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2.
Am J Public Health ; 110(S3): S305-S311, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001720

RESUMO

Objectives. To compare how human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination was portrayed on Pinterest before and after the platform acted to moderate vaccine-related search results to understand (1) what the information environment looked like previously and (2) whether Pinterest's policy decisions improved this environment in terms of sources and content.Methods. In this quantitative content analysis, we compared 2 samples of 500 HPV vaccine-focused Pinterest posts ("pins") collected before and after Pinterest's actions to provide more reliable vaccine-related information. Pins were based on search results and were analyzed using the Health Belief Model.Results. The majority of preaction search results leaned toward vaccine skepticism, specifically focused on perceived vaccine barriers. Few pins were published by public health-related Pinterest accounts. Postaction search results showed a significant shift to HPV vaccination benefits, and the number of pins by government or medical accounts increased. However, the proportion of pins in search results containing HPV content of any type was significantly lower.Conclusions. Pinterest's efforts to moderate vaccination discussions were largely successful. However, the ban also appeared to limit HPV vaccination search results overall, which may contribute to confusion or an information vacuum.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Infecções por Papillomavirus , Mídias Sociais , Vacinação/tendências , Adulto , Movimento contra Vacinação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Papillomavirus/terapia , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Vacinação/normas
3.
Z Rheumatol ; 79(9): 839-847, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32902696

RESUMO

By law the Standing Committee on Vaccination (STIKO) has the mandate to develop recommendations for carrying out vaccinations and other measures of specific prophylaxis of communicable diseases. Currently, the committee has 18 members who meet 3 times per year to discuss and vote on recommendations. The secretariat of STIKO is located at the Immunization Unit of the Robert Koch Institute (RKI). In 2011 the STIKO adopted a new standard operating procedure (SOP) for the development of evidence-based vaccination recommendations. Using methods of evidence-based medicine, the respective STIKO working group, comprised of STIKO members, RKI staff and external experts, develops a draft recommendation on which the commission votes. After conclusion of the external consultation procedure the vaccination recommendation is considered by the Federal Joint Committee and in the case of a positive vote, is incorporated into the guidelines for protective vaccination and therefore becomes a mandatory service of the statutory health insurance. This article provides an overview on the organization and modes of functioning of the STIKO.


Assuntos
Imunização , Vacinação , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Alemanha , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Esquemas de Imunização , Vacinação/normas
4.
Pan Afr Med J ; 36: 148, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32874412

RESUMO

Introduction: in this study, determinants of improved data consistency for routine immunization information at health facilities was measured to identify associated factors. Methods: between June and August 2015, 1055 HFs were visited across 44 Local Government Areas in Kano state. We assessed data consistency, frequency of supportive supervision visits, availability of trained staff and attendance to monthly LGA RI review meetings. We compared RI monthly summary forms (MSF) versus national health management information system summary form (NHMIS) and vaccine management form 1a (VM1a) versus HF vaccine utilization summary monthly summary (HFVUM) for consistency. Data consistency at HF was determined at <+10% between number of children reportedly immunized, and doses of vaccine opened using 3 antigens (BCG, Penta and Measles). Levels of discrepancy <10% were considered as good data consistency. Bivariate and multivariate analysis used to determine association. Results: data Consistency was observed in 195 (18.5%) HFs between (MSF vs NHMIS) and 90 (8.5%) HFs between (VM1a vs HFVUM). Consistency between MSF vs NHMIS was associated with receiving one or more SS visits in the previous month (p=0.001), data collection tools availability (p=0.001), recent attendance to monthly LGA RI review meeting and availability of trained staff. Data consistency between VM1a form and the HF VU summary was associated with a recent documented SS visit (p=0.05) and availability of trained staff (p=0.05). Conclusion: low level of data consistency was observed in Kano. Enhanced SS visits and availability of trained staff are associated with improved data quality.


