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1.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-48194

RESUMO

O Ministério da Saúde está enviando para os estados e Distrito Federal quase 1 milhão de doses da vacina Covid-19 produzida no Brasil pelo Instituto Butantan com matéria-prima importada


Assuntos
Vacinas/administração & dosagem , Vacinação/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Agenda de Prioridades em Saúde
2.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 134, 2021.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33912304

RESUMO

Introduction: no one can deny that vaccination against several serious diseases in the world, and particularly in Morocco, has given very satisfactory protective results. The extension of the COVID-19 pandemic in our country has led to a significant decline in childhood immunization, which could have severe repercussions increasing the risk of future outbreaks. Hence, the measures of the Ministry of Health to correct the situation. The purpose of this study was to highlight the extent of vaccine release during COVID-19 pandemic and to make recommendations to restore vaccination programmes. Methods: we conducted a cross-sectional study of the effect of containment measures during this pandemic on the monitoring of children´s vaccinations. We conducted a national survey of pediatricians using an electronic questionnaire administered via Google Forms. We collected, analyzed and interpreted the results. Results: one hundred and three Moroccan pediatricians answered the questionnaire. More than 2-thirds (78.6%) of pediatricians practiced in the private sector and delivered vaccines in the immunization schedule. The majority of pediatricians (95%) were asked about parental vaccine concerns. We noted that 82.5% of parents were reluctant to go to the local health department and 5.8% refused to take vaccination during COVID-19 pandemic. About 22% of pediatricians completely stopped immunization services and 72.8% delayed immunizations from 3 to 4 weeks. Vaccination stoppage involved older children in two thirds of cases. Conclusion: it is essential to maintain public confidence in vaccination. Ongoing and timely assessment of vaccine coverage as well as clear recommendations and broad public awareness are essential to respond to vaccine changes during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Esquemas de Imunização , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinas/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Marrocos , Pais , Pediatras/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Cobertura Vacinal
5.
Expert Rev Vaccines ; 20(3): 231-234, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33554682

RESUMO

Introduction: The Latin American Society of Pediatric Infectology (SLIPE for its acronym in Spanish) is working hard to contribute with strategic actions to prevent the recurrence of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases and to prevent the reduction of vaccine coverage in the region of the Americas.Areas covered: On Friday, September 25th, a Latin American forum of experts on immunization services during the COVID-19 pandemic was held through Webex platform. Issues such as: the imminent risk of occurrence and outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases, the importance of epidemiological surveillance and the vaccination campaign challenges, in the context of a pandemic were discussed.Expert opinion: Vaccination campaigns should no longer be postponed or delayed; instead, they must be reactivated; governments, scientific societies, and physicians must promote vaccination programs to avoid outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases. On the eve of a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, it is necessary to insist on the availability of sufficient doses to avoid dose shortages in disadvantaged areas of the region.


Assuntos
Doenças Preveníveis por Vacina/prevenção & controle , Vacinas/administração & dosagem , /administração & dosagem , Humanos , Programas de Imunização/organização & administração , América Latina , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Cobertura Vacinal
7.
Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res ; 21(2): 235-245, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33593223

RESUMO

Introduction: The kinds of costs included in cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) for vaccines, such as direct medical costs and indirect costs, may affect their outcomes. While some guidelines recommend inclusion of costs associated with productivity losses/gains, very little guidance is provided about the productivity elements to include and their calculation approach.Areas covered: We conducted a systematic review of CEAs for vaccines and vaccine programs published between 1 January 2010 and 19 November 2019 that included productivity costs using Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. The kind of productivity elements included their calculation approach, and the impact of their inclusion on cost-effectiveness are summarized. Among 88 studies identified, productivity elements included were reported for 71 studies (81%) with absenteeism being the most commonly included element. Only 24 studies (27%) reported the approach used to calculate productivity costs (human capital vs. friction approach). Most studies (81%) reported a more favorable cost-effectiveness with the inclusion of productivity losses/gains.Expert opinion: Inclusion of productivity losses/gains for CEAs for vaccines has resulted in more favorable cost-effectiveness based on the studies reviewed. However, clearer guidance on the productivity elements to include by disease area and more transparency on the calculation method used may be needed.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Eficiência , Vacinas/economia , Absenteísmo , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Vacinas/administração & dosagem
8.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(6): 189-192, 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33571172

