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1.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 107(5): 974-983, 2022 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36395746

RESUMO

The recommended schedule for killed oral cholera vaccine (OCV) is two doses, 2 weeks apart. However, during vaccine campaigns, the second round is often delayed by several months. Because more information is needed to document antibody responses when the second dose is delayed, we conducted an open-label, phase 2, noninferiority clinical trial of OCV. One hundred eighty-six participants were randomized into three dose-interval groups (DIGs) to receive the second dose 2 weeks, 6 months, or 11.5 months after the first dose. The DIGs were stratified into three age strata: 1 to 4, 5 to 14, and > 14 years. Inaba and Ogawa vibriocidal titers were assessed before and after vaccination. The primary analysis was geometric mean titer (GMT) 2 weeks after the second dose. Data for primary analysis was available from 147 participants (54, 44, and 49 participants from the three DIGs respectively). Relative to the 2-week interval, groups receiving a delayed second dose had significantly higher GMTs after the second dose. Two weeks after the second dose, Inaba GMTs were 55.1 190.3, and 289.8 and Ogawa GMTs were 70.4, 134.5, and 302.4 for the three DIGs respectively. The elevated titers were brief, returning to lower levels within 3 months. We conclude that when the second dose of killed oral cholera vaccine was given after 6 or 11.5 months, vibriocidal titers were higher than when given after the standard period of 2 weeks. This provides reassurance that a delayed second dose does not compromise, but rather enhances, the serological response to the vaccine.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Cólera , Cólera , Humanos , Adolescente , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados , Camarões , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Administração Oral , Cólera/prevenção & controle
2.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 408, 2022 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36401270

RESUMO

AIM: This study evaluated the effect of co-administration of vitamin C and Arabic gum (AG) supplements on the response of vaccinated (VAC) and challenged laying Japanese quails with avian influenza virus (AIV) H9N2. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and fifty 49-day-old laying Japanese quails were divided into 5 groups (G1-G5): the G1 group was a negative control, G2 group was unvaccinated + H9N2 challenged (Ch), G3 group was unvaccinated + supplements + Ch, G4 group was VAC + Ch, and the G5 group was VAC + supplements + Ch. The supplements (vitamin C, 1 g/liter of drinking water and AG, 1% ration) were given for 5 weeks post-vaccination (PV). The birds were injected subcutaneously with an inactivated H9N2 vaccine at 49 days of age. The quails were then challenged intranasally with AIV H9N2 at the 3rd week PV. Blood, tracheal swab and tissue samples were collected at the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd weeks PV, and at different time points post-challenge (PC). RESULTS: Growth performance, egg production (%), egg and eggshell weights, HI antibody titers, clinical signs, lesions, mortality, virus shedding rates, leukogram, biochemical and immunological parameters and histopathological lesions PC showed significant differences (P < 0.05) between the vaccinated-unsupplemented (G4) group and the vaccinated-supplemented (G5) group. G5 showed the highest (P < 0.05) growth performance, egg production, HI antibody titers, and heterophil phagocytic activity and the lowest heterophil/lymphocyte (H/L) ratio, mortality, virus shedding rates, creatinine level and histopathological lesion scores in the lungs. CONCLUSION: The co-administration of vitamin C and AG for 5 weeks can improve growth performance, egg production and the immune response in vaccinated laying quails challenged with AIV H9N2.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H9N2 , Influenza Aviária , Animais , Coturnix , Ácido Ascórbico/farmacologia , Galinhas , Óvulo , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados
3.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 7120, 2022 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36402756

RESUMO

With declining SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody titers and increasing numbers of spike mutations, the ongoing emergence of Omicron subvariants causes serious challenges to current vaccination strategies. BA.2 breakthrough infections have occurred in people who have received the wild-type vaccines, including mRNA, inactivated, or recombinant protein vaccines. Here, we evaluate the antibody evasion of recently emerged subvariants BA.4/5 and BA.2.75 in two inactivated vaccine-immunized cohorts with BA.2 breakthrough infections. Compared with the neutralizing antibody titers against BA.2, marked reductions are observed against BA.2.75 in both 2-dose and 3-dose vaccine groups. In addition, although BA.2 breakthrough infections induce a certain cross-neutralization capacity against later Omicron subvariants, the original antigenic sin phenomenon largely limits the improvement of variant-specific antibody response. These findings suggest that BA.2 breakthrough infections seem unable to provide sufficient antibody protection against later subvariants such as BA.2.75 in the current immunization background with wild-type vaccines.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas Virais , Humanos , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados , Anticorpos Antivirais
4.
BMC Immunol ; 23(1): 57, 2022 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36384440

