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4.
ACS Nano ; 14(10): 12370-12389, 2020 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001626

RESUMO

Despite the vital role of vaccines in fighting viral pathogens, effective vaccines are still unavailable for many infectious diseases. The importance of vaccines cannot be overstated during the outbreak of a pandemic, such as the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The understanding of genomics, structural biology, and innate/adaptive immunity have expanded the toolkits available for current vaccine development. However, sudden outbreaks and the requirement of population-level immunization still pose great challenges in today's vaccine designs. Well-established vaccine development protocols from previous experiences are in place to guide the pipelines of vaccine development for emerging viral diseases. Nevertheless, vaccine development may follow different paradigms during a pandemic. For example, multiple vaccine candidates must be pushed into clinical trials simultaneously, and manufacturing capability must be scaled up in early stages. Factors from essential features of safety, efficacy, manufacturing, and distributions to administration approaches are taken into consideration based on advances in materials science and engineering technologies. In this review, we present recent advances in vaccine development by focusing on vaccine discovery, formulation, and delivery devices enabled by alternative administration approaches. We hope to shed light on developing better solutions for faster and better vaccine development strategies through the use of biomaterials, biomolecular engineering, nanotechnology, and microfabrication techniques.


Assuntos
Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Potência de Vacina , Vacinas de Subunidades/administração & dosagem , Vacinas de Subunidades/efeitos adversos , Vacinas de Subunidades/imunologia , Vacinas Sintéticas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Sintéticas/efeitos adversos , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Virais/efeitos adversos
5.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 2379-2380, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059515

RESUMO

This commentary provides an overview and links to presentations of a recent virtual congress series organized by the International Society for Vaccines (ISV) focused on COVID-19 vaccines. The series provided the academic community and vaccine developers as well as the wider general public with balanced information of the global response and resources for COVID-19 vaccines under development featuring: 1) NGOs and the regulatory perspective, 2) the status of vaccine development efforts, and 3) panel discussions to present and discuss challenges. ISV is a non-profit scientific organization whose members work on all areas relevant to vaccines. ISV plans to host additional virtual symposia including regional meetings and incorporating other topics along with COVID-19 vaccines.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos/tendências , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Virais/genética
7.
Vaccine ; 38(48): 7581-7584, 2020 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33071005

RESUMO

Today, Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global public health emergency and vaccination measures to counter its diffusion are deemed necessary. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiological agent of the disease, unleashes a T-helper 2 immune response in those patients requiring intensive care. Here, we illustrate the immunological mechanism to train the immune system towards a more effective and less symptomatic T-helper 1 immune response, to be exploited against SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Vacina BCG/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Bacterianas/administração & dosagem , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Propionibacteriaceae/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Corynebacterium , Humanos , Esquemas de Imunização , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Interleucinas/genética , Interleucinas/imunologia , Segurança do Paciente , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Células Th1/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th1/virologia , Equilíbrio Th1-Th2/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Th2/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Th2/imunologia , Células Th2/virologia , Vacinação , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Virais/biossíntese
9.
Nat Rev Immunol ; 20(11): 709-713, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33024281

RESUMO

Immunity is a multifaceted phenomenon. For T cell-mediated memory responses to SARS-CoV-2, it is relevant to consider their impact both on COVID-19 disease severity and on viral spread in a population. Here, we reflect on the immunological and epidemiological aspects and implications of pre-existing cross-reactive immune memory to SARS-CoV-2, which largely originates from previous exposure to circulating common cold coronaviruses. We propose four immunological scenarios for the impact of cross-reactive CD4+ memory T cells on COVID-19 severity and viral transmission. For each scenario, we discuss its implications for the dynamics of herd immunity and on projections of the global impact of SARS-CoV-2 on the human population, and assess its plausibility. In sum, we argue that key potential impacts of cross-reactive T cell memory are already incorporated into epidemiological models based on data of transmission dynamics, particularly with regard to their implications for herd immunity. The implications of immunological processes on other aspects of SARS-CoV-2 epidemiology are worthy of future study.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/biossíntese , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronaviridae/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Imunidade Adaptativa/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/virologia , Coronaviridae/efeitos dos fármacos , Coronaviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Coronaviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronaviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Coronaviridae/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Reações Cruzadas , Humanos , Imunidade Coletiva/efeitos dos fármacos , Memória Imunológica , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Rhinovirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Rhinovirus/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Virais/biossíntese
10.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 5(1): 237, 2020 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33051445