RESUMO

At its October 2020 meeting, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices* (ACIP) approved the 2021 Recommended Child and Adolescent Immunization Schedule for Ages 18 Years or Younger. After Emergency Use Authorization of Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), ACIP issued an interim recommendation for use of Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine in persons aged ≥16 years at its December 12, 2020, meeting (1). In addition, ACIP approved an amendment to include COVID-19 vaccine recommendations in the child and adolescent immunization schedule. After Emergency Use Authorization of Moderna COVID-19 vaccine by FDA, ACIP issued an interim recommendation for use of Moderna COVID-19 vaccine in persons aged ≥18 years at its December 19, 2020, emergency meeting (2).


Assuntos
Imunização/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Vacinas/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Comitês Consultivos , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Esquemas de Imunização , Lactente , Estados Unidos
9.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(6): 193-196, 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33571173

RESUMO

At its October 2020 meeting, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP)* approved the Recommended Immunization Schedule for Adults Aged 19 Years or Older, United States, 2021. After the Emergency Use Authorization of Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine by the Food and Drug Administration, ACIP issued an interim recommendation for use of Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine in persons aged ≥16 years at its December 12, 2020, emergency meeting (1). In addition, ACIP approved an amendment to include COVID-19 vaccine recommendations in the child and adolescent and adult immunization schedules. After Emergency Use Authorization of Moderna COVID-19 vaccine by the Food and Drug Administration, ACIP issued an interim recommendation for use of Moderna COVID-19 vaccine in persons aged ≥18 years at its December 19, 2020, emergency meeting (2).


Assuntos
Imunização/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Vacinas/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Comitês Consultivos , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Humanos , Esquemas de Imunização , Estados Unidos
11.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246951, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33596271

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The global abrupt progression of the COVID-19 pandemic may disrupt critical life-saving services such as routine immunization (RI), thus increasing the susceptibility of countries to outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs). Being endemic to several infectious diseases, Lebanon might be at increased risk of outbreaks as the utilization of RI services might have deteriorated due to the pandemic and the country's political unrest following the October 2019 uprising. The aim of this study was to assess the changes in the utilization of RI services in both the public and private sectors following the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A self-administered cross-sectional survey was completed electronically, in April 2020, by 345 private pediatricians who are registered in professional associations of physicians in Lebanon and provide immunization services at their clinics. Means of the reported percentages of decrease in the utilization of vaccination services by pediatricians were calculated. As for the public sector, an examination of the monthly differences in the number of administered vaccine doses in addition to their respective percentages of change was performed. Adjustment for the distribution of RI services between the sectors was performed to calculate the national decrease rate. RESULTS: The utilization of vaccination services at the national level decreased by 31%. In the private sector, immunization services provision diminished by 46.9% mainly between February and April 2020. The highest decrease rates were observed for oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) and hepatitis A, followed by measles and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. The number of vaccine doses administered in the public sector decreased by 20%. The most prominent reductions were detected for the OPV and measles vaccines, and during October 2019 and March 2020. CONCLUSION: The substantial decrease in the utilization of RI as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic requires public health interventions to prevent future outbreaks of VPDs.


Assuntos
Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , /imunologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Imunização/métodos , Imunização/psicologia , Programas de Imunização/estatística & dados numéricos , Esquemas de Imunização , Lactente , Líbano/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pandemias , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , /patogenicidade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinas/administração & dosagem
12.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(7): 245-249, 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33600384

RESUMO

On March 13, 2020, the United States declared a national emergency concerning the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak (1). In response, many state and local governments issued shelter-in-place or stay-at-home orders, restricting nonessential activities outside residents' homes (2). CDC initially issued guidance recommending postponing routine adult vaccinations, which was later revised to recommend continuing to administer routine adult vaccines (3). In addition, factors such as disrupted operations of health care facilities and safety concerns regarding exposure to SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, resulted in delay or avoidance of routine medical care (4), likely further affecting delivery of routine adult vaccinations. Medicare enrollment and claims data of Parts A (hospital insurance), B (medical insurance), and D (prescription drug insurance) were examined to assess the change in receipt of routine adult vaccines during the pandemic. Weekly receipt of four vaccines (13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine [PCV13], 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine [PPSV23], tetanus-diphtheria or tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccine [Td/Tdap], and recombinant zoster vaccine [RZV]) by Medicare beneficiaries aged ≥65 years during January 5-July 18, 2020, was compared with that during January 6-July 20, 2019, for the total study sample and by race and ethnicity. Overall, weekly administration rates of the four examined vaccines declined by up to 89% after the national emergency declaration in mid-March (1) compared with those during the corresponding period in 2019. During the first week following the national emergency declaration, the weekly vaccination rates were 25%-62% lower than those during the corresponding week in 2019. After reaching their nadirs of 70%-89% below 2019 rates in the second to third week of April 2020, weekly vaccination rates gradually began to recover through mid-July, but by the last study week were still lower than were those during the corresponding period in 2019, with the exception of PPSV23. Vaccination declined sharply for all vaccines studied, overall and across all racial and ethnic groups. While the pandemic continues, vaccination providers should emphasize to patients the importance of continuing to receive routine vaccinations and provide reassurance by explaining the procedures in place to ensure patient safety (3).


