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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 12, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407202

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Over the last two decades, several countries have initiated universal varicella vaccination (UVV) programs in infants. In 2019, the Swiss National Immunization Technical Advisory Group (NITAG) decided to start evaluating the introduction of universal varicella vaccination. There is a theoretical concern that suboptimal vaccination coverage could lead to a shift in the varicella incidence to older age groups, thereby potentially increasing complication rates. To achieve a high vaccination coverage rate, it is important that practicing physicians comply with a potential recommendation for UVV. We studied the perception of varicella and the current vaccination behavior among Swiss pediatricians and general practitioners (GPs) who treat children. We also assessed their intention to advise parents to vaccinate their children against varicella in the event the Swiss NITAG will recommend UVV. METHODS: Primary data was collected through a structured, 20-min online survey with Swiss pediatricians and GPs who treat children. RESULTS: 150 physicians participated in the study: 40 GPs in the German-speaking part, 20 GPs in the French-speaking part, 67 pediatricians in the German-speaking part, and 23 pediatricians in the French-speaking part. The majority (64%) of all participants reported that they currently recommend varicella vaccination for risk groups according to the national immunization plan. About one third of physicians (35%) - predominantly pediatricians - currently already recommend it for all infants. In these situations, a measles, mumps, rubella, varicella combination vaccine is currently used by 58% for the first dose and by 59% for the second dose. 86% of participants stated that they would advise parents to have their children vaccinated against varicella in case of a recommendation for UVV by the Swiss NITAG. 68% responded that they expect many questions from parents and 65% agreed that they have good arguments to convey the importance of varicella vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: The survey study results show that most participating pediatricians and GPs indicated a favorable attitude towards childhood vaccination against varicella in the setting of a Swiss NITAG recommendation for UVV. This data shows the importance of NITAG recommendations in influencing vaccine education and supporting achievement of high coverage of varicella vaccination.


Assuntos
Vacina contra Varicela/uso terapêutico , Varicela/prevenção & controle , Clínicos Gerais/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Herpesvirus Humano 3/imunologia , Pediatras/psicologia , Vacinação/psicologia , Varicela/epidemiologia , Varicela/virologia , Vacina contra Varicela/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Incidência , Masculino , Pais/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suíça/epidemiologia , Vacinas Combinadas/imunologia , Vacinas Combinadas/uso terapêutico
2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 29, 2021 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397962

RESUMO

Identifying and understanding COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy within distinct populations may aid future public health messaging. Using nationally representative data from the general adult populations of Ireland (N = 1041) and the United Kingdom (UK; N = 2025), we found that vaccine hesitancy/resistance was evident for 35% and 31% of these populations respectively. Vaccine hesitant/resistant respondents in Ireland and the UK differed on a number of sociodemographic and health-related variables but were similar across a broad array of psychological constructs. In both populations, those resistant to a COVID-19 vaccine were less likely to obtain information about the pandemic from traditional and authoritative sources and had similar levels of mistrust in these sources compared to vaccine accepting respondents. Given the geographical proximity and socio-economic similarity of the populations studied, it is not possible to generalize findings to other populations, however, the methodology employed here may be useful to those wishing to understand COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy elsewhere.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Vacinação/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Irlanda , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido , Recusa de Vacinação/etnologia , Recusa de Vacinação/psicologia , Recusa de Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33467179

RESUMO

We analysed issues concerning the establishment of compulsory vaccination against COVID-19, as well as the role of misinformation as a disincentive-especially when published by health professionals-and citizen acceptance of measures in this regard. Data from different surveys revealed a high degree of hesitation rather than outright opposition to vaccines. The most frequent complaint related to the COVID-19 vaccination was the fear of side effects. Within the Spanish and European legislative framework, both compulsory vaccination and government regulation of FN (Fake News) appear to be feasible options, counting on sufficient legal support, which could be reinforced by additional amendment. However, following current trends of good governance, policymakers must have public legitimation. Rather than compulsory COVID-19 vaccination, an approach based on education and truthful information, persuading the population of the benefits of a vaccine on a voluntary basis, is recommended. Disagreements between health professionals are positive, but they should be resolved following good practice and the procedures of the code of ethics. Furthermore, citizens do not support the involvement of government authorities in the direct control of news. Collaboration with the media and other organizations should be used instead.


