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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(13): e25362, 2021 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787640

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: We investigated the vaginal flora diversity of preschool-aged (ie, 4-6-year-old) girls in southwest China.Fourteen preschool-aged girls were enrolled in this study. The statuses and differences in their vaginal flora were evaluated by Gram staining, bacterial culturing, and sequencing analysis.Gram staining and microbial culturing showed that the main vaginal flora of the preschool-aged girls were Gram-negative bacilli, whereas the main vaginal flora of healthy adult controls were large Gram-positive bacilli such as Lactobacillus crispatus. Shannon and Simpson indexes indicated that the bacterial diversity tended to decrease with age. The species abundance heat map showed that the vaginal microecology of the girls differed slightly at different ages but mainly comprised Pseudomonas, Methylobacterium, Sphingomona,s and Escherichia. The functional abundance heat map indicated that the bacterial functions increased with age.The vaginal microecology of preschool-aged girls differs from that of adults. A comprehensive understanding of the vaginal flora diversity of preschool-aged girls will aid in clinically diagnosing vulvovaginitis in preschool-aged girls.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Microbiota/genética , Vagina/microbiologia , Vulvovaginite/diagnóstico , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Bactérias/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Tipagem Molecular/métodos , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Esfregaço Vaginal , Vulvovaginite/microbiologia
2.
BJOG ; 128(4): 756-767, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480468

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Determine the associations between factors and sexual practices and the composition of the vaginal microbiome (VM) of women treated for bacterial vaginosis (BV). DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: The Melbourne Sexual Health Centre, Melbourne, Australia. POPULATION: Seventy-five reproductive-age women diagnosed with clinical BV, treated with first-line antibiotics and followed for up to 6 months. METHODS: Women self-collected vaginal swabs and completed questionnaires at enrolment, the day following antibiotics and monthly for up to 6months until BV recurrence or no BV recurrence (n = 430 specimens). Bacterial composition was determined using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. The effects of ongoing factors on VM composition (utilising 291 monthly specimens) were assessed using generalised estimating equations population-averaged models, which accounted for repeated measures within individuals. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The relative abundance of vaginal bacterial taxa. RESULTS: Women who reported ongoing sex with a regular sexual partner (RSP) had a VM comprised of increased relative abundance of non-optimal BV-associated bacteria (Adjusted co-efficient [Adjusted co-eff] = 11.91, 95% CI 3.39to20.43, P = 0.006) and a decreased relative abundance of optimal, Lactobacillus species (Adjusted co-eff = -12.76, 95% CI -23.03 to -2.49, P = 0.015). A history of BV was also associated with a decreased relative abundance of Lactobacillus spp. (Adjusted co-eff = -12.35, 95% CI -22.68, P = 0.019). The relative abundance of Gardnerella, Atopobium and Sneathia spp. increased following sex with an RSP. CONCLUSIONS: Sex with an untreated RSP after BV treatment was associated with a VM comprised of non-optimal BV-associated bacteria. BV treatment approaches may need to include partner treatment if they are to achieve a sustained optimal VM associated with improved health outcomes. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: Sex drives a return to a 'non-optimal' vaginal microbiota after antibiotics for bacterial vaginosis.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Coito , Microbiota , Vagina/microbiologia , Vaginose Bacteriana/tratamento farmacológico , Vaginose Bacteriana/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Recidiva , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(51): e23558, 2020 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33371084

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The diagnosis and treatment of unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion (URSA) is an important and hot topic in the field of obstetrics and gynecology. During our clinical investigation (observation), we have found that URSA patients usually experience recurrent vaginitis or vaginal dysbacteriosis during periods of non-pregnancy, pregnancy, and post-abortion. However, there is no research on vaginal dysbacteriosis's influence on URSA. Using women with normal induced abortion as a control group, and using 16S rRNA sequencing, which helps to screen differentially expressed flora, this study discusses the relevance between differential bacteria at the genus level and the incidence of URSA. Another aim of this study is to determine whether certain pathogenic genera can cause an imbalance in immune tolerance of the maternal and fetal interface through regulatory chemokines, which leads to recurrent spontaneous abortion. This article has explored URSA pathogenesis from the perspective of differentially expressed vaginal flora, which has great theoretical significance for the early diagnosis and treatment of URSA.


