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1.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 35(3): 557-573, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590902

RESUMO

A growing body of evidence has shown that calves can mount an immune response when vaccinated in the face of maternal antibodies (IFOMA), albeit inconsistently and often in ways that differ from seronegative calves or older cattle. Several previous reviews have endeavored to explain bovine neonatal immunology and have documented the issue of vaccinating young calves. However, as preweaning vaccination becomes more common in both beef and dairy production systems, so too has research on the impacts of such vaccination programs. This article aims to briefly review the challenges and opportunities for vaccinating calves IFOMA.


Assuntos
Imunidade Materno-Adquirida/imunologia , Vacinação/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Troca Materno-Fetal/imunologia , Gravidez , Vacinação/métodos
2.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 35(3): 575-592, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590903

RESUMO

Vaccination is a critical component of cattle health management. Effective cattle vaccine programs should consider the timing of vaccination in relation to expected disease challenge, risk for wild-type exposure of various bovine pathogens, and host factors during vaccination. Nearly all consulting veterinarians recommend vaccination of stressed, high-risk calves on feedlot arrival. However, this recommendation fails to consider several factors associated with vaccine efficiency. Further research evaluating vaccine interactions in stressed cattle and potential additive effects of endotoxin from multiple bacterin administration may reveal new evidence-based vaccination guidelines for cattle in the various segments of beef and dairy production systems.


Assuntos
Bovinos/imunologia , Carne Vermelha , Vacinação/veterinária , Animais , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/métodos , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem
3.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 35(3): 593-604, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590904

RESUMO

Herd immunity is an important concept of epidemic theory regarding the population-level effect of individual immunity to prevent transmission of pathogens. Herd immunity exists when sufficient numbers of animals in a group or population have immunity against an agent such that the likelihood of an effective contact between diseased and susceptible individuals is reduced. Understanding herd immunity requires consideration of infection dynamics, modes of transmission, as well as the acquisition of immunity by individuals in the population. Loss of herd immunity may also explain age-associated epidemics of disease related to loss of passively acquired maternal immunity.


Assuntos
Imunidade Coletiva , Animais , Epidemias/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Vacinação/métodos , Vacinação/veterinária
4.
Acta Virol ; 63(3): 245-252, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31507189

RESUMO

Plants have been as medicinal mediators for centuries. Recent trends in agro-biotechnology however, improved the therapeutic roles of plants to a significant level and introduced plant-based oral vaccine which can arouse an immune response in consumer. Although conventional vaccines against infectious diseases have been administrated for years the discovery of plant-based oral vaccines can potentially replace them completely in the future. The probable limitations in conventional vaccines are found to be overcome by plant-based oral vaccines. Humans and animals will no longer be dependent upon local or systemic administration of vaccines but they will just receive the vaccines as a routine food. For the purpose, gene of interest is introduced into plant through transformation, and expression of specific antigen is obtained in plant products which are then consumed by humans or animals. Therefore, plants can serve as bioreactors or bio-factories for production of edible vaccines. A detailed overview about edible vaccines, methods for edible vaccine production, candidate bioreactors and future perspectives of edible vaccines has been summarized in current article. The future of vaccination seems to be present within plant-based vaccination system. Keywords: vaccine; edible vaccine; infectious diseases; antigen; edible crops; oral immunization.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Vacinação , Vacinas , Administração Oral , Animais , Humanos , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Vacinação/métodos , Vacinas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas de Plantas Comestíveis
5.
Exp Parasitol ; 205: 107733, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408623

