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1.
Vaccimonitor (La Habana, Print) ; 30(2)mayo.-ago. 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1252323

RESUMO

En diciembre de 2019 en Wuhan, provincia China de Hubei, se notificó un caso de neumonía de etiología desconocida. Con posterioridad se diagnosticó como un síndrome agudo respiratorio severo (SARS, por sus siglas en inglés) causado por un coronavirus denominado SARS-CoV-2.1 A principios de marzo de 2020, la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) notificó casi 100.000 casos positivos y 3.880 víctimas mortales en 47 países, convirtiéndose en pandemia la enfermedad COVID-19 que ha afectado al mundo hasta la actualidad.2 La pandemia de la COVID-19 ha tenido un gran impacto en la vida de las personas y la sociedad en su conjunto y ha causado perjuicios a la economía mundial, afectándose sectores como turismo, recreación, viajes internacionales, educación, entre otros. Para la salud humana, ha tenido repercusión en términos de enfermedad, discapacidad y elevado número de muertes, así como en las complejas interrogantes impuestas a la ciencia para contener el impacto de la misma. La implementación de una estrategia dirigida a mitigar la dispersión de la enfermedad incluye numerosas acciones de salud pública, entre ellas: la higiene de las manos, el uso extendido y obligatorio de la mascarilla, el distanciamiento social y la vacunación.3 Una vacuna contra la COVID-19, esperada ansiosamente por el mundo, debe ser una vacuna segura y eficaz que permita poder reanudar un estilo de vida normal, libre de las medidas de restricción recomendadas y que evite que se saturen los servicios de salud. La carrera por la invención y desarrollo de una vacuna contra la COVID-19 no tiene precedentes en la era moderna y ha comprometido como nunca antes a la ciencia, llevando a la movilización e intercambio de datos en un período muy corto; a la coordinación acelerada, a nivel mundial, de los procesos regulatorios para el desarrollo de vacunas y fármacos; así como a la creación de marcos de colaboración internacional donde se incluyen, junto a la OMS, la Alianza Global para las Vacunas (GAVI), la Coalición para la Promoción de Innovaciones en pro de la Preparación ante Epidemias (CEPI) y el Fondo de Acceso Global para Vacunas COVID-19 (COVAX, por su siglas en inglés).4 El proceso de desarrollar un nuevo producto farmacéutico es caro e implica una inversión considerable de tiempo. Como promedio, se precisan 10 años desde el momento en que se descubre una molécula hasta que se comercializa el producto, con un costo de millones de dólares. Acortar los tiempos de este proceso es de los retos más importantes, donde la etapa de desarrollo clínico es la que se ve más presionada en todo momento.1 El desarrollo clínico de una vacuna implica un número de fases por las que debe transcurrir el producto farmacéutico. En el caso particular de las vacunas contra la COVID-19, las fases se han ido llevando a cabo simultáneamente, bajo aprobaciones rápidas. Varias vacunas ya han recibido autorizaciones para el uso de emergencia y se están utilizando para inmunizar a las personas.5) Desafortunadamente, acortar el tiempo para que las vacunas estén disponibles, puede conllevar a problemas éticos relacionados con la investigación, el desarrollo y aquellos que se puedan presentar en las etapas de distribución y acceso equitativo a las mismas.6 Para que la investigación en seres humanos que sea éticamente justificada, debe haber un balance favorable de beneficios para el sujeto y la sociedad, sobre los riesgos a los que el individuo se expone. Entre los dilemas éticos a los que se enfrentan los investigadores, uno de los más complejos en el caso de las vacunas contra la COVID-19, es el empleo de grupo control o placebo en los estudios clínicos, si tenemos en cuenta que esta es una enfermedad nueva, con limitaciones de las opciones de tratamiento y de elevada mortalidad, todo lo cual implica un alto riesgo para este grupo. Según el diseño del estudio, los participantes incluidos en el grupo placebo podrían infectarse en dependencia del tiempo de permanencia en dicho grupo, la tasa de transmisión local donde se realiza el ensayo clínico y las medidas preventivas adoptadas por cada uno de los participantes.7 Uno de los escenarios que puede afrontar el investigador cuando se usa placebo, es que el tratamiento (fármaco o vacuna) resulte efectivo, entonces, una parte de los participantes perdería la oportunidad de recibir ese beneficio, lo cual nos llevaría a decidir que todos los voluntarios reciban la profilaxis y sacrificar el conocimiento y valor social que aportan los estudios con grupos placebo.8) Actualmente, algunos desarrolladores de vacunas han esbozado la obligación ética de ofrecer la vacuna a participantes que hayan recibido placebo en los ensayos clínicos, para que queden protegidos contra la COVID- 19 y, además, para la contribución a la investigación.8 Otro tema de discusión global y que compete a la bioética relacionada a las vacunas contra la COVID-19, es la distribución justa dentro de una población una vez que las vacunas están disponibles en el mercado. ¿Qué criterios deben utilizarse? ¿Qué personas deben recibirla primero dentro de una población? ¿Quiénes tienen prioridad, y por qué? Es un criterio general entre los especialistas, que el personal de salud que se encuentra en la primera línea de batalla contra la COVID-19, debe ser el primero en acceder a la vacuna, lo cual previene el daño directo e indirecto a los mismos, al prevenir la propagación del SARS-CoV-2 en las instalaciones médicas, protegiendo de este modo a los grupos de pacientes que acuden con mayor frecuencia a los hospitales con diagnóstico de cáncer o con tratamiento de hemodiálisis.6 La crisis sanitaria mundial causada por el SARS-CoV-2 no tiene precedentes y el acceso a la vacuna se ha mostrado difícil desde el inicio. Es un hecho que los países desarrollados se han apresurado desde antes de la comercialización a adquirir y contratar cantidades suficientes de la vacuna para su población, siendo entonces el panorama aún más sombrío para los países de bajos ingresos.6 Debido a la pandemia, las operaciones logísticas de las vacunas también se ven afectadas por lo que se convierten en obstáculos para garantizar la distribución mundial de manera coordinada e interconectada (fabricación, distribución de la cadena de suministro, cadena de frío, almacenamiento, etc.). De ahí, el llamado constante de la OMS a lograr y mantener el compromiso de los gobiernos a garantizar un acceso equitativo y a colaborar en planes multinacionales como COVAX, CEPI y GAVI para asegurar la fabricación y distribución de vacunas contra la COVID-19.4 Con el fin de hacer el bien para todos y ante la premura de obtener resultados terapéuticos eficaces para enfrentar y mitigar la pandemia, no se deben sacrificar las normas científicas, la integridad y trasparencia del proceso de revisión de las vacunas y se debe cumplir con los principios éticos fundamentales que se exigen en las investigaciones en humanos(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Ética , Vacinas contra COVID-19/uso terapêutico
2.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-48278

