak in early 2021 in Jakarta if current levels of control are maintained. However, relaxation of control measures is likely to lead to a subsequent resurgence in the absence of an effective vaccination campaign. CONCLUSIONS: Syndromic measures of mortality provide a more complete picture of COVID-19 severity upon which to base decision-making. The high potential impact of the vaccine in Java is attributable to reductions in transmission to date and dependent on these being maintained. Increases in control in the relatively short-term will likely yield large, synergistic increases in vaccine impact.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/terapia , Humanos , Programas de Imunização/métodos , Indonésia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Síndrome , Vacinação/métodos , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252332, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077467

RESUMO

In this study, we use an effective word embedding model (word2vec) to systematically track 'vaccine hesitancy' and 'logistical challenges' associated with the Covid-19 vaccines, in the USA. To that effect, we use news articles from reputed media sources and create dictionaries to estimate different aspects of vaccine hesitancy and logistical challenges. Using machine learning and natural language processing techniques, we have developed (i) three sub-dictionaries that indicate vaccine hesitancy, and (ii) another dictionary for logistical challenges associated with vaccine production and distribution. Vaccine hesitancy dictionaries capture three aspects: (a) general vaccine related concerns, mistrusts, skepticisms, and hesitancy, (b) discussions on symptoms and side-effects, and (c) discussions on vaccine related physical effects. The dictionary on logistical challenges includes the words and phrases related to the production, storage, and distribution of vaccines. Our results show that over time, as vaccine developers complete different phase trials and get approval for their respective vaccines, the number of vaccine related news articles increases sharply. Accordingly, we also see a sharp increase in vaccine hesitancy related topics in news articles. However, in January 2021, there has been a decrease in the vaccine hesitancy score, which will give some relief to the health administrators and regulators. Our findings further show that as we get closer to the breakthrough of effective Covid-19 vaccines, new logistical challenges continue to rise, even in recent months.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/psicologia , Aprendizado de Máquina , Recusa de Vacinação/psicologia , Vacinação/psicologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Vacinação/métodos
17.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-48194

RESUMO

O Ministério da Saúde está enviando para os estados e Distrito Federal quase 1 milhão de doses da vacina Covid-19 produzida no Brasil pelo Instituto Butantan com matéria-prima importada


Assuntos
Vacinas/administração & dosagem , Vacinação/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Agenda de Prioridades em Saúde
18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 475, 2021 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34034659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chickenpox is a highly contagious disease caused by the varicella zoster virus (VZV), and in infants, adolescents, adults, pregnant women, and the immunocompromised it can be serious. The best way to prevent chickenpox is immunization with the varicella vaccine. Protective levels of antibodies induced by the varicella vaccine decline over time, but there is currently no formal recommendation for testing anti-varicella zoster virus (VZV) IgG levels in immunized healthcare workers (HCWs). METHODS: The aims of this study were to evaluate the seroprevalence of circulating anti-VZV IgG in a sample a sample of students and residents of the medical school of the University of Bari, the long-term immunogenicity of the varicella vaccine, and the effectiveness of a strategy consisting of a third vaccine booster dose. The study population was screened as part of a biological risk assessment conducted between April 2014 and October 2020. A strategy for the management of non-responders was also examined. RESULTS: The 182 students and residents included in the study had a documented history of immunization (two doses of varicella vaccine). The absence of anti-VZV IgG was determined in 34% (62/182; 95%CI = 27.2-41.4%), with serosusceptibility more common among males than females (p < 0.05). After a third varicella dose, seroconversion was achieved in 100% of this previously seronegative group. No serious adverse events were recorded. CONCLUSIONS: One-third of the study population immunized against VZV lacked a protective antibody titer, but a third dose of vaccine restored protection. Since it is highly unlikely that VZV will be eliminated in the immediate future, the loss of immunity in a substantial portion of the population implies a risk of varicella outbreaks in the coming years. Screening for varicella immunity in routine assessments of the biological risk of medical students and HCWs may help to prevent nosocomial VZV infections.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Vacina contra Varicela/imunologia , Varicela/epidemiologia , Varicela/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Pessoal de Saúde , Herpesvirus Humano 3/imunologia , Imunização Secundária/métodos , Vacinação/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Varicela/sangue , Varicela/virologia , Vacina contra Varicela/administração & dosagem , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
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