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1.
Recurso na Internet em Inglês, Espanhol, Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-48417

RESUMO

A diretora da Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde (OPAS), Carissa F. Etienne, alertou que 75% da população da América Latina e do Caribe ainda não foi totalmente vacinada contra a COVID-19 e informou que a OPAS está acelerando sua campanha para expandir o acesso às vacinas em toda a região.


Assuntos
América Latina/etnologia , Região do Caribe/etnologia , Vacinas , COVID-19/etnologia , Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde
2.
Front Public Health ; 9: 698111, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34485229

RESUMO

COVID-19 vaccine is regarded as the most promising means of limiting the spread of or eliminating the pandemic. The success of this strategy will rely on the rate of vaccine acceptance globally. The study aims to examine the factors that influence COVID-19 vaccine acceptance, intention, and hesitancy. PubMed was searched comprehensively for articles using the keyword "COVID-19 vaccine surveys." Of the 192 records, 22 studies were eligible for the review. Eighty-two percent of these studies were conducted among the general population. Gender, age, education, and occupation were some of the socio-demographic variables associated with vaccine acceptance. Variables such as trust in authorities, risk perception of COVID-19 infection, vaccine efficacy, current or previous influenza vaccination, and vaccine safety affected vaccine acceptance. Globally, in March 2020, the average vaccine acceptance observed was 86% which dropped to 54% in July 2020 which later increased to 72% in September 2020. Globally, the average rate of vaccine hesitancy in April 2020 was 21%, which increased to 36% in July 2020 and later declined to 16% in October 2020. Large variability in vaccine acceptance and high vaccine hesitancy can influence the efforts to eliminate the COVID-19. Addressing the barriers and facilitators of vaccines will be crucial in implementing effective and tailored interventions to attain maximum vaccine coverage.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Intenção , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Euro Surveill ; 26(35)2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477054

RESUMO

Some variants of SARS-CoV-2 are associated with increased transmissibility, increased disease severity or decreased vaccine effectiveness (VE). In this population-based cohort study (n = 4,204,859), the Delta variant was identified in 5,430 (0.13%) individuals, of whom 84 were admitted to hospital. VE against laboratory confirmed infection with the Delta variant was 22.4% among partly vaccinated (95% confidence interval (CI): 17.0-27.4) and 64.6% (95% CI: 60.6-68.2) among fully vaccinated individuals, compared with 54.5% (95% CI: 50.4-58.3) and 84.4% (95%CI: 81.8-86.5) against the Alpha variant.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Noruega/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 128: 112316, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474867

RESUMO

To develop a nanoparticle-based vaccine against necrotic enteritis, a chimeric antigen (rNA) consisting of the main antigens of Clostridium perfringens, NetB, and Alpha toxin, was prepared. Then, the rNA molecules were loaded onto the functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNPs) using physical adsorption or covalent conjugation methods. The characterization of synthesized nanoparticles was performed by scanning electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, zeta potential measurement, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetry techniques. The results revealed that the spherical nanoparticles with an average diameter of 90 ±â€¯12 nm and suitable surface chemistries are prepared. MSNPs-based formulations did not show any significant toxicity on the chicken embryo fibroblast cells. The results of the challenge experiments using subcutaneous or oral administration of the as-prepared formulations in the animal model showed that the as-prepared nanosystems, similar to those formulated with a commercial adjuvant (Montanide), present stronger humoral immune responses as compared to that of the free proteins. It was also indicated that the best protection is obtained in groups vaccinated with MSNPs-based nanovaccine, especially those who orally received covalently conjugated nanovaccine candidates. These results recommend that the MSNPs-based formulated chimeric proteinous vaccine candidates can be considered as an effective immunizing system for the oral vaccination of poultry against gastrointestinal infectious diseases.


