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1.
An. pediatr. (2003. Ed. impr.) ; 94(1): 53.e1-53.e10, ene. 2021. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-200280

RESUMO

El CAV-AEP publica anualmente el calendario de vacunaciones que estima idóneo para los niños y adolescentes residentes en España, teniendo en cuenta la evidencia científica disponible. Se mantiene el esquema 2 + 1 (2, 4 y 11 meses) con vacunas hexavalentes (DTPa-VPI-Hib-HB) y con antineumocócica conjugada 13-valente. Se aconseja un refuerzo a los 6 años, preferentemente con DTPa (si está disponible), junto a una dosis de polio para aquellos que recibieron esquemas 2 + 1, así como vacunación con Tdpa en adolescentes y en cada embarazo, preferentemente entre las 27 y 32 semanas. La vacuna del rotavirus debería ser sistemática para todos los lactantes. Se insiste en la incorporación en el calendario de la vacuna antimeningocócica B, con esquema 2 + 1 en lactantes. Además de la inclusión de la vacuna antimeningocócica conjugada tetravalente (MenACWY) a los 12 años con rescate hasta 18 años, inclusive, el CAV-AEP recomienda que esta vacuna sea introducida también a los 12 meses de edad, sustituyendo a MenC. Igualmente, se recomienda en los mayores de 6 semanas de edad con factores de riesgo o que viajen a países de elevada incidencia de estos serogrupos. Se emplearán esquemas de dos dosis para triple vírica (12 meses y 3-4 años) y varicela (15 meses y 3-4 años). La segunda dosis se podría aplicar como vacuna tetravírica. Se recomienda la vacunación sistemática universal frente al VPH, con independencia del género, preferentemente a los 12 años, insistiendo en un mayor esfuerzo para mejorar las coberturas. La de 9 genotipos amplía la cobertura para ambos sexos


The CAV-AEP annually publishes the immunisation schedule considered optimal for all children and adolescent resident in Spain, taking into account the available evidence. The 2 + 1 schedule is recommended (2, 4, and 11 months) with hexavalent vaccines (DTPa-VPI-Hib-HB) and with 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate.A 6-year booster is recommended, preferably with DTPa (if available), with a dose of polio for those who received 2 + 1 schemes, as well as vaccination with Tdpa in adolescents and in each pregnancy, preferably between 27 and 32 weeks. Rotavirus vaccine should be systematic for all infants. Meningococcal B vaccine, with a 2 + 1 schedule, should be included in routine calendar. In addition to the inclusion of the conjugated tetravalent meningococcal vaccine (MenACWY) at 12 years of age with catch up to 18 years, inclusive, the CAV recommends this vaccine to be also included at 12 months of age, replacing MenC. Likewise, it is recommended in those over 6 weeks of age with risk factors or who travel to countries with a high incidence of these serogroups. Two-dose schedules for triple viral (12 months and 3-4 years) and varicella (15 months and 3-4 years) will be used. The second dose could be applied as a tetraviral vaccine. Universal systematic vaccination against HPV is recommended, regardless of gender, preferably at 12 years, and greater effort should be made to improve coverage. The 9 genotype extends coverage for both genders


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Vacinas Bacterianas/administração & dosagem , Esquemas de Imunização , Sociedades Médicas , Pediatria , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Espanha
2.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 168: 507-517, 2021 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310103

RESUMO

Vaccines, in many cases, stimulate only too weak immunogenicity to prevent infection. Therefore, adjuvants are required during their preparation to boost the immune response. We herein developed a PEGylated nano-adjuvant based on Rehmannia glutinosa polysaccharide (RGP). The addition of PEG layer exhibits enhanced immune performance of the nano-RGP. Stimulation of dendritic cells (DCs) with PEGylated nano-RGP (pRL) led to increased proliferation and cytokine production (IL-6, IL-12, IL-1ß and TNF-α). The pRL was internalized into DCs via a rapid and efficient method. The mice immunized with pRL exhibited enhanced antigen-specific serum IgG and Th1-(IFN-γ), Th2-(IL-4), and Th17-(IL-17, IL-6) cytokine production, contributing to a good anti-infection performance. Furthermore, the pRL could effectively deliver the antigen to the lymph nodes (LNs), activate DC in the LN and produce enhanced CD4+and CD8+ T-cells-derived memory (CD44high CD62Lhigh), and effector (CD44high CD62Llow) as well as functional phenotypes. Our results revealed that pRL can act as a promising adjuvant with targeted delivery of antigen due to its effective activation and robust adaptive immunity induction of DCs.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Antígenos de Bactérias/administração & dosagem , Bordetella bronchiseptica/imunologia , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Polissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Rehmannia/química , Imunidade Adaptativa , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/química , Animais , Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Vacinas Bacterianas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Bacterianas/química , Vacinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Citocinas/metabolismo , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Feminino , Imunização , Camundongos , Nanopartículas , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/imunologia
3.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2183: 477-487, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32959261

