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1.
Front Immunol ; 11: 2130, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33013898

RESUMO

In the last decades, a number of infectious viruses have emerged from wildlife or re-emerged, generating serious threats to the global health and to the economy worldwide. Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fevers, Lassa fever, Dengue fever, Yellow fever, West Nile fever, Zika, and Chikungunya vector-borne diseases, Swine flu, Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and the recent Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are examples of zoonoses that have spread throughout the globe with such a significant impact on public health that the scientific community has been called for a rapid intervention in preventing and treating emerging infections. Vaccination is probably the most effective tool in helping the immune system to activate protective responses against pathogens, reducing morbidity and mortality, as proven by historical records. Under health emergency conditions, new and alternative approaches in vaccine design and development are imperative for a rapid and massive vaccination coverage, to manage a disease outbreak and curtail the epidemic spread. This review gives an update on the current vaccination strategies for some of the emerging/re-emerging viruses, and discusses challenges and hurdles to overcome for developing efficacious vaccines against future pathogens.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/prevenção & controle , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Vacinação , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Facilitadores/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Reações Cruzadas/imunologia , Humanos , Imunização Passiva , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia , Vacinas de DNA/imunologia , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/imunologia , Vacinas de Subunidades/imunologia
2.
Curr Opin HIV AIDS ; 15(6): 351-358, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969973

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is a highly transmittable and pathogenic pneumonia-causing disease, which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2, resulting in millions of deaths globally. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 may coexist with human populations for a long time. Therefore, high-effective COVID-19 vaccines are an urgent need. RECENT FINDINGS: Vaccines help in the development of long-lasting humoral or cellular immunity, or both, by exposing individuals to antigens that induce an immunological response and memory prior to infections with live pathogens. New vaccine technologies, such as viral vectors and nucleic acid-based vaccines, which represent highly versatile technologies, may allow for faster vaccine manufacture and scale up production. SUMMARY: We summarized the recent progress made in relation to COVID-19 vaccine development using several promising technologies, with particular emphasis on advancements that are currently at the clinical trial stage.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Adenoviridae/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Humanos , Vacinação , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia , Vacinas de DNA/imunologia , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/imunologia , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 677, 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32942991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Approximately 80% - 90% of individuals infected with latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) remain protected throughout their life-span. The release of unique, latent-phase antigens are known to have a protective role in the immune response against Mtb. Although the BCG vaccine has been administered for nine decades to provide immunity against Mtb, the number of TB cases continues to rise, thereby raising doubts on BCG vaccine efficacy. The shortcomings of BCG have been associated with inadequate processing and presentation of its antigens, an inability to optimally activate T cells against Mtb, and generation of regulatory T cells. Furthermore, BCG vaccination lacks the ability to eliminate latent Mtb infection. With these facts in mind, we selected six immunodominant CD4 and CD8 T cell epitopes of Mtb expressed during latent, acute, and chronic stages of infection and engineered a multi-epitope-based DNA vaccine (C6). RESULT: BALB/c mice vaccinated with the C6 construct along with a BCG vaccine exhibited an expansion of both CD4 and CD8 T cell memory populations and augmented IFN-γ and TNF-α cytokine release. Furthermore, enhancement of dendritic cell and macrophage activation was noted. Consequently, illustrating the elicitation of immunity that helps in the protection against Mtb infection; which was evident by a significant reduction in the Mtb burden in the lungs and spleen of C6 + BCG administered animals. CONCLUSION: Overall, the results suggest that a C6 + BCG vaccination approach may serve as an effective vaccination strategy in future attempts to control TB.


Assuntos
Vacina BCG/imunologia , Epitopos de Linfócito T , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Vacinas de DNA/imunologia , Animais , Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Vacina BCG/genética , Vacina BCG/farmacologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Epitopos de Linfócito T/genética , Feminino , Memória Imunológica , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Tuberculose Latente/prevenção & controle , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/imunologia , Tuberculose/imunologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Vacinas de DNA/farmacologia
4.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1817, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32793245