Assuntos
Toxinas Bacterianas , Infecções por Clostridium , Enterite , Nanopartículas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Vacinas , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Embrião de Galinha , Galinhas , Infecções por Clostridium/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Clostridium/veterinária , Enterite/prevenção & controle , Enterite/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Dióxido de Silício
7.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(9)2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475024

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several studies have highlighted that vaccine hesitancy (VH) is among the most important threats to global health, especially in low- and middle-income countries, including the Philippines. However, there is a dearth of literature exploring family experiences of-or concerns related to-childhood vaccinations that gives voice to vaccine hesitant caregivers (VHCs) of small children. Here, we present insights from VHCs from the Philippines. METHODS: This research draws on in-depth interviews (IDIs) with 44 VHCs who had previously delayed or refused vaccination for their children in rural and urban communities in Cavite Province, the Philippines. Amid the COVID-19 pandemic, we conducted IDIs via an online platform of the respondents' choosing (ie, Facebook messenger call, Skype and Zoom). All interviews were recorded, transcribed, translated and analysed drawing from the tenets of constructivist grounded theory. We use the social ecological model to structure our results. RESULTS: Among the reasons for delay or refusal of childhood vaccinations, a fear of side effects emerged as the most salient concern, exacerbated by previous negative experiences (including trauma) from a dengue vaccine controversy in 2017. Respondents cited the dengue vaccine controversy as they expressed reluctance (regarding any new vaccines) and suspicion (towards school-based vaccination, the distribution channel used for the dengue vaccine). Heads of households opposing vaccines, perceptions that vaccines are non-essential and influences from the social and traditional media or neighbours contributed to further refusal and delay. Upon probing, VHCs recounted health system concerns particularly with regards to healthcare workers who are sometimes unable to answer their questions and can be dismissive or disrespectful regarding caregivers' concerns. CONCLUSION: Understanding VH from the lens of VHCs highlights pathways for interventions to regain trust and bolster confidence towards vaccines. Our findings may serve as linchpins in the development of VH interventions aiming at changing behaviour on a population scale.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas , Cuidadores , Medo , Humanos , Pandemias , Filipinas , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinas/efeitos adversos
9.
Acta Biomed ; 92(4): e2021270, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487060

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Randomized controlled trials have shown that mRNA vaccines are highly effective in preventing SARS-CoV2 infection. We conducted a study to assess the real-world effectiveness of mRNA vaccines (Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna) in preventing all and symptomatic SARS-CoV2 infections and COVID-19 related hospitalizations in the staff of the Bologna Health Trust (HT), Italy Methods: We followed up retrospectively 9839 staff of the Bologna HT from December 27, 2020 to April 3, 2020 and calculated the effectiveness in partially and fully vaccinated subjects by applying a multivariable Cox proportional hazard model. RESULTS: Vaccine effectiveness in preventing SARS-CoV2 infections is 85.5% (95%CI: 75.9-91.3) in the partially vaccinated and 84.8% (95%CI: 73.2-91.4) in the fully vaccinated. In preventing symptomatic infection effectiveness is 81.7% (95%CI: 62.7-91.0) in the partially and 87.1% (95%CI: 69.3-94.6) in the fully vaccinated. There were no COVID-19-related hospitalizations in the partially or fully vaccinated vs 15 hospitalization in the unvaccinated cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirm the effectiveness of mRNA vaccines in a real-world setting in Northern Italy.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Humanos , Itália , RNA Viral , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Trials ; 22(1): 592, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488843

