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1.
Arch Virol ; 164(12): 2931-2941, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31538254

RESUMO

Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) infections can cause massive clinical signs in cattle and have great economic impact due to severe trade restrictions. For LSDV control, only live attenuated vaccines are commercially available, but they currently are not authorized in the European Union. Moreover, these vaccine virus strains can induce substantial side effects with clinical signs similar to infections with virulent LSDV. In our study, we compared clinical symptoms, viremia, and seroconversion of cattle inoculated either with a virulent field strain from North Macedonia isolated from diseased cattle in 2016 or with the attenuated LSDV vaccine strain "Neethling". Using specimens from the field and from experimental inoculation, different diagnostic tools, including a pan-capripox real-time qPCR, newly developed duplex real-time qPCR assays for differentiation between virulent and attenuated LSDV strains, and several serological methods (ELISA, indirect immunofluorescence test and serum neutralization test [SNT]) were evaluated. Our data show a high analytical sensitivity of both tested duplex real-time qPCR systems for the reliable distinction of LSDV field and vaccine strains. Moreover, the commercially available capripox double-antigen ELISA seems to be as specific as the SNT and therefore provides an excellent tool for rapid and simple serological examination of LSDV-vaccinated or infected cattle.


Assuntos
Doença Nodular Cutânea/diagnóstico , Vírus da Doença Nodular Cutânea/classificação , Vacinas Atenuadas/classificação , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/metabolismo , Bovinos , Linhagem Celular , Doença Nodular Cutânea/imunologia , Vírus da Doença Nodular Cutânea/imunologia , Vírus da Doença Nodular Cutânea/patogenicidade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Soroconversão , Vacinas Atenuadas/genética , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/classificação , Vacinas Virais/genética , Vacinas Virais/imunologia
2.
Acta Virol ; 63(3): 301-308, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31507196

RESUMO

Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) causes great economic loss to swine industry worldwide. Vaccination is an important method to control the TGEV infection. In this study, a TGEV oral vaccine was generated by transferring a eukaryotic expression recombinant plasmid carrying the SAD (A and D antigenic sites of the S protein) epitope of TGEV into a swine-origin Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus). In orally immunized BALB/c mice, the TGEV L. acidophilus oral vaccine induced significantly higher level of SIgA antibodies specific to TGEV compared with the mice immunized with a commercial inactivated TGEV vaccine and similar levels of IgG specific to TGEV as the inactivated vaccine. Furthermore, the TGEV L. acidophilus oral vaccine induced higher levels of IFN-γ, which suggested that the vaccine was able to induce immune response. In brief, this novel TGEV L. acidophilus oral vaccine could induce high levels of both mucosal and humoral immune responses, which has a potential to be used in the pig industries in the future. Keywords: transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV); live L. acidophilus oral vaccine; SIgA antibody; IgG antibody; IFN-γ; IL-4.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais , Epitopos , Gastroenterite Suína Transmissível , Lactobacillus acidophilus , Vírus da Gastroenterite Transmissível , Vacinas Virais , Administração Oral , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Epitopos/genética , Epitopos/imunologia , Gastroenterite Suína Transmissível/imunologia , Gastroenterite Suína Transmissível/patologia , Imunogenicidade da Vacina/imunologia , Lactobacillus acidophilus/genética , Lactobacillus acidophilus/virologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Plasmídeos/genética , Suínos , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Virais/imunologia
3.
Acta Vet Scand ; 61(1): 41, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455410