Assuntos
Aborto Habitual/fisiopatologia , Quimiocinas/biossíntese , Microbiota/fisiologia , Vagina/citologia , Vagina/microbiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Ribossômico 16S
5.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(12): 2135-2140, 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33378829

RESUMO

Objective: To study the relations of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, vaginal micro-environmental disorder with cervical lesion. Methods: A total of 1 019 women including 623 with normal cervical (NC), 303 with low-grade cervical lesion (CIN Ⅰ) and 93 with high-grade cervical lesion (CIN Ⅱ/Ⅲ) were enrolled in this study from the communities in Shanxi province, China. Case-control method was adopted, with NC as the control group and CIN as the case group. Related information was collected including demographic characteristics and relevant factors related to cervical lesions. HPV genotypes were detected by flow-through hybridization technology. Vaginal pH was detected by the pH test paper. Vaginal H(2)O(2) was detected by the combined detection kit of aerobic vaginitis and bacterial vaginosis. Vaginal cleanliness was detected by smear method. Results: Data from the unconditional logistic regression analysis showed that HPV infection (CINⅠ: aOR=1.39, 95%CI: 1.01-1.90; CINⅡ/Ⅲ: aOR=11.74, 95%CI: 6.96-19.80), H(2)O(2) (CINⅠ: aOR=2.09, 95%CI: 1.47-2.98; CINⅡ/Ⅲ: aOR=4.12, 95%CI: 2.01-8.43), cleanliness (CIN Ⅱ/Ⅲ: aOR=2.62, 95%CI: 1.65-4.14), and composite indicators (CINⅠ: aOR=1.67, 95%CI: 1.24-2.25; CINⅡ/Ⅲ: aOR=4.24, 95%CI: 2.30-7.81) all had increased the risk of cervical lesion and the trend on the severity (P<0.001) of cervical lesions. Additionally, we observed a synergic effect between HPV infection and vaginal micro-environmental composite indicator in CINⅡ/Ⅲ. With or without HPV infection, the ORs value of CINⅠ caused by vaginal micro-environment disorder remained close. Conclusions: Results from our study revealed that vaginal micro-environmental composite indicator could increase the risk for cervical lesion, in particular with the high-grade ones which all posed stronger risks when combined with HPV infection. However, the role of vaginal micro-environment disorder in the occurrence of CIN Ⅰ should not be ignored.


Assuntos
Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical , Infecções por Papillomavirus , Microambiente Tumoral , Vagina , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Vagina/microbiologia , Vagina/virologia , Esfregaço Vaginal
6.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 54(1): e10235, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338099

RESUMO

A prospective cohort study was conducted on a convenience sample of 1370 pregnant women with a gestational age of 20 to 25 weeks in the city of Ribeirão Preto. Data on obstetrical history, maternal age, parity, smoking habit, and a history of preterm delivery was collected with the application of a sociodemographic questionnaire. Cervical length was determined by endovaginal ultrasound, and urine and vaginal content samples were obtained to determine urinary tract infection (UTI) and bacterial vaginosis (BV), respectively. The aim of this study was to verify the association of cervical length and genitourinary infections with preterm birth (PTB). Ultrasound showed no association of UTI or BV with short cervical length. PTB rate was 9.63%. Among the women with PTB, 15 showed UTI (RR: 1.55, 95%CI: 0.93-2.58), 19 had BV (RR: 1.22, 95%CI: 0.77-1.94), and one had both UTI and BV (RR: 0.85, 95%CI: 0.13-5.62). Nineteen (14.4%) PTB occurred in women with a cervical length ≤2.5 cm (RR: 2.89, 95%CI: 1.89-4.43). Among the 75 patients with PTB stratified as spontaneous, 10 showed UTI (RR: 2.02, 95%CI: 1.05-3.86) and 14 had a diagnosis of BV (RR: 1.72, 95%CI: 0.97-3.04). A short cervical length between 20 and 25 weeks of pregnancy was associated with PTB, whereas UTI and BV determined at this age were not associated with short cervical length or with PTB, although UTI, even if asymptomatic, was related to spontaneous PTB.


