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1.
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol ; 59(6): 812-820, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33218394

RESUMO

The pandemic situation triggered by the spread of COVID-19 has caused great harm worldwide. More than six million people have been infected, and more than 360,000 of them have died. This is the worst catastrophe suffered by mankind in recent history. In the face of this severe disaster, people all over the world are frightened of the prospect of facing an outbreak or an annual recurrence. However, the development of a vaccine will help control the impact of COVID-19. Women in particular have been more seriously affected by the pandemic. Since the pressure and physical load they suffer are often greater than what men endure, women are more threatened by COVID-19. Though women have a poorer quality of life and work and face worse economic conditions, they also tend to have better physiological immunity than men, which can ease the effect of COVID-19. The early development of a vaccine against COVID-19 is an important issue that must take into consideration women's better immune response to the virus along with the technique of hormone regulation. Relevant research has been conducted on female-specific vaccines in the past, and women's issues were considered during those clinical trials to ensure that complications and antibody responses were positive and effective in women. National policies should also propose good strategies for women to be vaccinated. This could improve consciousness, give women a better vaccination experience, enhance their willingness to vaccinate, and protect them from COVID-19 infection.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Fatores Sexuais , Vacinas Virais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Política de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Gravidez , Vacinação/legislação & jurisprudência , Vacinas Virais/imunologia
3.
Med Sci (Paris) ; 36(11): 1034-1037, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151866

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease (COVID)-19 is an emerging pandemic infection whose significant ability to spread in a naïve population is well established. The first response of states to the COVID-19 outbreak was to impose lock-down and social barrier measures, such as wearing a surgical mask or social distancing. One of the consequences of this pandemic in terms of public health was the suspension or slowdown of infant vaccination campaigns, in almost all countries. The indirect effects of COVID-19 may therefore weigh on mortality from measles and polio in developing countries. In this pandemic chaos, the only hope lies in the rapid development of an effective vaccine against severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, acceptance of this vaccine has not yet been won, as beyond the many unknowns that will inevitably weigh around such rapid development, skepticism among vaccine hesitants is growing.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Programas de Imunização/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Programas de Imunização/organização & administração , Programas de Imunização/normas , Programas de Imunização/tendências , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Participação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Participação do Paciente/tendências , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Poliomielite/epidemiologia , Poliomielite/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública/normas , Saúde Pública/tendências , Cobertura Vacinal/organização & administração , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinas Virais/uso terapêutico
4.
Front Immunol ; 11: 552925, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33072093

RESUMO

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Corona Virus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) induced Coronavirus Disease - 19 (COVID-19) cases have been increasing at an alarming rate (7.4 million positive cases as on June 11 2020), causing high mortality (4,17,956 deaths as on June 11 2020) and economic loss (a 3.2% shrink in global economy in 2020) across 212 countries globally. The clinical manifestations of this disease are pneumonia, lung injury, inflammation, and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Currently, there is no vaccine or effective pharmacological agents available for the prevention/treatment of SARS-CoV2 infections. Moreover, development of a suitable vaccine is a challenging task due to antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) and Th-2 immunopathology, which aggravates infection with SARS-CoV-2. Furthermore, the emerging SARS-CoV-2 strain exhibits several distinct genomic and structural patterns compared to other coronavirus strains, making the development of a suitable vaccine even more difficult. Therefore, the identification of novel small molecule inhibitors (NSMIs) that can interfere with viral entry or viral propagation is of special interest and is vital in managing already infected cases. SARS-CoV-2 infection is mediated by the binding of viral Spike proteins (S-protein) to human cells through a 2-step process, which involves Angiotensin Converting Enzyme-2 (ACE2) and Transmembrane Serine Protease (TMPRSS)-2. Therefore, the development of novel inhibitors of ACE2/TMPRSS2 is likely to be beneficial in combating SARS-CoV-2 infections. However, the usage of ACE-2 inhibitors to block the SARS-CoV-2 viral entry requires additional studies as there are conflicting findings and severe health complications reported for these inhibitors in patients. Hence, the current interest is shifted toward the development of NSMIs, which includes natural antiviral phytochemicals and Nrf-2 activators to manage a SARS-CoV-2 infection. It is imperative to investigate the efficacy of existing antiviral phytochemicals and Nrf-2 activators to mitigate the SARS-CoV-2-mediated oxidative stress. Therefore, in this review, we have reviewed structural features of SARS-CoV-2 with special emphasis on key molecular targets and their known modulators that can be considered for the development of NSMIs.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Humanos , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Serina Endopeptidases/imunologia , Inibidores de Serino Proteinase/uso terapêutico , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/antagonistas & inibidores , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Células Th2/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/uso terapêutico
5.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(10): e1008292, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33075052

