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1.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 35(3): 575-592, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590903

RESUMO

Vaccination is a critical component of cattle health management. Effective cattle vaccine programs should consider the timing of vaccination in relation to expected disease challenge, risk for wild-type exposure of various bovine pathogens, and host factors during vaccination. Nearly all consulting veterinarians recommend vaccination of stressed, high-risk calves on feedlot arrival. However, this recommendation fails to consider several factors associated with vaccine efficiency. Further research evaluating vaccine interactions in stressed cattle and potential additive effects of endotoxin from multiple bacterin administration may reveal new evidence-based vaccination guidelines for cattle in the various segments of beef and dairy production systems.


Assuntos
Bovinos/imunologia , Carne Vermelha , Vacinação/veterinária , Animais , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/métodos , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem
2.
Arch Virol ; 164(12): 2975-2984, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570994

RESUMO

Coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) is one of the main causative agents of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in young children and has become prevalent in the Asia-Pacific region in recent years. However, no approved vaccines or drugs are available for CV-A16 infection. CV-A16 virus-like particles (VLPs) are a potential vaccine candidate; however, whether the intranasal route of immunization is suitable for inducing immune responses against CV-A16 infection has not been clarified. In this study, the comprehensive immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the CV-A16 VLP vaccine were evaluated by multiple methods in a mouse model. In mice, a high neutralizing antibody (NTAb) titre could be elicited by intranasal immunization with CV-A16 VLPs, which produced NTAb levels similar to those induced by intranasal immunization with inactivated CV-A16. Passive immunity with NTAbs provided very good protection, as the survival rate of the immunized neonatal mice was 100% after challenges with CV-A16 at a dose of 1000 LD50. Passive protective effects were transferred to the neonates via the mother, thus protecting all the pups against challenges with the homologous or heterologous strains of CV-A16 at a dose of 1000 LD50. In addition, intranasal immunization with CV-A16 VLPs also induced the production of mucosal secretory IgA (s-IgA) antibodies, which may inhibit CV-A16 virus invasion. This study provides valuable supplemental information to facilitate our understanding of the specific protective efficacy of CV-A16 VLPs and has significance for development of the candidate vaccine into a safe and effective vaccine.


Assuntos
Enterovirus Humano A/imunologia , Infecções por Enterovirus/prevenção & controle , Nariz/virologia , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Enterovirus Humano A/genética , Infecções por Enterovirus/imunologia , Infecções por Enterovirus/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunização , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Vacinas Virais/genética , Vacinas Virais/imunologia
3.
Acta Virol ; 63(3): 301-308, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31507196

RESUMO

Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) causes great economic loss to swine industry worldwide. Vaccination is an important method to control the TGEV infection. In this study, a TGEV oral vaccine was generated by transferring a eukaryotic expression recombinant plasmid carrying the SAD (A and D antigenic sites of the S protein) epitope of TGEV into a swine-origin Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus). In orally immunized BALB/c mice, the TGEV L. acidophilus oral vaccine induced significantly higher level of SIgA antibodies specific to TGEV compared with the mice immunized with a commercial inactivated TGEV vaccine and similar levels of IgG specific to TGEV as the inactivated vaccine. Furthermore, the TGEV L. acidophilus oral vaccine induced higher levels of IFN-γ, which suggested that the vaccine was able to induce immune response. In brief, this novel TGEV L. acidophilus oral vaccine could induce high levels of both mucosal and humoral immune responses, which has a potential to be used in the pig industries in the future. Keywords: transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV); live L. acidophilus oral vaccine; SIgA antibody; IgG antibody; IFN-γ; IL-4.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais , Epitopos , Gastroenterite Suína Transmissível , Lactobacillus acidophilus , Vírus da Gastroenterite Transmissível , Vacinas Virais , Administração Oral , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Epitopos/genética , Epitopos/imunologia , Gastroenterite Suína Transmissível/imunologia , Gastroenterite Suína Transmissível/patologia , Imunogenicidade da Vacina/imunologia , Lactobacillus acidophilus/genética , Lactobacillus acidophilus/virologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Plasmídeos/genética , Suínos , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Virais/imunologia
4.
J Immunoassay Immunochem ; 40(6): 630-641, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544580