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Vaccine hesitancy is a major hurdle for stopping the COVID-19 pandemic. Recently, fear of vaccine side effects created widespread concern and paused global vaccination efforts. Many studies find that how medical risks are framed and communicated can influence individuals' perceptions and behavior, yet there is little evidence on how the communication of COVID-19 vaccine side-effect risks influences vaccine intentions. The primary objective of our study is to evaluate how the framing of vaccine-side effect risks impacts individuals' vaccine intentions and perceptions of vaccine safety. The study will assess the impact of 3 dimensions of side-effect framing: 1. Qualitative risk labels: Determine whether attaching a qualitative risk label (e.g. adding "very low risk" next to the actual numerical risk) impacts individuals' willingness to take a vaccine and their perceptions of its safety. 2. Comparison groups: Determine how framing side-effect risks in comparison to other causes of mortality (COVID-19 mortality and motor vehicle mortality) impacts individuals' willingness to take a vaccine and their perceptions of its safety. 3. How the comparison risks are presented: Determine whether comparisons to other causes of mortality are presented on an absolute or relative scale impacts individuals' willingness to take a vaccine and their perceptions of its safety. Secondarily, we will also randomize a subset of individuals to receive the "status-quo" framing, where the vaccine side-effect risks are presented like how they were presented in the media. We will then compare vaccine intentions and perceptions of vaccine safety between the status-quo and the pooled intervention group samples to provide some insight into how "harmful" the status-quo framing was. Ultimately, we believe that our results will provide the some of the first experimental evidence on how the communication of COVID-19 vaccine risks may impact the public's willingness to be vaccinated and can inform future efforts to increase vaccination rates. TRIAL DESIGN: Our study is an online-based randomized controlled trial designed to evaluate the effect of different vaccine side-effect framings on COVID-19 vaccine intentions and perceived safety for a hypothetical COVID-19 vaccine. Using a factorial design, we will experimentally assess the impact of 3 risk framing strategies, varying whether the risk is presented: (1) with a qualitative label, (2) whether the risk is presented with a comparison risk, and (3) for comparison cases, whether the comparison is in absolute or relative terms. We will also randomize a portion of respondents to a status quo framing where the side effect risk mimics the media's communication in early April 2021. PARTICIPANTS: This will be an online study setting. We will use Prolific to recruit participants and host our study on the Gorilla platform. To be eligible, participants must be 18 years old or over (male, female, or other), have current residence in the US or UK, and be able to speak English. Participants will be excluded from the study if they do not meet our inclusion criteria. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Our study content will consist of five pages presented to individuals online. Page 1 will explain the purpose of the study and contain the consent information. Page 2 will contain basic sociodemographic questions, including participants' age, sex, and schooling level. Page 3 will set up the experiment by telling individuals that we will describe a hypothetical new COVID-19 vaccine and that we would like to know how likely they would be to take the vaccine and how safe they think the vaccine is. On this page, we will also encourage individuals to respond truthfully and remind them that their answers are confidential and cannot be linked back to any personal identifying information. Page 4 will be the main experimental slide, where we will present individuals with information on the vaccine, varying how the vaccination risk is communicated based on which experimental framing arm they are randomized to. We will factorially randomize across the following factors in the following order (separately by country). First, we will determine whether individuals are randomized to the status quo framing, or the intervention framings (1500 respondents to the status quo, and 4500 to the intervention). Among those randomized to the intervention framing, we will randomize (equal allocation) whether the side effect is presented without a comparison, with a comparison to COVID-19 mortality, or with a comparison to motor vehicle mortality. We will then factorially randomize (equal allocation) whether the risk is presented with a qualitative risk label or not (e.g. "very low risk"). To ensure that the factors are independent of one another, we will do this by randomizing individuals to the risk labels within strata of the comparison group factor. Lastly, among those randomized to the comparison group, we will factorially randomize whether the risk is presented as an absolute or relative comparison. As previously, we will ensure independence by doing this randomization within strata of comparison group*risk labelling. This entire design is visualized in the full protocol. The experimental text for each arm is: Arm 1: With regards to side effects, so far 8 individuals have developed potentially life-threatening blood clots. This is among the approximately 7 million adults that have received the vaccine so far. Arm 2: With regards to side effects, 1 out of 100,000 vaccinated individuals may develop serious blood clots. Arm 3: With regards to side effects, 1 out of 100,000 vaccinated individuals may develop serious blood clots (very low risk). Arm 4: Text for USA participants: With regards to side effects, 1 out of 100,000 vaccinated individuals may develop serious blood clots. As a reference, 170 out of every 100,000 unvaccinated Americans died of COVID-19 based on data from the past year. Text for UK participants: With regards to side effects, 1 out of 100,000 vaccinated individuals may develop serious blood clots. As a reference, 108 out of every 100,000 unvaccinated individuals in the UK died of COVID-19 based on data from the past year. Arm 5: Text for USA participants: With regards to side effects, 1 out of 100,000 vaccinated individuals may develop serious blood clots. As a reference, this is 1/170th of the risk of COVID-19 mortality among unvaccinated Americans based on data from the past year. Text for UK participants: With regards to side effects, 1 out of 100,000 vaccinated individuals may develop serious blood clots. As a reference, this is 1/108th of the risk of COVID-19 