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous protozoan of major medical and veterinary importance. Its treatment is difficult since the available drugs have severe side effects and reactivation may occur anytime. Vaccination with irradiated parasites exhibits ideal characteristics for vaccine development. In our experimental mice model, the protection against challenge with the virulent RH strain was assessed, using 255Gy irradiated tachyzoites. Eighty mice were allocated into 3 groups: naive control group, challenged with virulent RH tachyzoites group and a third group which is challenged with 1 × 106 irradiated tachyzoites, administered as two biweekly doses intraperitoneally. Protection was tested by challenging vaccinated mice with the virulent type RH tachyzoites 30 days after the 2nd vaccination dose. The assessment was built on qualitative clinical, quantitative parasitological, histopathological parameters and measurement of serum Nitric Oxide (NO). The results showed prolonged survival rate, absence of tachyzoites in the peritoneal aspirate by counting, absence of tachyzoites in all examined organs by impression smears, amelioration of histopathological changes in the liver, spleen, brain and lung specimens and increase of the serum NO level in the vaccinated group. Therefore, we propose that irradiated Toxoplasma tachyzoites confer protection for challenged mice and could be an alternative immunization schedule for vaccine development especially for who are at risk of severe immunosuppression.


Assuntos
Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasma/efeitos da radiação , Toxoplasmose Animal/prevenção & controle , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia , Vacinação/métodos , Animais , Líquido Ascítico/parasitologia , Encéfalo/parasitologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Colorimetria , Feminino , Raios gama , Fígado/parasitologia , Fígado/patologia , Pulmão/parasitologia , Pulmão/patologia , Camundongos , Óxido Nítrico/análise , Baço/parasitologia , Baço/patologia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Toxoplasmose Animal/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/mortalidade
7.
Eur J Pharm Biopharm ; 143: 1-7, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398438

RESUMO

During the manufacture of H1N1 microneedles, a stabilizer is usually added to maintain the antigenicity of the vaccine. However, finding a suitable stabilizer is difficult, and the addition of a stabilizer can limit the antigen dose and the addition of an adjuvant because of the limited volume of the microneedles. In this study, the authors evaluated whether H1N1 microneedles could be fabricated without a stabilizer by keeping the production environment at a low temperature. H1N1 microneedle patches without a stabilizer were prepared in a process that involved maintaining a low temperature of 10 °C. The protective immune response to this method of drug application was investigated by comparing it with traditional intramuscular (IM) immunization and with the use of H1N1 microneedles with a stabilizer. A process-sensitive antigen, H1N1, was stabilized without the use of a stabilizer in a process that maintained a low temperature of 10 °C. The preparation process consisted of coating and drying processes. In animal experiments, mice were immunized using an array of low-temperature H1N1 microneedles without a stabilizer (LT-MN), and they showed strong antibody responses. Compared to three other application methods of traditional IM immunization, low-temperature H1N1 microneedles with a stabilizer (LT-MN-T), and room-temperature H1N1 microneedles with a stabilizer (RT-MN-T), LT-MN produced comparable results in inducing protective immunity. A plaque reduction neutralization test found that LT-MN and LT-MN-T provided greater immunity compared with IM and RT-MN-T. A process in which the temperature is maintained at 10 °C can provide successful vaccination with H1N1 microneedles without the addition of a stabilizer. This process can be applied to various temperature-sensitive biologics.


Assuntos
Excipientes/química , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/imunologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/química , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Formação de Anticorpos/imunologia , Feminino , Imunização/métodos , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Injeções Intradérmicas/métodos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Agulhas , Testes de Neutralização/métodos , Temperatura Ambiente , Vacinação/métodos
8.
Paediatr Drugs ; 21(5): 397-408, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444785

RESUMO

Hexyon® is a fully-liquid, ready-to-use, hexavalent vaccine approved in the EU since 2013 for primary and booster vaccination in infants and toddlers from age 6 weeks against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B (HB), poliomyelitis, and invasive diseases caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). While the source of HB antigen in Hexyon® is different from other vaccines, the rest of its valences have been extensively used in other approved vaccines. Hexyon® is highly immunogenic for all its component toxoids/antigens when used as primary and booster vaccine in infants and toddlers, irrespective of vaccination schedule. It provides durable protection against hepatitis B. Hexyon® can be used for a mixed primary series of hexavalent-pentavalent-hexavalent vaccines or as a booster in infants primed with Infanrix hexa™ or pentavalent (whole-cell or acellular pertussis) vaccines. Coadministration of Hexyon® with other common childhood vaccines did not affect immune response to any vaccines. Hexyon® has a good reactogenicity/safety profile. The immunogenicity and safety profile of Hexyon® was similar to that of several approved vaccines, including Infanrix hexa™. However, Hexyon® offers the convenience of full-liquid, ready-to-use formulation, which may minimize vaccination errors and preparation time. Thus, Hexyon® is a convenient, useful option for vaccination against childhood diseases caused by six major pathogens.