RESUMO

The emergence of antigenic variants and very virulent strains of infectious bursa disease virus (IBDV) in vaccinated flocks considerably stimulated research in IBDV vaccine administration. The mucoadhesive and immunopotentials of Cedrela odorata and Khaya senegalensis were explored in vaccine delivery against clinical IBDV in broiler chickens. A total of 400 chicks were successfully brooded and raised from day old for commencement of this experiment. The birds were randomly distributed into eight groups with an average of 50 birds per group comprising: Gums-Gumboro Vaccine Ocular (infected) (GGVOC), Gumboro Vaccine alone Ocular (infected) (GVOC), Gums alone Ocular (infected) (GOC), Gums-Gumboro Vaccine Oral (infected) (GGVOR), Gumboro Vaccine alone Oral (infected) (GVOR), Gums alone Oral (infected) (GOR), No-Vaccine-No-Gums (infected) (NVNG/i), and No-Vaccine-No-Gums (not infected) (NVNG). On a weekly basis, 1.5mls of blood were collected from 5 birds and 3 birds euthanized per group for serological analysis and mucosal washings (trachea and intestine) respectively. Data obtained were analyzed and sample to positive ratio calculated. The post 1st vaccination trachea IgG antibody response was moderately higher in the ocular groups than the oral groups. It was also high in the VOC, GVOC, GOC, VOR groups than the GVOR groups. The antibody response (IgG) pre and post 1st vaccination, post 2nd vaccination and post infection from serum, trachea and intestinal washes showed that by week 1 Post 1st vaccination, there was insignificant increase in titer serum response of the gum-vaccine ocular group compared to the vaccine ocular alone while both groups were insignificantly higher than the oral group. Overall, serum titer showed a rapid response with spiked significant response by 48h pi in the gum vaccine groups (especially GVOR), which peaks by day 3 and remains insignificantly higher throughout the day 7 pi compared to vaccine alone groups. In conclusion, use of the mucilage from C. odorata and K. senegalenses in equal proportion has given better enhancement of the response to IBDV vaccination and premise for further investigations for improvement against IBD.


Assuntos
Infecções por Birnaviridae/imunologia , Cedrela/imunologia , Imunidade nas Mucosas/imunologia , Vírus da Doença Infecciosa da Bursa/imunologia , Meliaceae/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Galinhas , Gomas Vegetais , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Vacinação , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem
5.
Vet Microbiol ; 236: 108393, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500729

RESUMO

Monitoring of Marek's disease virus (MDV) and infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) genome using poultry dust can be useful to monitor on-farm vaccination protocols but there are no set guidelines for collection of this sample type. This study assessed different dust collection methods for MDV and ILTV detection in a vaccinated layer flock (n = 1700) from day-old to 50 weeks of age. Birds were vaccinated against MDV at day-old, and ILTV by drinking water at week 6 and eye drop at week 12. Dust samples were collected weekly by settle plates (1-3 plates/15 m2) or by scraping surfaces in the poultry shed and tested for ILTV and MDV genomic copies (GC) by PCR. ILTV GC were detected 4 weeks post water vaccination, peaked at weeks 12-14 and became mostly undetectable after week 18. MDV was detected in dust on week 1, peaked at weeks 3-6, declined 3 logs by week 26 and remained detectable at this level until week 50. There was no difference in the detection rates of ILTV and MDV collected from settle plates in different locations of the shed (P > 0.10). There was no difference between settle plate and scraped samples in ILTV GC load but higher MDV GC were found in scraped samples. The settle plate method appears to reflect the current level of vaccine virus in the flock while the scrape method likely represents a cumulative record of shedding. Assessment of viral GC in dust samples is a good candidate for a practical method of estimating successful vaccine administration.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Herpesvirus Galináceo 1/isolamento & purificação , Herpesvirus Galináceo 2/isolamento & purificação , Herpesvirus Galináceo 3/isolamento & purificação , Doença de Marek/prevenção & controle , Animais , DNA Viral/genética , Poeira , Feminino , Genoma Viral , Infecções por Herpesviridae/prevenção & controle , Abrigo para Animais , Vacinação/veterinária , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Virais/imunologia
6.
Int J Pharm ; 569: 118615, 2019 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415872