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Villegas-Glisson/University of Georgia (VG/GA) strain of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is recommended for the initial vaccination of commercially reared turkey poults. However, the vaccine-induced antibody responses have not been studied in this species. The level of systemic humoral immune responses against the NDV was investigated in commercial turkey poults vaccinated with the VG/GA vaccine. One hundred eighty-two hybrid strain of turkey poults (Meleagris gallopavo) were divided randomly into vaccinated and unvaccinated groups. The vaccinated group was given the VG/GA vaccine at 10 and 20 days of age. To investigate the vaccine immunity, the level of specific IgY and IgA in serum samples were determined using ELISA and haemagglutination inhibition assays (HI). The biological half-life of maternal antibodies was also determined before the immunization. RESULTS: VG/GA-specific antibodies were detected in the vaccinated turkey poults and were significantly higher in the vaccinated group compared to the unvaccinated group. IgY and IgA antibodies showed a significant increase in titers 14 days after the second vaccination and reached a peak on day 35 of age. The correlation coefficient and intra-rater reliability showed a significant correlation between the HI titers and IgY/IgA ELISA values. Maternal IgY and IgA levels were found to decline in the serum with half-lifes of 7.68 ± 2.35 and 2.18 ± 0.82 days, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Enterotropic lentogenic VG/GA vaccine induced a marked humoral immune response against the NDV in turkey poults. The positive correlation between IgY and IgA highlights the role of these two antibody classes in controlling the Newcastle disease in turkey poults.


Assuntos
Imunidade Humoral/imunologia , Doença de Newcastle/imunologia , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Perus , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Doença de Newcastle/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle
4.
J Microbiol ; 57(9): 803-811, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31452044

RESUMO

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a causative agent of severe-to-fatal pneumonia especially in patients with pre-existing conditions, such as smoking and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). MERS-CoV transmission continues to be reported in the Saudi Arabian Peninsula since its discovery in 2012. However, it has rarely been epidemic outside the area except one large outbreak in South Korea in May 2015. The genome of the epidemic MERS-CoV isolated from a Korean patient revealed its homology to previously reported strains. MERS-CoV encodes 5 accessory proteins and generally, they do not participate in the genome transcription and replication but rather are involved in viral evasion of the host innate immune responses. Here we report that ORF8b, an accessory protein of MERS-CoV, strongly inhibits both MDA5- and RIG-I-mediated activation of interferon beta promoter activity while downstream signaling molecules were left largely unaffected. Of note, MDA5 protein levels were significantly down-regulated by ORF8b and co-expression of ORF4a and ORF4b. These novel findings will facilitate elucidation of mechanisms of virus-encoded evasion strategies, thus helping design rationale antiviral countermeasures against deadly MERS-CoV infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Interferon beta/genética , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Proteína DEAD-box 58/genética , Proteína DEAD-box 58/metabolismo , Desenho de Drogas , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Helicase IFIH1 Induzida por Interferon/genética , Helicase IFIH1 Induzida por Interferon/metabolismo , Interferon beta/metabolismo , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/genética , Arábia Saudita , Vacinas Virais/genética , Vacinas Virais/imunologia
5.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(9): 8376-8384, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301846

RESUMO

Little is known about the influence of maternal antibodies and immune cells transferred through colostrum on the immune responses of calves to the currently used foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines. Here we evaluated the humoral and cellular immune responses induced by vaccination of colostrum-deprived calves and calves that received equivalent amounts of colostrum preparations that differed in the presence or absence of maternal immune cells but contained the same quantity and quality of anti-foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) antibodies. Three groups of 32-d-old calves (n = 3 per group) were deprived of colostrum and fed either whole immune colostrum or a cell-free colostrum preparation containing only anti-FMDV antibodies. All groups were immunized with 1 dose of an oil-adjuvanted commercial vaccine. Blood samples were collected periodically before vaccination and weekly after vaccination. Immune responses specific to FMDV were assessed based on T-cell proliferation, IFN-γ production, total and neutralizing serum antibodies, and isotype profile. All vaccinated calves developed IFN-γ and lymphoproliferative responses, irrespective of the colostrum received. Colostrum-deprived animals responded to vaccination with a primary IgM response followed by an increase of IgG1 titers. Conversely, antibody titers decreased in all colostrum-fed calves after vaccination. This study demonstrates for the first time that maternal immune cells transferred to the calves through colostrum do not modify immune responses to FMD vaccine, and it confirms the interference of maternal antibodies in the induction of humoral but not cell-mediated immune responses.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Colostro/imunologia , Febre Aftosa/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Imunidade Celular , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Gravidez , Vacinação/veterinária
6.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 50(2): 337-341, 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260198