RESUMO

There is an urgent need for effective countermeasures against the current emergence and accelerating expansion of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Induction of herd immunity by mass vaccination has been a very successful strategy for preventing the spread of many infectious diseases, hence protecting the most vulnerable population groups unable to develop immunity, for example individuals with immunodeficiencies or a weakened immune system due to underlying medical or debilitating conditions. Therefore, vaccination represents one of the most promising counter-pandemic measures to COVID-19. However, to date, no licensed vaccine exists, neither for SARS-CoV-2 nor for the closely related SARS-CoV or Middle East respiratory syndrome-CoV. In addition, a few vaccine candidates have only recently entered human clinical trials, which hampers the progress in tackling COVID-19 infection. Here, we discuss potential prophylactic interventions for SARS-CoV-2 with a focus on the challenges existing for vaccine development, and we review pre-clinical progress and ongoing human clinical trials of COVID-19 vaccine candidates. Although COVID-19 vaccine development is currently accelerated via so-called fast-track programs, vaccines may not be timely available to have an impact on the first wave of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Nevertheless, COVID-19 vaccines will be essential in the future for reducing morbidity and mortality and inducing herd immunity, if SARS-CoV-2 becomes established in the population like for example influenza virus.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Imunidade Coletiva/imunologia , Vacinação em Massa/métodos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Vacinas de DNA/imunologia , Proteínas Virais/imunologia
5.
Viruses ; 12(8)2020 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32784685

RESUMO

Seven years after the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) outbreak, a new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) made its first appearance in a food market in Wuhan, China, drawing an entirely new course to our lives. As the virus belongs to the same genus of MERS and SARS, researchers have been trying to draw lessons from previous outbreaks to find a potential cure. Although there were five Phase I human vaccine trials against SARS and MERS, the lack of data in humans provided us with limited benchmarks that could help us design a new vaccine for Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In this review, we showcase the similarities in structures of virus components between SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2 in areas relevant to vaccine design. Using the ClinicalTrials.gov and World Health Organization (WHO) databases, we shed light on the 16 current approved clinical trials worldwide in search for a COVID-19 vaccine. The different vaccine platforms being tested are Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccines, DNA and RNA-based vaccines, inactivated vaccines, protein subunits, and viral vectors. By thoroughly analyzing different trials and platforms, we also discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using each type of vaccine and how they can contribute to the design of an adequate vaccine for COVID-19. Studying past efforts invested in conducting vaccine trials for MERS and SARS will provide vital insights regarding the best approach to designing an effective vaccine against COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/imunologia , Modelos Animais , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/prevenção & controle , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia , Vacinas de DNA/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem
6.
J Virol ; 94(19)2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669327

RESUMO

Infectious bronchitis (IB) caused by infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is currently a major threat to chicken health, with multiple outbreaks being reported in the United States over the past decade. Modified live virus (MLV) vaccines used in the field can persist and provide the genetic material needed for recombination and emergence of novel IBV serotypes. Inactivated and subunit vaccines overcome some of the limitations of MLV with no risk of virulence reversion and emergence of new virulent serotypes. However, these vaccines are weakly immunogenic and poorly protective. There is an urgent need to develop more effective vaccines that can elicit a robust, long-lasting immune response. In this study, we evaluate a novel adjuvant system developed from Quil-A and chitosan (QAC) for the intranasal delivery of nucleic acid immunogens to improve protective efficacy. The QAC adjuvant system forms nanocarriers (<100 nm) that efficiently encapsulate nucleic acid cargo, exhibit sustained release of payload, and can stably transfect cells. Encapsulation of plasmid DNA vaccine expressing IBV nucleocapsid (N) protein by the QAC adjuvant system (pQAC-N) enhanced immunogenicity, as evidenced by robust induction of adaptive humoral and cellular immune responses postvaccination and postchallenge. Birds immunized with pQAC-N showed reduced clinical severity and viral shedding postchallenge on par with protection observed with current commercial vaccines without the associated safety concerns. Presented results indicate that the QAC adjuvant system can offer a safer alternative to the use of live vaccines against avian and other emerging coronaviruses.IMPORTANCE According to 2017 U.S. agriculture statistics, the combined value of production and sales from broilers, eggs, turkeys, and chicks was $42.8 billion. Of this number, broiler sales comprised 67% of the industry value, with the production of >50 billion pounds of chicken meat. The economic success of the poultry industry in the United States hinges on the extensive use of vaccines to control infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and other poultry pathogens. The majority of vaccines currently licensed for poultry health include both modified live vaccine and inactivated pathogens. Despite their proven efficacy, modified live vaccine constructs take time to produce and could revert to virulence, which limits their safety. The significance of our research stems from the development of a safer and potent alternative mucosal vaccine to replace live vaccines against IBV and other emerging coronaviruses.