RESUMO

This work demonstrates that an HSV-2 candidate vaccine can be thermostabilized by spray drying to reduce cold chain demands. This work is also to optimize the process responses by varying spray dry parameters for pre-screened suitable excipients; and to determine the validity of current prescreening techniques. Vaccine activity losses were measured by in vitro plaque forming assay with Vero cell line. An accelerated storage condition of 45 °C for 10 days was used to determine spray dried sample stability. Prescreening studies demonstrated that trehalose and sucrose were superior to other tested excipients spray dry thermal stabilization of HSV-2. Subsequent optimization by design of experiments (DOE) of activity responses to spray dry parameter changes demonstrated significant differences between trehalose and sucrose for stability of the viral vaccine. Model parameters included the drying conditions inlet temperature, spray gas flow rate, and solids concentration for the model responses of vaccine stabilization. Trehalose was an effective and robust stabilizing excipient for spray drying HSV-2 vaccine. In contrast, stabilization by sucrose was greatly dependent on the spray dry process parameters. These DOE differences indicated inadequate excipient selection by prescreening methods and the variability demonstrated current prescreening techniques may not be adequate for determining optimal excipients.


Assuntos
Herpesvirus Humano 2/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Animais , Dessecação , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Excipientes/administração & dosagem , Sacarose/administração & dosagem , Trealose/administração & dosagem , Células Vero
7.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3836, 2019 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444366

RESUMO

Although the incidence of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) infection has increased from its discovery with a mortality rate of 10-20%, no effective vaccines are currently available. Here we describe the development of a SFTSV DNA vaccine, its immunogenicity, and its protective efficacy. Vaccine candidates induce both a neutralizing antibody response and multifunctional SFTSV-specific T cell response in mice and ferrets. When the vaccine efficacy is investigated in aged-ferrets that recapitulate fatal clinical symptoms, vaccinated ferrets are completely protected from lethal SFTSV challenge without developing any clinical signs. A serum transfer study reveals that anti-envelope antibodies play an important role in protective immunity. Our results suggest that Gn/Gc may be the most effective antigens for inducing protective immunity and non-envelope-specific T cell responses also can contribute to protection against SFTSV infection. This study provides important insights into the development of an effective vaccine, as well as corresponding immune parameters, to control SFTSV infection.


Assuntos
Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Febre por Flebótomos/prevenção & controle , Phlebovirus/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Furões , Humanos , Camundongos , Febre por Flebótomos/imunologia , Febre por Flebótomos/virologia , Phlebovirus/genética , Resultado do Tratamento , Vacinas de DNA/administração & dosagem , Vacinas de DNA/imunologia , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/genética , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem
8.
Rev Esp Quimioter ; 32(4): 333-364, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31345005

RESUMO

The childhood immunization schedule is well known and generally well implemented in developed countries. For various reasons, the same is not true of vaccines aimed at preventing infections in adults, in which vaccination coverage is incomplete and generally very deficient. In order to assess the situation of adult vaccination in Spain, the Fundación de Ciencias de la Salud has brought together a series of experts in different fields, including doctors, nurses, representatives of patient associations, health managers and economists, health authorities and journalists to deal with this issue. The format was that of a round table in which a series of questions previously formulated by the coordinators were to be answered and debated. The document presented is not an exhaustive review of the topic, nor is it intended to make recommendations, but only to give a multidisciplinary opinion on topics that could be particularly debatable or controversial. The paper reviews the main vaccine-preventable adult diseases, their clinical and economic impact, the possibilities of reducing them with vaccination programmes and the difficulties in carrying them out. The role of nursing, pharmacy services, patient associations and the health administration itself in changing the current situation was discussed. Prospects for new vaccines were discussed and we speculated on the future in this field. Finally, particularly relevant ethical aspects in decision-making regarding vaccination were discussed, which must be faced by both individuals and states. We have tried to summarize, at the end of the presentation of each question, the environment of opinion that was agreed with all the members of the table.