RESUMO

Pneumococcal disease is caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, a colonizing microorganism characterized by transitioning from a benign commensal to a virulent pathogen in the presence of suitable circumstances, which then poses a serious infectious disease threat afflicting millions of people. Especially affected are the young and elderly through outcomes that include pneumonia, bacteremia, meningitis, and otitis media. Current prevention vaccine options on the market contain capsular polysaccharides conjugated to the Diphtheria CRM197 protein (Pfizer) or are composed of only pneumococcal polysaccharides (Merck), and in both cases, limitations prevent the generation of comprehensive disease protection. Through the use of a liposomal carrier, we present an alternative methodology for producing a vaccine product via noncovalent colocalization of both polysaccharide and protein classes of complementary pneumococcal disease immunogens.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/imunologia , Vacinas Bacterianas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Lipossomos , Polissacarídeos/imunologia , Animais , Antígenos de Bactérias/administração & dosagem , Proteínas de Bactérias/administração & dosagem , Genes Reporter , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Imunidade , Imunização , Camundongos , Polissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Ligação Proteica , Vacinação/métodos
4.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2210: 157-166, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32815136

RESUMO

Bacteria release spherical nanobodies, known as membrane vesicles (MVs), during various growth phases. MVs have been gaining recognition as structurally stable vehicles in the last two decades because they deliver a wide range of antigens, virulence factors, and immunomodulators to the host. These functions suggest not only the possible contribution of MVs to pathogenicity but also the potential applicability of low-dose MVs for use as vaccines. Here, we describe a series of methods for isolating MVs of Porphyromonas gingivalis, which is an important species among periodontopathic bacteria. The present chapter also introduces a mouse model of intranasal immunization using MVs from P. gingivalis.


Assuntos
Membrana Externa Bacteriana/imunologia , Vacinas Bacterianas/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Bacteroidaceae/prevenção & controle , Porphyromonas gingivalis/imunologia , Administração Intranasal , Animais , Vacinas Bacterianas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Infecções por Bacteroidaceae/imunologia , Centrifugação com Gradiente de Concentração/métodos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Imunização , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Ultracentrifugação/métodos
5.
Vaccine ; 38(48): 7581-7584, 2020 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33071005

RESUMO

Today, Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global public health emergency and vaccination measures to counter its diffusion are deemed necessary. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiological agent of the disease, unleashes a T-helper 2 immune response in those patients requiring intensive care. Here, we illustrate the immunological mechanism to train the immune system towards a more effective and less symptomatic T-helper 1 immune response, to be exploited against SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Vacina BCG/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Bacterianas/administração & dosagem , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Propionibacteriaceae/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Corynebacterium , Humanos , Esquemas de Imunização , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Interleucinas/genética , Interleucinas/imunologia , Segurança do Paciente , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Células Th1/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th1/virologia , Equilíbrio Th1-Th2/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Th2/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Th2/imunologia , Células Th2/virologia , Vacinação , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Virais/biossíntese
6.
Dermatol Online J ; 26(3)2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609439

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: New treatment options for warts include intralesional wart injection with agents such as vitamin D, measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine antigen, Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) antigen, and candida antigen but there have been limited studies to compare their efficacies. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this systematic review is to compare the efficacy and safety of injectable agents used for the treatment of warts. METHODS: A PubMed search included terms "intralesional wart therapy," "wart injection" and "verruca injection." Articles reviewed were published over 10 years. RESULTS: A total of 43 articles were reviewed; 30 covered studies with more than 10 participants and 13 were case reports, case series, and reviews. In comparison studies intralesional agents have equal or superior efficacy (66%-94.9%) compared to first-line salicylic acid or cryotherapy (65.5-76.5%). One advantage of intralesional injections is the rate of complete resolution of distant warts. LIMITATIONS: Each study varied in their agents, treatment interval, and treatment dose, making comparisons difficult. CONCLUSIONS: Intralesional wart injections are safe, affordable, and efficacious treatments for warts. Physicians should consider intralesional injections for patients with refractory warts, multiple warts, or warts in sensitive areas.


