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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(5): 133-135, 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32027627

RESUMO

At its October 2019 meeting, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP)* voted to recommend approval of the 2020 Recommended U.S. Adult Immunization Schedule for Persons Aged 19 Years and Older. The 2020 adult immunization schedule, available at https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/schedules/index.html,† summarizes ACIP recommendations in two tables and accompanying notes. This 2020 adult immunization schedule has been approved by the CDC Director, the American College of Physicians, the American Academy of Family Physicians, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, and the American College of Nurse-Midwives. Health care providers are advised to use the tables and the notes together.


Assuntos
Esquemas de Imunização , Imunização/normas , Vacinas/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Comitês Consultivos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Estados Unidos
2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(5): 130-132, 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32027628

RESUMO

At its October 2019 meeting, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP)* approved the 2020 Recommended Child and Adolescent Immunization Schedule for Ages 18 Years or Younger. The 2020 child and adolescent immunization schedule summarizes ACIP recommendations, including several changes from the 2019 immunization schedule† on the cover page, three tables, and notes found on the CDC immunization schedule website (https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/schedules/index.html). Health care providers are advised to use the tables and the notes together. This immunization schedule is recommended by ACIP (https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/acip/index.html) and approved by the CDC Director, the American Academy of Pediatrics, the American Academy of Family Physicians, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, and, for the first time, the American College of Nurse-Midwives.


Assuntos
Esquemas de Imunização , Imunização/normas , Vacinas/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Comitês Consultivos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Estados Unidos
3.
Immunology ; 159(2): 133-141, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593303

RESUMO

The majority of human vaccines are administered above the deltoid muscle of the arm, a site that is chronically sun-exposed in many people. It is known that exposure of the skin to the UV wavelengths in sunlight stimulates systemic immunosuppression, an outcome that is associated with reduced immunity to microbial infections in animal models. Here we consider whether immunization of humans through a UV-irradiated skin site will lead to a less effective immune response compared with immunization through an unexposed site. Studies showing that the efficacy of vaccination can be reduced when surrogates of increased levels of sun exposure, such as latitude of residence and season of the year, are considered. Results from a limited number of intervention experiments in humans demonstrate a similar pattern. To provide an explanation for these findings, changes in the number and functional potential of immune cells in chronically sun-exposed compared with unexposed skin are outlined. UV radiation-induced changes to skin cells are also relevant when considering skin sites for administration of immune-tolerizing peptides. The review provides the basis for further research into the effects of acute and chronic UV radiation exposure on skin cells in the context of vaccination.


Assuntos
Tolerância Imunológica/efeitos da radiação , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Pele/efeitos da radiação , Luz Solar , Vacinação , Vacinas/administração & dosagem , Animais , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/efeitos da radiação , Humanos , Memória Imunológica/efeitos da radiação , Injeções Intradérmicas , Mastócitos/imunologia , Mastócitos/efeitos da radiação , Estações do Ano , Pele/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos da radiação
4.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 79(Spec 6/1): 559-563, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864226

RESUMO

The international spread of infectious diseases is a global problem of health security. Vaccination is one of the most successful and profitable health interventions. Oral immunization has significant advantages over the widely used parental vaccines. Intestinal and free-living protozoa express on their surface a dense layer of proteins that protect them from hostile environmental conditions. The use of variable surface proteins (VSPs), such as those of the intestinal protozoan Giardia lamblia, is a feasible mechanism for the generation of oral vaccines, since they are highly immunogenic as well as resistant to changes in pH and proteases. In a recently published article, we showed that these properties of VSPs can be exploited to protect and enhance the immunogenicity of vaccine antigens, thus enabling their oral administration. We recently generated an oral vaccine against influenza virus composed of virus-like particles (VLPs) containing VSPs of G. lamblia and the HA antigen (viral hemagglutinin) in its envelope. When administered orally to mice, these coated particles elicit HA-specific humoral (systemic and local) and cellular responses, without the need of any additional adjuvant. Treated mice are protected against viral challenge as well as against the development of tumors expressing the HA vaccine antigen.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Proteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Proteínas de Protozoários/imunologia , Vacinas de Partículas Semelhantes a Vírus/imunologia , Vacinas/imunologia , Administração Oral , Animais , Giardia lamblia/química , Humanos , Imunidade Humoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Membrana/administração & dosagem , Proteínas de Protozoários/administração & dosagem , Vacinas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas de Partículas Semelhantes a Vírus/administração & dosagem
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(47): 13127-13138, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682438