RESUMO

Canine distemper virus (CDV) vaccination using commercial vaccines has been recommended as a useful preventive tool in zoological collections worldwide for the past 30 yr. Zoological facilities have not conducted studies to assess the effectiveness and safety of the multivalent Recombitek C6 and C8 in nondomestic carnivores. They are the only CDV recombinant vaccines available in Latin America. Seventeen clinically healthy red foxes born in Buin Zoo were divided into three groups and administered 1 ml of Recombitek C6 vaccine. Group A consisted of three animals of 9 mo of age without previous vaccination (WPV) that received a single dose. Group B consisted of four animals of 10 mo of age WPV; they received a series of three doses with a 21-day interval between doses. Group C consisted of eight animals > 1 yr of age that had received a previous vaccination > 1 yr ago; they received a single-dose booster vaccination. Titers for antibodies against CDV were measured by a serum neutralization test. All animals remained clinically healthy throughout the study period and without clinical signs of disease. Only two foxes (group C) did not show any increase in the antibody titer to the vaccine. All animals of groups A and B seroconverted at 21 days after the first vaccination. Only two animals (both from group B) showed an adequate antibody protective response (titers >100) after 180 days. Absence of adverse reactions in red foxes included in this study supports the safety and apparently nondeleterious effect of CDV recombinant vaccine reported in other nondomestic carnivores. Low antibody response and lack of persistence in the serological response 6 mo after vaccination with a single dose suggested limited protective benefits in this species. Additional research is needed to confirm the antibody titer response to multiple vaccinations in this species.


Assuntos
Vírus da Cinomose Canina , Raposas/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Cinomose/prevenção & controle , Raposas/sangue , Esquemas de Imunização , Imunização Secundária , Vacinação/veterinária , Vacinas Sintéticas
7.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 50(2): 478-481, 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260219

RESUMO

Red pandas (Ailurus fulgens) are susceptible to canine distemper, with a number of reported vaccine-induced canine distemper cases. Canarypox-vectored recombinant canine distemper vaccines (PureVax Ferret Distemper [PFD] and Recombitek CDV [rCDV]) provide protection without inoculating a live distemper virus, but there are currently no published data regarding these vaccines' safety and efficacy in red pandas. One hundred twenty-two serum samples were collected from 50 captive red pandas and analyzed for antibodies to canine distemper. All naïve red pandas (n = 20) had negative titers. Naïve pandas receiving two PFD vaccinations had either negative or intermediate titers (n = 4). In contrast, naïve pandas receiving a series of two or three rCDV vaccinations (n = 14) had greater antibody responses. Red pandas vaccinated with PFD >12 mo since their last vaccination and a rCDV booster vaccination showed the highest titers observed. We recommend red pandas be administered a series of at least three recombinant vaccine (PDF or rDCV) vaccinations, followed by annual booster vaccinations.


Assuntos
Ailuridae/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Vírus da Cinomose Canina/imunologia , Cinomose/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Cinomose/virologia , Vetores Genéticos , Imunização Secundária , Vacinação , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia
8.
Vet Microbiol ; 235: 86-92, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282383

RESUMO

Although PCV2 infections generally cause mild disease in pigs, concurrent co-infections with other pathogens can damage the immune system and cause more severe diseases, collectively termed porcine circovirus associated diseases (PCVAD). Involvement of porcine parvovirus (PPV, a common cause of reproductive failure in naïve dams) in PCVAD caused by PCV2, has been reported. As this co-infection can be difficult to eliminate, there is a critical need to develop an effective vaccine to protect against PPV or synergistic effects of PCV2 and PPV under field conditions. In this study, we designed chimeric PCV2 virus-like particles (cVLPs) displaying a B-cell epitope derived from PPV1 structural protein around the surface of the 2-fold axes of PCV2 VLPs, based on 3D-structure analysis of the PCV2 capsid. The cVLPs were successfully prepared, verified by transmission electron microscopy and chromatography, with robust antibody titers against PCV2 and PPV1 produced in mice and guinea pigs. In addition, in guinea pigs challenged with 106 TCID50 PCV2, cVLPs conferred more effective immune protection (based on viral load) than a commercial PCV2 vaccine. Finally, antibody responses and immune protection against PPV were also evaluated. In guinea pigs vaccinated with cVLPs, although PPV antibodies detected by a hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay appeared later after vaccination in the PCV2 cVLPs group than in the commercial PPV vaccine group, there were fewer PPV genomic DNA copies in the PCV2 cVLPs group than in a PBS group. In conclusion, guinea pigs vaccinated with cVLPs developed effective protective immunity against PCV2 challenge, with some protective immunity against PPV. This study provided valuable research data to pursue molecular design of chimeric epitopes PCV2 VLPs.