Assuntos
Vacina contra Difteria, Tétano e Coqueluche/uso terapêutico , Vacinas Anti-Haemophilus/uso terapêutico , Vacinas contra Hepatite B/uso terapêutico , Vacina Antipólio de Vírus Inativado/uso terapêutico , Vacinação/métodos , Vacina contra Difteria, Tétano e Coqueluche/farmacologia , Feminino , Vacinas Anti-Haemophilus/farmacologia , Vacinas contra Hepatite B/farmacologia , Humanos , Masculino , Vacina Antipólio de Vírus Inativado/farmacologia , Vacinas Combinadas/farmacologia , Vacinas Combinadas/uso terapêutico
9.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33(Suppl 2): 5, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402965

RESUMO

Introduction: The Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in Liberia from 2014-2015 setback the already fragile health system which was recovering from the effects of civil unrest. This led to significant decline in immunization coverage and key polio free certification indicators. The Liberia investment plan was developed to restore immunization service delivery and overall health system. Methods: We conducted a desk review to summarize performance of immunization coverage, polio eradication, measles control, new vaccines and technologies. Data sources include program reports, scientific and grey literature, District Health Information System (DHIS2), Integrated Diseases Surveillance and Response (IDSR) database, auto visual AFP detection and reporting (AVADAR) and ONA Servers. Data analysis was done using Microsoft excel spreadsheets, ONA software and Arc GIS. Results: There was a 36% increase in national coverage for Penta 3 in 2017 compared to 2014 from WUENIC data. Penta 3 dropout rate reduced by 2.5 fold from 15.3% in 2016 to 6.4% in 2017; while MCV1 coverage improved by 23% from 64% in 2015 to 87% in 2017. There was a rebound of non-polio AFP rate (NPAFP) rate from 1.2 in 2015 to 4.3 in 2017. Furthermore, there was a 2-fold increase in the number of AFP cases receiving 3 or more doses of OPV from 36% in 2015 to 61% in 2017. Conclusion: Liberia demonstrated strong rebound of immunization services following the largest and most devastating EVD outbreak in West Africa in 2014 - 2015. Immunization coverage improved and dropout rates reduced. However, there are still opportunities for improvement in the immunization program both at national and sub-national levels.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Programas de Imunização/organização & administração , Cobertura Vacinal , Vacinação/métodos , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Humanos , Libéria/epidemiologia , Poliomielite/epidemiologia , Poliomielite/prevenção & controle , Vigilância em Saúde Pública/métodos , Vacinas/administração & dosagem
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 725, 2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31420019