RESUMO

Allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only available curative treatment for IgE-mediated allergen diseases. A safe hypoallergenic allergen derivative with high efficiency is required as a tolerogen to induce immune tolerance to the causitive allergens. In this study, to generate a rice-based oral allergy vaccine for Japanese cedar (JC) pollinosis, the tertiary structures of major JC pollen allergens, Cry j 1 and Cry j 2, were more completely destructed by shuffling than the previous ones without losing immunogenicity and then were specifically expressed in the endosperm of transgenic rice seed. They accumulated at high levels and were deposited in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and ER-derived protein bodies. The low allergenicity of these deconstructed Cry j 1 and Cry j 2 allergens was evaluated by examining their binding activities to the specific IgE antibody and by the basophil degranulation test.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Plantas/imunologia , Cryptomeria/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade/imunologia , Oryza/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Animais , Antígenos de Plantas/genética , Cryptomeria/genética , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/terapia , Imunoterapia , Camundongos , Oryza/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Pólen/genética , Pólen/imunologia , Ratos , Sementes/genética , Sementes/imunologia , Vacinas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas/genética , Vacinas/imunologia
6.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 294, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692797

RESUMO

The number of children who survive to adolescence is increasing in Nigeria, significantly due to the success of child survival programs, with immunization as a major theme. However, the national immunization schedule in Nigeria is presently restricted to early childhood with no attention paid to immunization in adolescence. Presently, the vaccines that are readily available for adolescents include tetanus toxoid which is normally administered to pregnant women, so necessarily includes adolescent mothers; and a few research programs which offers hepatitis B vaccines. Also, there are few Nigerian adolescents who access immunization as a requirement for travelling outside the country or as a result of parental effort. Knowledge and awareness about adolescent immunization is generally poor. Nigerian adolescents have been shown to be poorly protected from tetanus, rubella and hepatitis B which are vaccine preventable. Neonatal, childhood and adult tetanus, congenital rubella syndrome, cervical cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma are just few of the diseases whose incidence can be reduced with an effective adolescent immunization program. This will also ensure that the gains of childhood immunization is concretized and socio-economic losses as a result of vaccine preventable diseases are eliminated to create a healthy and vibrant workforce. There is an urgent need to build a viable adolescent immunization program in Nigeria as adolescents represent a window of opportunity to prevent diseases which affect both the younger and older age group. This can be extended to other developing countries as well.


Assuntos
Programas de Imunização/organização & administração , Esquemas de Imunização , Imunização/métodos , Vacinas/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Nigéria
8.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1421, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666039

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inability to track children's vaccination history coupled with parents' lack of awareness of vaccination due dates compounds the problem of low immunization coverage and timeliness in developing countries. Traditional Reminder/Recall (RR) interventions such as paper-based immunization cards or mHealth based platforms do not yield optimal results in resource-constrained settings. There is thus a need for a low-cost intervention that can simultaneously stimulate demand and track immunization history to help reduce drop-outs and improve immunization coverage and timeliness. The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of low-cost vaccine reminder and tracker bracelets for improving routine childhood immunization coverage and timeliness in Pakistani children under 2 years of age. METHODS: The study is an individually randomized, three-arm parallel Randomized Controlled Trial with two intervention groups and one control group. Infants in the two intervention groups will be given two different types of silicone bracelets at the time of recruitment, while infants in the control group will not receive any intervention. The two types of bracelets consist of symbols and/or numbers to denote the EPI vaccination schedule and each time the child will come for vaccination, the study staff will perforate a hole in the appropriate symbol to denote vaccine administration. Therefore, by looking at the bracelet, caregivers will be able to see how many vaccines have been received. Our primary outcome measure is the increase in coverage and timeliness of Pentavalent-3/PCV-3/Polio-3 and Measles-1 vaccine in the intervention versus control groups. A total of 1446 participants will be recruited from 4 Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) centers in Landhi Town, Karachi. Each enrolled child will be followed up till the Measles-1 vaccine is administered, or till eleven months have elapsed since enrolment. DISCUSSION: Participant recruitment commenced on July 19, 2017, and was completed on October 10, 2017. Proposed duration of the study is 18 months and expected end date is December 1, 2018. This study constitutes one of the first attempts to rigorously evaluate an innovative, low-cost vaccine reminder bracelet. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03310762 . Retrospectively Registered on October 16, 2017.