Assuntos
Vacinas Bacterianas/administração & dosagem , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Controle de Infecções , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Previsões , Infecções por Haemophilus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Haemophilus/prevenção & controle , Haemophilus influenzae tipo b , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Incidência , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Infecções Meningocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Meningocócicas/prevenção & controle , Neisseria meningitidis , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Espanha/epidemiologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/prevenção & controle , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Infecção pelo Vírus da Varicela-Zoster/epidemiologia , Infecção pelo Vírus da Varicela-Zoster/prevenção & controle
9.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 8(1): 841-856, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31169078

RESUMO

The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has spread through 27 countries and infected more than 2,200 people since its first outbreak in Saudi Arabia in 2012. The high fatality rate (35.4%) of this novel coronavirus and its persistent wide spread infectiousness in animal reservoirs have generated tremendous global public health concern. However, no licensed therapeutic agents or vaccines against MERS-CoV are currently available and only a limited few have entered clinical trials. Among all the potential targets of MERS-CoV, the spike glycoprotein (S) has been the most well-studied due to its critical role in mediating viral entry and in inducing a protective antibody response in infected individuals. The most notable studies include the recent discoveries of monoclonal antibodies and development of candidate vaccines against the S glycoprotein. Structural characterization of MERS-CoV S protein bound with these monoclonal antibodies has provided insights into the mechanisms of humoral immune responses against MERS-CoV infection. The current review aims to highlight these developments and discuss possible hurdles and strategies to translate these discoveries into ultimate medical interventions against MERS-CoV infection.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/administração & dosagem , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Virais/genética
10.
J Vet Sci ; 20(3): e29, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31161747

RESUMO

Vaccination is one of the most effective ways of controlling and preventing foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks. The effective prevention of this disease requires the use of high-quality vaccines to meet the criteria that enable customers to use them simply. The administration of FMD vaccines containing oil-based adjuvants in pigs can induce the formation of granuloma in the muscle of the vaccinated, which makes these vaccines a less preferable option. Therefore, it is important to establish an FMD vaccine and vaccine delivery tool that offers better immunity and safer application. This study compared the immune responses of intramuscular and needleless intradermal vaccination in pigs. When the same amount of an FMD virus (FMDV) antigen was administered to pigs, both the intradermally and intramuscularly vaccinated groups were protected completely against a challenge of the homologous FMDV, but the intramuscularly vaccinated group showed an overall higher level of neutralizing antibodies. Importantly, the formation of granuloma in muscle could be excluded in the intradermally vaccinated group. Of the oil-based adjuvants selected in this study, ISA 207 was effective in eliciting immunogenicity in intradermal vaccination. In conclusion, a new vaccine formula can be chosen for the delivery of intradermal route to exclude the possibility of local reactions in the muscle and generate protective immunity against an FMDV challenge.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Febre Aftosa/imunologia , Absorção Cutânea/imunologia , Doenças dos Suínos/imunologia , Vacinação/veterinária , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Adjuvantes Imunológicos , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Febre Aftosa/prevenção & controle , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/imunologia , Injeções Intramusculares/veterinária , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Virais/imunologia
11.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(6): e0007462, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170144

RESUMO

Nipah virus (NiV) is a highly pathogenic re-emerging virus that causes outbreaks in South East Asia. Currently, no approved and licensed vaccine or antivirals exist. Here, we investigated the efficacy of ChAdOx1 NiVB, a simian adenovirus-based vaccine encoding NiV glycoprotein (G) Bangladesh, in Syrian hamsters. Prime-only as well as prime-boost vaccination resulted in uniform protection against a lethal challenge with NiV Bangladesh: all animals survived challenge and we were unable to find infectious virus either in oral swabs, lung or brain tissue. Furthermore, no pathological lung damage was observed. A single-dose of ChAdOx1 NiVB also prevented disease and lethality from heterologous challenge with NiV Malaysia. While we were unable to detect infectious virus in swabs or tissue of animals challenged with the heterologous strain, a very limited amount of viral RNA could be found in lung tissue by in situ hybridization. A single dose of ChAdOx1 NiVB also provided partial protection against Hendra virus and passive transfer of antibodies elicited by ChAdOx1 NiVB vaccination partially protected Syrian hamsters against NiV Bangladesh. From these data, we conclude that ChAdOx1 NiVB is a suitable candidate for further NiV vaccine pre-clinical development.