RESUMO

Um estudo do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da USP (HC), realizado pelo Instituto da Criança e do Adolescente, indicou presença de anticorpos em leite de colaboradoras lactantes do HC, imunizadas com a vacina Coronavac, do Instituto Butantã. Foi observado que a segunda dose fornece um incremento no nível de anticorpos das gestantes e, em algumas das colaboradoras, níveis altos de anticorpos contra a covid-19 mantiveram-se no leite mesmo depois de alguns meses de amamentação.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Leite Humano , Aleitamento Materno , Gestantes
3.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-48279

RESUMO

No início de 2021, foram publicados alguns estudos, em especial um israelense (Perl e colaboradores) e outro americano (Gray e colaboradores), que identificaram anticorpos no leite materno de lactantes vacinadas com a vacina da Pfizer-BioNTech, à época não disponível no Brasil. Esses anticorpos poderiam, provavelmente, proteger os recém-nascidos e crianças maiores em aleitamento materno contra a Covid-19.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Leite Humano/imunologia , Aleitamento Materno
4.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-48280

RESUMO

O Ministério da Saúde realiza Fórum “Imunização em gestantes e lactantes no contexto da Covid-19” para debater o tema com especialistas e sociedade científica. O ministro da Saúde, Marcelo Queiroga, reforçou o compromisso em garantir a segurança e o bem-estar de gestantes, puérperas e lactantes no Brasil.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Período Pós-Parto , Gestantes , Brasil
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(29)2021 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34193524