Assuntos
Injeções Intralesionais , Verrugas/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Aminolevulínico/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Vacina BCG/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Bacterianas/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Interferon-alfa/administração & dosagem , Mycobacterium , Tuberculina/administração & dosagem , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem
7.
Avian Dis ; 64(2): 157-165, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32550616

RESUMO

The reemergence of infectious coryza (IC) caused by Avibacterium paragallinarum (AP) as an acute and occasionally chronic respiratory disease in domestic poultry has caused severe losses in several U.S. states. The disease is also associated with decreased egg production in layers and increased condemnations from air sac infections in broilers. A series of applied experiments were performed to elucidate the persistence of AP in infected broiler flocks, to genotype AP strains isolated from field cases, and to evaluate commercial and autogenous vaccine protection in commercial and specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens. Experimental evaluation of environmental persistence suggests that AP did not persist more than 12 hr in a hypothetically contaminated environment. Additionally, other detected potential pathogens such as Gallibacterium anatis and infectious bronchitis virus caused mild respiratory signs in the exposed birds. The HMTp210 and HagA genes of four IC field strains were sequenced and compared with published sequences of HMTp210 and HagA. The HMTp210 phylogeny showed a marginally imperfect clustering of the sequences in genogroups A, B, and C. Although not definitive, this phylogeny provided evidence that the four field strains aligned with previously characterized serovar C strains. Moreover, the base pair homology of the four strains was 100% identical to serovar C reference strains (H-18 and Modesto). HagA phylogeny was unclear, but interestingly, the IC field strains were 100% homologous to C-1 strains reported from Mexico and Ecuador. Finally, vaccine protection studies in commercial hens indicate that clinical signs are induced by a combination of IC and other concomitant pathogens infecting commercial birds. Additionally, vaccine protection experiments performed in SPF hens indicated that protection provided by the two commercial vaccines tested provided a reduction in clinical signs and bacterial shedding after two applications.


Assuntos
Vacinas Bacterianas/administração & dosagem , Galinhas , Genótipo , Infecções por Haemophilus/veterinária , Haemophilus paragallinarum/fisiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/veterinária , Animais , Feminino , Infecções por Haemophilus/microbiologia , Infecções por Haemophilus/prevenção & controle , Haemophilus paragallinarum/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos
8.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 36(2): 473-485, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32451036

RESUMO

Vaccination is the act of administering a vaccine, whereas immunization may occur if appropriate time is allowed for a competent host immune system to respond to the antigen contained in a vaccine. Timing is critical to ensure bovine respiratory disease (BRD) vaccine safety, efficacy, and efficiency. The current review provides temporal considerations of BRD vaccination within the North American beef production system with focus on vaccination timing in high-risk, newly received beef stocker and feedlot cattle.


Assuntos
Vacinas Bacterianas/administração & dosagem , Complexo Respiratório Bovino/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Animais , Vacinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Complexo Respiratório Bovino/imunologia , Bovinos , Esquema de Medicação , Carne Vermelha , Vacinação/veterinária , Vacinas Virais/imunologia
9.
J Appl Microbiol ; 129(5): 1185-1192, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32441051

RESUMO

AIMS: Riemerella anatipestifer infections of goslings and ducklings can result in high mortality. Since there are at least 21 serotypes of R. anatipestifer, cross-protection is an important goal for vaccine development. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, we evaluated the immunostimulatory effect of different immunization regimens - the traditional inactivated vaccine vs prime-boost regimens using DNA and protein subunit vaccines (DNA+subunit, subunit+subunit, subunit+inactivated and DNA+DNA). Results showed that, when compared to the inactivated vaccine, prime-boost regimens induced higher and up to 16-week longer lasting levels of antibody responses, significantly elevated the percentage of the cytotoxic CD8+ T cell and higher expression levels of IFN-γ, IL-6 and IL-12 mRNAs. Furthermore, as an indication of cross-protection, sera from prime-boost regimens were able to recognize lysates of R. anatipestifer serotypes 1, 2 and 6. CONCLUSIONS: Prime-boost regimens especially DNA-prime and protein-boost, induce strong long-term immune response and may prove protective for breeder ducks requiring long-term protection. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: It is worth mentioning that the subunit+inactivated regimen group also elicited strong immune response. The cost of this regimen may only be half of the other prime-boost regimens, making this subunit + inactivated combination an attractive option.


