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1.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 68(10): 1635-1648, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549214

RESUMO

Pancreatic cancer has been termed a 'recalcitrant cancer' due to its relative resistance to chemotherapy and immunotherapy. This resistance is thought to be due in part to the dense fibrotic tumor microenvironment and lack of tumor infiltrating CD8 + T cells. The gastrointestinal peptide, gastrin, has been shown to stimulate growth of pancreatic cancer by both a paracrine and autocrine mechanism. Interruption of gastrin at the CCK receptor may reduce tumor-associated fibrosis and alter tumor immune cells. Polyclonal Ab Stimulator (PAS) is a vaccine that targets gastrin and has been shown to prolong survival of patients with pancreatic cancer. Here, we report that PAS vaccination monotherapy elicits both a humoral and cellular immune response when used in immune competent mice-bearing pancreatic tumors and that PAS monotherapy produced a marked T-cell activation and influx of CD8 + lymphocytes into pancreatic tumors. Isolated peripheral lymphocytes elicited cytokine release upon re-stimulation with gastrin in vitro demonstrating specificity of immune activation for the target peptide. Combination therapy with PAS and PD-1 Ab activated CD4 -/CD8 - TEMRA cells important in T-cell-mediated tumor death and memory. Tumors of mice treated with PAS (250 µg) or PAS (100 and 250 µg) in combination with a PD-1 Ab were significantly smaller compared to tumors from PBS or PD-1 Ab-treated mice. When PAS was given in combination with PD-1 Ab, tumors had less fibrosis, fewer inhibitory Treg lymphocytes, and fewer tumor-associated macrophages. These findings reveal a novel approach to improve treatment strategies for pancreatic cancer.


Assuntos
Vacinas Anticâncer/imunologia , Gastrinas/imunologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/terapia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral , Vacinação , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Memória Imunológica , Ativação Linfocitária , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/imunologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia
2.
Cancer Sci ; 110(10): 3049-3060, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390678

RESUMO

Heat shock protein 105 (HSP105) is overexpressed in many cancers, including colorectal cancer (CRC) and esophageal cancer (EC). We carried out a phase I clinical trial of HLA-A24- and HLA-A2-restricted HSP105 peptide vaccines in patients with CRC or EC. In this additional study of the trial, we examined the immunological efficacy of the novel vaccine. Thirty patients with advanced CRC or EC underwent HSP105 peptide vaccination. Immunological responses were evaluated by ex vivo and in vitro γ-interferon enzyme-linked immunospot assays and their correlation with patients' prognosis was analyzed. The HSP105 peptide vaccines induced peptide-specific CTLs in 15 of 30 patients. Among HLA-A24 patients (n = 15), 7 showed induction of CTLs only ex vivo, whereas among HLA-A2 patients (n = 15), 4 showed the induction ex vivo and 6 in vitro. Heat shock protein 105-specific CTL induction correlated with suppression of cancer progression and was revealed as a potential predictive biomarker for progression-free survival (P = .008; hazard ratio = 3.03; 95% confidence interval, 1.34-6.85) and overall survival (P = .025; hazard ratio = 2.72; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-6.52). Production of cytokines by HSP105 peptide-specific CTLs was observed at the injection sites (skin) and tumor tissues, suggesting that HSP105-specific CTLs not only accumulated at vaccination sites but also infiltrated tumors. Furthermore, we established 2 HSP105 peptide-specific CTL clones, which showed HSP105-specific cytokine secretion and cytotoxicity. Our results suggest that the HSP105 peptide vaccine could induce immunological effects in cancer patients and improve their prognosis.


Assuntos
Vacinas Anticâncer/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Esofágicas/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP110/química , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP110/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Vacinas Anticâncer/imunologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Neoplasias Colorretais/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Neoplasias Esofágicas/imunologia , Feminino , Antígeno HLA-A2/metabolismo , Antígeno HLA-A24/metabolismo , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Vacinas de Subunidades/administração & dosagem , Vacinas de Subunidades/imunologia
3.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 68(8): 1359-1368, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31332464