RESUMO

Successfully combating the COVID-19 pandemic depends on mass vaccination with suitable vaccines to achieve herd immunity. Here, we describe COVI-VAC, the only live attenuated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccine currently in clinical development. COVI-VAC was developed by recoding a segment of the viral spike protein with synonymous suboptimal codon pairs (codon-pair deoptimization), thereby introducing 283 silent (point) mutations. In addition, the furin cleavage site within the spike protein was deleted from the viral genome for added safety of the vaccine strain. Except for the furin cleavage site deletion, the COVI-VAC and parental SARS-CoV-2 amino acid sequences are identical, ensuring that all viral proteins can engage with the host immune system of vaccine recipients. COVI-VAC was temperature sensitive in vitro yet grew robustly (>107 plaque forming units/mL) at the permissive temperature. Tissue viral loads were consistently lower, lung pathology milder, and weight loss reduced in Syrian golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) vaccinated intranasally with COVI-VAC compared to those inoculated with wild-type (WT) virus. COVI-VAC inoculation generated spike IgG antibody levels and plaque reduction neutralization titers similar to those in hamsters inoculated with WT virus. Upon challenge with WT virus, COVI-VAC vaccination reduced lung challenge viral titers, resulted in undetectable virus in the brain, and protected hamsters from almost all SARS-CoV-2-associated weight loss. Highly attenuated COVI-VAC is protective at a single intranasal dose in a relevant in vivo model. This, coupled with its large-scale manufacturing potential, supports its potential use in mass vaccination programs.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/farmacologia , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Chlorocebus aethiops , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mesocricetus , Pandemias , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Vacinação , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia , Células Vero
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207016

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the entire world, resulting in a tremendous change to people's lifestyles. We investigated the Korean public response to COVID-19 vaccines on social media from 23 February 2021 to 22 March 2021. We collected tweets related to COVID-19 vaccines using the Korean words for "coronavirus" and "vaccines" as keywords. A topic analysis was performed to interpret and classify the tweets, and a sentiment analysis was conducted to analyze public emotions displayed within the retrieved tweets. Out of a total of 13,414 tweets, 3509 were analyzed after preprocessing. Eight topics were extracted using the Latent Dirichlet Allocation model, and the most frequently tweeted topic was vaccine hesitation, consisting of fear, flu, safety of vaccination, time course, and degree of symptoms. The sentiment analysis revealed a similar ratio of positive and negative tweets immediately before and after the commencement of vaccinations, but negative tweets were prominent after the increase in the number of confirmed COVID-19 cases. The public's anticipation, disappointment, and fear regarding vaccinations are considered to be reflected in the tweets. However, long-term trend analysis will be needed in the future.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Mídias Sociais , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Mineração de Dados , Humanos , Pandemias , República da Coreia , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Am J Case Rep ; 22: e931478, 2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34285180

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is an immune response that destroys platelets and increases the risk of bleeding, which can range from bruising to intracranial hemorrhage. ITP is a known complication of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In the first studies of the BNT162b2 messenger RNA (mRNA) COVID-19 vaccine, there were no reports of ITP and the incidence of serious adverse events (AEs) was low overall. Here, we present a case of ITP as a complication of the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. CASE REPORT Three days after receiving a second dose of the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine, a 39-year-old woman presented with a petechial rash on her trunk, legs, and arms, and fatigue and muscle aches. At the time of her hospital admission, her platelet count was 1000/µL. A peripheral smear showed profound thrombocytopenia. During the course of the patient's hospitalization, she was treated with 2 units of platelets, 2 infusions of i.v. immunoglobulin, and i.v. methylprednisolone. Her platelet count increased to 92 000/µL on the day of discharge and she was prescribed a tapered dose of oral prednisone. One day later, her rash had resolved and her platelet count was 243 000/µL. The patient recovered completely with no complications. CONCLUSIONS ITP should be considered a severe AE of the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. Knowing the early signs and symptoms of ITP will become increasingly important as more of the population receives this vaccine. Quick diagnosis and management are essential to avoid life-threatening bleeding.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática , Trombocitopenia , Adulto , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Feminino , Humanos , RNA Mensageiro/genética , SARS-CoV-2 , Trombocitopenia/etiologia , Vacinação/efeitos adversos
10.
Euro Surveill ; 26(28)2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34269172

RESUMO

Adults receiving heterologous COVID-19 immunisation with mRNA (Comirnaty) or adenoviral-vector (Vaxzevria) vaccines had higher reactogenicity rates and sought medical attention more often after two doses than homologous schedules. Reactogenicity was higher among ≤ 50 than > 50 year-olds, women and those with prior symptomatic/confirmed COVID-19. Adults receiving heterologous schedules on clinical advice after severe first-dose reactions had lower reactogenicity after dose 2 following Vaxzevria/Comirnaty (93.4%; 95% confidence interval: 90.5-98.1 vs 48% (41.0-57.7) but not Comirnaty/Vaxzevria (91.7%; (77.5-98.2 vs 75.0% (57.8-87.9).