Assuntos
Confiabilidade dos Dados , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Gerenciamento de Dados , Programas de Imunização/organização & administração , Registros Médicos , Lista de Checagem/normas , Coleta de Dados/normas , Gerenciamento de Dados/métodos , Gerenciamento de Dados/organização & administração , Gerenciamento de Dados/normas , Instalações de Saúde/normas , Instalações de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Gestão da Informação em Saúde/métodos , Gestão da Informação em Saúde/organização & administração , Gestão da Informação em Saúde/normas , Humanos , Imunização/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas de Imunização/normas , Governo Local , Registros Médicos/normas , Registros Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Corpo Clínico/organização & administração , Corpo Clínico/normas , Corpo Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Vacinação/normas , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237913, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817630

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In November 2016, the Kenya National Vaccines and Immunization Programme conducted an assessment of missed opportunities for vaccination (MOV) using the World Health Organization (WHO) MOV methodology. A MOV includes any contact with health services during which an eligible individual does not receive all the vaccine doses for which he or she is eligible. METHODS: The MOV assessment in Kenya was conducted in 10 geographically diverse counties, comprising exit interviews with caregivers and knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) surveys with health workers. On the survey dates, which covered a 4-day period in November 2016, all health workers and caregivers visiting the selected health facilities with children <24 months of age were eligible to participate. Health facilities (n = 4 per county) were purposively selected by size, location, ownership, and performance. We calculated the proportion of MOV among children eligible for vaccination and with documented vaccination histories (i.e., from a home-based record or health facility register), and stratified MOV by age and reason for visit. Timeliness of vaccine doses was also calculated. RESULTS: We conducted 677 age-eligible children exit interviews and 376 health worker KAP surveys. Of the 558 children with documented vaccination histories, 33% were visiting the health facility for a vaccination visit and 67% were for other reasons. A MOV was seen in 75% (244/324) of children eligible for vaccination with documented vaccination histories, with 57% (186/324) receiving no vaccinations. This included 55% of children visiting for a vaccination visit and 93% visiting for non-vaccination visits. Timeliness for multi-dose vaccine series doses decreased with subsequent doses. Among health workers, 25% (74/291) were unable to correctly identify the national vaccination schedule for vaccines administered during the first year of life. Among health workers who reported administering vaccines as part of their daily work, 39% (55/142) reported that they did not always have the materials they needed for patients seeking immunization services, such as vaccines, syringes, and vaccination recording documents. CONCLUSIONS: The MOV assessment in Kenya highlighted areas of improvement that could reduce MOV. The results suggest several interventions including standardizing health worker practices, implementing an orientation package for all health workers, and developing a stock management module to reduce stock-outs of vaccines and vaccination-related supplies. To improve vaccination coverage and equity in all counties in Kenya, interventions to reduce MOV should be considered as part of an overall immunization service improvement plan.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Serviços de Saúde , Vacinação/normas , Vacinas/uso terapêutico , Cuidadores/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Feminino , Instalações de Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Humanos , Programas de Imunização/normas , Esquemas de Imunização , Lactente , Entrevistas como Assunto , Quênia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Cobertura Vacinal/normas , Organização Mundial da Saúde
6.
Obstet Gynecol ; 136(2): e15-e21, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732766

RESUMO

Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes significant morbidity and mortality in women and men. The HPV vaccine significantly reduces the incidence of anogenital cancer and genital warts in women and in men. Human papillomavirus vaccines are among the most effective vaccines available worldwide, with unequivocal data demonstrating greater than 99% efficacy when administered to women who have not been exposed to that particular type of HPV. Obstetrician-gynecologists and other health care professionals should strongly recommend HPV vaccination to eligible patients and stress the benefits and safety of the HPV vaccine. Further, obstetrician-gynecologists are encouraged to stock and administer HPV vaccines in their offices when feasible. Ideally, the HPV vaccine should be given in early adolescence because vaccination is most effective before exposure to HPV through sexual activity. Unvaccinated women age 26 years and younger should receive the HPV vaccine series regardless of sexual activity, prior exposure to HPV, or sexual orientation. The HPV vaccine is now licensed in the United States for women and men through age 45 years. For some women aged 27-45 years who are previously unvaccinated, obstetrician-gynecologists and other health care professionals may use shared clinical decision making regarding HPV vaccination, considering the patient's risk for acquisition of a new HPV infection and whether the HPV vaccine may provide benefit.