Assuntos
Bronquite/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Gammacoronavirus/imunologia , Membrana Mucosa/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Animais , Bronquite/virologia , Galinhas , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Imunidade Celular , Imunização , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/imunologia , Nucleocapsídeo/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Vacinas de DNA/imunologia , Carga Viral
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 493, 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650739

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that can infect almost all warm-blooded animals, avian species and humans. Toxoplasmosis is asymptomatic in healthy individuals, whereas it may lead to death in immune suppressed or deficient patients. A vaccine against T. gondii is required to prevent consequences of the infection. The aim of this study is to generate a multivalent recombinant protein vaccine against T. gondii. METHODS: 49 previously discovered antigenic proteins of T gondii were evaluated by their expression level in E. coli and by comprehensive bioinformatics analyses to determine antigenic epitopes. Based on these analyses, six vaccine candidate proteins were selected to generate a hexavalent recombinant protein vaccine adjuvanted with Montanide ISA 50 V. Humoral and cellular immune responses were determined by flow cytometry and ELISA. Vaccinated mice were challenged with T. gondii Ankara strain tachyzoites. RESULTS: In mice vaccinated with hexavalent vaccine, strong total IgG (P < 0.0001) and IgG2a (P < 0.001) responses were induced compared to controls, the ratio of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes secreting IFN-γ increased, and significantly higher extracellular IFN-γ secretion was achieved compared to the controls (P < 0.001). The survival time of the vaccinated mice increased to 8.38 ± 2.13 days which was significantly higher than controls (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Altogether, these results show that the hexavalent vaccine which is developed for the first time against T. gondii induced strong and balanced Th1 and Th2 immune responses as well as conferred significant protection against challenge with lethal toxoplasmosis in murine model.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Vacinas Protozoárias/farmacologia , Toxoplasmose/prevenção & controle , Vacinas de DNA/farmacologia , Animais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Epitopos/genética , Epitopos/imunologia , Escherichia coli/genética , Feminino , Imunidade Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade Humoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Camundongos , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Proteínas de Protozoários/imunologia , Vacinas Protozoárias/genética , Vacinas Protozoárias/imunologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Toxoplasma/patogenicidade , Toxoplasmose/imunologia , Vacinas de DNA/imunologia
8.
Paediatr Respir Rev ; 35: 43-49, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653463

RESUMO

There is a strong consensus globally that a COVID-19 vaccine is likely the most effective approach to sustainably controlling the COVID-19 pandemic. An unprecedented research effort and global coordination has resulted in a rapid development of vaccine candidates and initiation of trials. Here, we review vaccine types, and progress with 10 vaccine candidates against SARS-CoV-2 - the virus that causes COVID-19 - currently undergoing early phase human trials. We also consider the many challenges of developing and deploying a new vaccine on a global scale, and recommend caution with respect to our expectations of the timeline that may be ahead.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Vacinas de DNA/uso terapêutico , Vacinas Sintéticas/uso terapêutico , Vacinas Virais/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Humanos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/imunologia , Vírus da SARS/imunologia , Vacinas de DNA/imunologia , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia
9.
Parasitol Res ; 119(9): 2885-2895, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32715344

RESUMO

Chicken coccidiosis is a protozoan parasitic disease that leads to considerable economic losses in the poultry industry. In this study, we used invasive Lactobacillus plantarum (L.P) expressing the FnBPA protein as a novel bacterial carrier for DNA delivery into epithelial cells to develop a live oral DNA vaccine. A fusion DNA vaccine co-expressing EtMIC2 and chicken IL-18 (chIL-18) was constructed and then delivered to the host by invasive L.P. Its efficacy against Eimeria tenella challenge was evaluated in chickens by examining the relative weight gain rate; caecal lesion score; OPG; anti-coccidial index (ACI); levels of EtMIC2 antibody, FnBPA, IL-4, IL-18, IFN-γ and SIgA; and proliferation ability and percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ splenocytes. The experimental results showed that chickens immunized with invasive L.P carrying the eukaryotic expression vector pValac-EtMIC2 (pValac-EtMIC2/pSIP409-FnBPA) had markedly improved immune protection against challenge compared with that of chickens immunized with non-invasive L.P (pValac-EtMIC2/pSIP409). However, invasive L.P co-expressing EtMIC2 with the chIL-18 vector exhibited the highest protection efficiency against E. tenella. These results indicate that invasive Lactobacillus-expressing FnBPA improved humoural and cellular immunity and enhanced resistance to E. tenella. The DNA vaccine delivered by invasive Lactobacillus provides a new concept and method for the prevention of E. tenella.