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Female sex workers (FSWs) at substantial risk of HIV are potentially a suitable group for HIV prevention trials including vaccine trials. Few HIV vaccine preparatory studies have been conducted among FSWs in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA); data are therefore limited on acceptability of vaccine trial procedures. We determined vaccination completion and one-year retention among FSWs in Kampala, Uganda. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study that simulated a vaccine efficacy trial among HIV negative FSWs (18-49 years). Hepatitis B vaccine (Engerix B) was used to mimic an HIV vaccine product. Volunteers received 1 ml intramuscular injection at 0, 1 and 6 months, and made additional visits (3 days post-vaccination and months 3, 9 and 12). They were censored at that visit if diagnosed as HIV positive or pregnant. We collected socio-demographic, behavioral and clinical data at baseline, 6 and 12 months and fitted Poisson regression models with robust standard error to find factors associated with vaccination completion and retention. RESULTS: We enrolled 290 volunteers (median age 27 years) of whom 230 reached a study end-point as follows: 7 became HIV infected, 11 became pregnant and 212 completed both the vaccination schedule and 12-month visit giving a retention of 77.9% (212/272). Vaccination completion was 82.4%. Non-retention at 1 year was more likely among those reporting symptoms of genital ulcer disease (GUD) in the past 3 months (IRR 1.90; 95% CI 1.09-3.32) and those < 35 years; (IRR 6.59; 95% CI 2.11-20.57). Non-completion of the vaccination schedule was associated with being < 35 years (IRR 13.10; 95% CI 1.89-90.92, reporting GUD symptoms (IRR 3.02; 95% CI 1.71-5.33) and reporting consistent condom use with new sexual partners (IRR 2.57; 95% CI 1.10-6.07). CONCLUSIONS: FSWs are at substantial risk of HIV infection and yet willing to participate in HIV vaccine and prevention research; young FSWs should be empowered, and those reporting GUD symptoms need close follow up to improve participation in future HIV vaccine trials.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Hepatite B/uso terapêutico , Vacinação , Vacinas contra a AIDS , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Soronegatividade para HIV , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Sexo Seguro , Profissionais do Sexo , Parceiros Sexuais , Uganda , Vacinação/métodos , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
Presse Med ; 48(7-8 Pt 1): 756-766, 2019.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307878

RESUMO

Human oncogenic papillomaviruses (HPV) have an increasingly prominent role in the genesis of many cancers. The oncogenic mechanisms associated with HPV are now better known and make it possible to explain the etiopathogenesis of the association. HPV status is now sought for certain cancers and conditions both prognosis and management of patients. Preventive antiviral vaccination has become a real public health issue and aims to effectively reduce the prevalence of cervical, anal and oropharynx cancer, HPV-associated. However, vaccination against HPV still lags behind. The purpose of this review is to redefine the involvement of HPV in several cancers as well as current therapeutic challenges of HPV-related cancers, notably in term of prevention.


Assuntos
Transformação Celular Viral/fisiologia , Papillomaviridae/fisiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Medicina Preventiva/métodos , Vacinação , Neoplasias do Ânus/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias do Ânus/virologia , Carcinogênese , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/virologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia , Vacinação/métodos , Vacinação/psicologia , Vacinação/tendências
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 568, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262260

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the aim of preparing a more effective, safe and economical vaccine for tuberculosis, inhalable live mycobacterium formulations were evaluated. METHODS: Alginate particles in the size range of 2-4 µm were prepared by encapsulating live Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and "Mycobacterium indicus pranii" (MIP). These particles were characterized for their size, stability and release profile. Mice were immunized with liquid aerosol or dry powder aerosol (DPA) alginate encapsulated mycobacterium particles and their in-vitro recall response and infection with mycobacterium H37Rv were investigated. RESULTS: It was found that the DPA of alginate encapsulated mycobacterium particles invoked superior immune response and provided higher protection in mice than the liquid aerosol. The BCG encapsulated in alginate particles (BEAP) and MIP encapsulated in alginate particles (MEAP) were engulfed by bone marrow dendritic cells (BMDCs) and co-localized with lysosome. The MEAP/BEAP activated BMDCs exhibited higher chemotaxis movement and had enhanced ability of antigen presentation to T cells. The in-vitro recall response of BEAP/MEAP immunized mice when compared in terms of proliferation index and Interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) released by splenocytes and mediastinal lymph node cells was found to be higher than mice immunized by liquid aerosol of BCG/MIP. Finally, different groups of immunized mice were infected with M. tb H37Rv and after 16 weeks the Colony forming units (CFUs) in lung and spleen estimated. The bacilli burden in the BEAP/MEAP immunized mice was significantly less than the respective liquid aerosol immunized mice and the histopathology of BEAP/MEAP immunized mice lungs showed very little damage. CONCLUSIONS: These inhale-able vaccines formulation of alginate coated live mycobacterium are more immunogenic as compared to the aerosol of bacilli and they provide better protection in mice when infected with H37Rv.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/administração & dosagem , Pulmão/imunologia , Vacinas contra a Tuberculose/farmacologia , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Alginatos/química , Animais , Vacina BCG/imunologia , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Interferon gama/imunologia , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/microbiologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Complexo Mycobacterium avium/química , Complexo Mycobacterium avium/imunologia , Mycobacterium bovis/química , Mycobacterium bovis/imunologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/imunologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/patogenicidade , Baço/microbiologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/microbiologia , Tuberculose/imunologia , Vacinas contra a Tuberculose/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra a Tuberculose/imunologia , Vacinação/métodos
14.
Pan Afr Med J ; 32: 168, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303937