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To determine the dynamic SARS-CoV-2 specific antibody levels induced by 3 doses of an inactivated COVID-19 vaccine, CoronaVac. An observational, prospective cohort study was performed with 93 healthy healthcare workers from a tertiary hospital in Nanjing, China. Serum SARS-CoV-2 specific IgM, IgG, and neutralizing antibodies (NAb) were measured at different time points among participants who received 3 doses of inactivated COVID-19 vaccine. RESULTS: 91.3% (85/93) and 100% (72/72) participants showed positive both for SARS-CoV-2 specific IgG and NAb after 2-dose CoronaVac and after 3-dose CoronaVac, respectively. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG responses reached 91.21 (55.66-152.06) AU/mL, and surrogate NAb was 47.60 (25.96-100.81) IU/mL on day 14 after the second dose. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG responses reached 218.29 (167.53-292.16) AU/mL and surrogate NAb was 445.54 (171.54-810.90) IU/mL on day 14 after the third dose. Additionally, SARS-CoV-2 specific surrogate neutralizing antibody titers were highly correlated with serum neutralization activities against Ancestral, Omicron, and Delta strains. Moreover, significantly higher SARS-CoV-2 IgG responses, but not NAb responses, were found in individuals with breakthrough infection when compared to that of 3-dose CoronaVac recipients. CONCLUSIONS: CoronaVac elicited robust SARS-CoV-2 specific humoral responses. Surrogate NAb assay might substitute for pseudovirus neutralization assay. Monitoring SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses induced by vaccination would provide important guidance for the optimization of COVID-19 vaccines.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas Virais , Humanos , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Imunidade Humoral , Estudos Prospectivos , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados , Estudos Longitudinais , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Anticorpos Antivirais , Imunoglobulina G , Estudos de Coortes
5.
F1000Res ; 11: 259, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36176546

RESUMO

A systematic review of clinical trials conducted with a low-dose inactivated influenza vaccine adjuvanted by azoximer bromide (AZB, Polyoxidonium), was performed to compare vaccine reactogenicity against non-adjuvant vaccines. We also assessed whether lower amounts of antigen per viral strain in AZB-adjuvanted vaccines affected antibody responses. A robust search strategy identified scientific publications reporting 30 clinical trials, comprising data on 11,736 participants and 86 trial arms, for inclusion in the analysis. Local reaction rates (R lr) appeared to be lower in AZB-adjuvanted vaccine treatment arms versus comparator vaccine treatment arms. Meta­regression analysis revealed that AZB did not contribute to vaccine reactogenicity. Post-vaccination geometric mean titres in those exposed to AZB-adjuvanted vaccine and comparator vaccine treatment arms were similar in both children and adults aged 18-60 years, implying an antigen-sparing effect by AZB.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Vacinas contra Influenza/efeitos adversos , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Anticorpos Antivirais , Polímeros , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/efeitos adversos , Vacinas de Subunidades/efeitos adversos
6.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 23(11): 899-914, 2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36379610

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to observe the clinical and immune response characteristics of vaccinated persons infected with the delta variant of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in Yangzhou, China. METHODS: We extracted the medical data of 129 patients with delta-variant infection who were admitted to Northern Jiangsu People's Hospital (Yangzhou, China) between August and September, 2021. The patients were grouped according to the number of vaccine doses received into an unvaccinated group: a one-dose group and a two-dose group. The vaccine used was SARS-CoV-2-inactivated vaccine developed by Sinovac. We retrospectively analyzed the patients' epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and imaging data. RESULTS: Almost all patients with delta-variant infection in Yangzhou were elderly, and patients with severe/critical illness were over 70 years of age. The rates of severe/critical illness (P=0.006), fever (P=0.025), and dyspnea (P=0.045) were lower in the two-dose group than in the unvaccinated group. Compared to the unvaccinated group, the two-dose group showed significantly higher lymphocyte counts and significantly lower levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and D-dimer during hospitalization and a significantly higher positive rate of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies at admission (all P<0.05). The cumulative probabilities of hospital discharge and negative virus conversion were also higher in the two-dose group than in the unvaccinated group (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Two doses of the SARS-CoV-2-inactivated vaccine were highly effective at limiting symptomatic disease and reducing immune response, while a single dose did not seem to be effective.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/efeitos adversos , Estado Terminal , Imunidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/efeitos adversos , Vacinas Virais/efeitos adversos
7.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e063919, 2022 11 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36368753