Assuntos
Antígeno 12E7/metabolismo , Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeria tenella/imunologia , Interleucina-18/metabolismo , Lactobacillus plantarum/metabolismo , Vacinas Protozoárias/imunologia , Vacinas de DNA/imunologia , Animais , Ceco/parasitologia , Galinhas/parasitologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Eimeria tenella/genética , Imunidade Celular/imunologia , Imunoglobulina A Secretora/genética , Lactobacillus plantarum/genética , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/veterinária , Ganho de Peso
11.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(6): e1008522, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32589686

RESUMO

DNA vectors have been widely used as a priming of poxvirus vaccine in prime/boost regimens. Whether the number of DNA impacts qualitatively or quantitatively the immune response is not fully explored. With the aim to reinforce T-cell responses by optimizing the prime-boost regimen, the multicentric EV03/ANRS VAC20 phase I/II trial, randomized 147 HIV-negative volunteers to either 3xDNA plus 1xNYVAC (weeks 0, 4, 8 plus 24; n = 74) or to 2xDNA plus 2xNYVAC (weeks 0, 4 plus 20, 24; n = 73) groups. T-cell responses (IFN-γ ELISPOT) to at least one peptide pool were higher in the 3xDNA than the 2xDNA groups (91% and 80% of vaccinees) (P = 0.049). In the 3xDNA arm, 26 (37%) recipients developed a broader T-cell response (Env plus at least to one of the Gag, Pol, Nef pools) than in the 2xDNA (15; 22%) arms (primary endpoint; P = 0.047) with a higher magnitude against Env (at week 26) (P<0.001). In both groups, vaccine regimens induced HIV-specific polyfunctional CD4 and CD8 T cells and the production of Th1, Th2 and Th17/IL-21 cytokines. Antibody responses were also elicited in up to 81% of vaccines. A higher percentage of IgG responders was noted in the 2xDNA arm compared to the 3xDNA arm, while the 3xDNA group tended to elicit a higher magnitude of IgG3 response against specific Env antigens. We show here that the modulation of the prime strategy, without modifying the route or the dose of administration, or the combination of vectors, may influence the quality of the responses.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra a AIDS/imunologia , Vetores Genéticos/imunologia , Antígenos HIV/imunologia , Poxviridae/imunologia , Vacinas de DNA/imunologia , Produtos do Gene env do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/imunologia , Vacinas contra a AIDS/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra a AIDS/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Feminino , Vetores Genéticos/administração & dosagem , Vetores Genéticos/genética , Antígenos HIV/administração & dosagem , Antígenos HIV/genética , Humanos , Interferon gama/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Poxviridae/genética , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/metabolismo , Vacinas de DNA/administração & dosagem , Vacinas de DNA/genética , Produtos do Gene env do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/administração & dosagem , Produtos do Gene env do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/genética
13.
Arch Virol ; 165(9): 1959-1968, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32519007

RESUMO

Newcastle disease (ND), caused by virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strains, has been one of the most problematic diseases affecting the poultry industry worldwide. Conventional vaccines provide effective protection for birds to survive ND outbreaks, but they may not completely suppress NDV shedding. NDV strains circulate on farms for a long time after the initial infection and cause potential risks. A new vaccine with fast clearance ability and low viral shedding is needed. In this study, we used interleukin-12 (IL-12) as an adjuvant and electroporation (EP) as an advanced delivery system to improve a DNA vaccine candidate. The fusion (F) protein gene from an NDV strain of the prevalent genotype VII.1.1 was cloned to prepare the vaccine. Chickens immunized with the F gene DNA vaccine co-delivered with an IL-12-expressing plasmid DNA showed higher neutralizing antibody levels and stronger concanavalin-A-induced lymphocyte proliferation than those treated with the F gene DNA vaccine alone. The co-delivered vaccine provided 100% protection, and less viral shedding and a shorter release time were observed in challenged chickens than when the F gene DNA vaccine was administered alone. The use of F gene DNA combined with IL-12 delivered by electroporation is a promising approach for vaccination against ND.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Interleucina-12/imunologia , Doença de Newcastle/prevenção & controle , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Vacinas de DNA/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Galinhas , Eletroporação , Interleucina-12/administração & dosagem , Doença de Newcastle/imunologia , Doença de Newcastle/virologia , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/genética , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/fisiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Vacinação , Vacinas de DNA/administração & dosagem , Vacinas de DNA/genética , Proteínas Virais de Fusão/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Virais de Fusão/genética , Proteínas Virais de Fusão/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Virais/genética , Eliminação de Partículas Virais
14.
Mol Immunol ; 124: 161-171, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32585510