Assuntos
Adenovirus dos Símios/genética , Portadores de Fármacos , Infecções por Henipavirus/prevenção & controle , Vírus Nipah/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Estruturas Animais/virologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Infecções por Henipavirus/imunologia , Mesocricetus , Vírus Nipah/genética , Análise de Sobrevida , Vacinas Sintéticas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Sintéticas/genética , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Virais/genética
12.
Microb Cell Fact ; 18(1): 103, 2019 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170996

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pseudorabies caused by pseudorabies virus (PRV) mainly infects the swine and seriously threatens the biosafety of the other animals, including humans. Since 2011, the outbreaks of PRV mutants have caused enormous economic losses in the swine industry, and traditional vaccines cannot offer enough protection. PRV can transmit by direct contact, aerosol transmission and pollutants. PRV mainly transmit through the nasal mucosa. After infecting the nasal epithelial cells, PRV can quickly infect the olfactory nerve and establish a potential infection of sensory neurons. Therefore, nasal immunity can effectively prevent viral colonization infection. Recombinant Bacillus subtilis has been widely used to deliver antigen and achieve adequate protective immune responses. RESULTS: The present study successfully constructed recombinant Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) expressing the dominant antigen regions of PRV gC and gD proteins (named B. subtilis-gCa and B. subtilis-gDa). Furtherly, we evaluated the immunogenicity of the two recombinant B. subtilis in mice. The mice intranasal administration with B. subtilis-gCa and B. subtilis-gDa effectively stimulated IgA and IgG immune responses, further regulated specific T lymphocytes proliferative response by IFN-γ and IL-10, and ultimately produced high titers of neutralizing antibodies against PRV infection. In particular, B. subtilis-gDa possessed more excellent immune effect than B. subtilis-gCa in mice. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggested that B. subtilis-gCa and B. subtilis-gDa could trigger high levels of mucosal and systemic immune responses and would be potential candidates for developing PRV vaccines.


Assuntos
Bacillus subtilis , Herpesvirus Suídeo 1/imunologia , Pseudorraiva/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Administração Intranasal , Animais , Bacillus subtilis/genética , Bacillus subtilis/imunologia , Feminino , Imunidade nas Mucosas , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Pseudorraiva/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/genética , Vacinas Virais/imunologia
13.
BMC Biotechnol ; 19(1): 33, 2019 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174517

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Foot-and-mouth disease is a highly contagious and economically devastating disease with endemic occurrence in many parts of the world. Vaccination is the method of choice to eradicate the disease and to limit the viral spread. The vaccine production process is based on mammalian cell culture, in which the viral yield varies in dependence of the composition of the culture media. For foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), very little is known about the culture media components that are necessary to grow the virus to high titers in cell culture. RESULTS: This study examined the influence of increasing concentrations of glucose, glutamine, ammonium chloride and different cell densities on the yield of FMDV. While an excess of glucose or glutamine does not affect the viral yield, increasing cell density reduces the viral titer by a log10 step at a cell density of 3 × 106 cells/mL. This can be mitigated by performing a 100% media exchange before infection of the cells. CONCLUSIONS: The reasons for the diminished viral growth, if no complete media exchange has been performed prior to infection, remain unclear and further studies are necessary to investigate the causes more deeply. For now, the results argue for a vaccine production process with 100% media exchange to reliably obtain high viral titers.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/imunologia , Febre Aftosa/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Replicação Viral/imunologia , Compostos de Amônio/farmacologia , Animais , Contagem de Células , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/imunologia , Cricetinae , Fibroblastos/citologia , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/virologia , Febre Aftosa/imunologia , Febre Aftosa/virologia , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/metabolismo , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/fisiologia , Glucose/farmacologia , Glutamina/farmacologia , Vacinação/métodos , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Virais/metabolismo , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
J Fish Dis ; 42(9): 1271-1282, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31211446