RESUMO

ObjectiveTwo COVID-19 outbreaks occurred in Henan province in early 2022-one was a Delta variant outbreak and the other was an Omicron variant outbreak. COVID-19 vaccines used at the time of the outbreak were inactivated, 91.8%; protein subunit, 7.5%; and adenovirus5-vectored, 0.7% vaccines. The outbreaks provided an opportunity to evaluate variant-specific breakthrough infection rates and relative protective effectiveness of homologous inactivated COVID-19 vaccine booster doses against symptomatic infection and pneumonia. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study METHODS: We evaluated relative vaccine effectiveness (rVE) with a retrospective cohort study of close contacts of infected individuals using a time-dependent Cox regression model. Demographic and epidemiologic data were obtained from the local Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; clinical and laboratory data were obtained from COVID-19-designated hospitals. Vaccination histories were obtained from the national COVID-19 vaccination dataset. All data were linked by national identification number. RESULTS: Among 784 SARS-CoV-2 infections, 379 (48.3%) were caused by Delta and 405 (51.7%) were caused by Omicron, with breakthrough rates of 9.9% and 17.8%, respectively. Breakthrough rates among boosted individuals were 8.1% and 4.9%. Compared with subjects who received primary vaccination series ≥180 days before infection, Cox regression modelling showed that homologous inactivated booster vaccination was statistically significantly associated with protection from symptomatic infection caused by Omicron (rVE 59%; 95% CI 13% to 80%) and pneumonia caused by Delta (rVE 62%; 95% CI 34% to 77%) and Omicron (rVE 87%; 95% CI 3% to 98%). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 vaccination in China provided good protection against symptomatic COVID-19 and COVID-19 pneumonia caused by Delta and Omicron variants. Protection declined 6 months after primary series vaccination but was restored by homologous inactivated booster doses given 6 months after the primary series.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Estados Unidos , Humanos , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Estudos Retrospectivos , Eficácia de Vacinas , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 6866, 2022 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36369243

RESUMO

The effectiveness of a 3rd dose of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines waned quickly in the Omicron-predominant period. In response to fast-waning immunity and the threat of Omicron variant of concern (VOC) to healthcare workers (HCWs), we conduct a non-randomized trial (ChiCTR2200055564) in which 38 HCWs volunteer to receive a homologous booster of inactivated vaccines (BBIBP-CorV) 6 months after the 3rd dose. The primary and secondary outcomes are neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) and the receptor-binding domain (RBD)-directed antibodies, respectively. The 4th dose recalls waned immunity while having distinct effects on humoral responses to different antigens. The peak antibody response to the RBD induced by the 4th dose is inferior to that after the 3rd dose, whereas responses to the N-terminal domain (NTD) of spike protein are further strengthened significantly. Accordingly, the 4th dose further elevates the peak level of NAbs against ancestral SARS-CoV-2 and Omicron BA.2, but not BA.1 which has more NTD mutations. No severe adverse events related to vaccination are recorded during the trial. Here, we show that redistribution of immune focus after repeated vaccinations may modulate cross-protective immune responses against different VOCs.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas Virais , Humanos , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Imunidade Humoral , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , SARS-CoV-2 , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados , Proteínas do Envelope Viral
9.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1017590, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36426361

RESUMO

Background: In response to SARS-CoV-2 mutations and waning antibody levels after two-dose inactivated vaccines, we assessed whether a third dose of recombinant protein subunit vaccine (ZF2001) boosts immune responses. Methods: An open-label single-center non-random trial was conducted on people aged 18 years and above at five sites in China. All participants received a two-dose inactivated vaccine (CoronaVac) as their prime doses within 3-9 months of the trial. Primary outcomes were safety and immunogenicity, primarily the geometric mean titers (GMTs) of neutralizing antibodies to live wildtype SARS-CoV-2. Results: A total of 480 participants (median age, 51; range 21-84 years) previously vaccinated with two-dose CoronaVac received a third booster dose of ZF2001 3-4, 5-6, or 7-9-months later. The overall incidence of adverse reactions within 30 days after vaccination was 5.83% (28/480). No serious adverse reactions were reported after the third dose of ZF2001. GMTs in the 3-4-, 5-6-, and 7-9-month groups before vaccination were 3.96, 4.60, and 3.78, respectively. On Day 14, GMTs increased to 33.06, 47.51, and 44.12, respectively. After the booster, GMTs showed no significant difference among the three prime-boost interval groups (all P>0.05). Additionally, GMTs in older adults were lower than those in younger adults on Day 14 for the three groups (P=0.0005, P<0.0001, and P<0.0001). Conclusion: Heterologous boosting with ZF2001 was safe and immunogenic, and prime-boost intervals did not affect the immune response. The immune response was weaker in older than younger adults.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Idoso , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/efeitos adversos , Subunidades Proteicas , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/administração & dosagem , Vacinas de Subunidades/efeitos adversos , Vacinas Sintéticas/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais
10.
Transpl Immunol ; 75: 101732, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36328249