Assuntos
Vacinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Infecções por Flavobacteriaceae/veterinária , Imunização/métodos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Riemerella/imunologia , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/imunologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Vacinas Bacterianas/administração & dosagem , Proteção Cruzada , Patos/microbiologia , Infecções por Flavobacteriaceae/microbiologia , Infecções por Flavobacteriaceae/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Riemerella/genética , Vacinas de DNA/administração & dosagem , Vacinas de DNA/imunologia , Vacinas de Subunidades/administração & dosagem , Vacinas de Subunidades/imunologia
10.
J Med Chem ; 63(10): 5387-5397, 2020 05 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32347723

RESUMO

Group A Streptococcus (GAS) infection causes a range of life-threatening diseases, including rheumatic heart disease. Cyclic peptides offer an attractive solution for presentation of short peptide antigens due to their stability and structurally constrained conformation. We investigated a cyclic carrier decapeptide incorporating a B cell GAS peptide epitope, a universal T helper epitope, and a synthetic toll-like receptor 2-targeting moiety as a possible self-adjuvanting GAS vaccine. A structure-activity relationship of the cyclic lipopeptide vaccine showed successful induction of J8-specific systemic immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies when administered subcutaneously without an additional adjuvant. Interestingly, the physical mixture control induced the highest titers of all vaccine compounds, with antibodies from mice immunized with this physical mixture control shown to effectively opsonize multiple strains of clinically isolated GAS bacteria. This study showed the capability for a self-adjuvanting cyclic delivery system to act as a vehicle for the delivery of GAS peptide antigens to treat GAS infections.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Antígenos de Bactérias/metabolismo , Vacinas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Lipopeptídeos/metabolismo , Infecções Estreptocócicas/metabolismo , Streptococcus pyogenes/metabolismo , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/química , Vacinas Bacterianas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Bacterianas/química , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Lipopeptídeos/administração & dosagem , Lipopeptídeos/química , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Infecções Estreptocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Streptococcus pyogenes/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
11.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e190396, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32321154

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nanoparticles (NPs) are viable candidates as carriers of exogenous materials into cells via transfection and can be used in the DNA vaccination strategy against leptospirosis. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the efficiency of halloysite clay nanotubes (HNTs) and amine-functionalised multi-walled carbon nanotubes (NH2-MWCNTs) in facilitating recombinant LemA antigen (rLemA) expression and protecting Golden Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) against Leptospira interrogans lethal infection. METHODS: An indirect immunofluorescent technique was used to investigate the potency of HNTs and NH2-MWCNTs in enhancing the transfection and expression efficiency of the DNA vaccine in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Hamsters were immunised with two doses of vaccines HNT-pTARGET/lemA, NH2-MWCNTs-pTARGET/lemA, pTARGET/lemA, and empty pTARGET (control), and the efficacy was determined in terms of humoral immune response and protection against a lethal challenge. FINDINGS: rLemA DNA vaccines carried by NPs were able to transfect CHO cells effectively, inducing IgG immune response in hamsters (p < 0.05), and did not exhibit cytotoxic effects. Furthermore, 83.3% of the hamsters immunised with NH2-MWCNTs-pTARGET/lemA were protected against the lethal challenge (p < 0.01), and 66.7% of hamsters immunised with HNT-pTARGET/lemA survived (p < 0.05). MAIN CONCLUSIONS: NH2-MWCNTs and HNTs can act as antigen carriers for mammalian cells and are suitable for DNA nanovaccine delivery.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias/administração & dosagem , Proteínas de Bactérias/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Bacterianas/administração & dosagem , Leptospirose/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Transcrição/administração & dosagem , Vacinas de DNA/administração & dosagem , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/imunologia , Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/imunologia , Vacinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Cricetinae , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo , Leptospira interrogans/imunologia , Leptospirose/imunologia , Nanopartículas , Fatores de Transcrição/imunologia , Vacinas de DNA/imunologia
12.
Vet Microbiol ; 243: 108642, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32273021