Assuntos
Programas de Imunização/métodos , Esquemas de Imunização , Pais , Sistemas de Alerta , Cobertura Vacinal , Vacinação , Vacinas/administração & dosagem , Cuidadores , Pré-Escolar , Análise Custo-Benefício , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Paquistão , Poliomielite/prevenção & controle , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Sistemas de Alerta/instrumentação , Projetos de Pesquisa , Estudos Retrospectivos , População Urbana
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610771

RESUMO

Immunisation at the earliest appropriate age and high levels of vaccine coverage at milestone ages are important in preventing the spread of vaccine-preventable diseases. At the Central Coast Public Health Unit, the authors sought to determine if follow-up of children said by the Australian Childhood Immunisation Register (ACIR) to be overdue for vaccination improved both of these factors. In a quality improvement activity, monthly ACIR lists of overdue Central Coast children aged 9 to 10 months of age were examined. The study alternated three months of intervention with three months of no intervention. The intervention was designed to find evidence of vaccination, first from the last known provider, and then if this was unsuccessful, from the parent. If no information was available, a letter was sent to the parents. If the child was indeed vaccinated, the register was updated. If the child was missing any vaccinations, the parent(s) were encouraged to complete the schedule. On reviewing routinely-published quarterly ACIR data at three-monthly intervals for 24 months after the intervention (or non-intervention), timeliness of vaccination improved in the intervention cohort. Central Coast fully vaccinated rates diverged from NSW rates during the study. In addition, the ACIR quarters that contained two out of three months of intervention rather than one out of three months of intervention had the highest rates of fully vaccinated children. The authors concluded that the intervention improved both timeliness of vaccination and the proportion of fully vaccinated children.


Assuntos
Programas de Imunização/estatística & dados numéricos , Esquemas de Imunização , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinas/administração & dosagem , Austrália , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Pais , Sistema de Registros
10.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 499, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647019

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease, targeted by the World Health Organization for reduction in morbidity by 2020. It is caused by parasitic flukes that spread through contamination of local water sources. Traditional control focuses on mass drug administration, which kills the majority of adult worms, targeted at school-aged children. However, these drugs do not confer long-term protection and there are concerns over the emergence of drug resistance. The development of a vaccine against schistosomiasis opens the potential for control methods that could generate long-lasting population-level immunity if they are cost-effective. METHODS: Using an individual-based transmission model, matched to epidemiological data, we compared the cost-effectiveness of a range of vaccination programmes against mass drug administration, across three transmission settings. Health benefit was measured by calculating the heavy-intensity infection years averted by each intervention, while vaccine costs were assessed against robust estimates for the costs of mass drug administration obtained from data. We also calculated a critical vaccination cost, a cost beyond which vaccination might not be economically favorable, by benchmarking the cost-effectiveness of potential vaccines against the cost-effectiveness of mass drug administration, and examined the effect of different vaccine protection durations. RESULTS: We found that sufficiently low-priced vaccines can be more cost-effective than traditional drugs in high prevalence settings, and can lead to a greater reduction in morbidity over shorter time-scales. MDA or vaccination programmes that target the whole community generate the most health benefits, but are generally less cost-effective than those targeting children, due to lower prevalence of schistosomiasis in adults. CONCLUSIONS: The ultimate cost-effectiveness of vaccination will be highly dependent on multiple vaccine characteristics, such as the efficacy, cost, safety and duration of protection, as well as the subset of population targeted for vaccination. However, our results indicate that if a vaccine could be developed with reasonable characteristics and for a sufficiently low cost, then vaccination programmes can be a highly cost-effective method of controlling schistosomiasis in high-transmission areas. The population-level immunity generated by vaccination will also inevitably improve the chances of interrupting transmission of the disease, which is the long-term epidemiological goal.


Assuntos
Administração Massiva de Medicamentos/economia , Doenças Negligenciadas/prevenção & controle , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/economia , Adolescente , Animais , Benchmarking , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Análise Custo-Benefício , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Humanos , Lactente , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos/normas , Modelos Animais , Modelos Econômicos , Doenças Negligenciadas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Negligenciadas/economia , Esquistossomose/tratamento farmacológico , Esquistossomose/economia , Esquistossomose/transmissão , Processos Estocásticos , Fatores de Tempo , Vacinação/normas , Vacinas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas/economia
11.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(42): 937-942, 2019 10 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647786