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Inactivated (killed) vaccines against COVID-19 have been widely used for the control of the pandemic condition. We performed a systematic and meta-analysis review of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of the immunogenicity of inactivated vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 in healthy individuals. METHODS: In the present study, all research and evidence were extracted from the available online databases. Two researchers randomly evaluated the assessment of the research sensitivity. Finally, after quality assessment and regarding the specific inclusion and exclusion criteria, the eligible articles were entered for meta-analysis. The heterogeneity between the results of the studies was measured using test statistics (Cochran's Q) and the I2 index. The forest plots illustrated the point and pooled estimates with 95% confidence intervals (crossed lines). All statistical analyses were performed using Comprehensive meta-Analysis V.2 software. RESULTS: This meta-analysis included six primary studies investigating the immunogenicity of inactivated vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 in healthy individuals. According to the pooled prevalence (95% confidence interval), neutralizing antibody responses 28 days after receiving the second dose regarding different ages and micrograms per dose was 95.50% (CI: 93.2-97.1%). Our results showed that antibody levels were higher in the 6 µg group than in other groups. 98.3% (CI: 94.2-99.5%). CONCLUSION: Since the rapid development of vaccinations has sparked widespread public anxiety regarding vaccine efficacy. Governments and unvaccinated individuals, particularly those with vaccination reluctance, will be interested in and benefit from the findings of this systematic study.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas Virais , Humanos , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Anticorpos Antivirais , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
11.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 34(9): 915-920, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36377443