RESUMO

Riemerella anatipestifer (RA) is the significant pathogen of septicemia and duck infectious serositis, diseases which can result in high mortality for ducklings. However, these diseases are difficult to treat because of the bacteria's broad resistance to multiple drugs. The purpose of this study was to produce a specific egg yolk immunoglobulin Y (IgY) targeted to RA, and to evaluate the protective efficacy of this IgY against RA infection. An RA-inactivated vaccine was produced via centrifugation and formalin treatment, using the most predominant serotype 2 wild-type strains in terms of worldwide prevalence. Anti-RA IgY was produced by immunizing Beijing Red No.1 hens with the inactivated vaccine. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays showed that the titer levels of anti-RA IgY antibodies increased significantly after exposure. Specific IgY isolated and purified from yolks effectively inhibited the growth of RA in the antibacterial activity assay, which revealed an 80 % reduction of bacteria populations. Animal experiments showed that duckling survival rates were able to reach up to 100 % after the ducklings were treated with 10 mg intramuscular injections of anti-RA IgY from 1 to 12 h after infection. However, the survival rates of ducklings treated with 30 mg of nonspecific IgY at 1 h after infection were 0%. Additionally, ducklings injected once with anti-RA IgY received complete protection in the first week, but the efficacy of this protection almost entirely disappeared after two weeks. The results suggested that specific anti-RA IgY has the potential to improve the degree of protection and responsiveness of ducklings to RA infections and provide them with passive immunity to RA. With further study, this is expected to become a new method for controlling RA infections.


Assuntos
Gema de Ovo/imunologia , Infecções por Flavobacteriaceae/terapia , Infecções por Flavobacteriaceae/veterinária , Imunização Passiva , Imunoglobulinas/uso terapêutico , Riemerella/patogenicidade , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/imunologia , Vacinas Bacterianas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Patos/imunologia , Patos/microbiologia , Feminino , Injeções Intramusculares , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/terapia , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/administração & dosagem , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/imunologia
13.
Vet Microbiol ; 242: 108588, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32122592

RESUMO

Coinfection with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and Mycoplasma hyorhinis (Mhr) can induce more-severe disease than a single infection with either. We evaluated the efficacy of a new vaccine combining inactivated PCV2 and Mhr, in a model of PCV2 and Mhr infection. Twenty-five 35-day-old PCV2- and Mhr-free pigs were randomly divided into five groups, with five pigs in each group. The pigs in groups 1 and 2 were vaccinated with the combined vaccine and then challenged with Mhr or PCV2, respectively. The pigs in groups 3 and 4 were not vaccinated and then challenged with PCV2 or Mhr, respectively, and group 5 was used as the unvaccinated unchallenged control. Two weeks after booster immunization via the intramuscular route, all the pigs except those in control group 5 were challenged with PCV2 or Mhr. All the pigs were euthanized 28 days after challenge. The pigs in vaccinated groups 1 and 2 showed a significant increase in weight after challenge with PCV2 or Mhr (P < 0.001), with an average daily gain (ADG) of 0.315 kg compared with unvaccinated groups 3 and 4 (0.279 kg). Mhr was isolated from the unvaccinated pig lungs after Mhr challenge, whereas it was not isolated from the vaccinated pigs. No PCV2 or Mhr was detected with PCR or histochemical staining in vaccinated groups 1 and 2. A statistical analysis showed that the PCV2 and Mhr combined vaccine providing protected against PCV2 infection causing viremia and inguinal lymphadenopathy (5 pigs protected out 5) or against Mhr infection causing fiber inflammation (4 pigs out 5). Thus, we have developed an effective combined vaccine for the prevention and control of PCV2 or Mhr infections in swine herds, this will help reduce prevalence of PCV2 and Mhr coinfections.


Assuntos
Vacinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Infecções por Circoviridae/veterinária , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Vacinas Bacterianas/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Circoviridae/prevenção & controle , Circovirus/classificação , Circovirus/imunologia , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/veterinária , Coinfecção/virologia , Imunização Secundária , Injeções Intramusculares , Infecções por Mycoplasma/prevenção & controle , Mycoplasma hyorhinis/imunologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/imunologia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Vacinas Combinadas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Combinadas/imunologia , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/administração & dosagem , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem
14.
J Fish Dis ; 43(5): 609-620, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32196710