RESUMO

The lack of effective vaccines for many endemic diseases often forces policymakers to rely on non-immunizing control measures, such as vector control, to reduce the massive burden of these diseases. Controls can have well-known counterintuitive effects on endemic infections, including the honeymoon effect, in which partially effective controls cause not only a greater initial reduction in infection than expected, but also large outbreaks during control resulting from accumulation of susceptibles. Unfortunately, many control measures cannot be maintained indefinitely, and the results of cessation are poorly understood. Here, we examine the results of stopped or failed non-immunizing control measures in endemic settings. By using a mathematical model to compare the cumulative number of cases expected with and without control, we show that deployment of control can lead to a larger total number of infections, counting from the time that control started, than without any control-the divorce effect. This result is directly related to the population-level loss of immunity resulting from non-immunizing controls and is seen in a variety of models when non-immunizing controls are used against an infection that confers immunity. Finally, we examine three control plans for minimizing the magnitude of the divorce effect in seasonal infections and show that they are incapable of eliminating the divorce effect. While we do not suggest stopping control programs that rely on non-immunizing controls, our results strongly argue that the accumulation of susceptibility should be considered before deploying such controls against endemic infections when indefinite use of the control is unlikely. We highlight that our results are particularly germane to endemic mosquito-borne infections, such as dengue virus, both for routine management involving vector control and for field trials of novel control approaches, and in the context of non-pharmaceutical interventions aimed at COVID-19.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Doenças Endêmicas/prevenção & controle , Programas de Imunização , Animais , Número Básico de Reprodução , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Culicidae , Vacinas contra Dengue/uso terapêutico , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Insetos Vetores , Modelos Teóricos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/prevenção & controle , Vacina contra Rubéola/uso terapêutico , Estações do Ano , Dengue Grave/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Virais/uso terapêutico
8.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 95(10): 2172-2188, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33012348

RESUMO

In the midst of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pandemic and its attendant morbidity and mortality, safe and efficacious vaccines are needed that induce protective and long-lived immune responses. More than 120 vaccine candidates worldwide are in various preclinical and phase 1 to 3 clinical trials that include inactivated, live-attenuated, viral-vectored replicating and nonreplicating, protein- and peptide-based, and nucleic acid approaches. Vaccines will be necessary both for individual protection and for the safe development of population-level herd immunity. Public-private partnership collaborative efforts, such as the Accelerating COVID-19 Therapeutic Interventions and Vaccines mechanism, are key to rapidly identifying safe and effective vaccine candidates as quickly and efficiently as possible. In this article, we review the major vaccine approaches being taken and issues that must be resolved in the quest for vaccines to prevent coronavirus disease 2019. For this study, we scanned the PubMed database from 1963 to 2020 for all publications using the following search terms in various combinations: SARS, MERS, COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, vaccine, clinical trial, coronavirus, pandemic, and vaccine development. We also did a Web search for these same terms. In addition, we examined the World Health Organization, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and other public health authority websites. We excluded abstracts and all articles that were not written in English.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Virais/uso terapêutico , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Humanos , Saúde Pública , Estados Unidos
9.
Dis Model Mech ; 13(9)2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887790

RESUMO

The spread of the novel virus SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was explosive, with cases first identified in December 2019, and >22 million people infected and >775,000 deaths as of August 2020. SARS-CoV-2 can cause severe respiratory disease in humans leading to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The development of effective clinical interventions, such as antivirals and vaccines that can limit or even prevent the burden and spread of SARS-CoV-2, is a global health priority. Testing of leading antivirals, monoclonal antibody therapies and vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 will require robust animal and cell models of viral pathogenesis. In this Special Article, we discuss the cell-based and animal models of SARS-CoV-2 infection and pathogenesis that have been described as of August 2020. We also outline the outstanding questions for which researchers can leverage animal and cell-based models to improve our understanding of SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis and protective immunity. Taken together, the refinement of models of SARS-CoV-2 infection will be critical to guide the development of therapeutics and vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 to end the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Animais , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Especificidade da Espécie , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos , Vacinas Virais/uso terapêutico
11.
Pan Afr Med J ; 36: 206, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963672

RESUMO

The intense global efforts are directed towards development of vaccines to halt the COVID-19 virus pandemic. There are 160 candidate vaccines under clinical trials across the world using different molecular targets and techniques. This race for the vaccine has several challenges and ethical issues like compressed timelines, generation and proper management of resources and finances, risks to the participating volunteers due to curtailed research trial processes, geopolitical contentions, misinformation through social media and parallel race with drugs. We feel that the fundamental principles of ethics: autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice should not be violated in this hastened vaccine development process. We recommend constitute a Consortium on a global platform to formulate, provide and monitor a comprehensive ethical umbrella to the process of vaccine development.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/ética , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Virais/uso terapêutico , Temas Bioéticos , Comunicação , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Alocação de Recursos , Mídias Sociais , Fatores de Tempo , Vacinas Virais/economia , Vacinas Virais/provisão & distribução
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32924964