RESUMO

Leishmania infantum pyridoxal kinase (PK) protein was characterized after an immunoproteomics screening performed with the sera from patients suffering visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Since it was recognized by sera of mammalian hosts infected by a viscerotropic Leishmania species, PK could emerge as a new vaccine candidate against disease, due to its antigenicity and immunogenicity. In this context, in the present study, the effects of the immunization using PK were evaluated when administered as a DNA plasmid (pDNAA3/PK) or recombinant protein (rPK) plus saponin. The immune response elicited by both vaccination regimens reduced in significant levels the parasite load in spleen, liver, draining lymph nodes and bone marrow, being associated with the development of Th1-type immune response, which was characterized by high levels of IFN-γ, IL-12, GM-CSF, and specific IgG2a antibody, besides low production of IL-4, IL-10, and protein and parasite-specific IgG1 antibodies. CD8+ T cells were more important in the IFN-γ production in the pDNAA3/PK group, while CD4+ T cells contributed more significantly to production of this cytokine in the rPK/Saponin group. In addition, increased IFN-γ secretion, along with low levels of IL-10, were found when PBMCs from VL patients after treatment and healthy individuals were stimulated with the protein. In conclusion, when administered either as a DNA plasmid or recombinant protein plus adjuvant, PK can direct the immune response towards a Th1-type immune profile, protecting mice against L. infantum challenge; therefore, it can be seen as a promising immunogen against human VL.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Vacinas contra Leishmaniose/imunologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/imunologia , Piridoxal Quinase/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/imunologia , Humanos , Leishmania infantum/imunologia , Camundongos , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Vacinas de DNA/imunologia
15.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2601, 2020 05 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-326048

RESUMO

The coronavirus family member, SARS-CoV-2 has been identified as the causal agent for the pandemic viral pneumonia disease, COVID-19. At this time, no vaccine is available to control further dissemination of the disease. We have previously engineered a synthetic DNA vaccine targeting the MERS coronavirus Spike (S) protein, the major surface antigen of coronaviruses, which is currently in clinical study. Here we build on this prior experience to generate a synthetic DNA-based vaccine candidate targeting SARS-CoV-2 S protein. The engineered construct, INO-4800, results in robust expression of the S protein in vitro. Following immunization of mice and guinea pigs with INO-4800 we measure antigen-specific T cell responses, functional antibodies which neutralize the SARS-CoV-2 infection and block Spike protein binding to the ACE2 receptor, and biodistribution of SARS-CoV-2 targeting antibodies to the lungs. This preliminary dataset identifies INO-4800 as a potential COVID-19 vaccine candidate, supporting further translational study.


Assuntos
Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Vacinas de DNA/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Antígenos Virais/química , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Mapeamento de Epitopos , Cobaias , Imunidade Humoral , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Pulmão/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio , Modelos Animais , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Vacinas Virais/química
16.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2601, 2020 05 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32433465

RESUMO

The coronavirus family member, SARS-CoV-2 has been identified as the causal agent for the pandemic viral pneumonia disease, COVID-19. At this time, no vaccine is available to control further dissemination of the disease. We have previously engineered a synthetic DNA vaccine targeting the MERS coronavirus Spike (S) protein, the major surface antigen of coronaviruses, which is currently in clinical study. Here we build on this prior experience to generate a synthetic DNA-based vaccine candidate targeting SARS-CoV-2 S protein. The engineered construct, INO-4800, results in robust expression of the S protein in vitro. Following immunization of mice and guinea pigs with INO-4800 we measure antigen-specific T cell responses, functional antibodies which neutralize the SARS-CoV-2 infection and block Spike protein binding to the ACE2 receptor, and biodistribution of SARS-CoV-2 targeting antibodies to the lungs. This preliminary dataset identifies INO-4800 as a potential COVID-19 vaccine candidate, supporting further translational study.