mortality among unvaccinated individuals in the UK based on data from the past year. Arm 6: Text for USA participants: With regards to side effects, 1 out of 100,000 vaccinated individuals may develop serious blood clots (very low risk). As a reference, 170 out of every 100,000 unvaccinated Americans died of COVID-19 based on data from the past year. Text for UK participants: With regards to side effects, 1 out of 100,000 vaccinated individuals may develop serious blood clots (very low risk). As a reference, 108 out of every 100,000 unvaccinated individuals in the UK died of COVID-19 based on data from the past year. Arm 7: Text for USA participants: With regards to side effects, 1 out of 100,000 vaccinated individuals may develop serious blood clots (very low risk). As a reference, this is 1/170th of the risk of COVID-19 mortality among unvaccinated Americans based on data from the past year. Text for UK participants: With regards to side effects, 1 out of 100,000 vaccinated individuals may develop serious blood clots (very low risk). As a reference, this is 1/108th of the risk of COVID-19 mortality among unvaccinated individuals in the UK based on data from the past year. Arm 8: Text for USA participants: With regards to side effects, 1 out of 100,000 vaccinated individuals may develop serious blood clots. As a reference, 12 out of every 100,000 Americans died in a motor vehicle accident based on data from the past year. Text for UK participants: With regards to side effects, 1 out of 100,000 vaccinated individuals may develop serious blood clots. As a reference, 2.6 out of every 100,000 individuals in the UK died in a motor vehicle accident based on data from the past year. Arm 9: Text for USA participants: With regards to side effects, 1 out of 100,000 vaccinated individuals may develop serious blood clots. As a reference, this is 1/12th of the risk of dying in a motor vehicle accident based on data from the past year. Text for UK participants: With regards to side effects, 1 out of 100,000 vaccinated individuals may develop serious blood clots. As a reference, this is almost 1/4th of the risk of dying in a motor vehicle accident based on data from the past year. Arm 10: Text for USA participants: With regards to side effects, 1 out of 100,000 vaccinated individuals may develop serious blood clots (very low risk). As a reference, 12 out of every 100,000 Americans died in a motor vehicle accident based on data from the past year. Text for UK participants: With regards to side effects, 1 out of 100,000 vaccinated individuals may develop serious blood clots (very low risk). As a reference, 2.6 out of every 100,000 individuals in the UK died in a motor vehicle accident based on data from the past year. Arm 11: Text for USA participants: With regards to side effects, 1 out of 100,000 vaccinated individuals may develop serious blood clots (very low risk). As a reference, this is 1/12th of the risk of dying in a motor vehicle accident based on data from the past year. Text for UK participants: With regards to side effects, 1 out of 100,000 vaccinated individuals may develop serious blood clots (very low risk). As a reference, this is nearly 1/4th of the risk of dying in a motor vehicle accidentbased on data from the past year. The risk information will be presented on a single page along with the two main outcome questions. Lastly, for individuals that reported that they are unlikely or unsure about whether they would take the vaccine, the final page will ask them their reason (question based on a recently published study of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy). MAIN OUTCOMES: Our primary outcome is individuals' willingness to take the hypothetical COVID-19 vaccine. We will measure this outcome by asking, "How likely would you be to take this vaccine?" allowing individuals to choose from a four-point Likert response of "Unlikely, Unsure leaning towards unlikely, Unsure leaning towards likely, Very likely." This outcome variable, including the categories and phrasing, is based on a recently published study on COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy conducted by researchers with the Vaccine Hesitance Project at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. Our secondary outcome is individuals' perceived safety of the vaccine. We will assess this outcome by asking individuals, "How safe do you feel this vaccine is?" allowing them to choose answers ranging from 1-10 where 1 is extremely unsafe, and 10 is extremely safe. Both outcomes will be measured at the time of the questionnaire. Participants can take up to 45 min to complete the questions but will not be able to go back and change their responses after submitting their questionnaire. RANDOMIZATION: Using a web-based randomization algorithm, Gorilla will randomly allocate participants to each of the experimental arms. Gorilla allows for two randomization options - independent randomization of each individual based on a probability draw and balanced randomization, which randomizes without replacement such that among groups of respondents a fixed proportion will end up in each experimental arm. We will use the "balanced randomization" option to ensure that our experimental arms are balanced. Participants will be randomized based on the allocations described above. BLINDING: Because Prolific handles the interaction between the study investigators and participants, the participants will be completely anonymous to the study investigators. The outcome measures will be self-reported and submitted anonymously. All persons in the study team will be blinded to the group allocation. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMIZED: We will randomize 6000 participants per country for a total sample of 12000 individuals. TRIAL STATUS: The protocol version number is 1.0 and the date is July 14, 2021. Recruitment is expected to begin on 26 July 2021 and end by August 10, 2021. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study and its outcomes were registered at the German Clinical Trials Register ( www.drks.de ) on July 12th, 2021: # DRKS00025551 . FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Full_Protocol_20Jul2021) In the interest of expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas , Adolescente , Adulto , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Feminino , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino , Pandemias , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , SARS-CoV-2 , Resultado do Tratamento , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos , Vacinas/efeitos adversos
11.
Front Public Health ; 9: 711066, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490193