RESUMO

A novel coronavirus infection coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged from Wuhan, Hubei Province of China, in December 2019 caused by SARS-CoV-2 is believed to be originated from bats in the local wet markets. Later, animal to human and human-to-human transmission of the virus began and resulting in widespread respiratory illness worldwide to around more than 180 countries. The World Health Organization declared this disease as a pandemic in March 2020. There is no clinically approved antiviral drug or vaccine available to be used against COVID-19. Nevertheless, few broad-spectrum antiviral drugs have been studied against COVID-19 in clinical trials with clinical recovery. In the current review, we summarize the morphology and pathogenesis of COVID-19 infection. A strong rational groundwork was made keeping the focus on current development of therapeutic agents and vaccines for SARS-CoV-2. Among the proposed therapeutic regimen, hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, remdisevir, azithromycin, toclizumab and cromostat mesylate have shown promising results, and limited benefit was seen with lopinavir-ritonavir treatment in hospitalized adult patients with severe COVID-19. Early development of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine started based on the full-length genome analysis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. Several subunit vaccines, peptides, nucleic acids, plant-derived, recombinant vaccines are under pipeline. This article concludes and highlights ongoing advances in drug repurposing, therapeutics and vaccines to counter COVID-19, which collectively could enable efforts to halt the pandemic virus infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Humanos , Vacinas Virais/uso terapêutico
17.
Contact Dermatitis ; 83(5): 432-435, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880961

RESUMO

Although the development of successful vaccines against coronaviruses may be achieved, for some individuals the immune response that they stimulate may prove to be insufficient for effective host defence. The principle that a relatively strong contact allergen will have an enhancing effect on sensitization compared with a less potent contact allergen if they are co-administered, may not, at first, appear relevant to this issue. However, this augmentation effect is thought to be due to the sharing of common or complementary pathways. Here, we briefly consider aspects of the shared and complementary pathways between skin sensitization induced by exposure to a contact allergen and the immune response to viruses, with particular reference to COVID-19. The relationship leads us to explore whether this principle, which we name here as "co-operative immune augmentation" may be extended to include viral vaccination. We consider evidence that even relatively weak contact allergens, used in vaccines for other purposes, can show enhanced sensitization, which is in keeping with a co-operative augmentation principle. Finally, we consider how the potent contact allergen diphenylcyclopropenone could be employed safely as an enhancer of vaccine responses.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Ciclopropanos/uso terapêutico , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Virais/uso terapêutico , Alérgenos/uso terapêutico , Dessensibilização Imunológica/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
18.
Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol ; 47(11): 1874-1878, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881059

RESUMO

A novel concept in DNA vaccine design is the creation of an inhaled DNA plasmid construct containing a portion of the coronavirus spike protein for treatment and vaccination. The secretion of a spike protein portion will function as a competitive antagonist by interfering with the binding of coronavirus to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor. The secreted protein binding to the ACE2 receptor provides a unique mechanism of action for treatment to all strains of coronavirus in naïve patients, by blocking the ACE2 receptor site. An inhaled plasmid DNA vaccine replicates the route of lung infection taken by coronavirus with transfected cells secreting spike protein portions to induce immunity. Unlike most DNA vaccines with intracellular antigen presentation through MHC I, the current vaccine relies on the secreted proteins presentation through MHC II as well as MHC I to induce immunity. Lung specific production of vaccine particles by inhaled plasmid DNA is appealing since it may have limited systemic side effects, and may induce both humoral and cytotoxic immunity. Finally, the ease and ability to rapidly produce this plasmid construct makes this an ideal solution for managing the emerging threat of coronavirus.


Assuntos
Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Vacinas de DNA/administração & dosagem , Vacinas de DNA/uso terapêutico , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Virais/uso terapêutico , Administração Intranasal , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Quitosana , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Vacinação/métodos , Vacinas de DNA/química
20.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 180: 114184, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32739342

RESUMO

COVID-19, the greatest public health emergency of the 21st century, has affected 215 countries and territories around the world resulting in 15,151,738 confirmed cases and 621,121 deaths. The outbreak has continued at breakneck pace despite stringent public health measures, ravaging the global economy and causing profound human casualties. Vaccination is currently the best bet for the prevention of COVID-19. Still, in its absence, there has been considerable interest in repurposing existing therapeutic agents to reduce the severity of the illness and ease the burden on the already strained healthcare systems. This review outlines the current evidence regarding proposed treatments- experimental or repurposed, for COVID-19, and gives an insight into the clinical trial landscape for drugs as well as vaccines.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Vacinas Virais , Adjuvantes Farmacêuticos , Animais , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Humanos , Imunização Passiva , Imunoterapia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Vacinas Virais/uso terapêutico
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