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Adulto , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinação
11.
Euro Surveill ; 26(28)2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34269175

RESUMO

Evidence on COVID-19 vaccine efficacy/effectiveness (VE) in preventing asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections is needed to guide public health recommendations for vaccinated people. We report interim results of a living systematic review. We identified a total of 30 studies that investigated VE against symptomatic and/or asymptomatic infection. In fully vaccinated individuals, VE against symptomatic and asymptomatic infections was 80-90% in nearly all studies. Fully vaccinated persons are less likely to become infected and contribute to transmission.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Infecções Assintomáticas , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208729

RESUMO

In the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, maintenance of protective behavior is a continued challenge in the effort to contain the spread of the virus. A cross-sectional study via an internet questionnaire was utilized to elucidate changes in compliance to protective behavior among the Israeli population (n = 1120), after the beginning of the vaccination campaign. Comparison was made between individuals who were previously infected with the virus, those who received one dose of inoculation with the vaccine, and individuals that were neither infected or vaccinated. The study results indicate that those who were previously infected with the COVID-19 virus were less careful about mask wearing (18.8%) and social distancing (29.7%), as compared to the other examined groups (regarding mask wearing, 8.2% and 11.6% respectively, and with regard to social distancing 12.8% and 19.2%), and may require targeted risk communication campaigns to address this population. Furthermore, the study revealed that those that were non-Jewish (as compared to Jewish study counterparts) or that were older (19+) were more vigilant in their protective behavior (29.6% vs. 11.2% respectively for social distancing and 29.6% vs. 11.1% respectively for mask wearing). Despite a successful initial vaccination campaign in Israel, public health officials need to engage all members of the public to unremittingly observe compliance to directed health guidelines, to ensure that the results of previous governmental efforts in fighting the pandemic (such as lockdowns) will be effectively sustained, and the road to containment will be hastened.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Medo , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Israel/epidemiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Vaccine ; 39(32): 4423-4428, 2021 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210573

RESUMO

A correlate of protection (CoP) is urgently needed to expedite development of additional COVID-19 vaccines to meet unprecedented global demand. To assess whether antibody titers may reasonably predict efficacy and serve as the basis of a CoP, we evaluated the relationship between efficacy and in vitro neutralizing and binding antibodies of 7 vaccines for which sufficient data have been generated. Once calibrated to titers of human convalescent sera reported in each study, a robust correlation was seen between neutralizing titer and efficacy (ρ = 0.79) and binding antibody titer and efficacy (ρ = 0.93), despite geographically diverse study populations subject to different forces of infection and circulating variants, and use of different endpoints, assays, convalescent sera panels and manufacturing platforms. Together with evidence from natural history studies and animal models, these results support the use of post-immunization antibody titers as the basis for establishing a correlate of protection for COVID-19 vaccines.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes , COVID-19 , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais , COVID-19/terapia , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Humanos , Imunização Passiva , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Vaccine ; 39(32): 4407-4409, 2021 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215453

RESUMO

Two mRNA vaccines for COVID-19, Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna, are approved for emergency use in the United States. After their approval and dosing in millions of recipients, reports of anaphylaxis began to appear in the Vaccine Adverse Reporting System (VAERS). Here we provide an analysis of the relationship between prior history of allergy and/or anaphylaxis and anaphylaxis rates following the administration of mRNA COVID-19 vaccines. Overall reported incidence of anaphylaxis was estimated to be rare at 4.2 cases per million doses. It appeared that the relative incidence of anaphylaxis following administration of these COVID-19 vaccines was two and seven times higher for recipients with a prior history of allergies and/or anaphylaxis, respectively. This report provides valuable metrics to make evidence-based decisions for subjects with pre-existing allergic conditions receiving a COVID-19 mRNA vaccine.