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibitors targeting coinhibitory pathways in T cells possess efficacy in combating cancer. In addition to PD-1/PD-L1 and CTLA-4 antibodies which are already established in tumor immunotherapy, immune checkpoints such as LAG-3 or BTLA are emerging, which may have the potential to enhance T-cell responses alone or in combination with PD-1 blockers. CD4+ T cells play a central role in the immune system and contribute to productive immune responses in multiple ways. The effects of immune checkpoint inhibitors on this cell subset may thus critically influence therapeutic outcomes. Here, we have used in vitro responses to tetanus toxoid (TT) as a model system to study the effects of immune checkpoint inhibitors on CD4+ T-cell responses. CFSE-labeled PBMCs of 65 donors were stimulated with TT in the presence of blocking antibodies to PD-L1, CTLA-4, LAG-3, or BTLA for 7 days. We found that the PD-L1 antibody greatly enhanced cytokine production and antigen-specific CD4+ T-cell proliferation, whereas blocking antibodies to BTLA or LAG-3 did not augment responses to TT. Surprisingly, the presence of the therapeutic CTLA-4 antibody ipilimumab resulted in a significant reduction of CD4+ T-cell proliferation and cytokine production. Stimulation experiments with an IgG4 variant of ipilimumab indicated that the inhibitory effect of ipilimumab was dependent on its IgG1 isotype. Our results indicate that the therapeutic CTLA-4 antibody ipilimumab can impair CD4+ effector T-cell responses and that this activity is mediated by its Fc part and CD16-expressing cells.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Vacinas Anticâncer/imunologia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Ipilimumab/farmacologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Antígenos CD/imunologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Antígeno CTLA-4/imunologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/metabolismo , Ipilimumab/uso terapêutico , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias/imunologia , Receptores Imunológicos/imunologia , Toxoide Tetânico/imunologia
4.
Mol Biol (Mosk) ; 53(3): 367-379, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31184601

RESUMO

The paper discusses the techniques which are currently implemented for vaccine production based on virus-like particles (VLPs). The factors which determine the characteristics of VLP monomers assembly are provided in detail. Analysis of the literature demonstrates that the development of the techniques of VLP production and immobilization of target antigens on their surface have led to the development of universal platforms which make it possible for virtually any known antigen to be exposed on the particle surface in a highly concentrated form. As a result, the focus of attention has shifted from the approaches to VLP production to the development of a precise interface between the organism's immune system and the peptides inducing a strong immune response to pathogens or the organism's own pathological cells. Immunome-specified methods for vaccine design and the prospects of immunoprophylaxis are discussed. Certain examples of vaccines against viral diseases and cancers are considered.


Assuntos
Vacinas de Partículas Semelhantes a Vírus/provisão & distribução , Vacinas Anticâncer/imunologia , Vacinas Anticâncer/provisão & distribução , Humanos , Vacinas de Partículas Semelhantes a Vírus/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/provisão & distribução
5.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 68(8): 1235-1243, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31214732

RESUMO

Off-target toxicity due to the expression of target antigens in normal tissue or TCR cross-reactivity represents a major risk when using T cell receptor (TCR)-engineered T cells for treatment of solid tumours. Due to the inherent cross-reactivity of TCRs it is difficult to accurately predict their target recognition pre-clinically. It has become evident that direct testing in a human being represents the best evaluation of the risks. There is, therefore, a clear unmet need for assessing the safety of a therapeutic TCR in a more controllable manner than by the injection of permanently modified cellular products. Using transiently modified T cells combined with dose escalation has already been shown feasible for chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-engineered T cells, but nothing is yet reported for TCR. We performed a preclinical evaluation of a therapeutic TCR transiently expressed in T cells by mRNA electroporation. We analyzed if the construct was active in vitro, how long it was detectable for and if this expression format was adapted to in vivo efficacy assessment. Our data demonstrate the potential of mRNA engineered T cells, although less powerful than permanent redirection, to induce a significant response. Thus, these findings support the development of mRNA based TCR-therapy strategies as a feasible and efficacious method for evaluating TCR safety and efficacy in first-in-man testing.


Assuntos
Vacinas Anticâncer/imunologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , Imunoterapia Adotiva/métodos , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Animais , Neoplasias Colorretais/imunologia , Reações Cruzadas , Citotoxicidade Imunológica , Eletroporação , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos SCID , Neoplasias Experimentais , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/genética , Especificidade do Receptor de Antígeno de Linfócitos T , Linfócitos T/transplante , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
6.
Oncology ; 97(3): 135-148, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31216557