RESUMO

This study aimed to determine the prevalence and investigate the constellations of psychological determinants of the COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among the Bangladeshi adult population utilizing the health belief model-HBM (perceived susceptibility to and severity of COVID-19, perceived benefits of and barriers to COVID-19 vaccination, and cues to action), the theory of planned behavior-TPB (attitude toward COVID-19 vaccine, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and anticipated regret), and the 5C psychological antecedents (confidence, constraints, complacency, calculation, and collective responsibility). We compared the predictability of these theoretical frameworks to see which framework explains the highest variance in COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. This study adopted a cross-sectional research design. We collected data from a nationally representative sample of 1,497 respondents through both online and face-to-face interviews. We employed multiple linear regression analysis to assess the predictability of each model of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. We found a 41.1% prevalence of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among our study respondents. After controlling the effects of socio-economic, demographic, and other COVID-19 related covariates, we found that the TPB has the highest predictive power (adjusted R 2 = 0.43), followed by the 5C psychological antecedents of vaccination (adjusted R 2 = 0.32) and the HBM (adjusted R 2 = 0.31) in terms of explaining total variance in the COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among the adults of Bangladesh. This study provides evidence that theoretical frameworks like the HBM, the TPB, and the 5C psychological antecedents can be used to explore the psychological determinants of vaccine hesitancy, where the TPB has the highest predictability. Our findings can be used to design targeted interventions to reduce vaccine hesitancy and increase vaccine uptake to prevent COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas , Adulto , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Estudos Transversais , Modelo de Crenças de Saúde , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
12.
J R Soc Interface ; 18(182): 20210214, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465208

RESUMO

The swift development of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines has been met with worldwide commendation. However, in the context of an ongoing pandemic there is an interplay between infection and vaccination. While infection can grow exponentially, vaccination rates are generally limited by supply and logistics. With the first SARS-CoV-2 vaccines receiving medical approval requiring two doses, there has been scrutiny on the spacing between doses; an elongated period between doses allows more of the population to receive a first vaccine dose in the short-term generating wide-spread partial immunity. Focusing on data from England, we investigated prioritization of a one dose or two dose vaccination schedule given a fixed number of vaccine doses and with respect to a measure of maximizing averted deaths. We optimized outcomes for two different estimates of population size and relative risk of mortality for at-risk groups within the Phase 1 vaccine priority order. Vaccines offering relatively high protection from the first dose favour strategies that prioritize giving more people one dose, although with increasing vaccine supply eventually those eligible and accepting vaccination will receive two doses. While optimal dose timing can substantially reduce the overall mortality risk, there needs to be careful consideration of the logistics of vaccine delivery.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinação
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501483