RESUMO

Endorsed by the World Health Assembly in 2012, the Global Vaccine Action Plan 2011-2020 (GVAP) (1) calls on all countries to reach ≥90% national coverage with all vaccines in the country's national immunization schedule by 2020. Building on previous analyses (2) and using the World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) global vaccination coverage estimates as of 2018, this report presents global, regional, and national vaccination coverage estimates and trends, including vaccination dropout rates. According to these estimates, global coverage with the first dose of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis-containing vaccine (DTP1) remained relatively unchanged from 2010 (89%) to 2018 (90%). Global coverage with the third DTP dose (DTP3) followed a similar global trend to that of DTP1, remaining relatively consistent from 2010 (84%) to 2018 (86%) (3). Globally, 19.4 million children (14%) were not fully vaccinated in 2018, and among them, 13.5 million (70%) did not receive any DTP doses. Overall, dropout rates from DTP1 to DTP3 decreased globally from 6% in 2010 to 4% in 2018. Global coverage with the first dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) remained between 84% and 86% during 2010-2018. Among countries that offer a second MCV dose (MCV2) during the second year of life, coverage increased from 19% in 2007 to 54% in 2018; among countries offering MCV2 to older age groups (children aged 3-14 years), coverage also increased, from 36% in 2007 to 69% in 2018 (3). Globally, the estimated difference in coverage with MCV1 and MCV2 in 2018 was 17%. However, among new and underused vaccines, global coverage increased from 2007 to 2018 for completed series of rotavirus vaccine, pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV), rubella vaccine, Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine (Hib), and hepatitis B vaccine (HepB). To reach global vaccination coverage goals for vaccines recommended during childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, tailored strategies that address local determinants for incomplete vaccination are needed, including targeting hard-to-reach and hard-to-vaccinate populations.


Assuntos
Saúde Global , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinas/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Vacina contra Difteria, Tétano e Coqueluche/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Esquemas de Imunização , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Organização Mundial da Saúde
12.
Ig Sanita Pubbl ; 75(3): 249-261, 2019.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31645065

RESUMO

The Italian National Vaccine Prevention Plan (PNPV) of 2017-19 and subsequent mandatory vaccination law (Law 119/2017) both occurred in the context of a progressive decrease in vaccine coverage levels in Italy and led to important policy changes, including the introduction of new vaccine recommendations and increasing the number of mandatory vaccinations in childhood from four to ten. A survey on a sample of 446 Italian health care workers (HCW) was carried out in order to assess their opinions on policy changes introduced by the PNPV and by the mandatory vaccination law. The convenience sample was selected among participants in a training course on vaccination counselling. The large majority of participants expressed overall satisfaction about the policy changes introduced by the PNPV but some highlighted pitfalls related to its implementation. Moreover, the majority of HCW believe that vaccination coverage for both recommended and mandatory vaccinations has increased thanks to Law 119/2017, therefore expressing a positive attitude towards the enforcement of vaccine mandates.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Vacinação/legislação & jurisprudência , Vacinação/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Vacinas/administração & dosagem
13.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(41): 913-918, 2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622284

RESUMO

The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends that children be vaccinated against 14 potentially serious illnesses during the first 24 months of life (1). CDC used data from the National Immunization Survey-Child (NIS-Child) to assess vaccination coverage with the recommended number of doses of each vaccine at the national, state, territorial, and selected local levels* among children born in 2015 and 2016. Coverage by age 24 months was at least 90% nationally for ≥3 doses of poliovirus vaccine, ≥1 dose of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR), ≥3 doses of hepatitis B vaccine (HepB), and ≥1 dose of varicella vaccine, although MMR coverage was <90% in 20 states. Children were least likely to be up to date by age 24 months with ≥2 doses of influenza vaccine (56.6%). Only 1.3% of children born in 2015 and 2016 had received no vaccinations by the second birthday. Coverage was lower for uninsured children and for children insured by Medicaid than for those with private health insurance. Vaccination coverage can be increased by improving access to vaccine providers and eliminating missed opportunities to vaccinate children during health care visits. Increased use of local vaccination coverage data is needed to identify communities at higher risk for outbreaks of measles and other vaccine-preventable diseases.


Assuntos
Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinas/administração & dosagem , Pré-Escolar , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Esquemas de Imunização , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estados Unidos
14.
Pediatrics ; 144(5)2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597690