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We have developed a Wilms' tumor 1 (WT1)-targeting dendritic cell (DC)-based cancer vaccine combined with standard chemotherapy for patients with advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA). METHODS: We evaluated predictive markers of overall survival (OS) in PDA patients treated with multiple major histocompatibility complex class I/II-restricted, WT1 peptide-pulsed DC vaccinations (DC/WT1-I/II) in combination with chemotherapy. Throughout the entire period of immunochemotherapy, the plasma levels of soluble factors derived from granulocytes of 7 eligible PDA patients were examined. Moreover, systemic inflammatory response markers (neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio [NLR], monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio [MLR], and granulocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio [GLR]) were assessed. In addition, cytoplasmic WT1 expression in PDA cells was examined. RESULTS: Compared to the 4 non-super-responders (OS <1 year), the remaining 3 super-responders (OS ≥1 year) showed significantly decreased low plasma matrix metalloproteinase-9 levels throughout long-term therapy. The NLR, MLR, and GLR after 5 DC/WT1-I/II vaccinations and 3 cycles of gemcitabine were significantly lower in the super-responders than in the non-super-responders. Furthermore, the cytoplasmic WT1 expression in the PDA cells of super-responders was relatively weak compared to that in the PDA cells of non-super-responders. CONCLUSIONS: Prolonged low levels of a granulocyte-related systemic inflammatory response after the early period of therapy and low cytoplasmic WT1 expression in PDA cells may be markers predictive of OS in PDA patients receiving WT1-targeting immunochemotherapy.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Vacinas Anticâncer/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/imunologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidade , Proteínas WT1/imunologia , Biomarcadores , Vacinas Anticâncer/administração & dosagem , Terapia Combinada , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Epitopos/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Masculino , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/terapia , Peptídeos/imunologia , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento , Vacinação , Proteínas WT1/genética
7.
Cancer Sci ; 110(8): 2386-2395, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206934

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have revolutionized the treatment of cancer by providing new options in addition to existing therapies. However, peptide vaccination therapies still represent an attractive approach, because of the antigen specificity. We identified survivin 2B peptide (SVN-2B), a 9-mer antigenic peptide encoded by survivin, and an SVN-2B peptide vaccine-based phase II randomized clinical trial targeting unresectable and refractory pancreatic carcinoma was undertaken. The SVN-2B peptide vaccine did not have any statistically significant clinical benefits in that study. Therefore, we undertook an autopsy study to analyze the immune status of the pancreatic cancer lesions at the histological level. Autopsies were carried out in 13 patients who had died of pancreatic cancer, including 7 who had received SVN-2B peptide vaccination and 6 who had not, as negative controls. The expression of immune-related molecules was analyzed by immunohistochemical staining. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes were analyzed by tetramer staining and enzyme-linked immunospot assay. Histological analysis revealed dense infiltration of CD8+ T cells in some lesions in patients who had received the SVN-2B peptide vaccine. A high rate of programmed cell death ligand 1 expression in cancer cells was observed in these cases, indicating that CTLs were induced by SVN-2B peptide vaccination and had infiltrated the lesions. The lack of a significant antitumor effect was most likely attributable to the expression of immune checkpoint molecules. These findings suggest that the combination of a tumor-specific peptide vaccine and an ICI might be a promising approach to the treatment of pancreatic carcinoma in the future.


Assuntos
Vacinas Anticâncer/imunologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/imunologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/terapia , Peptídeos/imunologia , Survivina/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Autopsia/métodos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Vacinação/métodos
8.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 68(8): 1245-1261, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222486

RESUMO

The efficacy of cancer immunotherapy, including treatment with immune-checkpoint inhibitors, often is limited by ineffective presentation of antigenic peptides that elicit T-cell-mediated anti-tumor cytotoxic responses. Manipulation of antigen presentation pathways is an emerging approach for enhancing the immunogenicity of tumors in immunotherapy settings. ER aminopeptidase 1 (ERAP1) is an intracellular enzyme that trims peptides as part of the system that generates peptides for binding to MHC class I molecules (MHC-I). We hypothesized that pharmacological inhibition of ERAP1 in cells could regulate the cellular immunopeptidome. To test this hypothesis, we treated A375 melanoma cells with a recently developed potent ERAP1 inhibitor and analyzed the presented MHC-I peptide repertoire by isolating MHC-I, eluting bound peptides, and identifying them using capillary chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Although the inhibitor did not reduce cell-surface MHC-I expression, it induced qualitative and quantitative changes in the presented peptidomes. Specifically, inhibitor treatment altered presentation of about half of the total 3204 identified peptides, including about one third of the peptides predicted to bind tightly to MHC-I. Inhibitor treatment altered the length distribution of eluted peptides without change in the basic binding motifs. Surprisingly, inhibitor treatment enhanced the average predicted MHC-I binding affinity, by reducing presentation of sub-optimal long peptides and increasing presentation of many high-affinity 9-12mers, suggesting that baseline ERAP1 activity in this cell line is destructive for many potential epitopes. Our results suggest that chemical inhibition of ERAP1 may be a viable approach for manipulating the immunopeptidome of cancer.