Assuntos
Colo do Útero/anatomia & histologia , Doenças Urogenitais Femininas/microbiologia , Nascimento Prematuro , Adulto , Brasil , Colo do Útero/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Ultrassonografia , Vagina/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(12): e1009097, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33362285

RESUMO

Alterations to the mucosal environment of the female genital tract, such as genital inflammation, have been associated with increased HIV acquisition in women. As the microbiome and hormonal contraceptives can affect vaginal mucosal immunity, we hypothesized these components may interact in the context of HIV susceptibility. Using previously published microbiome data from 685 women in the CAPRISA-004 trial, we compared relative risk of HIV acquisition in this cohort who were using injectable depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), norethisterone enanthate (NET-EN), and combined oral contraceptives (COC). In women who were Lactobacillus-dominant, HIV acquisition was 3-fold higher in women using DMPA relative to women using NET-EN or COC (OR: 3.27; 95% CI: 1.24-11.24, P = 0.0305). This was not observed in non-Lactobacillus-dominant women (OR: 0.95, 95% CI: 0.44-2.15, P = 0.895) (interaction P = 0.0686). Higher serum MPA levels associated with increased molecular pathways of inflammation in the vaginal mucosal fluid of Lactobacillus-dominant women, but no differences were seen in non-Lactobacillus dominant women. This study provides data suggesting an interaction between the microbiome, hormonal contraceptives, and HIV susceptibility.


Assuntos
Anticoncepcionais Femininos/efeitos adversos , Contraceptivos Hormonais/efeitos adversos , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Vagina/microbiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Membrana Mucosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Membrana Mucosa/microbiologia , Proteoma/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
J Med Life ; 13(3): 329-335, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33072204

RESUMO

Vaginal infections are the most common gynecological diseases and one of the causes of sexual dysfunction. In more than 50% of patients, sexual dysfunction is twice as common. Evaluation of the treatment outcome of vaginal infections can be effective in identifying factors related to the sexual function. This is a descriptive-observational study that included patients referred to Imam Sajjad Shahriar Hospital during 2017-2018. Patients that met the inclusion criteria (with vaginal infections of Candida, Gardnerella and mixed infections - Candida and Gardnerella - Mixed group) completed the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire before and one month after treatment. Data were analyzed by SPSS 16, paired t-test, ANOVA, and multiple regression. P-value <0.05 was considered significant. After the treatment of vaginitis, there was a significant increase in all aspects of the FSFI questionnaire. The mean and standard deviation of sexual function of women before and after treatment were 18.26 ± 4.36 and 26.27 ± 4.97 in the Candida group, 20.06 ± 4.94 and 25.87 ± 5.32 in the Gardnerella group, and 19.69 ± 4.25 and 27.05 ± 5.12 in the Mixed group. Prior to treatment in the Mixed and Gardnerella group, the most important sexual dysfunction was related to the dyspareunia component, while in the Candida group, the most important sexual dysfunction was related to the desire component. After treatment, the components of dyspareunia in the Mixed and Gardnerella group and the orgasmic component in the Candida group showed the greatest improvement. The regression test showed that the effect of age, body mass index and duration of sex on sexual function was significant (P <0.05). Duration of the disease had the greatest impact on sexual dysfunction, and after treatment of the disease, sexual function improved significantly. Proper diagnosis and treatment are effective in improving women's sexual function. The results of this study can be promoted to midwives and gynecologists.


Assuntos
Infecções/microbiologia , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/microbiologia , Vagina/microbiologia , Vagina/patologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Regressão , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi ; 55(10): 697-702, 2020 Oct 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120482

RESUMO

Objective: Using clotrimazole vaginal tablet as a positive control, to evaluate the results of clotrimazole vaginal expansion suppository in the treatment of mild and moderate vulvovaginal candidiasis in terms of efficacy, patient satisfaction, side effects, and recurrence rate. Methods: This study was jointly conducted by 5 hospitals from August 2017 to October 2018, patients with mild and moderate vulvovaginal candidiasis confirmed by fungal culture and symptoms scores were selected. They were randomized to experimental group and control group as 1∶1 ratio. In the experimental group (n=105), the subjects applied clotrimazole vaginal expansion suppository (150 mg) daily at night for 7 days. In the control group (n=106), the subjects used a single dose of clotrimazole vaginal tablet (500 mg). Follow-ups were performed at (8±3) and (30±5) days after the discontinuation of the drugs, respectively. The difference in clinical symptoms and signs scores was used to evaluate the improvement of clinical symptoms, and the patient's satisfaction and side effects were recorded. Results: At the first follow-up, the experimental group and control group were followed up by fungal culture on the cure rate [66.7% (70/105) versus 63.2% (67/106), P>0.05] and total effective rate [98.1% (103/105) versus 99.1% (105/106), P>0.05], the differences were not statistically significant. At the second follow-up, the recurrence rates of the experimental group and the control group were 5.7% (4/70) and 14.9% (10/67), respectively, with no significant difference (P>0.05). In the evaluation of patient satisfaction, the leakage of the drug in the experimental group was significantly better than that in the control group (P<0.01). The side effects mainly included vaginal stimulation, itching and burning sensation, and there was no statistical difference between the two groups (χ2=1.070, P=0.586). Conclusions: In the treatment of mild and moderate vulvovaginal candidiasis, clotrimazole vaginal expansion suppository is no less effective than clotrimazole vaginal tablet, and there is no significant difference in the recurrence rate between the two. In terms of patient satisfaction, clotrimazole vaginal expansion suppository is superior to clotrimazole vaginal tablet.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/administração & dosagem , Candidíase Vulvovaginal/tratamento farmacológico , Clotrimazol/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Clotrimazol/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Supositórios , Resultado do Tratamento , Vagina/microbiologia , Cremes, Espumas e Géis Vaginais
10.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1255: 203-220, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949402