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of vaccine hesitancy screening on childhood vaccine uptake. METHODS: We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial in pediatric primary care clinics in Washington state. Vaccine-hesitant parents (VHPs) with a healthy newborn receiving health supervision at participating clinics were eligible. VHPs were identified by using a 4-item version of the validated Parent Attitudes About Childhood Vaccines Survey (PACV). Before their child's 2- and 6-month health supervision visits, VHPs at intervention clinics completed the 15-item PACV embedded in a survey containing placebo items. Intervention providers received a summary of parents' 15-item PACV responses and interpretation of their PACV score; discretion was given to providers regarding how they acted on this information. VHPs at control clinics completed only the placebo survey items, and their child's provider received a summary of their responses; control providers remained blinded to parent VHP status. Our outcome was child immunization status at 8 months of age expressed as percent of days underimmunized. We compared outcomes in control and intervention participants using t test and linear mixed-effects regression. RESULTS: We enrolled 24 clinics (12 in each arm) and 156 parents (65 in the intervention arm). Parent characteristics were similar across arms except more intervention (versus control) parents had a first-born child (60.9% vs 44%; P = .04). No significant difference in outcome was detected between arms (25.2% [95% confidence interval: 16.0% to 34.5%] vs 19.1% [95% confidence interval: 12.0% to 26.3%] mean days underimmunized in the intervention and control arms, respectively). CONCLUSION: Vaccine hesitancy screening was not significantly associated with days underimmunized.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pais/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Recusa de Vacinação/psicologia , Vacinação/psicologia , Adulto , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Vacinas/administração & dosagem
18.
Biomater Sci ; 7(10): 4022-4026, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506651

RESUMO

Since current subunit vaccines are limited by a short half-life in vivo and weak immune responses when used alone without adjuvants, there is an unmet need for combing carriers with complement activation signals to interrupt outbreaks in real-time. Amino-functionalized zirconium-based MOFs (UiO-AM) could activate the complement system, which plays an important role in innate and adaptive immunity. Our data provide design principles for studies on complement activation as a safe vaccine carrier that can effectively enhance immune responses against antigens in vivo.


Assuntos
Antígenos/administração & dosagem , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Ovalbumina/administração & dosagem , Vacinas/administração & dosagem , Zircônio/administração & dosagem , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativação do Complemento/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Células HeLa , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Camundongos , Células RAW 264.7
19.
Acta Virol ; 63(3): 245-252, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31507189

RESUMO

Plants have been as medicinal mediators for centuries. Recent trends in agro-biotechnology however, improved the therapeutic roles of plants to a significant level and introduced plant-based oral vaccine which can arouse an immune response in consumer. Although conventional vaccines against infectious diseases have been administrated for years the discovery of plant-based oral vaccines can potentially replace them completely in the future. The probable limitations in conventional vaccines are found to be overcome by plant-based oral vaccines. Humans and animals will no longer be dependent upon local or systemic administration of vaccines but they will just receive the vaccines as a routine food. For the purpose, gene of interest is introduced into plant through transformation, and expression of specific antigen is obtained in plant products which are then consumed by humans or animals. Therefore, plants can serve as bioreactors or bio-factories for production of edible vaccines. A detailed overview about edible vaccines, methods for edible vaccine production, candidate bioreactors and future perspectives of edible vaccines has been summarized in current article. The future of vaccination seems to be present within plant-based vaccination system. Keywords: vaccine; edible vaccine; infectious diseases; antigen; edible crops; oral immunization.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Vacinação , Vacinas , Administração Oral , Animais , Humanos , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Vacinação/métodos , Vacinas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas de Plantas Comestíveis
20.
Aust N Z J Public Health ; 43(6): 563-569, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31535420

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify behavioural barriers of service provision within general practice that may be impacting the vaccination coverage rates of Aboriginal children in Perth, Western Australia (WA). METHODS: A purposive developed survey was distributed to 316 general practices across Perth and three key informant interviews were conducted using a mixed-methods approach. RESULTS: Of the surveyed participants (n=101), 67.4% were unaware of the low vaccination coverage in Aboriginal children; 64.8% had not received cultural sensitivity training in their workplace and 46.8% reported having inadequate time to follow up overdue child vaccinations. Opportunistic vaccination was not routinely performed by 30.8% of participants. Key themes identified in the interviews were awareness, inclusion and cultural safety. CONCLUSION: Inadequate awareness of the current rates, in association with a lack of cultural safety training, follow-up and opportunistic practice, may be preventing greater vaccination uptake in Aboriginal children in Perth. Cultural safety is a critical component of the acceptability and accessibility of services; lack of awareness may restrict the development of strategies designed to equitably address low coverage. IMPLICATIONS: The findings of this study provide an opportunity to raise awareness among clinicians in general practice and inform future strategies to equitably deliver targeted vaccination services to Aboriginal children.


Assuntos
Competência Cultural , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Enfermeiras de Saúde da Família/psicologia , Medicina Geral/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde do Indígena/organização & administração , Médicos/psicologia , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Criança , Saúde da Criança , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos , Vacinação , Cobertura Vacinal/tendências , Vacinas/administração & dosagem , Austrália Ocidental
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