Assuntos
Meios de Comunicação/normas , Vacinação/psicologia , Comunicação , Governo , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos
4.
Vaccine ; 39(2): 247-254, 2021 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33328140

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vaccinations are an effective choice to stop disease outbreaks, including COVID-19. There is little research on individuals' COVID-19 vaccination decision-making. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine individual preferences for COVID-19 vaccinations in China, and to assess the factors influencing vaccination decision-making to facilitate vaccination coverage. METHODS: A D-efficient discrete choice experiment was conducted across six Chinese provinces selected by the stratified random sampling method. Vaccine choice sets were constructed using seven attributes: vaccine effectiveness, side-effects, accessibility, number of doses, vaccination sites, duration of vaccine protection, and proportion of acquaintances vaccinated. Conditional logit and latent class models were used to identify preferences. RESULTS: Although all seven attributes were proved to significantly influence respondents' vaccination decision, vaccine effectiveness, side-effects and proportion of acquaintances vaccinated were the most important. We also found a higher probability of vaccinating when the vaccine was more effective; risks of serious side effects were small; vaccinations were free and voluntary; the fewer the number of doses; the longer the protection duration; and the higher the proportion of acquaintances vaccinated. Higher local vaccine coverage created altruistic herd incentives to vaccinate rather than free-rider problems. The predicted vaccination uptake of the optimal vaccination scenario in our study was 84.77%. Preference heterogeneity was substantial. Individuals who were older, had a lower education level, lower income, higher trust in the vaccine and higher perceived risk of infection, displayed a higher probability to vaccinate. CONCLUSIONS: Preference heterogeneity among individuals should lead health authorities to address the diversity of expectations about COVID-19 vaccinations. To maximize COVID-19 vaccine uptake, health authorities should promote vaccine effectiveness; pro-actively communicate the absence or presence of vaccine side effects; and ensure rapid and wide media communication about local vaccine coverage.


Assuntos
/administração & dosagem , Tomada de Decisões , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , /psicologia , /provisão & distribução , China/epidemiologia , Comportamento de Escolha , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Esquemas de Imunização , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Segurança do Paciente , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vacinação/métodos , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
Vaccine ; 39(3): 473-479, 2021 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33358265

RESUMO

In absence of a COVID-19 vaccine, testing, contact tracing and social restrictions are among the most powerful strategies adopted around the world to slow down the spread of the pandemic. Citizens of most countries are suffering major physical, psychological and economic distress. At this stage, a safe and effective COVID-19 vaccine is the most sustainable option to manage the current pandemic. However, vaccine hesitancy by even a small subset of the population can undermine the success of this strategy. The objective of this research is to investigate the vaccine characteristics that matter the most to Australian citizens and to explore the potential uptake of a COVID-19 vaccine in Australia. Through a stated preference experiment, preferences towards a COVID-19 vaccine of 2136 residents of the Australian states and territories were collected and analysed via a latent class model. Results show that preferences for mild adverse cases, mode of administration, location of administration, price and effectiveness are heterogeneous. Conversely, preferences for immediacy and severe reactions are homogeneous, with respondents preferring a shorter period until vaccine is available and lower instances of severe side effects. The expected uptake of the vaccine is estimated under three different scenarios, with the value of 86% obtained for an average scenario. By calculating individual preferences, the willingness to pay is estimated for immediacy, effectiveness, mild and severe side effects.


Assuntos
/administração & dosagem , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Preferência do Paciente/psicologia , Vacinação/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Austrália , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Preferência do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Vaccine ; 39(2): 309-316, 2021 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33334616

RESUMO

A vaccine for COVID-19 is urgently needed. Several vaccine trial designs may significantly accelerate vaccine testing and approval, but also increase risks to human subjects. Concerns about whether the public would see such designs as ethical represent an important roadblock to their implementation; accordingly, both the World Health Organization and numerous scholars have called for consulting the public regarding them. We answered these calls by conducting a cross-national survey (n = 5920) in Australia, Canada, Hong Kong, New Zealand, South Africa, Singapore, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The survey explained key differences between traditional vaccine trials and two accelerated designs: a challenge trial or a trial integrating a Phase II safety and immunogenicity trial into a larger Phase III efficacy trial. Respondents' answers to comprehension questions indicate that they largely understood the key differences and ethical trade-offs between the designs from our descriptions. We asked respondents whether they would prefer scientists to conduct traditional trials or one of these two accelerated designs. We found broad majorities prefer for scientists to conduct challenge trials (75%) and integrated trials (63%) over standard trials. Even as respondents acknowledged the risks, they perceived both accelerated trials as similarly ethical to standard trial designs. This high support is consistent across every geography and demographic subgroup we examined, including vulnerable populations. These findings may help assuage some of the concerns surrounding accelerated designs.


