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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(5): 133-135, 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32027627

RESUMO

At its October 2019 meeting, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP)* voted to recommend approval of the 2020 Recommended U.S. Adult Immunization Schedule for Persons Aged 19 Years and Older. The 2020 adult immunization schedule, available at https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/schedules/index.html,† summarizes ACIP recommendations in two tables and accompanying notes. This 2020 adult immunization schedule has been approved by the CDC Director, the American College of Physicians, the American Academy of Family Physicians, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, and the American College of Nurse-Midwives. Health care providers are advised to use the tables and the notes together.


Assuntos
Esquemas de Imunização , Imunização/normas , Vacinas/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Comitês Consultivos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Estados Unidos
2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(5): 130-132, 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32027628

RESUMO

At its October 2019 meeting, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP)* approved the 2020 Recommended Child and Adolescent Immunization Schedule for Ages 18 Years or Younger. The 2020 child and adolescent immunization schedule summarizes ACIP recommendations, including several changes from the 2019 immunization schedule† on the cover page, three tables, and notes found on the CDC immunization schedule website (https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/schedules/index.html). Health care providers are advised to use the tables and the notes together. This immunization schedule is recommended by ACIP (https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/acip/index.html) and approved by the CDC Director, the American Academy of Pediatrics, the American Academy of Family Physicians, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, and, for the first time, the American College of Nurse-Midwives.


Assuntos
Esquemas de Imunização , Imunização/normas , Vacinas/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Comitês Consultivos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Estados Unidos
3.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(1): 42-46, 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914568

RESUMO

Focusing on the current challenges and opportunities of China National Infectious Disease Surveillance Network (CNIDS), the exploration and development of pathogen detecting and tracing technologies, and the key issues in vaccine development, 48 experts from the disease control and prevention centers; research institutes, universities and hospitals launched an in-depth discussion on October 24-27, 2019, and reached the following consensus. (1) CNIDS needs to coordinate operational activities and to integrate data across governmental departments in order to build a human-centered and life-cycle based disease monitoring and health managing system. (2) In addition to standardize and further strengthen pathogen culturing and isolating techniques, it is desired to develop multi-targeted, ultra-sensitive, high-specific, high-throughput, digitalized and easy-to-use techniques for pathogen detections and pathobionts analyses. (3) The rapid development of pathogen tracing technologies calls to facilitate the formulation of a more efficient pathogen-tracing system by integrating technologies from genomics, bioinformatics and microbiology.(4) To strengthen the basic researches to support new vaccine developments, to explore vaccination strategies and to unfold the post-marketing evaluation on vaccines. Finally, experts proposed and discussed possiblecountermeasures and suggestions tackling with those challenges.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Consenso , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Vacinas , China , Congressos como Assunto , Humanos
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792552

RESUMO

Immunization represents one of the most cost-effective means to improve the health and well-being of populations and contribute to sustainable development. Since the inception of the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) in 1974, considerable gains have been made in improving access to vaccination in all countries. However, the full potential of vaccination is yet to be tapped.Health system weaknesses have prevented universal access to vaccination and are a limitation for sustainable use of the increasing array of new vaccines. Fortunately, solutions exist and opportunities are available to strengthen immunization systems and to implement strategies to achieve the vision of universal access to vaccines. National immunization programmes are responsible for the management of immunization at the country level and cover a range of functions from establishing evidence-based policies to financing and procurement of vaccines, vaccine management and logistics, delivery of vaccination services and collection, as well as analysis and use of immunization data. Well-functioning immunization programmes that deliver high-quality services using tailored strategies to meet the needs of different population groups can reap the health benefits of high and equitable coverage with vaccines.


Assuntos
Vacinação , Vacinas , Alemanha , Imunização , Programas de Imunização
7.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31776598

RESUMO

Vaccinations are amongst the most important and powerful preventive measures modern medicine has to offer. By their nature, vaccines represent a very complex class of biological medicines. Licensure of novel vaccines is a process conducted on the basis of a comprehensive set of well-defined legal and procedural requirements. The key aim of the regulatory evaluation of vaccines is to confirm their pharmaceutical quality, safety, and efficacy in order to conclude on the positive benefit/risk ratio that is an absolute prerequisite for granting a license.In Europe there exist four types of licensing procedures for human vaccines (national, MRP, DCP, and centralized) depending on whether the vaccine is intended to be marketed nationally, in several, or all EU countries. Modern innovative vaccines are mostly licensed via the centralized EU procedure, which also offers a certain degree of procedural flexibility for specific vaccines under defined conditions. However, the basic regulatory requirements are the same for all types of licensing procedures. In order for a license to be granted, a vaccine has to fulfill all relevant regulatory requirements as regards pharmaceutical quality, including each manufacturing and control step as well as preclinical and clinical characterization. Most importantly, clinical trials in humans conducted prelicensure to determine vaccine safety and efficacy play a key role during the licensing procedure and for decision making.The WHO prequalification procedure was implemented to enable worldwide access to medicines of approved quality. Its prime aim is to establish and ensure appropriate universally recognized regulatory standards for vaccines to be used throughout the entire world.