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Medicare/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinas/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2183: 423-435, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32959257

RESUMO

It is still a challenge to develop needle-free mucosal vaccines. Despite progress in the development of the influenza vaccine, it must be reformulated annually because of antigenic changes in circulating influenza viral strains. Due to seasonal drift and shift of circulating strains, the influenza vaccine does not always match the circulating strains, and included adjuvants are not sufficient to induce a protective effect with long-lived memory cells. The adjuvants play a major role in the immune responses to a vaccine. Interestingly, the Bacillus anthracis detoxified anthrax edema toxin, which composes of protective antigen PA and N-fragment of edema factor (EFn), has shown improved effects for humoral and cellular immune responses. Here we describe the design of a universal influenza vaccine construct that consists of three tandem M2e repeats of the influenza antigen plus HA2 and detoxified toxin EFn, which is associated with the PA component, as well as the techniques used to corroborate protection. We present two major parts of description to demonstrate the vaccine strategy, using detoxified anthrax toxin for intranasal delivery of influenza antigen: (1) vaccine candidate design, production, and purification; (2) influenza virus microneutralization assay and cellular responses and lethal challenge with influenza viruses and B. anthracis Sterne spores. In the methods detailed here, we used different versions of the M2e-HA2 proteins.


Assuntos
Toxinas Bacterianas , Proteínas de Transporte , Vacinas/administração & dosagem , Adjuvantes Imunológicos , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Toxinas Bacterianas/química , Toxinas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/química , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Imunização , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Camundongos , Testes de Neutralização , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Vacinação
15.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2183: 437-446, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32959258

RESUMO

Injections of drugs or vaccines have become an indispensable part of living systems. Introduction to injections begins from the vaccination regimen at the neonatal stage and continues throughout the life span of an individual. Conventionally, injections are administered using hypodermic needles and syringes. These usually inject the liquid in the muscle, thus making intramuscular injections the most common form of administration. Although hypodermic syringes have been a clinician's tool in global vaccination efforts, they also have a set of undesirable characteristics. Pathogen transmission in case of HIV and HBV is one of the deadliest disadvantages of the needle-based injection system. Generation of plastic wastes in clinics, needlestick injury, and most importantly, pain associated with needle-based injections are a few more reasons of concern. In light of these issues, developing needle-free injection systems has excited researchers across the globe since the 1950s. Significant advancement has been reported in this field and various needle-free injection systems have been developed and are in clinical practice. This article briefly describes the history of needle-free injection systems and provides a detailed account of a few well-known methods of needle-less injections available.


Assuntos
Vacinação/métodos , Vacinas/administração & dosagem , Administração Tópica , Animais , Ondas de Choque de Alta Energia , Humanos , Injeções Intramusculares , Injeções Subcutâneas , Camundongos , Microinjeções , Modelos Animais , Vacinas/imunologia
16.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2183: 499-511, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32959263

RESUMO

Cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (Cryo-TEM) enables visualizing the physicochemical structure of nanocarriers in solution. Here, we demonstrate the typical applications of Cryo-TEM in characterizing archaeosome-based vesicles as antigen carriers, including the morphology and size of vaccine carriers. Cryo-TEM tomography, incorporated with immunogold labeling for identifying and localizing the antigens, reveals the antigen distribution within archaeosomes in three dimensions (3D).