Assuntos
Infecções por Circoviridae/veterinária , Coinfecção/veterinária , Epitopos de Linfócito B/imunologia , Imunidade Humoral , Infecções por Parvoviridae/veterinária , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Infecções por Circoviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Circoviridae/prevenção & controle , Circovirus/imunologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Feminino , Cobaias , Camundongos , Infecções por Parvoviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/prevenção & controle , Parvovirus Suíno/imunologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia , Vacinas de Partículas Semelhantes a Vírus/imunologia
9.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 213: 109888, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307673

RESUMO

Felis catus papillomavirus type 2 (FcaPV-2) commonly infects the skin of domestic cats and has been associated with the development of skin cancer. In the present study, a FcaPV-2 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine was produced and assessed for vaccine safety, immunogenicity, and impact on FcaPV-2 viral load. This is the first report of the use of a papillomavirus VLP vaccine in domestic cats. The FcaPV-2 VLP vaccine was given to ten adult cats that were naturally infected with FcaPV-2, and a further ten naturally infected cats were sham vaccinated as a control group. The rationale for vaccinating cats already infected with the virus was to induce neutralizing antibody titers that could prevent reinfection of new areas of skin and reduce the overall viral load, as has been demonstrated in other species. Reducing the overall FcaPV-2 viral load could reduce the risk for subsequent PV-associated cancer. The vaccine in this study was well-tolerated, as none of the cats developed any signs of local reaction or systemic illness. In the treatment group, the geometric mean anti-papillomavirus endpoint antibody titers increased significantly following vaccination from 606 (95% CI 192-1913) to 4223 (2023-8814), a 7.0-fold increase, although the individual antibody response varied depending on the level of pre-existing antibodies. Despite the immunogenicity of the vaccine, there was no significant change in FcaPV-2 viral load in the treatment group compared to the control group, over the 24 week follow-up period. A possible reason is that FcaPV-2 was already widespread in the basal skin layer of these adult cats and so preventing further cells from becoming infected had no impact on the overall viral load. Therefore, these results do not support the use of a FcaPV-2 VLP vaccine to reduce the risk for PV-associated cancer in cats in which FcaPV-2 infection is already well established. However, these results justify future studies in which the vaccine is administered to younger cats prior to FcaPV-2 infection becoming fully established.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/prevenção & controle , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Infecções por Papillomavirus/veterinária , Neoplasias Cutâneas/veterinária , Carga Viral , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Doenças do Gato/virologia , Gatos , DNA Viral/sangue , Feminino , Masculino , Papillomaviridae/genética , Papillomaviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Testes Sorológicos , Pele/patologia , Pele/virologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Cutâneas/virologia , Vacinas de Partículas Semelhantes a Vírus/imunologia
10.
Vet Microbiol ; 235: 10-20, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282366