RESUMO

In today's aquaculture of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.), a majority of viral disease outbreaks occur after seawater transfer. A relevant question is how the parr-smolt transformation influences the efficacy of viral vaccines and the innate resistance against viral diseases. In this study, vaccinated and unvaccinated A. salmon parr were exposed to different photoperiodic regimens (1-, 3- or 6-week continuous light-WCL). Fish groups at different stages in the smoltification process were induced, as demonstrated by differences in morphological and physiological smolt parameters. At the time of seawater transfer, the 6-WCL group had reached a more pronounced stage in the smoltification process than the 1-WCL group. In unvaccinated fish, the subsequent cohabitation challenge with infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) gave a significantly higher accumulated mortality in the 6-WCL group (87%) compared to the 1-WCL group (39%). In the vaccinated groups, this effect was not apparent and there were no differences in accumulated mortality between the 1 WCL, 3 WCL and 6-WCL groups. These data suggest that the resistance to IPN in A. salmon was negatively influenced by smoltification, while vaccine-mediated protection to IPN was maintained equally well irrespective of smolt status.


Assuntos
Infecções por Birnaviridae/veterinária , Resistência à Doença , Doenças dos Peixes/prevenção & controle , Vírus da Necrose Pancreática Infecciosa/imunologia , Salmo salar , Vacinação/veterinária , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Animais , Infecções por Birnaviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Birnaviridae/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Birnaviridae/virologia , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/virologia , Imunidade Inata
15.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2699, 2019 06 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221976

RESUMO

Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) causes a wide array of disease to diverse populations of immune-compromised individuals. Thus, a more comprehensive understanding of how CMV enters numerous host cell types is necessary to further delineate the complex nature of CMV pathogenesis and to develop targeted therapeutics. To that end, we establish a vaccination strategy utilizing membrane vesicles derived from epithelial cells to generate a library of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting cell surface proteins in their native conformation. A high-throughput inhibition assay is employed to screen these antibodies for their ability to limit infection, and mAbs targeting CD46 are identified. In addition, a significant reduction of viral proliferation in CD46-KO epithelial cells confirms a role for CD46 function in viral dissemination. Further, we demonstrate a CD46-dependent entry pathway of virus infection in trophoblasts, but not in fibroblasts, highlighting the complexity of CMV entry and identifying CD46 as an entry factor in congenital infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus/imunologia , Citomegalovirus/imunologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Proteína Cofatora de Membrana/imunologia , Internalização do Vírus , Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Linhagem Celular , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/virologia , Células Epiteliais/imunologia , Células Epiteliais/virologia , Fibroblastos/imunologia , Fibroblastos/virologia , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Humanos , Proteína Cofatora de Membrana/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Trofoblastos/imunologia , Trofoblastos/virologia , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Virais/imunologia
16.
Onderstepoort J Vet Res ; 86(1): e1-e15, 2019 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31038322

RESUMO

Peste des petits ruminant (PPR) is a highly contagious, infectious viral disease of small ruminant species which is caused by the peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV), the prototype member of the Morbillivirus genus in the Paramyxoviridae family. Peste des petits ruminant was first described in West Africa, where it has probably been endemic in sheep and goats since the emergence of the rinderpest pandemic and was always misdiagnosed with rinderpest in sheep and goats. Since its discovery PPR has had a major impact on sheep and goat breeders in Africa and has therefore been a key focus of research at the veterinary research institutes and university faculties of veterinary medicine in Africa. Several key discoveries were made at these institutions, including the isolation and propagation of African PPR virus isolates, notable amongst which was the Nigerian PPRV 75/1 that was used in the scientific study to understand the taxonomy, molecular dynamics, lineage differentiation of PPRV and the development of vaccine seeds for immunisation against PPR. African sheep and goat breeds including camels and wild ruminants are frequently infected, manifesting clinical signs of the disease, whereas cattle and pigs are asymptomatic but can seroconvert for PPR. The immunisation of susceptible sheep and goats remains the most effective and practical control measure against PPR. To carry out PPR vaccination in tropical African countries with a very high temperature, a thermostable vaccine using the rinderpest lyophilisation method to the attenuated Nigeria 75/1 PPR vaccine strain has been developed, which will greatly facilitate the delivery of vaccination in the control, prevention and global eradication of PPR. Apart from vaccination, other important questions that will contribute towards the control and prevention of PPR need to be answered, for example, to identify the period when a susceptible naïve animal becomes infectious when in contact with an infected animal and when an infectious animal becomes contagious.