RESUMO

The recent outbreaks of diseases including Ebola reemergence in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Nipah virus outbreak in India, Lassa virus in Nigeria and the continued Influenza pandemic show that we cannot predict outbreaks, however, developing response plans could help alleviate the burden of diseases. Developing response plans involves strategies such as creating a repository of microbial agents as well as the implementation of the plans. In addition, zoonotic experts and policy makers should work together in order to succeed in fighting against any disease outbreaks. We should also not forget about the importance of vaccination because of the benefits it has brought to humankind preventing disease occurrence. Furthermore, the challenges that come with vaccination including vaccine delivery and vaccine uptake need to be overcome to make sure that this public health tool continues to be effective. Overcoming these vaccination challenges would play a significant role in decreasing the overuse of antimicrobials, hence avoiding resistance. The One Health Community (OHC) therefore has the responsibility to advocate for the use of vaccines and show that it has costs benefits; this strategy has the potential to fight against antimicrobial resistance.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Saúde Global , Saúde Única , Vacinação/métodos , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública , Vacinas/administração & dosagem
15.
Cancer Sci ; 110(8): 2386-2395, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206934

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have revolutionized the treatment of cancer by providing new options in addition to existing therapies. However, peptide vaccination therapies still represent an attractive approach, because of the antigen specificity. We identified survivin 2B peptide (SVN-2B), a 9-mer antigenic peptide encoded by survivin, and an SVN-2B peptide vaccine-based phase II randomized clinical trial targeting unresectable and refractory pancreatic carcinoma was undertaken. The SVN-2B peptide vaccine did not have any statistically significant clinical benefits in that study. Therefore, we undertook an autopsy study to analyze the immune status of the pancreatic cancer lesions at the histological level. Autopsies were carried out in 13 patients who had died of pancreatic cancer, including 7 who had received SVN-2B peptide vaccination and 6 who had not, as negative controls. The expression of immune-related molecules was analyzed by immunohistochemical staining. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes were analyzed by tetramer staining and enzyme-linked immunospot assay. Histological analysis revealed dense infiltration of CD8+ T cells in some lesions in patients who had received the SVN-2B peptide vaccine. A high rate of programmed cell death ligand 1 expression in cancer cells was observed in these cases, indicating that CTLs were induced by SVN-2B peptide vaccination and had infiltrated the lesions. The lack of a significant antitumor effect was most likely attributable to the expression of immune checkpoint molecules. These findings suggest that the combination of a tumor-specific peptide vaccine and an ICI might be a promising approach to the treatment of pancreatic carcinoma in the future.