RESUMO

African Swine Fever Virus (ASFV) causes a hemorrhagic disease in swine and wild boars with a fatality rate close to 100%. Less virulent strains cause subchronic or chronic forms of the disease. The virus is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa and an outbreak in Georgia in 2007 spread to Armenia, Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Poland, Lithuania, and Latvia. In August 2018, there was an outbreak in China and in April 2019, ASFV was reported in Vietnam and Cambodia. Since no vaccine or treatment exists, a vaccine is needed to safeguard the swine industry. Previously, we evaluated immunogenicity of two adenovirus-vectored cocktails containing ASFV antigens and demonstrated induction of unprecedented robust antibody and T cell responses, including cytotoxic T lymphocytes. In the present study, we evaluated protective efficacy of both cocktails by intranasal challenge of pigs with ASFV-Georgia 2007/1. A nine antigen cocktail-(I) formulated in BioMize adjuvant induced strong IgG responses, but when challenged, the vaccinees had more severe reaction relative to the controls. A seven antigen cocktail-(II) was evaluated using two adjuvants: BioMize and ZTS-01. The BioMize formulation induced stronger antibody responses, but 8/10 vaccinees and 4/5 controls succumbed to the disease or reached experimental endpoint at 17 days post-challenge. In contrast, the ZTS-01 formulation induced weaker antibody responses, but 4/9 pigs succumbed to the disease while the 5 survivors exhibited low clinical scores and no viremia at 17 days post-challenge, whereas 4/5 controls succumbed to the disease or reached experimental endpoint. Overall, none of the immunogens conferred statistically significant protection.


Assuntos
Febre Suína Africana/prevenção & controle , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Adenoviridae , Administração Intranasal , Febre Suína Africana/imunologia , Vírus da Febre Suína Africana , Animais , Antígenos Virais/genética , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Suínos , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Vacinas de Subunidades/imunologia , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/genética , Viremia , Virulência
11.
Immunity ; 50(6): 1530-1541.e8, 2019 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31216462

RESUMO

Rapidly evolving RNA viruses, such as the GII.4 strain of human norovirus (HuNoV), and their vaccines elicit complex serological responses associated with previous exposure. Specific correlates of protection, moreover, remain poorly understood. Here, we report the GII.4-serological antibody repertoire-pre- and post-vaccination-and select several antibody clonotypes for epitope and structural analysis. The humoral response was dominated by GII.4-specific antibodies that blocked ancestral strains or by antibodies that bound to divergent genotypes and did not block viral-entry-ligand interactions. However, one antibody, A1431, showed broad blockade toward tested GII.4 strains and neutralized the pandemic GII.P16-GII.4 Sydney strain. Structural mapping revealed conserved epitopes, which were occluded on the virion or partially exposed, allowing for broad blockade with neutralizing activity. Overall, our results provide high-resolution molecular information on humoral immune responses after HuNoV vaccination and demonstrate that infection-derived and vaccine-elicited antibodies can exhibit broad blockade and neutralization against this prevalent human pathogen.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/prevenção & controle , Norovirus/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/química , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Linhagem Celular , Sequência Conservada , Epitopos/química , Epitopos/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Modelos Moleculares , Norovirus/classificação , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Vacinação
12.
J Appl Microbiol ; 127(3): 658-669, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31183947

RESUMO

AIMS: Purification of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) using Gram-positive enhancer matrix (GEM) surface display technology and immunogenicity evaluation of the purified antigen. METHODS AND RESULTS: A recombinant bifunctional protein containing a protein anchor domain and a 'virus anchor' domain was designed as a protein linker (PL) between PCV2 and GEM particles. By incubating with PL and GEM particles sequentially, PCV2 could be purified and enriched through a simple centrifugation process with GEM surface display technology. Our data showed that one unit (2·5 × 109 particles) of GEM particles with 80 µg PL could purify 100 ml of PCV2-containing culture supernatant (viral titre: 106·5 TCID50 per ml-1 ) with a recovery rate up to 99·6%. The impurity removal efficiency of this method, calculated according to decreased total protein content during purification, was approximately 98%. Furthermore, in vivo experimentation showed that piglets immunized with purified PCV2 could elicit strong immune responses to prevent against PCV2 infection. CONCLUSION: Porcine circovirus type 2 could be efficiently purified and enriched with GEM display technology via a crucial PL, and the purified PCV2 could elicit effective immune responses against PCV2 infection. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: The GEM-based purification method established here is cost-efficient and high-throughput, and may represent a promising large-scale purification method for PCV2 vaccine production.