Assuntos
Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Portadores de Fármacos , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Vacinas/administração & dosagem , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão/métodos , Software , Vacinas de Partículas Semelhantes a Vírus
17.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2183: 513-524, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32959264

RESUMO

An effective vaccine depends on the stimulation of the immune system to generate effective antigen-specific immune responses capable of neutralizing mediators of disease long after vaccination. However, the ability of the vaccine to enhance immune parameters such as cell activation, cell recruitment and antigen uptake shortly following administration contributes to the development of long-term responses directed toward the antigen. Here, we describe a flow cytometry-based method to identify changes in immune cell profile and assess cellular uptake and distribution of antigen following vaccination.


Assuntos
Antígenos/imunologia , Vacinas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas/imunologia , Animais , Citometria de Fluxo , Imunidade , Imunização , Injeções Intramusculares , Linfonodos/imunologia , Linfonodos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Vacinação/métodos , Vacinas/química
18.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2197: 51-85, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32827132

RESUMO

CpG Oligonucleotides (ODN) are immunomodulatory synthetic oligonucleotides specifically designed to stimulate Toll-like receptor 9. TLR9 is expressed on human plasmacytoid dendritic cells and B cells and triggers an innate immune response characterized by the production of Th1 and pro-inflammatory cytokines. This chapter reviews recent progress in understanding the mechanism of action of CpG ODN and provides an overview of human clinical trial results using CpG ODN to improve vaccines for the prevention/treatment of cancer, allergy, and infectious disease.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos , Oligodesoxirribonucleotídeos , Vacinas/imunologia , Alérgenos/imunologia , Animais , Biomarcadores , Estudos Clínicos como Assunto , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade , Transdução de Sinais , Receptor Toll-Like 9/metabolismo , Vacinas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas de DNA/genética , Vacinas de DNA/imunologia
19.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2183: 1-8, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32959236

RESUMO

In this opening chapter, we outline the basics of vaccine delivery and subsequent immune reactivity. Vaccine delivery is an augmentation to immunization more generally in that a delivery reagent is harnessed to improve administration of the key ingredient (i.e., the antigen) needed to provoke an immune response. In this chapter, we discuss the evolution of vaccine design and how such efforts evolved into targeted administration/delivery of key antigens. We then provide overview descriptions of vaccine immune responses and methods for assessment. More generally, the chapter sets the tone for the remainder of this book, which will focus upon each step of the vaccine process with a special emphasis on how vaccine delivery contributes to overall health outcomes.


Assuntos
Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Imunidade , Vacinação , Vacinas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas/imunologia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos , Animais , Apresentação do Antígeno , Células Apresentadoras de Antígenos/imunologia , Células Apresentadoras de Antígenos/metabolismo , Antígenos/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Celular , Imunidade Humoral , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Vacinação/métodos
20.
Pan Afr Med J ; 37(Suppl 1): 12, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33343791

RESUMO

Introduction: following the declaration of the COVID-19 pandemic on 11 March 2020, countries started implementing strict control measures, health workers were re-deployed and health facilities re-purposed to assist COVID-19 control efforts. These measures, along with the public concerns of getting COVID-19, led to a decline in the utilization of regular health services including immunization. Methods: we reviewed the administrative routine immunization data from 15 African countries for the period from January 2018 to June 2020 to analyze the trends in the monthly number of children vaccinated with specific antigens, and compare the changes in the first three months of the COVID-19 pandemic. Results: thirteen of the 15 countries showed a decline in the monthly average number of vaccine doses provided, with 6 countries having more than 10% decline. Nine countries had a lower monthly mean of recipients of first dose measles vaccination in the second quarter of 2020 as compared to the first quarter. Guinea, Nigeria, Ghana, Angola, Gabon, and South Sudan experienced a drop in the monthly number of children vaccinated for DPT3 and/or MCV1 of greater than 2 standard deviations at some point in the second quarter of 2020 as compared to the mean for the months January-June of 2018 and 2019. Conclusion: countries with lower immunization coverage in the pre-COVID period experienced larger declines in the number of children vaccinated immediately after the COVID-19 pandemic was declared. Prolonged and significant reduction in the number of children vaccinated poses a serious risk for outbreaks such as measles. Countries should monitor coverage trends at national and subnational levels, and undertake catch-up vaccination activities to ensure that children who have missed scheduled vaccines receive them at the earliest possible time.


Assuntos
Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinas/administração & dosagem , África , Criança , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Esquemas de Imunização
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