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an emerging virus that is highly pathogenic and has caused the recent worldwide pandemic officially named coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Currently, considerable efforts have been put into developing effective and safe drugs and vaccines against SARS-CoV-2. Vaccines, such as inactivated vaccines, nucleic acid-based vaccines, and vector vaccines, have already entered clinical trials. In this review, we provide an overview of the experimental and clinical data obtained from recent SARS-CoV-2 vaccines trials, and highlight certain potential safety issues that require consideration when developing vaccines. Furthermore, we summarize several strategies utilized in the development of vaccines against other infectious viruses, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), with the aim of aiding in the design of effective therapeutic approaches against SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/biossíntese , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Receptores Virais/genética , Vacinas Virais/biossíntese , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Esquemas de Imunização , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/efeitos dos fármacos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/imunologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/patogenicidade , Segurança do Paciente , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Ligação Proteica , Receptores Virais/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Vírus da SARS/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da SARS/imunologia , Vírus da SARS/patogenicidade , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/prevenção & controle , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Vacinas Atenuadas , Vacinas de DNA , Vacinas de Subunidades , Vacinas de Partículas Semelhantes a Vírus , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem
11.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(9): 1518-1521, 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076610

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the effectiveness and immunogenicity of enterovirus-A71(EV-A71) vaccine in immunization program. Methods: A cohort study was conducted in immunization clinics in Jing'an district in Shanghai from October to December 2017. Children who received EV-A71 vaccine based on a 2-dose schedule (on day 0 and day 30) were enrolled as vaccine group and those who received no EV-A71 vaccine were enrolled as control group. After 1-year follow-up, the effectiveness and neutralizing antibody level and the positive results of antibody immunogenicity in vaccine group were analyzed. Results: A total of 3 018 children aged 8-20 months were enrolled, in whom 1 211 were in vaccine group and 1 807 were in control group. The vaccine effectiveness was 100% against EV-A71-associated hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) indicated by 1 year follow-up (95%CI: -66.99%-100.00%). The geometric mean titer of neutralizing antibody (GMT) was 41.76 (95%CI: 35.60-49.34) at day 60 and 28.44(95%CI: 23.59-34.54) at day 365 in 124 children in vaccine group. Conclusions: In children, EV-A71 vaccine elicited EV-A71-specific immune response. Less EV-A71-associated HFMD cases have been observed, further observation is needed.


Assuntos
Enterovirus , Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca , Vacinas Virais , China , Estudos de Coortes , Enterovirus/imunologia , Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Lactente , Vigilância de Produtos Comercializados , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Virais/imunologia
15.
Colomb Med (Cali) ; 51(2): e4276, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33012888

RESUMO

Before a vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 became available, several measures to control COVID-19 pandemic are necessary. Analogously, in the absence of an available vaccine, Combination HIV Prevention Programmes have consolidated a large experience of biomedical, behavioral and structural interventions suitable for several epidemiological settings. Adaptation of such experiences can organize mid-term and long-term responses to face COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem
17.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(710): 1938-1940, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058581

RESUMO

In recent years, several cases of measles have appeared on the campuses of the University of Lausanne (UNIL) and the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL). In response to this, several medical students have mobilized in collaboration with various cantonal authorities in order to set up a free measles, mumps and rubella vaccination campaign on the UNIL/EPFL campuses, in 2019. This first edition was a success and will be repeated in the future. Such an approach having shown its feasibility, it could be applied to other public health issues. The involvement of medical students could thus be extremely valuable if a generalized vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 were to take place.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacina contra Sarampo-Caxumba-Rubéola/administração & dosagem , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Estudantes de Medicina , Vacinação/métodos , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Suíça/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Universidades
20.
Front Immunol ; 11: 579250, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33123165

RESUMO

There are currently around 200 SARS-CoV-2 candidate vaccines in preclinical and clinical trials throughout the world. The various candidates employ a range of vaccine strategies including some novel approaches. Currently, the goal is to prove that they are safe and immunogenic in humans (phase 1/2 studies) with several now advancing into phase 2 and 3 trials to demonstrate efficacy and gather comprehensive data on safety. It is highly likely that many vaccines will be shown to stimulate antibody and T cell responses in healthy individuals and have an acceptable safety profile, but the key will be to confirm that they protect against COVID-19. There is much hope that SARS-CoV-2 vaccines will be rolled out to the entire world to contain the pandemic and avert its most damaging impacts. However, in all likelihood this will initially require a targeted approach toward key vulnerable groups. Collaborative efforts are underway to ensure manufacturing can occur at the unprecedented scale and speed required to immunize billions of people. Ensuring deployment also occurs equitably across the globe will be critical. Careful evaluation and ongoing surveillance for safety will be required to address theoretical concerns regarding immune enhancement seen in previous contexts. Herein, we review the current knowledge about the immune response to this novel virus as it pertains to the design of effective and safe SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and the range of novel and established approaches to vaccine development being taken. We provide details of some of the frontrunner vaccines and discuss potential issues including adverse effects, scale-up and delivery.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Vacinação , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
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