Assuntos
Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Comitês Consultivos , Criança , Condiloma Acuminado/prevenção & controle , Condiloma Acuminado/virologia , Feminino , Neoplasias dos Genitais Femininos/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias dos Genitais Femininos/virologia , Neoplasias dos Genitais Masculinos/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias dos Genitais Masculinos/virologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Esquemas de Imunização , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Segurança do Paciente , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/virologia , Sociedades Médicas , Estados Unidos , Vacinação/normas , Adulto Jovem
7.
PLoS Med ; 17(8): e1003238, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810149

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is estimated that vaccinating 50%-70% of school-aged children for influenza can produce population-wide indirect effects. We evaluated a city-wide school-located influenza vaccination (SLIV) intervention that aimed to increase influenza vaccination coverage. The intervention was implemented in ≥95 preschools and elementary schools in northern California from 2014 to 2018. Using a matched cohort design, we estimated intervention impacts on student influenza vaccination coverage, school absenteeism, and community-wide indirect effects on laboratory-confirmed influenza hospitalizations. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used a multivariate matching algorithm to identify a nearby comparison school district with pre-intervention characteristics similar to those of the intervention school district and matched schools in each district. To measure student influenza vaccination, we conducted cross-sectional surveys of student caregivers in 22 school pairs (2017 survey, N = 6,070; 2018 survey, N = 6,507). We estimated the incidence of laboratory-confirmed influenza hospitalization from 2011 to 2018 using surveillance data from school district zip codes. We analyzed student absenteeism data from 2011 to 2018 from each district (N = 42,487,816 student-days). To account for pre-intervention differences between districts, we estimated difference-in-differences (DID) in influenza hospitalization incidence and absenteeism rates using generalized linear and log-linear models with a population offset for incidence outcomes. Prior to the SLIV intervention, the median household income was $51,849 in the intervention site and $61,596 in the comparison site. The population in each site was predominately white (41% in the intervention site, 48% in the comparison site) and/or of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity (26% in the intervention site, 33% in the comparison site). The number of students vaccinated by the SLIV intervention ranged from 7,502 to 10,106 (22%-28% of eligible students) each year. During the intervention, influenza vaccination coverage among elementary students was 53%-66% in the comparison district. Coverage was similar between the intervention and comparison districts in influenza seasons 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 and was significantly higher in the intervention site in seasons 2016-2017 (7%; 95% CI 4, 11; p < 0.001) and 2017-2018 (11%; 95% CI 7, 15; p < 0.001). During seasons when vaccination coverage was higher among intervention schools and the vaccine was moderately effective, there was evidence of statistically significant indirect effects: The DID in the incidence of influenza hospitalization per 100,000 in the intervention versus comparison site was -17 (95% CI -30, -4; p = 0.008) in 2016-2017 and -37 (95% CI -54, -19; p < 0.001) in 2017-2018 among non-elementary-school-aged individuals and -73 (95% CI -147, 1; p = 0.054) in 2016-2017 and -160 (95% CI -267, -53; p = 0.004) in 2017-2018 among adults 65 years or older. The DID in illness-related school absences per 100 school days during the influenza season was -0.63 (95% CI -1.14, -0.13; p = 0.014) in 2016-2017 and -0.80 (95% CI -1.28, -0.31; p = 0.001) in 2017-2018. Limitations of this study include the use of an observational design, which may be subject to unmeasured confounding, and caregiver-reported vaccination status, which is subject to poor recall and low response rates. CONCLUSIONS: A city-wide SLIV intervention in a large, diverse urban population was associated with a decrease in the incidence of laboratory-confirmed influenza hospitalization in all age groups and a decrease in illness-specific school absence rate among students in 2016-2017 and 2017-2018, seasons when the vaccine was moderately effective, suggesting that the intervention produced indirect effects. Our findings suggest that in populations with moderately high background levels of influenza vaccination coverage, SLIV programs are associated with further increases in coverage and reduced influenza across the community.