Assuntos
Aminopeptidases/metabolismo , Antígenos de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Vacinas Anticâncer/imunologia , Epitopos de Linfócito T/metabolismo , Imunoterapia/métodos , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Menor/metabolismo , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Aminopeptidases/antagonistas & inibidores , Apresentação do Antígeno , Antígenos de Neoplasias/genética , Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Citotoxicidade Imunológica , Epitopos de Linfócito T/genética , Epitopos de Linfócito T/imunologia , Antígenos HLA/metabolismo , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Ativação Linfocitária , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Peptídeos/genética , Peptídeos/imunologia , Ligação Proteica
9.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 68(8): 1273-1286, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31243491

RESUMO

Therapeutic cancer vaccines have met limited clinical success. In the setting of cancer, the immune system is either tolerized and/or has a limited tumor-specific T cell repertoire. In this study, we explore whether intratumoral (IT) vaccination with an HPV vaccine can elicit quantitative and qualitative differences in immune response as compared to intramuscular (IM) vaccination to overcome immune resistance in established tumors. We report that IT administration of an HPV-16 E7 peptide vaccine formulated with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)] generated an enhanced antitumor effect relative to IM delivery. The elicited anti-tumor effect with IT vaccination was consistent among the vaccinated groups and across various C57BL/6 substrains. IT vaccination resulted in an increased frequency of PD-1hi TILs, which represented both vaccine-targeted and non-vaccine-targeted tumor-specific CD8+ T cells. Overall, the CD8+/Treg ratio was increased within the tumor microenvironment using IT vaccination. We also assessed transcriptional changes in several immune-related genes in the tumor microenvironment of the various treated groups, and our data suggest that IT vaccination leads to upregulation of a broad complement of immunomodulatory genes, including upregulation of interferon gamma (IFNγ) and antigen presentation and processing machine (APM) components. IT vaccine delivery is superior to traditional IM vaccination routes with the potential to improve tumor immunogenicity, which has potential clinical application in the setting of accessible lesions such as head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs).


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/terapia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/terapia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Neoplasias Experimentais/imunologia , Proteínas E7 de Papillomavirus/imunologia , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Animais , Apresentação do Antígeno/genética , Vacinas Anticâncer/imunologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/imunologia , Células Cultivadas , Citotoxicidade Imunológica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Celular/genética , Injeções Intramusculares , Interferon gama/genética , Ativação Linfocitária , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Poli I-C/imunologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Vacinação
10.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 68(7): 1143-1155, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177328

RESUMO

Enhancement of endogenous immunity to tumor-associated self-antigens and neoantigens is the goal of preventive vaccination. Toward this goal, we compared the efficacy of the following HER2 DNA vaccine constructs: vaccines encoding wild-type HER2, hybrid HER2 vaccines consisting of human HER2 and rat Neu, HER2 vaccines with single residue substitutions and a novel human HER2 DNA vaccine, ph(es)E2TM. ph(es)E2TM was designed to contain five evolution-selected substitutions: M198V, Q398R, F425L, H473R and A622T that occur frequently in 12 primate HER2 sequences. These ph(es)E2TM substitutions score 0 to 1 in blocks substitutions matrix (BLOSUM), indicating minimal biochemical alterations. h(es)E2TM recombinant protein is recognized by a panel of anti-HER2 mAbs, demonstrating the preservation of HER2 protein structure. Compared to native human HER2, electrovaccination of HER2 transgenic mice with ph(es)E2TM induced a threefold increase in HER2-binding antibody (Ab) and elevated levels of IFNγ-producing T cells. ph(es)E2TM, but not pE2TM immune serum, recognized HER2 peptide p95 355LPESFDGDPASNTAP369, suggesting a broadening of epitope recognition induced by the minimally modified HER2 vaccine. ph(es)E2TM vaccination reduced tumor growth more effectively than wild-type HER2 or HER2 vaccines with more extensive modifications. The elevation of tumor immunity by ph(es)E2TM vaccination would create a favorable tumor microenvironment for neoantigen priming, further enhancing the protective immunity. The fundamental principle of exploiting evolution-selected amino acid substitutions is novel, effective and applicable to vaccine development in general.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Vacinas Anticâncer/imunologia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Mamárias Experimentais/terapia , Receptor ErbB-2/imunologia , Substituição de Aminoácidos/genética , Substituição de Aminoácidos/imunologia , Animais , Antígenos de Neoplasias/genética , Vacinas Anticâncer/genética , Vacinas Anticâncer/uso terapêutico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral/transplante , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Evolução Molecular , Feminino , Imunogenicidade da Vacina/genética , Neoplasias Mamárias Experimentais/genética , Neoplasias Mamárias Experimentais/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Transgênicos , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Tolerância a Antígenos Próprios/genética , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Vacinas de DNA/genética , Vacinas de DNA/imunologia , Vacinas de DNA/uso terapêutico
11.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(54): 7729-7736, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31225574