Assuntos
Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Vacinas de DNA/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Antígenos Virais/química , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Mapeamento de Epitopos , Cobaias , Imunidade Humoral , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Pulmão/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio , Modelos Animais , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Vacinas Virais/química
17.
Science ; 369(6505): 806-811, 2020 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32434945

RESUMO

The global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has made the development of a vaccine a top biomedical priority. In this study, we developed a series of DNA vaccine candidates expressing different forms of the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein and evaluated them in 35 rhesus macaques. Vaccinated animals developed humoral and cellular immune responses, including neutralizing antibody titers at levels comparable to those found in convalescent humans and macaques infected with SARS-CoV-2. After vaccination, all animals were challenged with SARS-CoV-2, and the vaccine encoding the full-length S protein resulted in >3.1 and >3.7 log10 reductions in median viral loads in bronchoalveolar lavage and nasal mucosa, respectively, as compared with viral loads in sham controls. Vaccine-elicited neutralizing antibody titers correlated with protective efficacy, suggesting an immune correlate of protection. These data demonstrate vaccine protection against SARS-CoV-2 in nonhuman primates.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Vacinas de DNA/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Celular , Imunidade Humoral , Imunização Secundária , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Memória Imunológica , Macaca mulatta , Masculino , Proteínas Mutantes/química , Proteínas Mutantes/imunologia , Mucosa Nasal/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Domínios Proteicos , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Vacinação , Vacinas de DNA/administração & dosagem , Carga Viral , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem
18.
Immunology ; 160(3): 223-232, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460358

RESUMO

Since the first World Health Organization notification on 31 December 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the respiratory disease caused by the coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), has been responsible for over four million confirmed infections and almost 300 000 deaths worldwide. The pandemic has led to over half of the world's population living under lockdown conditions. To allow normal life to resume, public health interventions will be needed to prevent further waves of infections as lockdown measures are lifted. As one of the most effective countermeasures against infectious diseases, an efficacious vaccine is considered crucial to containing the COVID-19 pandemic. Following the publication of the genome sequence of SARS-CoV-2, vaccine development has accelerated at an unprecedented pace across the world. Here we review the different platforms employed to develop vaccines, the standard timelines of development and how they can be condensed in a pandemic situation. We focus on vaccine development in the UK and vaccines that have entered clinical trials around the world.


Assuntos
Vacinas Virais , Animais , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Subunidades Proteicas/imunologia , Reino Unido , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia , Vacinas de DNA/imunologia , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia
20.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e190396, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32321154

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nanoparticles (NPs) are viable candidates as carriers of exogenous materials into cells via transfection and can be used in the DNA vaccination strategy against leptospirosis. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the efficiency of halloysite clay nanotubes (HNTs) and amine-functionalised multi-walled carbon nanotubes (NH2-MWCNTs) in facilitating recombinant LemA antigen (rLemA) expression and protecting Golden Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) against Leptospira interrogans lethal infection. METHODS: An indirect immunofluorescent technique was used to investigate the potency of HNTs and NH2-MWCNTs in enhancing the transfection and expression efficiency of the DNA vaccine in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Hamsters were immunised with two doses of vaccines HNT-pTARGET/lemA, NH2-MWCNTs-pTARGET/lemA, pTARGET/lemA, and empty pTARGET (control), and the efficacy was determined in terms of humoral immune response and protection against a lethal challenge. FINDINGS: rLemA DNA vaccines carried by NPs were able to transfect CHO cells effectively, inducing IgG immune response in hamsters (p < 0.05), and did not exhibit cytotoxic effects. Furthermore, 83.3% of the hamsters immunised with NH2-MWCNTs-pTARGET/lemA were protected against the lethal challenge (p < 0.01), and 66.7% of hamsters immunised with HNT-pTARGET/lemA survived (p < 0.05). MAIN CONCLUSIONS: NH2-MWCNTs and HNTs can act as antigen carriers for mammalian cells and are suitable for DNA nanovaccine delivery.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias/administração & dosagem , Proteínas de Bactérias/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Bacterianas/administração & dosagem , Leptospirose/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Transcrição/administração & dosagem , Vacinas de DNA/administração & dosagem , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/imunologia , Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/imunologia , Vacinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Cricetinae , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo , Leptospira interrogans/imunologia , Leptospirose/imunologia , Nanopartículas , Fatores de Transcrição/imunologia , Vacinas de DNA/imunologia
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