Assuntos
Absenteísmo , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/normas , População Urbana , Cobertura Vacinal/normas , Vacinação/normas , Adolescente , California/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas/normas , Estudantes , Vacinação/métodos , Cobertura Vacinal/métodos
8.
Obstet Gynecol ; 136(2): 435-436, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732765

RESUMO

Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes significant morbidity and mortality in women and men. The HPV vaccine significantly reduces the incidence of anogenital cancer and genital warts in women and in men. Human papillomavirus vaccines are among the most effective vaccines available worldwide, with unequivocal data demonstrating greater than 99% efficacy when administered to women who have not been exposed to that particular type of HPV. Obstetrician-gynecologists and other health care professionals should strongly recommend HPV vaccination to eligible patients and stress the benefits and safety of the HPV vaccine. Further, obstetrician-gynecologists are encouraged to stock and administer HPV vaccines in their offices when feasible. Ideally, the HPV vaccine should be given in early adolescence because vaccination is most effective before exposure to HPV through sexual activity. Unvaccinated women age 26 years and younger should receive the HPV vaccine series regardless of sexual activity, prior exposure to HPV or sexual orientation. The HPV vaccine is now licensed in the United States for women and men through age 45 years. For some women aged 27-45 years who are previously unvaccinated, obstetrician-gynecologists and other health care professionals may use shared clinical decision making regarding HPV vaccination, considering the patient's risk for acquisition of a new HPV infection and whether the HPV vaccine may provide benefit.


Assuntos
Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Vacinação/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Comitês Consultivos , Criança , DNA Viral , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Papillomavirus/imunologia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Sociedades Médicas , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Dtsch Dermatol Ges ; 18(7): 699-723, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32713146

RESUMO

The increasingly frequent use of immunomodulatory agents in dermatology requires the observance of specific recommendations for immunization. These recommendations are developed and regularly updated by the German Standing Committee on Vaccination (STIKO), an independent advisory group at the Robert Koch Institute. Dermatological patients on immunosuppressive treatment should ideally receive all vaccinations included in the standard immunization schedule. Additionally, it is recommended that they also undergo vaccination against the seasonal flu, pneumococci, and herpes zoster (inactivated herpes zoster subunit vaccine for patients ≥ 50 years). Additional immunizations against Haemophilus influenzae type B, hepatitis B and meningococci may be indicated depending on individual comorbidities and exposure risk. Limitations of use, specific contraindications and intervals to be observed between vaccination and immunosuppression depend on the immunosuppressive agent used and its dosing. Only under certain conditions may live-attenuated vaccines be administered in patients on immunosuppressive therapy. Given its strong suppressive effect on the humoral immune response, no vaccines - except for flu shots - should be given within six months after rituximab therapy. This CME article presents current recommendations on immunization in immunocompromised individuals, with a special focus on dermatological patients. Its goal is to enable readers to provide competent counseling and to initiate necessary immunizations in this vulnerable patient group.


Assuntos
Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência , Vacinação , Dermatologia/educação , Educação Médica Continuada , Alemanha , Humanos , Vacinação/normas
11.
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 5(10): 927-939, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730786

RESUMO

WHO has set global targets for the elimination of hepatitis B and hepatitis C as a public health threat by 2030. However, investment in elimination programmes remains low. To help drive political commitment and catalyse domestic and international financing, we have developed a global investment framework for the elimination of hepatitis B and hepatitis C. The global investment framework presented in this Health Policy paper outlines national and international activities that will enable reductions in hepatitis C incidence and mortality, and identifies potential sources of funding and tools to help countries build the economic case for investing in national elimination activities. The goal of this framework is to provide a way for countries, particularly those with minimal resources, to gain the substantial economic benefit and cost savings that come from investing in hepatitis C elimination.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças/métodos , Saúde Global/economia , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Hepatite C/prevenção & controle , Redução de Custos/economia , Erradicação de Doenças/economia , Feminino , Saúde Global/normas , Política de Saúde/economia , Política de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Período Periparto , Gravidez , Saúde Pública/economia , Saúde Pública/normas , Vacinação/normas , Organização Mundial da Saúde/organização & administração
13.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 28: e3307, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32578757