RESUMO

In the last two decades, the paramount importance of Tumor Associated Carbohydrate Antigens (TACAs) as targets for anticancer vaccine development has been firmly assessed. The Tn antigen is an ideal target for immunotherapy, in that it is masked on normal cells, but exposed on cancer cells. However, it is difficult to elicit an effective and long-lasting response against Tn antigen and other TACAs. Here we report on the Tn antigen analogues developed to boost the latent Tn immune response. Hopefully, the results reported herein will be of help for the rational design of effective TACA-based immunostimulants.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/química , Antígenos Glicosídicos Associados a Tumores/imunologia , Materiais Biomiméticos/química , Galactosídeos/imunologia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/síntese química , Animais , Antígenos Glicosídicos Associados a Tumores/química , Materiais Biomiméticos/síntese química , Vacinas Anticâncer/imunologia , Galactosídeos/síntese química , Galactosídeos/química , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Peptídeos Cíclicos/síntese química , Peptídeos Cíclicos/química , Peptídeos Cíclicos/imunologia , Células RAW 264.7
12.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2688, 2019 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217437

RESUMO

Neoantigens (nAgs) are promising tumor antigens for cancer vaccination with the potential of inducing robust and selective T cell responses. Genetic vaccines based on Adenoviruses derived from non-human Great Apes (GAd) elicit strong and effective T cell-mediated immunity in humans. Here, we investigate for the first time the potency and efficacy of a novel GAd encoding multiple neoantigens. Prophylactic or early therapeutic vaccination with GAd efficiently control tumor growth in mice. In contrast, combination of the vaccine with checkpoint inhibitors is required to eradicate large tumors. Gene expression profile of tumors in regression shows abundance of activated tumor infiltrating T cells with a more diversified TCR repertoire in animals treated with GAd and anti-PD1 compared to anti-PD1. Data suggest that effectiveness of vaccination in the presence of high tumor burden correlates with the breadth of nAgs-specific T cells and requires concomitant reversal of tumor suppression by checkpoint blockade.


Assuntos
Adenoviridae/imunologia , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Vacinas Anticâncer/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/terapia , Vacinas Virais/uso terapêutico , Adenoviridae/genética , Animais , Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Vacinas Anticâncer/genética , Vacinas Anticâncer/imunologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral/transplante , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Camundongos , Neoplasias/imunologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Carga Tumoral/imunologia , Vacinas Sintéticas/genética , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia , Vacinas Sintéticas/uso terapêutico , Vacinas Virais/genética , Vacinas Virais/imunologia
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(9)2019 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31060324

RESUMO

Antigen peptides and adjuvants have been extensively investigated for cancer immunotherapy, and they are expected to elicit specific immune responses for cancer treatment. However, the anti-cancer efficacy of antigen peptide and adjuvant-based cancer vaccines has been limited due to the inefficient delivery to draining lymph nodes after administration. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a suitable delivery system to transport antigen peptides and adjuvants. Here, we report a novel type of nanostructured lipovaccines for the treatment of melanoma by delivering antigen peptide (SL9) and oligodeoxynucleotide adjuvant (CpG) to the lymphatic vessels and to the draining lymph node. The SL9-CpG lipovaccines were characterized using dynamic laser scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The lymph uptake, immune response elicitation and treatment effects were evaluated on melanoma-bearing C57BL/6 mice using flow cytometry (FCM), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and tumor inhibitory efficacy. The SL9-CpG lipovaccines were uniform with a nanoscale size (~70 nm), had high encapsulation efficiency, and exhibited effective lymph uptake, resulting in activation of specific cytotoxic CD8+ T cells, and release of IFN-γ, and a robust inhibition of tumor growth. Therefore, the nanostructured SL9-CpG lipovaccines offer a promising strategy for melanoma treatment.