Assuntos
/administração & dosagem , Tomada de Decisões , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Projetos de Pesquisa , Vacinação/psicologia , Ásia/epidemiologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , /psicologia , /biossíntese , Comportamento de Escolha , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Esquemas de Imunização , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Masculino , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Segurança do Paciente , Saúde Pública , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Vacinação/métodos
7.
Front Public Health ; 8: 608852, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33344407

RESUMO

This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of public perceptions of vaccine safety and efficacy on intent to seek COVID-19 vaccination using hypothetical vaccine acceptance scenarios. The behavioral economic methodology could be used to inform future public health vaccination campaigns designed to influence public perceptions and improve public acceptance of the vaccine. In June 2020, 534 respondents completed online validated behavioral economic procedures adapted to evaluate COVID-19 vaccine demand in relation to a hypothetical development process and efficacy. An exponential demand function was used to describe the proportion of participants accepting the vaccine at each efficacy. Linear mixed effect models evaluated development process and individual characteristic effects on minimum required vaccine efficacy required for vaccine acceptance. The rapid development process scenario increased the rate of decline in acceptance with reductions in efficacy. At 50% efficacy, 68.8% of respondents would seek the standard vaccine, and 58.8% would seek the rapid developed vaccine. Rapid vaccine development increased the minimum required efficacy for vaccine acceptance by over 9 percentage points, γ = 9.36, p < 0.001. Past-3-year flu vaccination, γ = -23.00, p < 0.001, and male respondents, γ = -4.98, p = 0.037, accepted lower efficacy. Respondents reporting greater conspiracy beliefs, γ = 0.39, p < 0.001, and political conservatism, γ = 0.32, p < 0.001, required higher efficacy. Male, γ = -4.43, p = 0.013, and more conservative, γ = -0.09, p = 0.039, respondents showed smaller changes in minimum required efficacy by development process. Information on the vaccine development process, vaccine efficacy, and individual differences impact the proportion of respondents reporting COVID-19 vaccination intentions. Behavioral economics provides an empirical method to estimate vaccine demand to target subpopulations resistant to vaccination.


Assuntos
/economia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Percepção , Vacinação/economia , Vacinação/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Economia Comportamental/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
Healthc Policy ; 16(2): 14-20, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33337310

RESUMO

Ontario families are required to provide up-to-date vaccination records as children begin schooling. Exemptions are allowed on both medical and nonmedical (religious or philosophical) grounds. In a recent report, Toronto Public Health (2019) called for an end to nonmedical exemptions - a proposal some allege infringes the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms right to freedom of religion and conscience. This paper explores whether and to what extent vaccine refusal is protected under the Charter and argues that the elimination of nonmedical exemptions can be justified under Section 1 of the Charter. The issue of mandatory vaccination may take on special urgency in the coming months and years, if and when a vaccine is found for COVID-19.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Programas Obrigatórios/legislação & jurisprudência , Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Filosofias Religiosas/psicologia , Recusa de Vacinação/legislação & jurisprudência , Recusa de Vacinação/psicologia , /epidemiologia , Política de Saúde , Promoção da Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Ontário/epidemiologia , Vacinação/legislação & jurisprudência , Vacinação/psicologia
9.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(12): e0008961, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33332359