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of 2019 novel coronavirus inactivated vaccine on the disease severity of patients with Delta variant of coronavirus disease 2019. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed on 704 patients with coronavirus disease 2019 infected with Delta variant who were older than 18 years old and admitted in the coronavirus disease 2019 designated hospital of Yangzhou (Subei Hospital New Area Branch) from July 2021 to September 2021. They were divided into severe (severe, critical) group and non-severe (light, ordinary) group according to the clinical characteristics of patients. According to the vaccination status, they were divided into 0-dose group, 1-dose group and 2-dose group. We evaluated the effects of vaccination on the severity of the disease and the production of antibodies, and analyzed the influencing factors leading to the severe group of coronavirus disease 2019. RESULTS: The proportion of severe group in the 2-dose vaccinated group was significantly lower than that in the 1-dose vaccinated group and 0-dose vaccinated group [3.02% (7/232) vs. 9.48% (22/232), 15.83% (38/240), P < 0.05]. The time from onset to admission (day: 1.97±1.66 vs. 2.66±2.70), age (years: 45.3±12.2 vs. 63.6±17.0), direct bilirubin [DBil (µmol/L): 3.70±1.83 vs. 5.30±5.13], lactate dehydrogenase [LDH (U/L): 240.69±74.29 vs. 256.30±85.18], creatinine [SCr (µmol/L): 63.38±19.86 vs. 70.23±25.43], interleukin-6 [IL-6 (ng/L): 7.32 (1.54, 17.40) vs. 18.38 (8.83, 33.43)], creatine kinase [CK (U/L): 66.00 (43.00, 99.75) vs. 78.00 (54.50, 144.00)] and D-dimer [mg/L: 0.30 (0.08, 0.49) vs. 0.41 (0.23, 0.69)] of patients in the 2-dose group were significantly lower than those in the 0-dose group (all P < 0.05), while platelet [PLT (×109/L): 176.69±60.25 vs. 149.25±59.07], white blood cell count [WBC (×109/L): 5.43±1.77 vs. 5.03±1.88] and lymphocyte [LYM (×109/L): 1.34±0.88 vs. 1.17±0.50] were significantly higher than those in the 0-dose group (all P < 0.05). The titer of immunoglobulin G (IgG) in the 2-dose group was significantly higher than those in the 1-dose group and 0-dose group on the 10th day after admission [U/L: 130.94 (92.23, 326.31), 113.18 (17.62, 136.20), 117.85 (33.52, 156.73), both P < 0.05], and higher than 0-dose group on the 16th day [U/L: 156.12 (120.32, 167.76) vs. 126.52 (61.34, 149.57), P < 0.05]. The proportion of complete 2-dose vaccination [10.45% (7/67) vs. 35.32% (225/637)], LYM (×109/L: 1.09±0.32 vs. 1.25±0.56) and PLT (×109/L: 138.55±68.03 vs. 166.93±59.70) in the severe group were significantly lower than those in the non-severe group (P < 0.05), while the time from onset to admission (day: 3.01±2.99 vs. 2.25±2.09), the length of hospital stay (day: 28±18 vs. 16±6), male proportion [77.61% (52/67) vs. 34.54% (220/637)], age (years: 69.13±12.63 vs. 52.28±16.53), DBil [µmol/L: 4.20 (3.18, 6.65) vs. 3.60 (2.80, 4.90], LDH (U/L: 310.61±98.33 vs. 238.19±72.14), SCr (µmol/L: 85.67±38.25 vs. 65.98±18.57), C-reactive protein [CRP (µmol/L): 28.12 (11.32, 42.23) vs. 8.49 (2.61, 17.58)], IL-6 [ng/L: 38.38 (24.67, 81.50) vs. 11.40 (4.60, 22.07)], CK [U/L: 140.00 (66.00, 274.00) vs. 72.80 (53.00, 11.00)] and the D-dimer [mg/L: 0.46 (0.29, 0.67) vs. 0.35 (0.19, 0.57)] in the severe group were significantly higher than those in the non-severe group (all P < 0.05). Multivariate regression analysis showed that the odds ratio (OR) of severe group was 0.430 (P = 0.010) in the 1-dose group and the 2-dose group compared with the 0-dose group. However, the risk of severe group was 0.381-fold in the 2-dose group compared with the 0-dose group [OR = 0.381, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) was 0.121-1.199] which was not statistically significant, when the age was included in the regression analysis (P > 0.05). PLT (OR = 0.992, 95%CI was 0.986-0.998) were protective factors, but older than 60 years old (OR = 3.681, 95%CI was 1.637-8.278), CK (OR = 1.001, 95%CI was 1.000-1.001), IL-6 (OR = 1.006, 95%CI was 1.002-1.010), SCr (OR = 1.020, 95%CI was 1.007-1.033) were risk factors for severe group (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with the 0-dose vaccinated patients, the coronavirus disease 2019 patients infected with delta variant and fully vaccinated with 2-dose 2019 novel coronavirus inactivated vaccine had lower level of IL-6, SCr, CK and D-dimer, and higher PLT, LYM and IgG titer, who were not easy to develop into the severe condition.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudos Retrospectivos , Interleucina-6 , Curva ROC , Prognóstico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Vacinação , Imunoglobulina G , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 831, 2022 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36352356

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: At present, the role of inactivated vaccines in viral RNA shedding among Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) breakthrough infections is still unknown. METHODS: We collected data of 147 coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with mild-to-moderate illness who were hospitalized in the Third People's Hospital of Yangzhou from 7 to 20 August 2021 and analyzed the differences in symptoms and laboratory tests among fully vaccinated (FV), partially vaccinated (PV) and unvaccinated (UV) patients. RESULTS: The median duration of viral RNA shedding was shorter in the FV (12 [IQR, 9.5-14] days) and PV (13 [IQR, 9-16.75] days) groups than in the UV group (15 [IQR, 11.75-17.25] days) (adjusted P < 0.001 and adjusted P = 0.23, respectively). The median titers of SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG and IgM were significantly higher in the FV (12.29 S/co [IQR, 2.08-63.59] and 0.3 S/co [IQR, 0.05-2.29], respectively) and PV (0.68 S/co [IQR, 0.14-28.69] and 0.12 S/co [0.03-5.23], respectively) groups than in the UV group (0.06 S/co [IQR, 0.03-0.47] and 0.04 S/co [IQR, 0.02-0.07]) (adjusted P < 0.001 and adjusted P = 0.008, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Inactivated vaccines may shorten viral RNA shedding in breakthrough infected patients who have mild-to-moderate illness and may improve the ability of the host to generate specific antibodies to infection.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , RNA Viral , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados , Anticorpos Antivirais , Imunoglobulina G , Imunoglobulina M
13.
Virol J ; 19(1): 184, 2022 11 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36371169