Assuntos
Vacinas Anticâncer/imunologia , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Imunomodulação , Melanoma/imunologia , Melanoma/terapia , Peptídeos/imunologia , Animais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Glicina/química , Glicina/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Linfonodos/imunologia , Melanoma/metabolismo , Camundongos , Peptídeos/química , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
14.
Mol Immunol ; 111: 106-117, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31051312

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are rare cell population present in the tumor bulk that are thought to be the reason for treatment failure following chemotherapy in terms of their intrinsic chemo-resistance. Our study aimed to develop an effective therapeutic strategy to target chemo-resistant cancer stem - like cells population in solid Ehrlich carcinoma (SEC) mice model using dendritic cells (DCs) loaded with enriched tumor cells lysate bearing CSC-like phenotype as a vaccine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ehrlich carcinoma cell line was exposed to different concentrations of cisplatin, doxorubicin, or paclitaxel. Drug treatment that resulted in drug surviving cells with the highest expression of CSCs markers (CD44+/CD24-) was selected to obtain enriched cell cultures with resistant CSCs population. Dendritic cells were isolated from mice bone marrow, pulsed with enriched CSC lysate, analyzed and identified (CD11c, CD83 and CD86). SEC-bearing mice were treated with loaded or unloaded DCs either as single treatment or in combination with repeated low doses of cisplatin. IFN- γ serum level and p53gene expression in tumor tissues were determined by ELISA and real-time PCR, respectively. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The results revealed that vaccination with CSC loaded DCs significantly reduced tumor size, prolonged survival rate, increased IFN-γ serum levels, and upregulated p53gene expression in SEC bearing mice. These findings were more evident and significant in the group co-treated with CSC-DC and cisplatin rather than other treated groups. This study opens the field for combining CSC-targeted immunotherapy with repeated low doses chemotherapy as an effective strategy to improve anticancer immune responses.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/imunologia , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/imunologia , Animais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/imunologia , Vacinas Anticâncer/imunologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Imunoterapia/métodos , Interferon gama/imunologia , Camundongos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/imunologia , Regulação para Cima/imunologia
15.
Mol Immunol ; 112: 93-102, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31079006

RESUMO

Multiepitope cancer vaccines are announcing themselves as the future of melanoma treatment. Herein, high immunogenic regions of transmembrane protein 31 (TMEM31) antigen were selected according to cytotoxic T lymphocytes' (CTL) epitopes and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) binding affinity through in silico analyses. The 32-62, 77-105, and 125-165 residues of the TMEM31 were selected as the immunodominant fragments. They were linked together by RVRR and HEYGAEALERAG motifs to improve epitopes separation and presentation. In addition, to activate helper T lymphocytes (HTL), Pan HLA DR-binding epitope (PADRE) peptide sequence and tetanus toxin fragment C (TTFrC) were incorporated into the final construct. Also, the Beta-defensin conserved domain was utilized in the final construct as a novel adjuvant for Toll-like receptor 4/myeloid differentiation factor (TLR4-MD) activation. The CTL epitopes, cleavage sites, post-translational modifications, TAP transport efficiency, and B cells epitopes were predicted for the peptide vaccine. The final construct contained multiple CTL and B cell epitopes. In addition, it showed 93.55% and 99.13% population coverage in the world for HLA I and HLA II, respectively. According to these preliminary results, the multiepitope cancer vaccine can be an appropriate choice for further experimental investigations.


Assuntos
Vacinas Anticâncer/imunologia , Melanoma/imunologia , Proteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Vacinas de DNA/imunologia , Simulação por Computador , DNA/imunologia , Epitopos de Linfócito B/imunologia , Epitopos de Linfócito T/imunologia , Humanos , Vacinas Antimaláricas/imunologia , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/imunologia , Peptídeos/imunologia , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional/imunologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/imunologia , Toxina Tetânica/imunologia
16.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 68(7): 1211-1222, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31069460