RESUMO

This paper analyzed the factors influencing the willingness of Ethiopia's population to take COVID-19 vaccines. The data included the COVID-19 High Frequency Phone Survey of Households in Ethiopia that were collected in 2021. This paper relied on the 10th round of the survey, which was comprised of 2178 households. The Instrumental Variable Probit regression model was used to analyze the data. The results showed that majority of the respondents (92.33%) would receiveCOVID-19 vaccines, while 6.61% and 1.06% were, respectively, unwilling and unsure. Across the regions of Ethiopia, Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples' Region (SNNPR) (99.30%), Oromia (97.54%), Tigray (97.04%) and Gambela (95.42%) had the highest proportions of respondents willing to have the vaccine. Vaccine safety concern was the topmost reason for those unwilling to receive the vaccine. The results of the Instrumental Variable Probit regression showed that currently working, age, engagement with non-farm businesses and region of residence significantly influenced the population's willingness to take the vaccine (p < 0.05). It was concluded that although the willingness be vaccinated was impressive, without everyone being receiving the COVID-19 vaccine, infection risk can still be high; this is due to the persistent mutation of the viral strains. Thus, there is a need to intensify efforts toward addressing the safety issues of COVID-19 vaccines, while efforts to enhance acceptability should focus on the youth population and those who are unemployed.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas , Adolescente , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinação
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501970

RESUMO

Background: COVID-19 vaccination programmes offer hope for a potential end to the acute phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. We present perceptions following from a cohort of healthcare staff at the UK NHS hospital, which first initiated the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 ("Pfizer") vaccination program. Methods: A paper-based survey regarding perceptions on the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine was distributed to all healthcare workers at the University Hospitals Coventry & Warwickshire NHS Trust following receipt of the first vaccine dose. Results: 535 healthcare workers completed the survey, with a 40.9% response rate. Staff felt privileged to receive a COVID-19 vaccine. Staff reported that they had minimised contact with patients with confirmed or suspected COVID-19. Reported changes to activity following vaccination both at work and outside work were guarded. Statistically significant differences were noted between information sources used by staff groups and between groups of different ethnic backgrounds to inform decisions to receive vaccination. Conclusions: NHS staff felt privileged to receive the COVID-19 vaccine, and felt that their actions would promote uptake in the wider population. Concerns regarding risks and side effects existed, but were minimal. This research can be used to help inform strategies driving wider vaccine uptake amongst healthcare staff and the public.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Atenção à Saúde , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Pandemias , Percepção , RNA Mensageiro , SARS-CoV-2 , Medicina Estatal , Vacinação
15.
Recurso na Internet em Inglês, Espanhol, Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-48322

RESUMO

A diretora da Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde (OPAS), Carissa F. Etienne, informou nesta quarta-feira (11) que o organismo internacional utilizará seu Fundo Rotatório para ajudar os países da América Latina e do Caribe a adquirir vacinas suficientes para controlar a transmissão da COVID-19.


Assuntos
Vacinas , COVID-19 , América Latina/epidemiologia , Região do Caribe/epidemiologia , Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde
16.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 41, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34422164