Assuntos
Licenciamento , Vacinação , Vacinas , Europa (Continente) , Alemanha , Humanos , Organização Mundial da Saúde
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31776599

RESUMO

Today's world is characterized by increasing population density, human mobility, urbanization, and climate and ecological change. This global dynamic has various effects, including the increased appearance of emerging infectious diseases (EIDs), which pose a growing threat to global health security.Outbreaks of EIDs, like the 2013-2016 Ebola outbreak in West Africa or the current Ebola outbreak in Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), have not only put populations in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) at risk in terms of morbidity and mortality, but they also have had a significant impact on economic growth in affected regions and beyond.The Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovation (CEPI) is an innovative global partnership between public, private, philanthropic, and civil society organizations that was launched as the result of a consensus that a coordinated, international, and intergovernmental plan was needed to develop and deploy new vaccines to prevent future epidemics.CEPI is focusing on supporting candidate vaccines against the World Health Organization (WHO) Blueprint priority pathogens MERS-CoV, Nipah virus, Lassa fever virus, and Rift Valley fever virus, as well as Chikungunya virus, which is on the WHO watch list. The current vaccine portfolio contains a wide variety of technologies, ranging across recombinant viral vectors, nucleic acids, and recombinant proteins. To support and accelerate vaccine development, CEPI will also support science projects related to the development of biological standards and assays, animal models, epidemiological studies, and diagnostics, as well as build capacities for future clinical trials in risk-prone contexts.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes , Epidemias , Vacinas , África Ocidental , Animais , Surtos de Doenças , Alemanha , Humanos
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31802154

RESUMO

Vaccination saves millions of lives, and the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region celebrated record high coverage in 2018. Still, national or sub-national coverage is insufficient to stop the spread of vaccine-preventable diseases. Health authorities are increasingly aware of the need to prioritize the "demand" side of vaccination. Achieving high and equitable vaccination uptake in all population groups is not a quick-fix; it requires long-term investment in multifaceted interventions, informed by research with the target groups. The WHO focuses on both individual and context determinants of vaccination behaviours. Individual determinants include risk perceptions, (dis)trust and perceived constraints; insights from psychology help us understand these. Context determinants include social norms, socioeconomic status and education level, and the way health systems are designed, operate and are financed. The WHO recommends using a proven theoretical model to understand vaccination behaviours and has adapted the "COM­B model" for their Tailoring Immunization Programmes (TIP) approach. This adapted model is described in the article. Informed by insights into the factors affecting vaccination behaviours, interventions and policies can be planned to increase vaccination uptake. Some evidence exists on proven methods to do this. At the individual level, some interventions have been seen to increase vaccination uptake, and experimental studies have assessed how certain messages or actions affect vaccination perceptions. At the context level, there is more documentation for effective strategies, including those that focus on making vaccination the easy, convenient and default behaviour and that focus on the interaction between caregivers and health workers.


Assuntos
Vacinas , Cuidadores , Alemanha , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Vacinação
10.
Exp Parasitol ; 208: 107800, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726054

RESUMO

The aims of this study were an establishment of the domestic rabbit as an intermediate host for cystic echinococcosis (CE) and to evaluate the potency of the crude germinal layer and the protoscoleces antigens to protect against the CE. Firstly; Two groups of white Newzeland rabbits were infected orally either by 5000 active oncospheres or viable protoscoleces separately. After 20 weeks, the slaughtered rabbits showed the presence of hydatid cysts at different internal organs. Molecular detection of the resulted cysts was conducted. Secondly; 27 rabbits were divided into nine groups (n = 3). Groups 1 and 2 were immunized with the crude germinal layer antigen while the groups 3 and 4 were immunized with the crude protoscoleces antigen. Groups 5 and 6 received the adjuvant mineral oil. Groups 7 and 8 were used as positive control. The last 9 group was kept as a negative control. The obtained results showed a significant high protection percentage of 83.4% and high antibody titer was recorded in groups that received the crude germinal layer antigen comparing with the groups that immunized with the crude protoscoleces antigen as their protection percentage was 66.7% with lower IgG response. In conclusion, the domestic rabbits could be used as a laboratory model for CE. Developing of the germinal layer antigen is more immunogenic than the protoscoleces one and could be used as a promising vaccine. Attention should be directed towards the existing rabbit in the environment adjacent to infected dogs as it could be a part of Echinococcus life cycle.