RESUMO

Human tumor cells express antigens that serve as targets for the host cellular immune system. This phase 1 dose-escalating study was conducted to assess safety and tolerability of G305, a recombinant NY-ESO-1 protein vaccine mixed with glucopyranosyl lipid A (GLA), a synthetic TLR4 agonist adjuvant, in a stable emulsion (SE). Twelve patients with solid tumors expressing NY-ESO-1 were treated using a 3 + 3 design. The NY-ESO-1 dose was fixed at 250 µg, while GLA-SE was increased from 2 to 10 µg. Safety, immunogenicity, and clinical responses were assessed prior to, during, and at the end of therapy. G305 was safe and immunogenic at all doses. All related AEs were Grade 1 or 2, with injection site soreness as the most commonly reported event (100%). Overall, 75% of patients developed antibody response to NY-ESO-1, including six patients with increased antibody titer ( ≥ 4-fold rise) and three patients with seroconversion from negative (titer < 100) to positive (titer ≥ 100). CD4 T-cell responses were observed in 44.4% of patients; 33.3% were new responses and 1 was boosted ( ≥ 2-fold rise). Following treatment, 8 of 12 patients had stable disease for 3 months or more; at the end of 1 year, three patients had stable disease and nine patients were alive. G305 is a potent immunotherapeutic agent that can stimulate NY-ESO-1-specific antibody and T-cell responses. The vaccine was safe at all doses of GLA-SE (2-10 µg) and showed potential clinical benefit in this population of patients.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Antígenos de Neoplasias/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Anticâncer/administração & dosagem , Glucosídeos/administração & dosagem , Lipídeo A/administração & dosagem , Proteínas de Membrana/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias/terapia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Antígenos de Neoplasias/efeitos adversos , Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Vacinas Anticâncer/efeitos adversos , Vacinas Anticâncer/imunologia , Drogas em Investigação/administração & dosagem , Drogas em Investigação/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Glucosídeos/efeitos adversos , Glucosídeos/imunologia , Humanos , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Injeções Intramusculares , Lipídeo A/efeitos adversos , Lipídeo A/imunologia , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/efeitos adversos , Proteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Recombinantes/efeitos adversos , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/agonistas , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/imunologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Vacinas Sintéticas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Sintéticas/efeitos adversos , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Chem Asian J ; 14(12): 2116-2121, 2019 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31042017

RESUMO

The tumor-associated antigen mucin 1 (MUC1) has been pursued as an attractive target for cancer immunotherapy, but the poor immunogenicity of the endogenous antigen hinders the development of vaccines capable of inducing effective anti-MUC1 immunodominant responses. Herein, we prepared synthetic anti-MUC1 vaccines in which the hydrophilic MUC1 antigen was N-terminally conjugated to one or two palmitoyl lipid chains (to form amphiphilic Pam-MUC1 or Pam2 -MUC1). These amphiphilic lipid-tailed MUC1 antigens were self-assembled into liposomes containing the NKT cell agonist αGalCer as an adjuvant. The lipid-conjugated antigens reshaped the physical and morphological properties of liposomal vaccines. Promising results showed that the anti-MUC1 IgG antibody titers induced by the Pam2 -MUC1 vaccine were more than 30- and 190-fold higher than those induced by the Pam-MUC1 vaccine and the MUC1 vaccine without lipid tails, respectively. Similarly, vaccines with the TLR1/2 agonist Pam3 CSK4 as an adjuvant also induced conjugated lipid-dependent immunological responses. Moreover, vaccines with the αGalCer adjuvant induced significantly higher titers of IgG antibodies than vaccines with the Pam3 CSK4 adjuvant. Therefore, the non-covalent assembly of the amphiphilic lipo-MUC1 antigen and the NKT cell agonist αGalCer as a glycolipid adjuvant represent a synthetically simple but immunologically effective approach for the development of anti-MUC1 cancer vaccines.


Assuntos
Vacinas Anticâncer/química , Vacinas Anticâncer/imunologia , Epitopos Imunodominantes/imunologia , Lipídeos/imunologia , Mucina-1/imunologia , Humanos , Lipossomos , Células MCF-7 , Tensoativos
18.
Nanoscale ; 11(16): 7931-7943, 2019 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30964937