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study attempts to understand coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine demand and hesitancy by assessing the public's vaccination intention and willingness-to-pay (WTP). Confidence in COVID-19 vaccines produced in China and preference for domestically-made or foreign-made vaccines was also investigated. METHODS: A nationwide cross-sectional, self-administered online survey was conducted on 1-19 May 2020. The health belief model (HBM) was used as a theoretical framework for understanding COVID-19 vaccination intent and WTP. RESULTS: A total of 3,541 complete responses were received. The majority reported a probably yes intent (54.6%), followed by a definite yes intent (28.7%). The perception that vaccination decreases the chances of getting COVID-19 under the perceived benefit construct (OR = 3.14, 95% CI 2.05-4.83) and not being concerned about the efficacy of new COVID-19 vaccines under the perceived barriers construct (OR = 1.65, 95% CI 1.31-2.09) were found to have the highest significant odds of a definite intention to take the COVID-19 vaccine. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) of WTP for COVID-19 vaccine was CNY¥200/US$28 (IQR CNY¥100-500/USD$14-72). The highest marginal WTP for the vaccine was influenced by socio-economic factors. The majority were confident (48.7%) and completely confident (46.1%) in domestically-made COVID-19 vaccine. 64.2% reported a preference for a domestically-made over foreign-made COVID-19 vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: The findings demonstrate the utility of HBM constructs in understanding COVID-19 vaccination intent and WTP. It is important to improve health promotion and reduce the barriers to COVID-19 vaccination.


Assuntos
/administração & dosagem , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinação/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vacinação/economia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 27(4): 544-552, 2020 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33356059

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Vaccinations are a way accepted by science of preventing infectious diseases. Because of their epidemiological significance, vaccinations are considered compulsory in many countries and their evasion is penalized. Anti-vaccine movements may pose a threat to the epidemiological situation in many countries. The study presents the arguments formulated by opponents of vaccination and provides counter-arguments. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study is based on the analysis of data stored in scientific databases, information obtained from Google, Bing and Yahoo on the Internet, as well as newspapers, magazines and opinion-forming websites. RESULTS: The slogans propagated by anti-vaccination movements are usually based on easily proven erroneous theories and lies, although there are also arguments expressing belief in the conspiracy of governments, politicians and vaccine manufacturers, or incompetence of scientists and practitioners. CONCLUSIONS: In recent years in Poland, the activity of movements against vaccination has increased significantly, and their propaganda, through its negative impact on social attitudes, threatens to destabilize the epidemiological situation. Analysis of arguments used by the opponents of vaccination suggests a lack of reliable knowledge, religious overtones (addressed to people with fundamentalist personalities), or the ill-will attitudes of anti-vaccine individuals/groups used for their own purposes. Familiarization with the arguments of anti-vaccine propaganda is necessary in order to implement effective methods of fighting such attitudes and beliefs.


Assuntos
Movimento contra Vacinação/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Vacinação/psicologia , Movimento contra Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Medo , Humanos , Polônia , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 27(4): 553-561, 2020 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33356060

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Vaccinations are a way accepted by science of the struggle against infectious diseases. Because of their epidemiological significance, vaccinations are considered compulsory in many countries and their evasion is penalized. The WHO experts list anti-vaccine attitudes and movements among the top 10 threats to human health. Most people's refusals are mainly due to fears of anti-vaccine propaganda. Understanding this phenomenon will be the basis for improving the epidemiological situation in Poland. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study is based on the analysis of data stored in scientific databases, as well as information obtained from Google, Bing and Yahoo and newspapers, magazines and opinion-forming websites. RESULTS: The anti-vaccine movements occur due different motivations, such as ignorance, fear and religious beliefs. Sometimes they can be supported by foreign services aimed at destabilization in selected areas of the globe. CONCLUSIONS: Increased activity and effective propaganda carried out by anti-vaccination movements is possible, among others, thanks to the development of the so-called 2nd generation of the Internet (Web2), enabling the free and difficult to control flow of information. Increasing data indicate that the activity of anti-vaccine movements may be a form of organized action (diversion in cyberspace) aimed at social, epidemiological, and economic destabilization of selected countries and regions. Among the various forms of combating anti-vaccination movements currently used are awareness-raising activities and restrictions on freedom on the Internet by monitoring information flow, blocking materials containing selected phrases or keywords associated with anti-vaccine propaganda, and sanctions imposed on people avoiding vaccination.