Assuntos
Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/epidemiologia , Vírus da Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/isolamento & purificação , África/epidemiologia , Animais , Cabras , Epidemiologia Molecular , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/prevenção & controle , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/virologia , Vírus da Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/genética , Ovinos , Vacinação/veterinária , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem
17.
Biotechnol Lett ; 41(6-7): 867-872, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31119429

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To construct recombinant Lactococcus lactis (L. lactis) expressing viral protein 1 (VP1) of enterovirus 71 (EV71) and evaluate its immunogenicity to be used as an oral vaccine in BALB/c mice. RESULTS: Recombinant L. lactis competent in secreting VP1 (~ 30 kDa) into the extracellular environment with the aid of the signal peptide Usp45 was produced. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that significant VP1-specific antibody response including the production of both serum IgG and fecal IgA (p < 0.05) was elicited in BALB/c mice upon oral immunization with recombinant L. lactis. Moreover, in contrast to negative control, recombinant L. lactis induced adequate neutralizing antibodies in mouse sera (p < 0.05) as demonstrated in virus neutralization assay, whereas the presence of neutralizing antibodies in fecal samples was obvious but not significant (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Recombinant L. lactis expressing VP1 of EV71 has the potential to be used as an oral vaccine candidate. The findings may provide some preliminary evidences for further development of effective and needle-free EV71 vaccines.


Assuntos
Enterovirus Humano A/imunologia , Lactococcus lactis/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Proteínas Virais/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Administração Oral , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/análise , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/análise , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Enterovirus Humano A/genética , Fezes/química , Imunoglobulina A/análise , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Lactococcus lactis/genética , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Proteínas Recombinantes/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Vacinas Sintéticas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Sintéticas/genética , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia , Proteínas Virais/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Virais/genética
18.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 8(1): 760-772, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31130102

RESUMO

The recently identified Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes severe and fatal acute respiratory illness in humans. However, no approved prophylactic and therapeutic interventions are currently available. The MERS-CoV envelope spike protein serves as a crucial target for neutralizing antibodies and vaccine development, as it plays a critical role in mediating viral entry through interactions with the cellular receptor, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4). Here, we constructed a recombinant rare serotype of the chimpanzee adenovirus 68 (AdC68) that expresses full-length MERS-CoV S protein (AdC68-S). Single intranasal immunization with AdC68-S induced robust and sustained neutralizing antibody and T cell responses in BALB/c mice. In a human DPP4 knock-in (hDPP4-KI) mouse model, it completely protected against lethal challenge with a mouse-adapted MERS-CoV (MERS-CoV-MA). Passive transfer of immune sera to naïve hDPP4-KI mice also provided survival advantages from lethal MERS-CoV-MA challenge. Analysis of sera absorption and isolated monoclonal antibodies from immunized mice demonstrated that the potent and broad neutralizing activity was largely attributed to antibodies targeting the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the S protein. These results show that AdC68-S can induce protective immune responses in mice and represent a promising candidate for further development against MERS-CoV infection in both dromedaries and humans.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Portadores de Fármacos/administração & dosagem , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Adenoviridae/genética , Administração Intranasal , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Humanos , Imunização Passiva , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Análise de Sobrevida , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Vacinas Sintéticas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Sintéticas/genética , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Virais/genética
19.
Virology ; 533: 77-85, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31128495