Assuntos
Circovirus/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Técnicas de Visualização da Superfície Celular , Infecções por Circoviridae/prevenção & controle , Proteínas Recombinantes , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia
13.
Microb Cell Fact ; 18(1): 103, 2019 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170996

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pseudorabies caused by pseudorabies virus (PRV) mainly infects the swine and seriously threatens the biosafety of the other animals, including humans. Since 2011, the outbreaks of PRV mutants have caused enormous economic losses in the swine industry, and traditional vaccines cannot offer enough protection. PRV can transmit by direct contact, aerosol transmission and pollutants. PRV mainly transmit through the nasal mucosa. After infecting the nasal epithelial cells, PRV can quickly infect the olfactory nerve and establish a potential infection of sensory neurons. Therefore, nasal immunity can effectively prevent viral colonization infection. Recombinant Bacillus subtilis has been widely used to deliver antigen and achieve adequate protective immune responses. RESULTS: The present study successfully constructed recombinant Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) expressing the dominant antigen regions of PRV gC and gD proteins (named B. subtilis-gCa and B. subtilis-gDa). Furtherly, we evaluated the immunogenicity of the two recombinant B. subtilis in mice. The mice intranasal administration with B. subtilis-gCa and B. subtilis-gDa effectively stimulated IgA and IgG immune responses, further regulated specific T lymphocytes proliferative response by IFN-γ and IL-10, and ultimately produced high titers of neutralizing antibodies against PRV infection. In particular, B. subtilis-gDa possessed more excellent immune effect than B. subtilis-gCa in mice. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggested that B. subtilis-gCa and B. subtilis-gDa could trigger high levels of mucosal and systemic immune responses and would be potential candidates for developing PRV vaccines.


Assuntos
Bacillus subtilis , Herpesvirus Suídeo 1/imunologia , Pseudorraiva/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Administração Intranasal , Animais , Bacillus subtilis/genética , Bacillus subtilis/imunologia , Feminino , Imunidade nas Mucosas , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Pseudorraiva/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/genética , Vacinas Virais/imunologia
14.
Mol Biol (Mosk) ; 53(3): 367-379, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31184601

RESUMO

The paper discusses the techniques which are currently implemented for vaccine production based on virus-like particles (VLPs). The factors which determine the characteristics of VLP monomers assembly are provided in detail. Analysis of the literature demonstrates that the development of the techniques of VLP production and immobilization of target antigens on their surface have led to the development of universal platforms which make it possible for virtually any known antigen to be exposed on the particle surface in a highly concentrated form. As a result, the focus of attention has shifted from the approaches to VLP production to the development of a precise interface between the organism's immune system and the peptides inducing a strong immune response to pathogens or the organism's own pathological cells. Immunome-specified methods for vaccine design and the prospects of immunoprophylaxis are discussed. Certain examples of vaccines against viral diseases and cancers are considered.


Assuntos
Vacinas de Partículas Semelhantes a Vírus/provisão & distribução , Vacinas Anticâncer/imunologia , Vacinas Anticâncer/provisão & distribução , Humanos , Vacinas de Partículas Semelhantes a Vírus/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/provisão & distribução
15.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2688, 2019 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217437

RESUMO

Neoantigens (nAgs) are promising tumor antigens for cancer vaccination with the potential of inducing robust and selective T cell responses. Genetic vaccines based on Adenoviruses derived from non-human Great Apes (GAd) elicit strong and effective T cell-mediated immunity in humans. Here, we investigate for the first time the potency and efficacy of a novel GAd encoding multiple neoantigens. Prophylactic or early therapeutic vaccination with GAd efficiently control tumor growth in mice. In contrast, combination of the vaccine with checkpoint inhibitors is required to eradicate large tumors. Gene expression profile of tumors in regression shows abundance of activated tumor infiltrating T cells with a more diversified TCR repertoire in animals treated with GAd and anti-PD1 compared to anti-PD1. Data suggest that effectiveness of vaccination in the presence of high tumor burden correlates with the breadth of nAgs-specific T cells and requires concomitant reversal of tumor suppression by checkpoint blockade.