RESUMO

Rabies is a lethal zoonotic disease that is mainly caused by the rabies virus (RABV). Although effective vaccines have long existed, current vaccines take both time and cost to produce. Messenger RNA (mRNA) technology is an emergent vaccine platform that supports rapid vaccine development on a large scale. Here, an optimized mRNA vaccine construct (LVRNA001) expressing rabies virus glycoprotein (RABV-G) was developed in vitro and then evaluated in vivo for its immunogenicity and protective capacity in mice and dogs. LVRNA001 induced neutralizing antibody production and a strong Th1 cellular immune response in mice. In both mice and dogs, LVRNA001 provided protection against challenge with 50-fold lethal dose 50 (LD50) of RABV. With regards to protective efficiency, an extended dosing interval (14 days) induced greater antibody production than 3- or 7-day intervals in mice. Finally, post-exposure immunization against RABV was performed to evaluate the survival rates of dogs receiving two 25 µg doses of LVRNA001 vs. five doses of inactivated vaccine over the course of three months. Survival rate in the LVRNA001 group was 100%, whereas survival rate in the inactivated vaccine control group was only 33.33%. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that LVRNA001 induced strong protective immune responses in mice and dogs, which provides a new and promising prophylactic strategy for rabies.


Assuntos
Vacinas Antirrábicas , Vírus da Raiva , Raiva , Cães , Camundongos , Animais , Vacinas Antirrábicas/genética , RNA Mensageiro , Anticorpos Antivirais , Vírus da Raiva/genética , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados , Formação de Anticorpos
14.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1058599, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36439120

RESUMO

The protective immune response produced by fish after vaccination is crucial for vaccine effectiveness. Our previous studies have shown inactivated vaccine against Edwardsiella tarda can induce immune response in flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). To elucidate the protective immune response at the genetic level, in this study, flounder was immunized with inactivated E. tarda for 5 weeks, and then they were challenged with E. tarda. The spleen was dissected at 7th day post immunization, 1st and 7th day post challenge, respectively. Transcriptome analysis showed that average of 46 million clean reads were obtained per library, while percentage of clean reads being mapped to reference genome was more than 89% in all cases, which suggested good quality of samples. As for differentially expressed genes (DEGs) identification in inactivated E. tarda groups, at 7th day post immunization, 1422 DEGs were identified and significantly enriched in innate immune-related pathways, such as Phagosome, Cell adhesion molecules and NF-kappa B signaling pathway; At 1st post challenge day, 1210 DEGs were identified and enriched to Antigen processing and presentation and Cell adhesion molecules, indicating that the pathogen was rapidly recognized and delivered; At 7th post challenge day, 1929 DEGs were identified, belonged to Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, Antigen processing and presentation, Th1 and Th2 cell differentiation and Th17 cell differentiation. Compared to 7th post immunization day, 73 immune-associated DEGs were identified at 1st post challenge day. Protein-protein interaction networks analysis revealed 11 hub genes (TLR7, TLR3, CXCR4, IFIH1, TLR8 etc), associated with recognition of pathogens and activation of innate immunity; while for 7th post challenge day, 141 immune-associated DEGs were identified. 30 hub genes (IL6, STAT1, HSP90A.1, TLR7, IL12ß etc) were associated with stimulation of lymphocyte differentiation and activation of cellular immunity. Ten immune-related genes were randomly selected for RT-qPCR validation at each time point. In conclusion, data revealed protection of flounder against E. tarda infection by inactivated vaccine is mediated via immediate recognition of pathogen and subsequently activation of cellular immunity. Results give new aspect for vaccine protection cascades, is good references for vaccine evaluation.


Assuntos
Edwardsiella tarda , Linguado , Animais , Linguado/genética , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados , Baço , Receptor 7 Toll-Like , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica
15.
Front Immunol ; 13: 980231, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36439162

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), an infectious acute respiratory disease caused by a newly emerging RNA virus, is a still-growing pandemic that has caused more than 6 million deaths globally and has seriously threatened the lives and health of people across the world. Currently, several drugs have been used in the clinical treatment of COVID-19, such as small molecules, neutralizing antibodies, and monoclonal antibodies. In addition, several vaccines have been used to prevent the spread of the pandemic, such as adenovirus vector vaccines, inactivated vaccines, recombinant subunit vaccines, and nucleic acid vaccines. However, the efficacy of vaccines and the onset of adverse reactions vary among individuals. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that circular RNAs (circRNAs) are crucial regulators of viral infections and antiviral immune responses and are heavily involved in COVID-19 pathologies. During novel coronavirus infection, circRNAs not only directly affect the transcription process and interfere with viral replication but also indirectly regulate biological processes, including virus-host receptor binding and the immune response. Consequently, understanding the expression and function of circRNAs during severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection will provide novel insights into the development of circRNA-based methods. In this review, we summarize recent progress on the roles and underlying mechanisms of circRNAs that regulate the inflammatory response, viral replication, immune evasion, and cytokines induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection, and thus highlighting the diagnostic and therapeutic challenges in the treatment of COVID-19 and future research directions.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , RNA Circular/genética , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados , Replicação Viral , Vacinas Sintéticas
16.
Front Immunol ; 13: 988304, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36325346