Assuntos
Modelos Animais de Doenças , Equinococose/prevenção & controle , Echinococcus/imunologia , Coelhos , Vacinação , Vacinas , Análise de Variância , Animais , Antígenos de Helmintos/imunologia , DNA de Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Cães , Echinococcus/genética , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Imunoglobulina G/biossíntese , Rim/parasitologia , Fígado/parasitologia , Pulmão/parasitologia , Masculino , Omento/parasitologia , Potência de Vacina
11.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31811312

RESUMO

The number of international travelers has been continuously increasing in recent decades. Among travelers, there are more and more people at an increased risk for acquiring diseases that could be prevented by vaccines or for the development of a severe course of disease. Risk groups in travel medicine are senior travelers, children, pregnant and breast-feeding women, persons with pre-existing medical conditions, and persons who visit their friends and relatives abroad (VFR). Individuals in these groups require attention during pretravel advice consultations, particularly with regards to recommended vaccinations. On the other hand, for some risk groups, particular vaccines cannot be given for safety reasons or because the response to vaccines is reduced. Not all risk groups or each vaccine have sufficient evidence available, so each patient's risks and benefits must be weighed during pretravel consultation. In this article, the particularities for each risk group with respect to pretravel immunization are highlighted.


Assuntos
Viagem , Vacinas , Criança , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Gravidez , Medicina de Viagem , Vacinação
12.
São Paulo; SES/SP; 2020. 13 p. tab.
Não convencional em Português | LILACS, Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-CTDPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1049840
13.
Exp Parasitol ; 209: 107829, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887531

RESUMO

Ticks, obligatory blood-feeding arthropods, are a major pathogen vector in humans and animals worldwide. Anti-tick vaccines are an exciting alternative to chemical acaricides for controlling these disease-transmitting vectors. However, identification of protective antigens for anti-tick vaccine development is challenging. Different ribosomal proteins play multifunctional roles in tick survival and feeding. Here, we first report the cloning and molecular characterization of ribosomal protein S27 (RPS-27) from the hard tick Haemaphysalis longicornis. We identified a complete open reading frame (ORF) of RPS-27: a 255-bp (base pair) cDNA encoding a mature protein of 84 amino-acid residues with a 9.4-kDa predicted molecular mass. Amino-acid sequence analysis revealed that RPS-27 was highly conserved among different tick and vertebrate animals with identity ranges of 97-98% and 60-85%, respectively. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that RPS-27 from different tick species clustered together. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed that the RPS-27 mRNA transcript was expressed in all life stages. At the tissue level, it was more highly expressed in the salivary gland than in the midgut for both the fed and unfed conditions, which indicates a role for RPS-27 in tick feeding. In vitro analysis showed that recombinant RPS-27 (10-RPS-27) was successfully expressed in a pGEMEX-2 vector with an estimated 45-kDa molecular mass. The functional importance of RPS-27 was determined by gene silencing through RNA interference (RNAi). RPS-27 silencing showed a significant (P < 0.05) reduction of feeding abilityand engorgement weight after the blood meal in both nymph and adult female ticks and also significantly (P < 0.05) reduced molting rate in nymph. In addition, RPS-27 silencing in eggs led to abnormalities in shape and hatching. Taken together, our results suggest that RPS-27 is an important molecule that plays multiple roles in the tick life cycle including in both feeding and reproduction. Therefore, RPS-27 is an exciting target for future tick control strategies.


Assuntos
Inativação Gênica , Ixodidae/genética , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Proteínas Ribossômicas/genética , Vacinas/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Análise de Variância , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Western Blotting , Clonagem Molecular , DNA Complementar/genética , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Ixodidae/classificação , Ixodidae/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Filogenia , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/genética , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Proteínas Ribossômicas/química , Proteínas Ribossômicas/imunologia , Alinhamento de Sequência , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/prevenção & controle , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/transmissão , Transcrição Genética
14.
15.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31884764

RESUMO

The Internet and social media are becoming an influential source of information regarding health care issues, including vaccination. The profound analysis of the Russian Internet discourse on vaccination demonstrated that nowadays there is no clear-cut understanding of adequate strategy concerning informational policy in this direction. The article defines the principles of information policy for pro-vaccine attitudes spreading on the Internet. METHODS: The sampling consisted of the Muscovites Internet messages containing the keywords 'vaccine' and 'vaccinations' and their derivatives. The analyzed period of data export is the first quarter of 2019. The size of uploading was 19948 messages, the random sample of 800 messages and 280 images was taken. Veterinary and spam messages were excluded. RESULTS: The topic of vaccines in our sample is discussed more frequently by women (72%). The average age of participants is 35. The algorithms of vaccination, complications, and necessity of vaccines are the most frequently discussed issues. In our sample pro and contra vaccines messages are of equal percentage (42% and 41% respectively) and there are 17% of those who are in doubt. The key argument for contra vaccines is post-vaccination complications. The visual propaganda of vaccine supporters is aimed at the ideas of common good, rationality, scientific knowledge, they are using lots of humor, and it usually requires the context awareness. The opponents apply more personal and emotional approach. their values are family and personal experience, common sense. Their approach is more appealing to the 'common' reader. CONCLUSION: The article describes strategies for argumentation and pro and contra vaccine propaganda on the Internet. The research offers its results to the segment users concerning their rational and emotional reactions. The work strategy with each group is proposed.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Internet , Vacinação , Vacinas , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Federação Russa
16.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 36(1): 9, 2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31858269