Assuntos
Movimento contra Vacinação/psicologia , Vacinação/psicologia , Movimento contra Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Medo , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Polônia , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244049, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370323

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore parents' and guardians' views and experiences of accessing National Health Service (NHS) general practices for routine childhood vaccinations during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic in England. DESIGN: Mixed methods approach involving an online cross-sectional survey (conducted between 19th April and 11th May 2020) and semi-structured telephone interviews (conducted between 27th April and 27th May 2020). PARTICIPANTS: 1252 parents and guardians (aged 16+ years) who reported living in England with a child aged 18 months or under completed the survey. Nineteen survey respondents took part in follow-up interviews. RESULTS: The majority of survey respondents (85.7%) considered it important for their children to receive routine vaccinations on schedule during the COVID-19 pandemic; however, several barriers to vaccination were identified. These included a lack of clarity around whether vaccination services were operating as usual, particularly amongst respondents from lower income households and those self-reporting as Black, Asian, Chinese, Mixed or Other ethnicity; difficulties in organising vaccination appointments; and fears around contracting COVID-19 while attending general practice. Concerns about catching COVID-19 while accessing general practice were weighed against concerns about children acquiring a vaccine-preventable disease if they did not receive scheduled routine childhood vaccinations. Many parents and guardians felt their child's risk of acquiring a vaccine-preventable disease was low as the implementation of stringent physical distancing measures (from March 23rd 2020) meant they were not mixing with others. CONCLUSION: To promote routine childhood vaccination uptake during the current COVID-19 outbreak, further waves of COVID-19 infection, and future pandemics, prompt and sustained national and general practice level communication is needed to raise awareness of vaccination service continuation and the importance of timely vaccination, and invitation-reminder systems for vaccination need to be maintained. To allay concerns about the safety of accessing general practice, practices should communicate the measures being implemented to prevent COVID-19 transmission.


Assuntos
/imunologia , Tutores Legais/psicologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pais/psicologia , Vacinação/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Inglaterra , Feminino , Humanos , Imunização/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007985

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic represents a massive global health crisis. The rapid transmission rate of the virus, as well as the lack of effective medications and vaccines, has posed serious challenges to controlling the spread of the disease. Dealing with this public health crisis has required major changes in people's behavior, including the adoption of social distancing measures such as avoiding meeting with family members and friends, crowded places, and public transportation. The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors associated with the adoption of these behaviors in China and Israel. We relied on the 3Cs model that has been used to predict the adoption of a specific preventive behavior (vaccinations) with the goal of testing its applicability to other preventive behaviors such as in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. The model indicates that confidence in social institutions, complacency (fear of and assessments about the risk of becoming ill) and constraints (levels of self-efficacy and confidence in being able to engage in the behaviors) are predictors of adopting preventive behaviors. Data were collected in China and Israel through an online survey of the population (n = 1406). We used latent variables and structural equation modeling to test the hypotheses derived from the 3Cs model. The findings indicate that there are some differences in the types of preventive behaviors adopted in the two countries. In Israel, higher levels of confidence predicted the adoption of avoidant behaviors and more constraints predicted engaging in fewer avoidant behaviors. In China, more constraints also contributed to the adoption of fewer avoidant behaviors, but people's level of confidence fully mediated this result. The multi-group analysis indicated that the conceptualized model fits the Chinese and Israeli data reasonably well. The findings suggest that the 3Cs model can be generalized from getting vaccinated to adopting avoidant behaviors and that the model can be used across cultures and countries.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , China , Humanos , Israel , Comportamento Social , Isolamento Social
14.
Vaccine ; 38(48): 7668-7673, 2020 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33071002

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: More than 100 COVID-19 vaccine candidates are in development since the SARS-CoV-2 genetic sequence was published in January 2020. The uptake of a COVID-19 vaccine among children will be instrumental in limiting the spread of the disease as herd immunity may require vaccine coverage of up to 80% of the population. Prior history of pandemic vaccine coverage was as low as 40% among children in the United States during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic. PURPOSE: To investigate predictors associated with global caregivers' intent to vaccinate their children against COVID-19, when the vaccine becomes available. METHOD: An international cross sectional survey of 1541 caregivers arriving with their children to 16 pediatric Emergency Departments (ED) across six countries from March 26 to May 31, 2020. RESULTS: 65% (n = 1005) of caregivers reported that they intend to vaccinate their child against COVID-19, once a vaccine is available. A univariate and subsequent multivariate analysis found that increased intended uptake was associated with children that were older, children with no chronic illness, when fathers completed the survey, children up-to-date on their vaccination schedule, recent history of vaccination against influenza, and caregivers concerned their child had COVID-19 at the time of survey completion in the ED. The most common reason reported by caregivers intending to vaccinate was to protect their child (62%), and the most common reason reported by caregivers refusing vaccination was the vaccine's novelty (52%). CONCLUSIONS: The majority of caregivers intend to vaccinate their children against COVID-19, though uptake will likely be associated with specific factors such as child and caregiver demographics and vaccination history. Public health strategies need to address barriers to uptake by providing evidence about an upcoming COVID-19 vaccine's safety and efficacy, highlighting the risks and consequences of infection in children, and educating caregivers on the role of vaccination.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Recusa de Vacinação/psicologia , Vacinação/psicologia , Vacinas Virais/economia , Adulto , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Coletiva , Cooperação Internacional , Israel/epidemiologia , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Recusa de Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinas Virais/biossíntese
15.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0234693, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33091021