RESUMO

Since mannose receptors (MRs) are expressed on the surfaces of dendritic cells (DCs), the most professional antigen presenting cells in our body, DNA vaccine carriers containing either covalently grafted mannosyl- or mannose-mimicking shikimoyl-ligands are being increasingly used in ex vivo DC-transfection based DNA vaccination. To this end, we have recently demonstrated that ex vivo immunization of mice with liposomes of shikimoylated cationic amphiphiles containing a 6-amino hexanoic acid spacer group in the head-group region in complexation with melanoma antigen (MART1) encoded DNA vaccine (pCMV-MART1) induces long lasting anti-melanoma immune responses (C. Voshavar, et al., J. Med. Chem., 2017, 60, 1605-1610). This finding prompted us to examine, in the present investigation, the efficacies of gold nanoparticles conjugated to the mannose-mimicking shikimoyl ligand (SL) via a 6-amino hexane thiol spacer (AuNPs-SL) for use in ex vivo DC-transfection based genetic immunization. Herein, we report on the design, synthesis, physico-chemical characterization and bioactivities of AuNPs-SL. Dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy studies revealed the hydrodynamic diameters of theAuNPs-SL nanoconjugates to be within the range of 23-44 nm and their surface potentials within the range of 9-28 mV. MTT-assay showed the non-cytotoxic nature of AuNPs-SL and the findings in the electrophoretic gel retardation assays revealed strong DNA binding properties of the AuNPs-SL. Importantly, subcutaneous immunization of C57BL/6J mice with DCs ex vivo transfected with an electrostatic complex of AuNPs-SL & melanoma antigen (MART1) encoded DNA vaccine (p-CMV-MART1) induced a long lasting (100 days) anti-tumor immune response in immunized mice upon subsequent challenge with a lethal dose of melanoma. Notably, mice immunized with either autologous mbmDCs ex vivo pre-transfected with nanoplexes of shikimoylated AuNPs-SL & an irrelevant pCMV-SPORT-ß-gal plasmid (without having encoded melanoma antigen) or untransfected DCs showed no lasting protection against subsequent tumor challenge. The presently described shikimoyl-decorated gold nanoparticles (AuNPs-SL) are expected to find future use in ex vivo DC-transfection based genetic immunization against cancer and other infectious diseases.


Assuntos
Vacinas Anticâncer/imunologia , Ouro/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Safrol/química , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Dendríticas/citologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Feminino , Imunidade Celular , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Ligantes , Antígeno MART-1/genética , Melanoma Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma Experimental/mortalidade , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Nanoestruturas/uso terapêutico , Nanoestruturas/toxicidade , Plasmídeos/genética , Plasmídeos/metabolismo , Taxa de Sobrevida , Transplante Homólogo
19.
J Immunol Res ; 2019: 9394615, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31008116

RESUMO

Tumor vaccines offer a number of advantages for cancer treatment. In the study, the vaccination with cancer stem cells (CSCs) with high expression of the type I receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor (ROR1) was evaluated in a murine model for the vaccine's immunogenicity and protective efficacy against epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC). CD117+CD44+ CSCs were isolated from human EOC HO8910 cell line using a magnetic-activated cell sorting system; murine ID8 EOC suspension sphere cells, which are collectively known as cancer stem-like cells, were acquired from serum-free suspension sphere-forming culture. Mice were subcutaneously immunized with the repeat cycles of freezing and thawing whole HO8910 CD117+CD44+ CSCs and ID8 cancer stem-like cells, respectively, followed by a challenge with HO8910 or ID8 cells at one week after final vaccination. The results showed that the CSC vaccination significantly induced immunity against EOC growth and markedly prolonged the survival of EOC-bearing mice in the prophylactic setting compared with non-CSC vaccination. Flow cytometry showed significantly increased immunocyte cytotoxicities and remarkably reduced CSC counts in the CSC-vaccinated mice. Moreover, the protective efficacy against EOC was decreased when the ROR1 expression was downregulated by shRNA in CSC vaccines. The findings from the study suggest that CSC vaccines with high ROR1 expression were highly effective in triggering immunity against EOC in vaccinated mice and may serve as an effective vaccine for EOC immunoprophylaxis.


Assuntos
Vacinas Anticâncer/imunologia , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/prevenção & controle , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/imunologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Receptores Órfãos Semelhantes a Receptor Tirosina Quinase/genética , Animais , Vacinas Anticâncer/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/imunologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Humanos , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neoplasias Ovarianas/prevenção & controle , Vacinação
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(8)2019 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31013796

RESUMO

Telomerase, an enzyme responsible for the synthesis of telomeres, is activated in many cancer cells and is involved in the maintenance of telomeres. The activity of telomerase allows cancer cells to replicate and proliferate in an uncontrolled manner, to infiltrate tissue, and to metastasize to distant organs. Studies to date have examined the mechanisms involved in the survival of cancer cells as targets for cancer therapeutics. These efforts led to the development of telomerase inhibitors as anticancer drugs, drugs targeting telomere DNA, viral vectors carrying a promoter for human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) genome, and immunotherapy targeting hTERT. Among these novel therapeutics, this review focuses on immunotherapy targeting hTERT and discusses the current evidence and future perspectives.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/etiologia , Telomerase/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Vacinas Anticâncer/imunologia , Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Terapia Genética , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Telomerase/genética , Telomerase/metabolismo , Vacinas de DNA/imunologia
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