Assuntos
Anafilaxia , COVID-19 , Vacinas , Anafilaxia/induzido quimicamente , Anafilaxia/epidemiologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Humanos , RNA Mensageiro/genética , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Vacinas/efeitos adversos
17.
Vaccine ; 39(32): 4510-4515, 2021 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34217571

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 continues to ravage the world with economies and life significantly and negatively affected. Fortunately, there has been significant progress in the production of vaccines to stem the infection. However, with controversies and myths surrounding vaccinations, it is timely to examine individuals' willingness to vaccinate. The present study adapted the Motors of Influenza Vaccination Acceptance Scale (MoVac-Flu Scale) into the Motors of COVID-19 Vaccination Acceptance Scale (MoVac-COVID19S) for validation and assessed the acceptance of COVID-19 vaccination utilizing the cognitive model of empowerment (CME). METHODS: A total of 3145 university students (mean age = 20.80 years; SD = 2.09) were recruited for the present study between January 5 and 16, 2021. Two MoVac-COVID19S scales (9-item and 12-item) were adapted from the MoVac-Flu Scale, an instrument developed using CME. Psychometric tests were conducted to ascertain reliability and validity properties. RESULTS: The findings indicated that the MoVac-COVID19S had high internal consistency in both the 9-item version (ω = 0.921) and 12-item version (ω = 0.898). The factor structure of the MoVac-COVID19S (9-item and 12-item versions) corresponded well with CME theory. All the fit indices were satisfactory (comparative fit index = 0.984, Tucker-Lewis index = 0.971, root mean square error of approximation = 0.088, standardized root mean square residual = 0.058) but the 9-item MoVac-COVID had better fit indices than the 12-item MoVac-COVID due to the negative wording effects existing in the 12-item MoVac-COVID19S. The scale had satisfactory known-group validity in both 9-item and 12-item versions. CONCLUSIONS: The MoVac-COVID19S has promising psychometric properties based on internal consistency, factor structure, and known-group validity.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Influenza Humana , Adulto , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , China , Humanos , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Vacinação , Adulto Jovem
18.
Vaccine ; 39(32): 4404-4406, 2021 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34217573

RESUMO

Healthcare providers can play a key role in reaching the target for vaccine uptake through educating the public on the risk may be of severe allergic reactions to COVID-19 vaccines. Thus, it is important to resolve reports in the literature which present conflicting data on vaccine safety. We performed a prospective study of Pfizer-BioNTech vaccinations administered at the Albany Community Vaccination Center. All potential vaccinees to the site were screened for allergic history prior to triage by a board-certified allergist. In the first 14 days of operation, our site vaccinated 14,655 individuals, 3.9% of which had a personal history of anaphylaxis. While some vaccine recipients had non-allergic complications, none of the visitors suffered any objective, immediate allergic symptoms. Our findings indicate that specialist-confirmed rates of immediate allergic reaction to mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccination are far lower than self-reported rates defined by subjective, unconfirmed symptoms.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Humanos , Vacinação em Massa , Estudos Prospectivos , RNA Mensageiro/genética , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinação/efeitos adversos , Vacinas/efeitos adversos
19.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(7): JC75, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34224270

RESUMO

SOURCE CITATION: Sadoff J, Gray G, Vandebosch A, et al. Safety and efficacy of single-dose Ad26.COV2.S vaccine against Covid-19. N Engl J Med. 2021. [Epub ahead of print.] 33882225.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Vaccine ; 39(32): 4399-4403, 2021 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34226102

RESUMO

The skin represents an attractive target tissue for vaccination against respiratory viruses such as SARS-CoV-2. Laser-facilitated epicutaneous immunization (EPI) has been established as a novel technology to overcome the skin barrier, which combines efficient delivery via micropores with an inherent adjuvant effect due to the release of danger-associated molecular patterns. Here we delivered the S1 subunit of the Spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 to the skin of BALB/c mice via laser-generated micropores with or without CpG-ODN1826 or the B subunit of heat-labile enterotoxin of E.coli (LT-B). EPI induced serum IgG titers of 1:3200 that could be boosted 5 to 10-fold by co-administration of LT-B and CpG, respectively. Sera were able to inhibit binding of the spike protein to its receptor ACE2. Our data indicate that delivery of recombinant spike protein via the skin may represent an alternative route for vaccines against Covid-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Humanos , Imunização , Lasers , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Peptidil Dipeptidase A , Ligação Proteica , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinação
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