RESUMO

Previously, Aeromonas sobria and A. salmonicida were identified to be the most prevalent species in salmonid farms in Korea. In this study, we evaluated the biochemical characteristics, antibiotic susceptibility and pathogenicity of A. salmonicida (3 isolates) and A. sobria (8 isolates) isolated from salmonids, and further investigated efficacy of A. salmonicida vaccine. In antibiotic susceptibility test, all of A. sobria isolates were resistant to amoxicillin and ampicillin. Six A. sobria and two A. salmonicida isolates were resistant to oxytetracycline. In challenge test, A. sobria isolates exhibited low pathogenicity in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) while one A. salmonicida isolate showed high pathogenicity with LD50 of 6.4 × 103  CFU/fish in rainbow trout and coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). Among virulence factors, secretion apparatus (ascV and ascC) and transcription regulatory protein (exsA) of type 3 secretion system and A-layer protein genes were differentially detected in DNA or cDNA of A. salmonicida isolates, indicating their contribution to the pathogenicity. A formalin-killed vaccine of highly pathogenic A. salmonicida isolate exhibited a protective effect with relative survival rate of 81.8% and 82.9% at 8 weeks and 16 weeks post-vaccination, respectively, in challenge test.


Assuntos
Aeromonas salmonicida , Aeromonas , Vacinas Bacterianas/administração & dosagem , Furunculose/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/veterinária , Oncorhynchus kisutch , Oncorhynchus mykiss , Aeromonas/efeitos dos fármacos , Aeromonas/imunologia , Aeromonas/patogenicidade , Aeromonas/fisiologia , Aeromonas salmonicida/efeitos dos fármacos , Aeromonas salmonicida/imunologia , Aeromonas salmonicida/patogenicidade , Aeromonas salmonicida/fisiologia , Animais , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Formaldeído , Furunculose/imunologia , Furunculose/microbiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/imunologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/microbiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/prevenção & controle , República da Coreia , Vacinação/veterinária , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/administração & dosagem , Virulência
15.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 99: 505-513, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32092407

RESUMO

The present study was aimed to examine the efficacy of chitosan-alginate coated vaccines against pathogenicity of Lactococcus garvieae and Streptococcus iniae in rainbow trout. Fish were divided into four groups including: Group A: fish immunized by chitosan-alginate coated vaccine, Group B: fish immunized by non-coated vaccine, Group C: fish feed by chitosan-alginate coated pellets without vaccine and Group D: fish feed by basic diet (non-coated and without vaccine). In groups A and B, the vaccination was carried out for 14 days and after that supplemented with fundamental diet (control diet). Comparable to groups A and B, fish of group C were also fed 14 days with test diets and after that fed control food. On day 0, 20, 40 and 60 of the experiment, serum samples were given. Fish have been challenged with live L. garvieae and S. iniae after 60 days. The levels of bactericidal activity and complement activity among innate immunity components extended on day 20 of the research and after that decreased in group A and B (P < 0.05) all through the examination. The relative expression of IL-6 and IgM in groups A and B extended on examination day 20. The expression of these genes illustrated no advancements in different groups in during the examination (P > 0.05). In group A, the serum antibody titer against L. garvieae and S. iniae broadly raised on day 40 and 60 of examination, whereas in group B, the immune response titer against S. iniae and L. garvieae illustrated a significant elevation on day 60 of the trial (P < 0.05). After challenge with live bacteria, survival rate of 83 ± 9.1%(challenged with S. iniae) and 72.18 ± 9.8% (challenged with L. garvieae) were gotten independently in group A, which were higher than survival of other exploratory groups (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the results of the present examination appear that the orally vaccination of rainbow trout with chitosan-alginate covered vaccine stimulates immunity system and also efficiently protects rainbow trout against Lactococcus garvieae and Streptococcus iniae.


Assuntos
Vacinas Bacterianas/administração & dosagem , Doenças dos Peixes/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/veterinária , Oncorhynchus mykiss/imunologia , Vacinação/veterinária , Administração Oral , Alginatos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Vacinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Quitosana/administração & dosagem , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento , Doenças dos Peixes/microbiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/prevenção & controle , Imunidade Inata , Lactococcus , Oncorhynchus mykiss/microbiologia , Streptococcus iniae , Vacinação/métodos
16.
J Immunol ; 204(6): 1431-1435, 2020 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051220