Assuntos
Vacinas Anticâncer/imunologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/imunologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/terapia , Peptídeos/imunologia , Survivina/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Autopsia/métodos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Vacinação/métodos
16.
Cancer Sci ; 110(8): 2378-2385, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31218770

RESUMO

The prognosis of advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma is still extremely poor. This study sought to determine the efficacy of, and immunological response to, peptide vaccination therapy in patients with this disease. In this multicenter randomized phase II study, patients with advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma after gemcitabine and/or tegafur/gimeracil/oteracil were randomly assigned to 3 groups that each received a 2-step treatment course. In Step 1, the groups received treatments of: (i) survivin 2B peptide (SVN-2B) plus interferon-ß (IFNß); (ii) SVN-2B only; or (iii) placebo until the patients show progression. In Step 2, all patients who consented to participate received 4 treatments with SVN-2B plus IFNß. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS) after initiation of Step 1 treatment. Secondary endpoints included immunological effects assessed by analysis of PBMCs after Step 1. Eighty-three patients were randomly assigned to receive SVN-2B plus IFNß (n = 30), SVN-2B (n = 34), or placebo (n = 19). No significant improvement in PFS was observed. Survivin 2B-specific CTLs were found to be increased in the SVN-2B plus IFNß group by tetramer assay. Among patients who participated in Step 2, those who had received SVN-2B plus IFNß in Step 1 showed better overall survival compared with those who had received placebo in Step 1. Patients vaccinated with SVN-2B plus IFNß did not have improved PFS, but showed significant immunological reaction after vaccination. Subgroup analysis suggested that a longer SVN-2B plus IFNß vaccination protocol might confer survival benefit. (Clinical trial registration number: UMIN 000012146).


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Vacinas Anticâncer/uso terapêutico , Interferon beta/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos/uso terapêutico , Survivina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Desoxicitidina/uso terapêutico , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Vacinação/métodos , Vacinas de Subunidades/uso terapêutico
17.
Eur J Pharm Biopharm ; 141: 221-231, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154067

RESUMO

Thimerosal has been widely used as a preservative in human vaccines for decades. Thimerosal, a thiol capping agent with ethyl mercury being the active degradant, could have impacts on the vaccine potency due to potential thiol modification. The effects on the antigenicity and immunogenicity of human papillomavirus (HPV) virus-like particles (VLPs) in the presence of thimerosal was studied. In general, reduced binding activity was observed between HPV antigens and monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) upon thimerosal treatment, accompanied by reduced protein conformational stability. The immunogenicity of a pentavalent vaccine formulation (HPV6, HPV11, HPV16, HPV18 and hepatitis E virus) with or without thimerosal was studied in mice. The functional antibody titres, as well as the binding titres, were determined, showing a substantial decrease for vaccine formulations containing thimerosal for HPV16/18. Similarly, epitope-specific competition assays using specific and functional mAbs as tracers also showed a significant reduction in immunogenicity for HPV16/18 in the presence of thimerosal. Structural alterations in the capsid protein for HPV18 were observed with cryo-electron microscopy and 3-dimensional reconstruction in the comparative structural analysis. The results should alert scientists in formulation development field on the choice for vaccine preservatives, in particular for thiol-containing antigens.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Formação de Anticorpos/imunologia , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Papillomaviridae/imunologia , Timerosal/imunologia , Vacinas de Partículas Semelhantes a Vírus/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Proteínas do Capsídeo/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Infecções por Papillomavirus/imunologia , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/imunologia , Vacinação/métodos
18.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(6): 605-609, 2019 Jun 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238605

RESUMO

In 2016, the WHO proposed the goal for elimination of hepatitis B as public health threat, by 2030. China has the heaviest burden caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in the world, and serves as the major contributor to the goal of eliminating hepatitis B by 2030, globally. During the past 30 years, great progress has been made towards the implementation on prevention and control programs of HBV infection, in China, that enabling the WHO 2030 target to be fulfilled. However, due to the size of population, the large number of HBV infections and the low coverage of diagnosis and treatment programs, China is still facing the challenge in reaching the 2030 target, on time. This paper elaborates the achievements and gaps regarding the on-going prevention and control programs, including vaccination, prevention of maternal-to-child transmission, blood and injection safety, diagnosis and treatment on HBV infection and putting forward several suggestions on relevant policies for achieving the goal of hepatitis B elimination by 2030, in China.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Metas , Vacinas contra Hepatite B/administração & dosagem , Vírus da Hepatite B/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Programas de Imunização , Vacinação/métodos , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Saúde Global , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Saúde Pública
19.
Parasitol Res ; 118(8): 2383-2388, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203449