RESUMO

Introduction: regular in-service training of healthcare workers within the immunization program is critical to address the program needs created by the introduction of new vaccines and technologies, as well as the expanding scope of immunisation programmes beyond infant immunization and towards a life-course approach. National immunization programs conduct in-service training of health workers depending on program needs and particularly when new program elements are introduced. Methods: we conducted a survey of national and provincial level immunization program staff in 9 countries in the World Health Organization (WHO) African Region to determine the perceived needs and preferred training methods for capacity building in immunisation. Results: nearly all of the respondents (98.3%) stated that there are skill gaps at their respective levels in the immunization program which require training, with 88% indicating that mid-level program management (MLM) training was needed to train new program staff, while 78% indicated program performance gaps and 60% of the respondents stated that refresher training is needed. Program areas identified as top priorities for training included immunisation monitoring and data quality, sustainable immunization financing, adverse events monitoring and community mobilization. More than three quarters of the respondents (78%) think that online MLM training is adequate to address program gaps. Only four of the 9 immunization program managers indicated that they regularly monitor the number of MLM trained staff within their national program. Conclusion: there is a strong need for in-service training of immunization program officers in the countries surveyed, especially at the subnational levels. Program managers should conduct regular monitoring of the training status of staff, as well as conduct detailed training needs assessments in order to tailor the training approaches and topics. Online training provides an acceptable approach for capacity building of immunization program staff.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Programas de Imunização/organização & administração , Capacitação em Serviço/métodos , África , Fortalecimento Institucional , Competência Clínica , Pessoal de Saúde/normas , Humanos , Imunização/métodos , Imunização/normas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vacinas/administração & dosagem
17.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 19(Suppl 2): 83, 2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380519

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Almost 20 million children under one year of age did not receive basic vaccines in 2019, and most of these children lived in low- and middle-income countries. Implementation research has been recognized as an emerging area that is critical to strengthen the implementation of interventions proven to be effective. As a component of strengthening implementation, WHO has called for greater embedding of research within decision-making processes. One strategy to facilitate the embedding of research is to engage decision-makers as Principal Investigators of the research. Since 2015, the Alliance for Health Policy and Systems Research within the WHO and the United Nations Children's Fund have supported decision-maker led research by partnering with Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, in an initiative called "Decision-Maker Led Implementation Research". This synthesis paper describes the cross-cutting lessons from the initiative to further understand and develop future use of the decision-maker led strategy. METHODS: This study used qualitative methods of data collection, including a document review and in-depth interviews with decision-makers and researchers engaged in the initiative. Document extraction and thematic content analysis were applied. The individual project was the unit of analysis and the results were summarized across projects. RESULTS: Research teams from 11 of the 14 projects participated in this study, for an overall response rate of 78.6%. Most projects were carried out in countries in Africa and conducted at the sub-state or sub-district level. Seven enablers and five barriers to the process of conducting the studies or bringing about changes were identified. Key enablers were the relevance, acceptability, and integration of the research, while key barriers included unclear results, limited planning and support, and the limited role of a single study in informing changes to strengthen implementation. CONCLUSIONS: Decision-maker led research is a promising strategy to facilitate the embedding of research into decision-making processes and contribute to greater use of research to strengthen implementation of proven-effective interventions, such as immunization. We identified several lessons for consideration in the future design and use of the decision-maker led strategy.


Assuntos
Política de Saúde , Vacinas , Criança , Tomada de Decisões , Humanos , Pesquisadores , Vacinação
18.
Goiânia; SES-GO; 20 ago 2021. 1-6 p. ilus.
Não convencional em Português | LILACS, Coleciona SUS, CONASS, SES-GO | ID: biblio-1283937

RESUMO

De acordo com o Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) apesar dos avanços obtidos, nos últimos meses, no desenvolvimento de imunizantes para a COVID-19, algumas perguntas continuam sem respostas, como por exemplo, por quanto tempo as vacinas são capazes de proteger a população da infecção pelo SARS-CoV-2 (CDC, 2021), imunidade híbrida e a necessidade de booster, adicionado ao protocolo inicialmente proposto. Apesar de a maioria dos estudos utilizar os níveis séricos de anticorpos neutralizantes contra o SARS-CoV-2, ainda considera-se desconhecido o nível de anticorpos neutralizantes que garante proteção contra a COVID-19 (CALLAWAY, 2021; BENOTMANE et al., 2021). Por outro lado, embora existam outros mecanismos responsáveis pela resposta imune mediada por células T e B de memória imunológica, Khoury e colaboradores (2021) consideram que a concentração dos anticorpos neutralizantes após contato com o vírus (indivíduos convalescentes soropositivos) e/ou após administração de um imunizante seja capaz de predizer a resposta imune à doença.