RESUMO

Cancer prognosis often correlates with the number of tumor-infiltrating CD8 T cells, but many of these cells recognize pathogens that commonly infect humans. The contribution of pathogen-specific "bystander" CD8 T cells to antitumor immunity remains largely unknown. Inflammatory cytokines are sufficient for memory CD8 T cell activation and gain of effector functions, indicating tumor-derived inflammation could facilitate pathogen-specific CD8 T cells to participate in tumor control. In this study, we show in contrast to tumor-specific CD8 T cells that pathogen-specific primary memory CD8 T cells inside tumor were not able to exert their effector functions and influence tumor progression. However, infection-induced memory CD8 T cells with defined history of repeated Ag encounters (i.e., quaternary memory) showed increased sensitivity to tumor-derived inflammation that resulted in activation, gain of effector functions, and better control of tumor growth. Thus, memory CD8 T cells with heightened ability to recognize environmental inflammatory stimuli can contribute to antitumor immunity in the absence of cognate Ag recognition.


Assuntos
Memória Imunológica , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Neoplasias/imunologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Animais , Antígenos Virais/administração & dosagem , Antígenos Virais/genética , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Vacinas Bacterianas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Bacterianas/genética , Vacinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral/transplante , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Glicoproteínas/administração & dosagem , Glicoproteínas/genética , Glicoproteínas/imunologia , Humanos , Listeria monocytogenes/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Vírus da Coriomeningite Linfocítica/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Neoplasias/patologia , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/administração & dosagem , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/genética , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/imunologia , Vacinas Atenuadas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Atenuadas/genética , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia , Vacinas Sintéticas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Sintéticas/genética , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia , Proteínas Virais/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/imunologia
17.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 99: 73-85, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032762

RESUMO

In the present study, we constructed two recombinant Lactobacillus casei (L. casei) Lc-pPG-1-AcrV (surface-displayed) and Lc-pPG-2-AcrV (secretory) constitutively expressing AcrV protein of Aeromonas veronii (A. veronii). Expression of recombinant AcrV protein was verified by western blot and immunofluorescence technique. Compared with PBS group, the final weight (FW), weight gain (WG) and specific growth rate (SGR) of fish fed Lc-pPG-1-AcrV, Lc-pPG-2-AcrV and Lc-pPG diets after 56 days observed significantly increase (p < 0.05), while the feed conversion ratio (FCR) showed a significantly decrease (p < 0.05). The recombinant L. casei strains were orally administrated to crucian carp, and significant increased (p < 0.05) the immunoglobulin M (IgM), elevated the acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), lysozyme (LZM) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in serum. Moreover, leukocytes phagocytosis percentage and index of the recombinant L. casei were both enhanced. The results demonstrated that the recombinant L. casei could elicit systemic immune responses and increase the serum immunological index. The Interleukin-10 (IL-10), Interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α) levels in liver, spleen, kidney and intestine have up regulated significantly in tissues (p < 0.05), suggesting that the recombinant L. casei has the ability to induce expression of cytokines and enhance the innate immune response. Higher survival rates were exhibited that crucian carp immunized with Lc-pPG-1-AcrV (67.5%) and Lc-pPG-2-AcrV (52.5%) after challenge with A. veronii. In conclusion, these two recombinant L. casei vaccine were effective in improving crucian carp growth, immunity response and disease resistance. The recombinant L. casei strains may be a promising candidate for the development of an oral vaccine against A. veronii.


Assuntos
Carpas/imunologia , Resistência à Doença , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/veterinária , Imunidade Inata , Lactobacillus casei/imunologia , Aeromonas veronii , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Vacinas Bacterianas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Carpas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carpas/microbiologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/microbiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/imunologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/prevenção & controle , Lactobacillus casei/genética , Vacinas Sintéticas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia
18.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 98: 585-594, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004616

RESUMO

Oil-adjuvant formulated formalin killed cells of Flavobacterium psychrophilum (FKC + Adj) is strongly effective against bacterial cold-water disease (BCWD) in ayu Plecoglossus altivelis. In this study, we aimed to understand mechanisms underlying the strong protection by the vaccine in ayu. Antibody titer of FKC + Adj and formalin-killed cells (FKC) group was significantly higher than those of modified cytophaga broth injected (MCY) group and MCY with the adjuvant (MCY + Adj) group. The highest antibody titer was observed in FKC + Adj group. Granulomatous inflammation without lymphocyte cuff was observed in the spleen and trunk kidney of FKC + Adj and MCY + Adj group, while the size of the granuloma was bigger in FKC + Adj than in MCY + Adj group. Gene expression level for IL-8 was significantly up-regulated in FKC + Adj group at 4 weeks after the vaccination. In contrast, IL-10 gene expression level was significantly suppressed in FKC + Adj at 4 weeks after the vaccination. F. psychrophilum was almost cleared in the spleen and trunk kidney of FKC + Adj group within 2 days after the challenge. Fluorescent immunohistochemistry showed that a lot of bacterial signals were detected in the spleen and trunk kidney of challenged fish in MCY, FKC and MCY + Adj group. However, the fluorescent signal was not detected in the organs of FKC + Adj group after the challenge. These data suggest that F. psychrophilum is immediately cleared in FKC + Adj vaccinated fish and both specific antibody and activation of phagocytes are essential to clear F. psychrophilum in ayu.