RESUMO

Campylobacter jejuni is the one of the leading cause of bacterial food borne gastroenteritis. PglB, a glycosyltransferase, plays a crucial role of mediating glycosylation of numerous periplasmic proteins. It catalyzes N-glycosylation at the sequon D/E-X1-N-X2-S/T in its substrate proteins. Here we report that the PglB itself is a glycoprotein which self-glycosylates at N534 site in its DYNQS sequon by its own catalytic WWDYG motif. Site-directed mutagenesis, lectin Immunoblot, and mobility shift assays confirmed that the DYNQS is an N-glycosylation motif. PglB's N-glycosylation motif is structurally and functionally similar to its widely studied glycosylation substrate, the OMPH1. Its DYNQS motif forms a solvent-exposed crest. This motif is close to a cluster of polar and hydrophilic residues, which form a loop flanked by two α helices. This arrangement extremely apposite for auto-glycosylation at N534. This self-glycosylation ability of PglB could mediate C. jejuni's ability to colonize the intestinal epithelium. Further this capability may also bear significance for the development of novel conjugated vaccines and diagnostic tests.


Assuntos
Campylobacter jejuni/enzimologia , Glicoproteínas/química , Hexosiltransferases/química , Proteínas de Membrana/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Glicosilação , Hexosiltransferases/genética , Hexosiltransferases/imunologia , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Modelos Moleculares , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Filogenia , Conformação Proteica , Alinhamento de Sequência , Análise de Sequência de Proteína , Vacinas
17.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 20(Suppl 21): 705, 2019 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31865905

RESUMO

This Editorial first introduces the background of the vaccine and drug relations and how biomedical terminologies and ontologies have been used to support their studies. The history of the seven workshops, initially named VDOSME, and then named VDOS, is also summarized and introduced. Then the 7th International Workshop on Vaccine and Drug Ontology Studies (VDOS 2018), held on August 10th, 2018, Corvallis, Oregon, USA, is introduced in detail. These VDOS workshops have greatly supported the development, applications, and discussion of vaccine- and drug-related terminology and drug studies.


Assuntos
Preparações Farmacêuticas , Vacinas , Ontologias Biológicas , Congressos como Assunto , Humanos
18.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 20(Suppl 21): 704, 2019 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31865910

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Different human responses to the same vaccine were frequently observed. For example, independent studies identified overlapping but different transcriptomic gene expression profiles in Yellow Fever vaccine 17D (YF-17D) immunized human subjects. Different experimental and analysis conditions were likely contributed to the observed differences. To investigate this issue, we developed a Vaccine Investigation Ontology (VIO), and applied VIO to classify the different variables and relations among these variables systematically. We then evaluated whether the ontological VIO modeling and VIO-based statistical analysis would contribute to the enhanced vaccine investigation studies and a better understanding of vaccine response mechanisms. RESULTS: Our VIO modeling identified many variables related to data processing and analysis such as normalization method, cut-off criteria, software settings including software version. The datasets from two previous studies on human responses to YF-17D vaccine, reported by Gaucher et al. (2008) and Querec et al. (2009), were re-analyzed. We first applied the same LIMMA statistical method to re-analyze the Gaucher data set and identified a big difference in terms of significantly differentiated gene lists compared to the original study. The different results were likely due to the LIMMA version and software package differences. Our second study re-analyzed both Gaucher and Querec data sets but with the same data processing and analysis pipeline. Significant differences in differential gene lists were also identified. In both studies, we found that Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment results had more overlapping than the gene lists and enriched pathway lists. The visualization of the identified GO hierarchical structures among the enriched GO terms and their associated ancestor terms using GOfox allowed us to find more associations among enriched but often different GO terms, demonstrating the usage of GO hierarchical relations enhance data analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The ontology-based analysis framework supports standardized representation, integration, and analysis of heterogeneous data of host responses to vaccines. Our study also showed that differences in specific variables might explain different results drawn from similar studies.


Assuntos
Vacinas , Ontologias Biológicas , Humanos , Software
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