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to analyze the acceptance and use of the Information System of the National Immunization Program in primary health care vaccination rooms. METHOD: a unique case study of a qualitative approach in the light of the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology. Data collection included an interview with 18 professionals responsible for the implementation of the information system, observation of vaccination rooms in 12 municipalities of the West Macro-region of Minas Gerais, selected from a preliminary study. Data was systematized and analyzed through Content Analysis. RESULTS: the interviewees are satisfied with the usefulness and ease of the system usage, but do not have the same satisfaction with the organizational infrastructure due to the lack of computers and low Internet connectivity in the health units, as well as with the incipient training for the use of the information system and the lack of skills with the technology among the human resources. CONCLUSION: nursing professionals perceive advantages in the acceptance and use of the Information System of the National Immunization Program. It was clear that the vaccinated individual's history control and the decrease of records in paper are evidenced as facilitators of this acceptance. The system was considered reliable and secure.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas de Imunização , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Vacinação/normas , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32486224

RESUMO

Background: Despite recommendations, the influenza vaccination coverage rate in healthcare workers (HCWs) in Italy is far from the recommended target. The aim of the study is to analyze the influenza vaccination campaign performed in 2019 in a research and teaching hospital in Milan. Methods: The vaccination strategy included an ad hoc ambulatory, as in the previous years, and an onsite ambulatory, introduced for the first time. Personal data and professional categories were collected and analyzed using univariate logistic regression. HCWs who refused the vaccination were asked to fill in a questionnaire to explain their reasons for dissent. Results: The achieved vaccination coverage rate (VCR) for HCWs was 21.5 %, compared to 17.1% in 2018. The lowest VCR was registered among nurses (11.9%), while physicians had the highest VCR (40.7%). Prevalence ratios show that some professional categories were more frequently vaccinated for the first time than attending physicians (reference category); those with statistically significant confidence intervals were nurses (PR: 2.42; 95% CI: 1.78-3.28), residents (PR: 1.85; 95% CI: 1.36-2.53), and auxiliary staff (PR: 2.33; 95% CI: 1.45-3.74). Conclusions: An onsite vaccination strategy failed in providing a remarkable increase in VCR in 2019, but it is important to point out that the campaign was influenced by several logistic problems.


Assuntos
Programas de Imunização/organização & administração , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Vacinas contra Influenza/efeitos adversos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Vacinação/normas , Adulto Jovem
15.
Acta Vet Scand ; 62(1): 20, 2020 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32434544

RESUMO

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) remains one of the most economically important infectious diseases of production animals. Six (out of 7 that have been identified) different serotypes of the FMD virus continue to circulate in different parts of the world. Within each serotype there is also extensive diversity as the virus constantly changes. Vaccines need to be "matched" to the outbreak strain, not just to the serotype, to confer protection. Vaccination has been used successfully to assist in the eradication of the disease from Europe but is no longer employed there unless outbreaks occur. Thus the animal population in Europe, as in North America, is fully susceptible to the virus if it is accidentally (or deliberately) introduced. Almost 3 billion doses of the vaccine are made each year to control the disease elsewhere. Current vaccines are produced from chemically inactivated virus that has to be grown, on a large scale, under high containment conditions. The vaccine efficiently prevents disease but the duration of immunity is rather limited (about 6 months) and vaccination does not provide sterile immunity or block the development of carriers. Furthermore, the vaccine is quite unstable and a cold chain needs to be maintained to preserve the efficacy of the vaccine. This can be a challenge in the parts of the world where the disease is endemic. There is a significant interest in developing improved vaccines and significant progress in this direction has been made using a variety of approaches. However, no alternative vaccines are yet available commercially. Improved disease control globally is clearly beneficial to all countries as it reduces the risk of virus incursions into disease free areas.


Assuntos
Febre Aftosa/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/veterinária , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/normas , Animais , Febre Aftosa/virologia , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/imunologia , Gado/virologia , Vacinação/normas , Vacinação/tendências
17.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-47330

RESUMO

A diretora da Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde (OPAS), Carissa F. Etienne, pediu nesta terça-feira (28) que os programas de vacinação continuem durante a pandemia de COVID-19. "Se ficarmos para trás nas imunizações de rotina, principalmente para crianças, corremos o risco de surtos, sobrecarregando hospitais e clínicas com doenças preveníveis, além da COVID-19", ponderou.