RESUMO

Longitudinal humoral immune response to inactivated COVID-19 vaccines among people living with HIV (PLWH) have not yet been systematically investigated. We conducted a 6-month longitudinal study among vaccinated PLWH and HIV-Negative Controls (HNC) to determine whether the humoral immune response effects of the inactivated COVID-19 vaccine are different between the two groups of people. Totally, 46 PLWH and 38 HNC who received the inactivated COVID-19 vaccine on days 0 and 28 were enrolled. The SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) and total specific IgM and IgG antibodies were examined on Day 0-Day190. The level and positive seroconversion rate of nAbs peaked on Day 42 in HNC while peaked on Day 70 in PLWH, then decreased gradually with the extension of the vaccination period after the peaks. The peak level of nAbs in PLWH on Day 70, (GMC 8.07 BAU/mL, 95% CI 5.67-11.48) was significantly lower than in HNC on Day 42 (GMC 18.28 BAU/mL, 95% CI 10.33-32.33, P =0.03). The decrease in the geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) of nAbs was observed as 42.9% in PLWH after peak level, which decreased from 8.07 BAU/mL [95% CI: 5.67-11.48] on Day 70 to 4.61 BAU/mL [95% CI: 3.35-6.34] on Day 190 (p = 0.02). On Day 190, only seven (18%, [95% CI: 6-40]) HNC and five (11%, [95% CI: 4-25]) PLWH maintained positive nAbs response respectively. The geometric mean ELISA units (GMEUs) and positive seroconversion rate of IgG in PLWH dropped significantly from Day 70 (GMEUs, 0.20 EU/mL, [95% CI: 0.13-0.34]; seroconversion, 52%, [95% CI: 34-69]) to Day 190 (GMEUs, 0.05 EU/mL, [95% CI: 0.03-0.08], P<0.001; seroconversion, 18%, [95% CI: 8-33], P<0.001). There was no significant difference in levels and seroconversion rates of nAbs and IgG between the two groups on Day 190. The peak immunogenicity of the inactivated COVID-19 vaccine was delayed and inferior in PLWH compared to HNC, while no significant difference was found in six-month immunogenicity between the two groups.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Infecções por HIV , Humanos , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Imunidade Humoral , Estudos Longitudinais , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Imunoglobulina G
17.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1027180, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36341453

RESUMO

Under the background of the severe human health and world economic burden caused by COVID-19, the attenuation of vaccine protection efficacy, and the prevalence and immune escape of emerging variants of concern (VOCs), the third dose of booster immunization has been put on the agenda. Systems biology approaches can help us gain new perspectives on the characterization of immune responses and the identification of factors underlying vaccine-induced immune efficacy. We analyzed the antibody signature and transcriptional responses of participants vaccinated with COVID-19 inactivated vaccine and protein subunit vaccine as a third booster dose. The results from the antibody indicated that the third booster dose was effective, and that heterologous vaccination with the protein subunit vaccine as a booster dose induced stronger humoral immune responses than the homologous vaccination with inactivated vaccine, and might be more effective against VOCs. In transcriptomic analysis, protein subunit vaccine induced more differentially expressed genes that were significantly associated with many important innate immune pathways. Both the homologous and heterologous boosters could increase the effectiveness against COVID-19, and compared with the inactivated vaccine, the protein subunit vaccine, mediated a stronger humoral immune response and had a more significant correlation with the innate immune function module, which provided certain data support for the third booster immunization strategy.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Imunidade Humoral , Humanos , Transcriptoma , Subunidades Proteicas , Imunização Secundária , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados , Vacinas de Subunidades
18.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0275722, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36215268