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pathogenic and oncogenic roles of papillomavirus (HPV) infections have been documented and shown to occur in women as well as in men. While other countries have already extended their vaccination guidelines to include boys, in 2019 the French National Authority for Health validated implementation of HPV vaccination in the 2020 vaccination schedule. There is, however, a climate of distrust in regard to vaccination in France, and there have been few studies to date regarding the acceptability of HPV vaccination in boys in France. The aim of this study was, therefore, to evaluate the acceptability of extending the recommendations for HPV vaccination in men, among middle and high school students and their parents. METHODS: Our study (HPVac) was a prospective, multicenter, departmental, and descriptive survey applied to a sample of male middle and high school students attending schools in the Loire-Atlantique department and their parents. It took place from January 2017 to January 2018. RESULTS: We analyzed the information obtained from 127 parent questionnaires and 145 children questionnaires. In terms of acceptability, 36.6% (n = 53) of the children and 37.8% (n = 48) of the parents were in favour of being vaccinated or of having their children vaccinated against HPV (51.7% (n = 75) and 50.4% (n = 64), respectively, were undecided). The perception of a risk stemming from HPV infection was positively associated with acceptability of the HPV vaccine. Being against vaccines in general, being discouraged by their parents, parents thinking that their child is not at risk, and the belief that the vaccine is not mandatory were arguments cited and significantly associated with a willingness to be vaccinated. CONCLUSION: This study revealed a lack of information among boys and their parents about HPV and its vaccination. It also clearly showed that taking time to discuss the consequences of an infection and the merits of being vaccinated can help parents overcome their reluctance. The children then generally go along with their parent's choice.


Assuntos
Papillomaviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Pais/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Estudantes/psicologia , Vacinação/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Seguimentos , França/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
16.
Aust J Gen Pract ; 49(10): 625-629, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33015676

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The availability of a COVID-19 vaccine is being heralded as the solution to control the current COVID-19 pandemic, reduce the number of infections and deaths and facilitate resumption of our previous way of life. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to provide a framework for primary care of what will be needed to optimise COVID-19 vaccine confidence and uptake in Australia once the vaccine prioritisation schedule and key target groups are known. DISCUSSION: While a number of vaccines are currently under development, with at least seven undergoing phase III trials (28 August 2020), it is hoped that an effective COVID-19 vaccine will become available to the public in 2021. Ensuring public confidence in vaccine safety and effectiveness will be crucial to facilitate uptake. General practitioners are at the forefront of public health, and one of the most trusted sources for patients. In this article, the authors discuss the expedited vaccine development process for COVID-19 vaccines; the likely vaccine prioritisation schedule and anticipated key target groups; the behavioural and social drivers of vaccination acceptance, including the work required to facilitate this; and the implications for general practice.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Clínicos Gerais/psicologia , Programas de Imunização/organização & administração , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Saúde Pública/métodos , Vacinação , Vacinas Virais/farmacologia , Austrália , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Grupos Focais , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Autoimagem , Vacinação/métodos , Vacinação/psicologia
17.
Adv Ther ; 37(11): 4481-4490, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965654

RESUMO

In the light of the COVID-19 pandemic, anti-vaccine sentiments have been on the rise, with a recent seminal study on the development of anti-vaccine views in social media even making its way into Nature Communications. Yet, with the current scientific consensus being in overwhelming agreement over the safety and efficacy of vaccines, many scientists lose their grasp on the fears, concerns, and arguments that the opposition may hold. This paper discusses and evaluates vaccine-hesitant individuals on a socioeconomic, historical, and philosophical landscape. It also provides an analysis of common argumentative patterns and the psychological impact that these arguments may have on undecided individuals. The discussion also explores why anti-vaccine sentiments are on the rise, and how members of the scientific and medical community require a more structured approach to communicating key arguments. This is particularly important if vaccination rates and herd immunity are to be sustained. No longer is it sufficient to win arguments based on a factual and scientific basis, but rather scientists and medical practitioners have to focus on conveying confidence and reassurance on both an informative and emotional level to those with doubts and fears.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Recusa do Paciente ao Tratamento/psicologia , Vacinação/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Mídias Sociais , Vacinas , Vacinas Virais
18.
Vaccine ; 38(45): 7146-7155, 2020 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943265