According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), despite the advances made in recent months in the development of immunizers for COVID-19, some questions remain unanswered, such as, for example, how long are vaccines able to protect the population from SARS-CoV-2 infection (CDC, 2021), hybrid immunity and the need for a booster, added to the initially proposed protocol. Although most studies use serum levels of neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, the level of neutralizing antibodies that guarantee protection against COVID-19 is still unknown (CALLAWAY, 2021; BENOTMANE et al., 2021 ). On the other hand, although there are other mechanisms responsible for the immune response mediated by immune memory T and B cells, Khoury et al (2021) consider that the concentration of neutralizing antibodies after contact with the virus (convalescent seropositive individuals) and/or after administration of an immunizing agent is able to predict the immune response to the disease.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Adulto Jovem , Vacinas/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Imunidade
19.
Vaccine ; 39(36): 5153-5161, 2021 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362602

RESUMO

Members of the Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers' Network (DCVMN) have been actively engaged in the development of COVID-19 vaccine candidates. According to the WHO COVID-19 vaccine landscape updated on 29 December 2020, 18 member manufacturers had vaccines in preclinical or clinical trials, including three members with candidates in Phase III trials. Once successful candidates have been identified there will be a need for large scale vaccine manufacturing and supply, in which DCVMN member manufacturers can play a key role. In an internal survey in 2019, DCVMN members reported the capability to supply over 3.5 billion vaccine doses annually, and the provision of over 50 distinct vaccines to 170 countries. To describe the capabilities of DCVMN member manufacturers more precisely, a 121-question survey was circulated to 41 Network members. The survey assessed the manufacturers' capabilities in utilizing various technology platforms, cell cultures and filling technologies, in addition to their capacities for manufacturing drug products. The survey also evaluated manufacturers' preparedness to dedicate existing capacities to COVID-19 vaccine production. Results revealed that sampled manufacturers have strong capabilities for manufacturing vaccines based on recombinant technologies, particularly with mammalian cells, and microbial and yeast expression systems. Capabilities in utilizing cell cultures were distributed across multiple cell types, however manufacturing capacities with Vero and CHO cells were prominent. Formulating and filling findings illustrated further large-scale capabilities of Network members. Sampled manufacturers reported that over 50% of their capacity for vaccine manufacturing could be dedicated to COVID-19 vaccine production.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas , Animais , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Países em Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Imunização , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 19(Suppl 2): 56, 2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380514

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With increased penetration of the internet and social media, there are concerns regarding its negative role in influencing parents' decisions regarding vaccination for their children. It is perceived that a mix of religious reasons and propaganda by anti-vaccination groups on social media are lowering the vaccination coverage in Malappuram district of Kerala. We undertook a qualitative study to understand the factors responsible for generating and perpetuating vaccine hesitancy, the pathways of trust deficit in immunization programs and the interaction between various social media actors. METHODS: In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted among parents/caregivers, physicians, public sector health staff, alternative system medical practitioners, field healthcare workers and teachers in areas with highest and lowest vaccination coverage in the district, as well as with communication experts. RESULTS: The trust deficit between parents/caregivers and healthcare providers is created by multiple factors, such as providers' lack of technical knowledge, existing patriarchal societal norms and critical views of vaccine by naturopaths and homeopaths. Anti-vaccine groups use social media to influence caregivers' perceptions and beliefs. Religion does not appear to play a major role in creating vaccine resistance in this setting. CONCLUSIONS: A long-term, multipronged strategy should be adopted to address the trust deficit. In the short to medium term, the health sector can focus on appropriate and targeted vaccine-related communication strategies, including the use of infographics, soft skills training for healthcare workers, technical competency improvement through a mobile application-based repository of information and creation of a media cell to monitor vaccine-related conversations in social media and to intervene if needed.


Assuntos
Mídias Sociais , Vacinas , Criança , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Confiança , Vacinação
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