Assuntos
Imunidade Adaptativa , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Bacterianas/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Flavobacteriaceae/veterinária , Flavobacterium/imunologia , Óleos/administração & dosagem , Osmeriformes/imunologia , Animais , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Infecções por Flavobacteriaceae/imunologia , Infecções por Flavobacteriaceae/microbiologia , Rim/microbiologia , Baço/microbiologia , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/administração & dosagem
19.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 80(2): 257-268, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31898760

RESUMO

Blacklegged ticks (Ixodes scapularis) are the principal vector for Borrelia burgdorferi, among other infectious agents, in the northeastern, mid-Atlantic, and upper midwestern USA. White-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) are the primary and most competent reservoir host of B. burgdorferi in the Northeast. Live reservoir-targeted vaccines (RTVs) to limit enzootic transmission of B. burgdorferi were previously developed and successfully evaluated in laboratory and controlled field trials. A novel, inactivated RTV was developed to minimize regulatory and market challenges facing previous RTVs based on live bacterial or viral vehicles. Thirty-two residential properties in Redding, Connecticut, participated in a field trial of an orally delivered, inactivated RTV efficacy study (2015-2016). During the two-year vaccination period, a significant decrease in the percentage of B. burgdorferi-infected I. scapularis larvae parasitizing P. leucopus was observed, as was a significant reduction in the percentage of infected P. leucopus on RTV-treated properties when compared to control properties. This novel inactivated RTV was effective in reducing numbers of B. burgdorferi-infected I. scapularis and B. burgdorferi-infected P. leucopus on properties where it was distributed.


Assuntos
Vacinas Bacterianas/administração & dosagem , Borrelia burgdorferi , Ixodes/microbiologia , Doença de Lyme/veterinária , Peromyscus/microbiologia , Animais , Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Connecticut , Larva , Doença de Lyme/prevenção & controle
20.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 98: 312-317, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31968268

RESUMO

Inactivated vaccines are often applied with adjuvants in commercial fish farming. Although some mineral or non-mineral oil adjuvants show efficient improvement with inactivated vaccines, but sometimes bring side effects such as tissue adhesion and granulomatous lesion at the injection site. CpG ODN is a novel type of soluble adjuvant which has been proved to possess excellent advantages in fish vaccine development. In this study, we designed a tandem sequence of CpG ODN synthesized in plasmid pcDNA 3.1, and an inactivated Vibrio anguillarum vaccine developed in our previous work was chosen for determining the efficiency of the CpG-riched plasmids (pCpG) as an adjuvant. Results showed that pCpG we designed can offer higher immunoprotection with the vaccine. Interestingly, even below the minimum immune dosage of the vaccine, a high RPS of 84% was observed once the vaccine was administrated with the pCpG. Serum specific antibody titer, superoxide dismutase and total protein were enhanced and some immune genes related to both innate and adaptive immune response were upregulated, implying an effective auxiliary function of the pCpG. Totally, our study suggested that the pCpG is a potential and available adjuvant for turbot vaccine development.


Assuntos
Vacinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/prevenção & controle , Linguados/imunologia , Oligodesoxirribonucleotídeos/imunologia , Vibrioses/veterinária , Vibrio/imunologia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/síntese química , Animais , Vacinas Bacterianas/administração & dosagem , Doenças dos Peixes/microbiologia , Linguados/microbiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Imunidade Humoral , Oligodesoxirribonucleotídeos/administração & dosagem , Plasmídeos/administração & dosagem , Plasmídeos/imunologia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Vacinação/veterinária , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/administração & dosagem , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/imunologia , Vibrioses/microbiologia , Vibrioses/prevenção & controle
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