Assuntos
Adenoviridae/imunologia , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Vacinas Anticâncer/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/terapia , Vacinas Virais/uso terapêutico , Adenoviridae/genética , Animais , Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Vacinas Anticâncer/genética , Vacinas Anticâncer/imunologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral/transplante , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Camundongos , Neoplasias/imunologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Carga Tumoral/imunologia , Vacinas Sintéticas/genética , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia , Vacinas Sintéticas/uso terapêutico , Vacinas Virais/genética , Vacinas Virais/imunologia
16.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2699, 2019 06 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221976

RESUMO

Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) causes a wide array of disease to diverse populations of immune-compromised individuals. Thus, a more comprehensive understanding of how CMV enters numerous host cell types is necessary to further delineate the complex nature of CMV pathogenesis and to develop targeted therapeutics. To that end, we establish a vaccination strategy utilizing membrane vesicles derived from epithelial cells to generate a library of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting cell surface proteins in their native conformation. A high-throughput inhibition assay is employed to screen these antibodies for their ability to limit infection, and mAbs targeting CD46 are identified. In addition, a significant reduction of viral proliferation in CD46-KO epithelial cells confirms a role for CD46 function in viral dissemination. Further, we demonstrate a CD46-dependent entry pathway of virus infection in trophoblasts, but not in fibroblasts, highlighting the complexity of CMV entry and identifying CD46 as an entry factor in congenital infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus/imunologia , Citomegalovirus/imunologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Proteína Cofatora de Membrana/imunologia , Internalização do Vírus , Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Linhagem Celular , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/virologia , Células Epiteliais/imunologia , Células Epiteliais/virologia , Fibroblastos/imunologia , Fibroblastos/virologia , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Humanos , Proteína Cofatora de Membrana/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Trofoblastos/imunologia , Trofoblastos/virologia , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Virais/imunologia
17.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 8(1): 841-856, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31169078

RESUMO

The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has spread through 27 countries and infected more than 2,200 people since its first outbreak in Saudi Arabia in 2012. The high fatality rate (35.4%) of this novel coronavirus and its persistent wide spread infectiousness in animal reservoirs have generated tremendous global public health concern. However, no licensed therapeutic agents or vaccines against MERS-CoV are currently available and only a limited few have entered clinical trials. Among all the potential targets of MERS-CoV, the spike glycoprotein (S) has been the most well-studied due to its critical role in mediating viral entry and in inducing a protective antibody response in infected individuals. The most notable studies include the recent discoveries of monoclonal antibodies and development of candidate vaccines against the S glycoprotein. Structural characterization of MERS-CoV S protein bound with these monoclonal antibodies has provided insights into the mechanisms of humoral immune responses against MERS-CoV infection. The current review aims to highlight these developments and discuss possible hurdles and strategies to translate these discoveries into ultimate medical interventions against MERS-CoV infection.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/administração & dosagem , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Virais/genética
18.
Vet Microbiol ; 233: 113-117, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176396

RESUMO

Bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV) causes an acute febrile disease in cattle and water buffalo. The disease has an impact on dairy and beef production in tropical and subtropical countries. Vaccination is used for disease prevention and control. In this study, we developed a recombinant lentivirus to produce mammalian stable cells expressing histidine-tagged BEFV G protein with a deleted transmembrane domain (GΔTM) as a secretory protein. In addition, guinea pigs were immunised with the purified GΔTM protein and booster immunised at a 3-week interval. The mammalian stable cells were able to continuously produce GΔTM protein for a minimum of 25 passages. All of the mammalian stable cells expressing GΔTM protein could react specifically with a BEFV convalescent bovine serum. Serum samples from the immunised guinea pigs could react strongly and specifically with the purified GΔTM protein. Moreover, post-immunised guinea pig sera contained antibodies that could neutralise BEFV. These results indicate that the G protein without a transmembrane domain can be used as a subunit vaccine for the prevention and control of BEFV. The availability of the mammalian stable cells, which constitutively express GΔTM protein, could facilitate the potential use of the secretory protein for BEFV diagnosis and vaccine development.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Febre Efêmera/prevenção & controle , Glicoproteínas/genética , Glicoproteínas/imunologia , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Bovinos , Linhagem Celular , Febre Efêmera/imunologia , Vírus da Febre Efêmera Bovina , Feminino , Cobaias , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Transfecção , Vacinação , Vacinas Virais/imunologia
19.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 212: 27-37, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213249