RESUMO

Influenza is a major cause of highly contagious respiratory illness resulting in high mortality and morbidity worldwide. Annual vaccination is an effective way to prevent infection and complication from constantly mutating influenza strains. Vaccination utilizes preemptive inoculation with live virus, live attenuated virus, inactivated virus, or virus segments for optimal immune activation. The route of administration also affects the efficacy of the vaccination. Here, we evaluated the effects of inoculation with ultraviolet (UV)-inactivated or live influenza A virus strains and compared their effectiveness and cross protection when intraperitoneal and intramuscular routes of administration were used in mice. Intramuscular or intraperitoneal inoculation with UV-inactivated Influenza A/WSN/1933 provided some protection against intranasal challenge with a lethal dose of live Influenza A/WSN/1933 but only when a high dose of the virus was used in the inoculation. By contrast, inoculation with a low dose of live virus via either route provided complete protection against the same intranasal challenge. Intraperitoneal inoculation with live or UV-inactivated Influenza A/Philippines/2/1982 and intramuscular inoculation with UV-inactivated Influenza A/Philippines/2/1982 failed to produce cross-reactive antibodies against Influenza A/WSN/1933. Intramuscular inoculation with live Influenza A/Philippines/2/1982 induced small amounts of cross-reactive antibodies but could not suppress the cytokine storm produced upon intranasal challenge with Influenza A/WSN/1993. None of the tested inoculation conditions provided observable cross protection against intranasal challenge with a different influenza strain. Taken together, vaccination efficacy was affected by the state and dose of the vaccine virus and the route of administration. These results provide practical data for the development of effective vaccines against influenza virus.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae , Orthomyxoviridae , Administração Intranasal , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Camundongos , Vacinação/métodos , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados
19.
Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol ; 36: 3946320221133697, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36215392

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has had a considerable impact, causing millions of deaths worldwide, including many healthcare workers (HCWs). The pharmaceutical industry has been working diligently since the start of the pandemic to develop various vaccines to fight the spread of the virus and protect the population. OBJECTIVE: To study the seroprevalence of neutralizing anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in vaccinated HCWs at the Mohamed VI University Hospital in Marrakech and to determine the parameters that can influence immune response. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 138 HCWs was performed between October and December 2021 by measuring IgG antibodies directed against the spike antigen of SARS-CoV-2 using an Abbott Architect® SARS-CoV-2 IgG II assay. RESULTS: The mean age was 31.42 years, the sex ratio was 2.94 women to each man, and the overall prevalence was 97%. We found 39.5% of the participants had experienced COVID-19 infections pre-vaccination, which decreased to 26.8% after vaccination. Neutralizing antibody titers were dependent on the type of vaccine: they were higher with the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine, the number of doses (p < .001), and post-vaccine COVID-19 form. The post-vaccine COVID-19 infection rates were lower with the Sinopharm vaccine. CONCLUSION: Heterologous vaccination with non-mRNA and mRNA vaccines and the consideration of post-vaccination COVID-19 infection as a booster could help optimize vaccine results while reducing potential side effects.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Pessoal de Saúde , Vacinas Virais , Adulto , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G , Masculino , Marrocos/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Vacinação , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados , Vacinas Virais/efeitos adversos
20.
Front Immunol ; 13: 982155, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36203563

RESUMO

Our study (NCT04800133) aimed to determine the safety and immunogenicity in patients with IEIs receiving a 3-dose primary series of mRNA vaccine BNT162b2 (age 12+) or inactivated whole-virion vaccine CoronaVac (age 3+) in Hong Kong, including Omicron BA.1 neutralization, in a nonrandomized manner. Intradermal vaccination was also studied. Thirty-nine patients were vaccinated, including 16 with homologous intramuscular 0.3ml BNT162b2 and 17 with homologous intramuscular 0.5ml CoronaVac. Two patients received 3 doses of intradermal 0.5ml CoronaVac, and 4 patients received 2 doses of intramuscular BNT162b2 and the third dose with intradermal BNT162b2. No safety concerns were identified. Inadequate S-RBD IgG and surrogate virus neutralization responses were found after 2 doses in patients with humoral immunodeficiencies and especially so against BA.1. Dose 3 of either vaccine increased S-RBD IgG response. T cell responses against SARS-CoV-2 antigens were detected in vaccinated IEI patients by intracellular cytokine staining on flow cytometry. Intradermal third dose vaccine led to high antibody response in 4 patients. The primary vaccination series of BNT162b2 and CoronaVac in adults and children with IEIs should include 3 doses for optimal immunogenicity.


Assuntos
Vacina BNT162 , COVID-19 , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/efeitos adversos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Citocinas , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados , Vacinas Sintéticas , Vacinas de mRNA
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