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic has affected routine immunization globally. Impact will likely be higher in low and middle-income countries with limited healthcare resources and fragile health systems. We quantified the impact, spatial heterogeneity, and determinants for childhood immunizations of 48 million population affected in the Sindh province of Pakistan. METHODS: We extracted individual immunization records from real-time provincial Electronic Immunization Registry from September 23, 2019, to July 11, 2020. Comparing baseline (6 months preceding the lockdown) and the COVID-19 lockdown period, we analyzed the impact on daily immunization coverage rate for each antigen by geographical area. We used multivariable logistic regression to explore the predictors associated with immunizations during the lockdown. RESULTS: There was a 52.5% decline in the daily average total number of vaccinations administered during lockdown compared to baseline. The highest decline was seen for Bacille Cal-mette Guérin (BCG) (40.6% (958/2360) immunization at fixed sites. Around 8438 children/day were missing immunization during the lockdown. Enrollments declined furthest in rural districts, urban sub-districts with large slums, and polio-endemic super high-risk sub-districts. Pentavalent-3 (penta-3) immunization rates were higher in infants born in hospitals (RR: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.04-1.15) and those with mothers having higher education (RR: 1.19-1.50; 95% CI: 1.13-1.65). Likelihood of penta-3 immunization was reduced by 5% for each week of delayed enrollment into the immunization program. CONCLUSION: One out of every two children in Sindh province has missed their routine vaccinations during the provincial COVID-19 lockdown. The pool of un-immunized children is expanding during lockdown, leaving them susceptible to vaccine-preventable diseases. There is a need for tailored interventions to promote immunization visits and safe service delivery. Higher maternal education, facility-based births, and early enrollment into the immunization program continue to show a positive association with immunization uptake, even during a challenging lockdown.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Quarentena , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Tuberculose Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacina BCG/administração & dosagem , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Processamento Eletrônico de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Programas de Imunização/estatística & dados numéricos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Sarampo/imunologia , Vacina contra Sarampo/administração & dosagem , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Sistema de Registros , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/imunologia , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/administração & dosagem , População Rural , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/imunologia , População Urbana , Vacinação/psicologia , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinas Atenuadas/administração & dosagem
19.
Vaccine ; 38(45): 7002-7006, 2020 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988688

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The world is facing the COVID-19 pandemic. The development of a vaccine is challenging. We aimed to determine the proportion of people who intend to get vaccinated against COVID-19 in France or to participate in a vaccine clinical trial. METHODS: We conducted an anonymous on-line survey from the 26th of March to the 20th of April 2020. Primary endpoints were the intention to get vaccinated against COVID-19 if a vaccine was available or participate in a vaccine clinical trial. RESULTS: Three thousand two hundred and fifty nine individuals answered the survey; women accounted for 67.4% of the respondents. According to their statements, 2.512 participants (77.6%, 95% CI 76.2-79%) will certainly or probably agree to get vaccinated against COVID-19. Older age, male gender, fear about COVID-19, being a healthcare worker and individual perceived risk were associated with COVID-19 vaccine acceptance. Vaccine hesitancy was associated with a decrease in COVID-19 vaccine acceptance. One thousand and five hundred and fifty respondents (47.6% 95% CI 45.9-49.3%) will certainly or probably agree to participate in a COVID-19 vaccine clinical trial. Older age, male gender, being a healthcare worker and individual perceived risk were associated with potential acceptance to participate in a COVID-19 vaccine clinical trial. Vaccine hesitancy was associated with refusal for participation in a COVID-19 vaccine clinical trial. CONCLUSIONS: Nearly 75% and 48% of the survey respondents were respectively likely to accept vaccination or participation in a clinical trial against COVID-19. Vaccine hesitancy will be the major barrier to COVID-19 vaccine uptake.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Vacinação/psicologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Segurança do Paciente , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Virais/imunologia
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