RESUMO

In this study, we evaluated in two trials a protocol designed to protect hair sheep using Barbervax®, a vaccine containing Haemonchus contortus gut membrane glycoprotein antigens. Results indicated that naturally infected vaccinated sheep had significant egg count reductions (90.2 ± 4.03%) compared with controls, although blood parameters remained relatively unchanged probably because the level of challenge was low. Vaccination prevented the periparturient rise in egg shedding of ewes, as well as egg shedding in lambs (37.1%). In the second trial, sheep which were experimentally exposed to higher artificial challenge also showed an efficient response to the vaccine as confirmed by high antibody levels and reduced egg counts and worm burdens (87 ± 5.4% and 79%) respectively. Thus, we believe that the vaccine should be integrated with other management practices for meat hair sheep as it has the advantages of adequate efficacy, reducing anthelmintic utilization and avoiding milk and environmental contamination with chemical residues.


Assuntos
Hemoncose/veterinária , Haemonchus/imunologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/métodos , Vacinas/administração & dosagem , Animais , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/imunologia , Feminino , Hemoncose/imunologia , Hemoncose/parasitologia , Hemoncose/prevenção & controle , Haemonchus/genética , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/imunologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Vacinas/imunologia
20.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(5): 565-570, 2019 May 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177739

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the safety of population based sequential vaccination schedule of inactivated poliovirus vaccines prepared with different strains. Methods: This randomized, parallel-group controlled trial was conducted from March, 2017 to May, 2018, in Shanghai. Adverse reaction data of Sabin strain inactivated polio vaccine (sIPV), wild strains inactivated polio vaccines (wIPV) and bivalent types Ⅰ and Ⅲ oral poliomyelitis vaccine (bOPV) were systematically collected through active observation in 1 917 infants in Shanghai after the vaccination at 2, 3, 4 months old. The eligible infants aged 2 months were divided into 4 groups: ①sIPV+sIPV+bOPV group; ②sIPV+wIPV+bOPV group; ③wIPV+sIPV+bOPV group; ④wIPV+wIPV+bOPV group. Results: The incidence of adverse reaction 30 days later after 3 basic dose vaccinations was 16.79% (946/5 633). No serious adverse reaction was reported. Local and systemic reactions were mainly mild. Common local reactions were pain, erythema, cutaneous nodule, etc.; and common systemic reactions were abnormal crying, drowsiness, diarrhea and appetite lost, etc.. The incidence of local reactions 30 days later after 3 basic dose vaccinations was 1.65% (93/5 633), and the incidence rates of grade 1-3 reactions were1.26% (71/5 633), 0.21% (12/5 633) and 0.20% (11/5 633) respectively. The incidence rate of systemic reactions 30 days later after 3 basic vaccinations was 15.14% (853/5 633), and the incidence rates of grade 1-3 reactions were 11.33% (638/5 633), 3.18% (179/5 633) and 0.64% (36/5 633) respectively. There were no significant differences in the rate of grade 3 reaction among different groups (χ(2)=4.17, P=0.24). Conclusions: No severe adverse reactions related to sequential vaccination of different strain inactivated polio vaccines were observed, most of reactions were mild and all of them were cured. It is safe to use sIPV and wIPV simultaneously or alternately for childhood sequential vaccination.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais , Esquemas de Imunização , Poliomielite/prevenção & controle , Vacina Antipólio de Vírus Inativado/administração & dosagem , Vacina Antipólio de Vírus Inativado/imunologia , Vacina Antipólio Oral/administração & dosagem , Vacina Antipólio Oral/imunologia , Vacinação/métodos , Criança , China , Humanos , Lactente , Poliovirus , Vacina Antipólio de Vírus Inativado/efeitos adversos , Vacina Antipólio Oral/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
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