RESUMO

Emerging porcine epidemic diarrhea viruses (PEDVs) have caused large economic losses since 2010, and G2b is the prevalent globally epidemic genotype. Given the fastidious isolation of emerging PEDV in cell culture and difficulties in retaining the isolate infectivity upon further in vitro passage, highly attenuated recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSVMT) was used as a vector to express the PEDV spike (S) protein, aiming to develop a subunit vaccine against G2b viruses. An S protein with 19 of its cytoplasmic domain amino acids deleted could be incorporated into VSV particles, generating rVSVMT (VSVMT-SΔ19) with high efficiency. Our results suggest that VSVMT-SΔ19 could effectively induce PEDV-specific immunity in pigs via intramuscular, but not intranasal, immunization. Notably, immunizations of sows with VSV MT-SΔ19 provided protective lactogenic immunity against a virulent G2b PEDV challenge in piglets. Consequently, recombinant VSVMT may be a promising platform for preparing a subunit vaccine against PEDV.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína/classificação , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/administração & dosagem , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/imunologia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Vírus da Estomatite Vesicular Indiana/genética , Vírus da Estomatite Vesicular Indiana/metabolismo , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Virais/genética
20.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 91: 136-147, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31096061

RESUMO

Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV), a (-) ssRNA virus belonging to the genus Novirhabdovirus of rhabdoviridae family, is the aetiological agent of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) disease which causes huge economic losses in farmed olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and significant mortalities among several other marine fish species in Korea, Japan, and China. Previously, we developed an inactivated vaccine viz., formalin-inactivated VHSV mixed with squalene as adjuvant which was effective in conferring protective immunity (58-76% relative percentage survival) against VHSV but the mode of administration was intraperitoneal injection which is not feasible for small sized fingerling fish. To overcome this limitation, we presently focused on replacing the injection route of vaccine delivery by oral and immersion routes. In this context, we encapsulated the inactivated VHSV vaccine with chitosan nanoparticles (CNPs-IV) by water-in-oil (W/O) emulsification method. After encapsulation, two sets of in vivo vaccination trials were conducted viz., preliminary trial-I and final trial-II. In preliminary trial-I, olive flounder fingerlings (10.5 ±â€¯1.7 g) were vaccinated with CNPs-IV by different delivery strategies involving oral and immersion routes (single/booster dose) followed by challenge with VHSV (1 × 106 TCID50 virus/fish) to evaluate an effective method amongst different applied delivery strategies. Subsequently, a final trial-II was conducted to better understand the immune mechanism behind the efficacy of the employed delivery strategy and also to further improvise the delivery mechanism with prime-boost (primary immersion and oral boosting) combination in order to improve the transient anti-VHSV response in the host. Evaluation of RPS analysis in trial-I revealed higher RPS of 46.7% and 53.3% in the CNPs-IV (immersion) and CNPs-IV (immersion/immersion) groups, respectively compared to 0% RPS in the CNPs-IV (oral) group and 20% RPS in the CNPs-IV (oral/oral) group when calculated against 100% cumulative mortality percentage in the NVC (non-vaccinated challenged) control group, whereas, in the trial-II, RPS of 60% and 66.6% were obtained for CNPs-IV (immersion/immersion) and CNPs-IV (immersion/oral) groups, respectively. In addition, specific (anti-VHSV) antibody titre in the fish sera, skin mucus and intestinal mucus of the immunized groups were significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced following vaccination. Furthermore, CNPs-IV immunized fish showed significant (p < 0.05) upregulation of different immune gene transcripts (IgM, IgT, pIgR, MHC-I, MHC-II, IFN-γ, and Caspase3) compared to control, in both the systemic (kidney) and mucosal (skin and intestine) immune compartments of the host post immunization as well as post challenge. To conclude, mucosal immunization with CNPs-IV vaccine can orchestrate an effective immunization strategy in organizing a coordinative immune response against VHSV in olive flounder thereby exhibiting higher protective efficacy to the host with minimum stress.


Assuntos
Quitosana/administração & dosagem , Doenças dos Peixes/prevenção & controle , Septicemia Hemorrágica Viral/prevenção & controle , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Novirhabdovirus/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Animais , Materiais Biocompatíveis/administração & dosagem , Composição de Medicamentos , Linguados , Linguado , Nanocápsulas , Distribuição Aleatória , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/administração & dosagem , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia
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