Assuntos
Programas de Imunização , Vacinação/normas , Pandemias/prevenção & controle
18.
Rev. salud pública ; 22(2): e486877, mar.-abr. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1127225

RESUMO

RESUMEN Objetivo Evaluar el efecto del riesgo y las normas sociales percibidos sobre la COVID-19 y sobre la intención de vacunarse si se contara con una vacuna para prevenir la infección. Métodos Se desarrolló una investigación cuantitativa, explicativa y con diseño transversal. Los datos se recopilaron mediante un cuestionario estructurado aplicado de manera electrónica a habitantes de más de 18 años de edad en el estado de Puebla, en México. Se utilizó un análisis con ecuaciones estructurales para identificar los efectos entre las variables estudiadas. Resultados Tanto la severidad como la susceptibilidad percibidas al contraer COVID-19 tuvieron un efecto positivo sobre las normas sociales percibidas sobre el virus. Mientras la severidad percibida tuvo un efecto positivo sobre la intención de vacunarse, la susceptibilidad percibida resultó no significativa sobre la intención de vacunarse contra COVID-19. Conclusiones La intención de vacunarse contra COVID-19 es afectada por la severidad y las normas sociales percibidas por contraer la infección. Sin embargo, la susceptibilidad percibida ante el virus no tiene un efecto sobre la intención de vacunarse.(AU)


ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the effect of perceived risk and social norms on COVID-19 and on the intention to be vaccinated if a vaccine were available to prevent infection. Methods A quantitative, explanatory and cross-sectional research was developed. The data was collected through a structured questionnaire applied electronically to inhabitants over 18 years of age in the state of Puebla in Mexico. An analysis with structural equations was used to identify the effects among the constructs studied. Results The results showed that both the perceived severity and susceptibility of contracting COVID-19 had a positive effect on the perceived social norms about the virus. Also, while the perceived severity had a positive effect on the intention to vaccinate, the perceived susceptibility was not significant on the intention to vaccinate against COVID-19. Conclusion Intention to be vaccinated against COVID-19 is affected by the severity and perceived social norms of contracting the infection. However, the perceived susceptibility to the virus does not have an effect on the intention to be vaccinated.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Vacinação/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Normas Sociais , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários , México/epidemiologia
20.
Indian J Public Health ; 64(1): 44-49, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32189682

RESUMO

Background: Immunization prevents over 2-3 million deaths each year worldwide. In India, even though vaccines are offered free of cost at public health facilities the coverage remains low. Limited scrutiny has been conducted at health service and client interface for routine immunization (RI) services, which may have been affecting the acceptance of vaccines. This emphasizes the importance of assessing the level of satisfaction and perceived quality of clients regarding RI services. Objectives: This study aimed to assess the perceived quality and level of overall general satisfaction with RI services of clients. In addition, determine the association of factors influencing clients perceived quality and overall general satisfaction with RI services. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in an urbanized village of Delhi from November 2015 to April 2017. A total of 279 RI visits were covered in the study, and the clients were interviewed at their residence using a pretested tool. Results: The dissatisfaction toward the domains of perceived quality of RI services was reported to be 3.2% for vaccine availability, 9.7% for vaccine information, 3.2% for staff behavior, 6.1% for doctor behavior, and 7.5% for infrastructure. Multivariable-regression analysis indicated that distance to health facility, literacy and age of the client, doctor behavior, staff behavior, and infrastructure had an effect on overall general satisfaction of client toward RI services. Conclusions: The client's perception is multidimensional; improvement in one domain is likely to strengthen the other. By understanding the client's perspective toward quality of RI service, the health-care mangers may improve the level of overall satisfaction.


Assuntos
Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/normas , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinação/normas , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Lactente , Masculino , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/normas , Análise de Regressão , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Vacinas/provisão & distribução
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