RESUMO

Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists can effectively stimulate antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and are anticipated to be promising adjuvants in combination with inactivated vaccines. In this study, the adjuvant potential of three different TLR-agonists were compared with an oil-in-water (O/W) adjuvant in combination with inactivated porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (iPRRSV) applied by different administration routes: intramuscular (i.m.) or into the skin using dissolving microneedle (DMN) patches. Pigs received a prime vaccination followed by a booster vaccination four weeks later. TLR1/2 (Pam3Cys), TLR7/8 (R848) or TLR9 (CpG ODN) agonists were used as adjuvant in combination with iPRRSV strain 07V063. O/W adjuvant (Montanide™) was used as reference control adjuvant and one group received a placebo vaccination containing diluent only. All animals received a homologous challenge with PRRSV three weeks after the booster vaccination. Antibody and IFN-γ production, serum cytokines and viremia were measured at several time-points after vaccination and/or challenge, and lung pathology at necropsy. Our results indicate that a TLR 1/2, 7/8 or 9 agonist as adjuvant with iPRRSV does not induce a detectable PRRSV-specific immune response, independent of the administration route. However, the i.m. TLR9 agonist group showed reduction of viremia upon challenge compared to the non-vaccinated animals, supported by a non-antigen-specific IFN-γ level after booster vaccination and an anamnestic antibody response after challenge. Montanide™-adjuvanted iPRRSV induced antigen-specific immunity after booster combined with reduction of vireamia. Skin application of TLR7/8 agonist, but not the other agonists, induced a local skin reaction. Further research is needed to explore the potential of TLR agonists as adjuvants for inactivated porcine vaccines with a preference for TLR9 agonists.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Oligodesoxirribonucleotídeos/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/prevenção & controle , Receptor Toll-Like 9/agonistas , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Citocinas/sangue , Citocinas/imunologia , Masculino , Oligodesoxirribonucleotídeos/administração & dosagem , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/imunologia , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína , Suínos , Receptor Toll-Like 9/imunologia , Vacinação , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/imunologia , Viremia
20.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 212: 9-14, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213252

RESUMO

Targeting antigens to endocytic receptors on the surface of dendritic cells is a new strategy for increasing the adaptive immune response. The objective of the current study was the construction and bacterial expression of a recombinant antibody single-chain fragment variable (ScFv) directed against chicken DEC 205, an endocytic receptor, for use in the genetic fusion of antigens. In particular, we use as antigen the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) of Newcastle disease virus. Our results show that inoculation of chickens with HN genetically fused to the ScFv anti-DEC 205 induced an evidently higher immune response against HN, in contrast to inoculation with unconjugated HN. In addition, neutralizing antibodies against Newcastle disease virus were detected only in the serum from chickens immunized with HN fused to ScFv anti-DEC 205. Inoculated fused antigens to ScFv against endocytic receptor DEC 205 resulted in a greater antibody-specific anti-HN production compared with antigens applied alone. The results of this study show that the strategy described here has the potential to be used in the development of more effective vaccines against infectious diseases in chickens.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD/imunologia , Lectinas Tipo C/imunologia , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Menor/imunologia , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/enzimologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Receptores de Superfície Celular/imunologia , Anticorpos de Cadeia Única/biossíntese , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Galinhas/imunologia , Escherichia coli/genética , Hemaglutininas Virais/imunologia , Neuraminidase/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/biossíntese , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Anticorpos de Cadeia Única/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia
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