RESUMO

Human genital infections are one of the most concerning issues worldwide and can be categorized into sexually transmitted, urinary tract and vaginal infections. These infections, if left untreated, can disseminate to the other parts of the body and cause more complicated illnesses such as pelvic inflammatory disease, urethritis, and anogenital cancers. The effective treatment against these infections is further complicated by the emergence of antimicrobial resistance in the genital infection causing pathogens. Furthermore, the development and applications of single-cell sequencing technologies have open new possibilities to study the drug resistant clones, cell to cell variations, the discovery of acquired drug resistance mutations, transcriptional diversity of a pathogen across different infection stages, to identify rare cell types and investigate different cellular states of genital infection causing pathogens, and to develop novel therapeutical strategies. In this chapter, I will provide a complete review of the applications of single-cell sequencing in human genital infections before discussing their limitations and challenges.


Assuntos
Análise de Sequência , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/genética , Análise de Célula Única , Infecções Urinárias/genética , Vagina/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
12.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238428, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941438

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC) causes significant morbidity. Candida albicans is the main pathogen associated with both sporadic and recurrent candidiasis. Due to unsatisfactory treatment effect, the impact of chlorhexidine digluconate and fluconazole alone or in combination on C. albicans and biofilm was investigated. METHODS: Vaginal C. albicans isolates from 18 patients with recurrent candidiasis and commensals from 19 asymptomatic women were isolated by culture. Crystal violet, XTT and colony forming unit assay were used to analyze the effect of chlorhexidine digluconate and fluconazole on growth of C. albicans, formation of new and already established, mature, biofilm. RESULTS: Fluconazole reduced the growth of planktonic C. albicans. However, in established biofilm, fluconazole had no effect on the candida cells and was not able to disperse and reduce the biofilm. By contrast, chlorhexidine digluconate had a direct killing effect on C. albicans grown both planktonically and in biofilm. Chlorhexidine digluconate also dispersed mature biofilm and inhibited formation of new biofilm. No major differences were observed between commensal isolates and candida causing recurrent vulvovaginitis with respect to biofilm or growth after chlorhexidine digluconate treatment. CONCLUSION: Biofilm is a problem in patients with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis reducing the effect of antifungal treatment. Development of new treatment strategies are urgently needed to decrease the recurrences. In already established biofilm, chlorhexidine digluconate dispersed the biofilm and was more effective in eradicating candida compared to fluconazole. Future treatment strategy may thus be a combination of chlorhexidine digluconate and fluconazole and prophylactic use of chlorhexidine digluconate to prevent biofilm formation and restrict infections.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Clorexidina/análogos & derivados , Adulto , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/isolamento & purificação , Candidíase/tratamento farmacológico , Candidíase Vulvovaginal/tratamento farmacológico , Candidíase Vulvovaginal/microbiologia , Clorexidina/metabolismo , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Feminino , Fluconazol/farmacologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Vagina/microbiologia
13.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238705, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941440

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the changes of vaginal microbiota during cervical carcinogenesis in women with high-risk human papillomavirus infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Vaginal microbiota was analyzed using next-generation sequencing in women with normal, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), or cervical cancer. RESULTS: A marked decrease of Lactobacillus crispatus was found in the CIN/cancer groups compared with that in the normal group. The diversity of microorganisms increased in patients with CIN or cervical cancer with HPV infection. Atopobium vaginae (OR 4.33, 95% CI 1.15-16.32), Dialister invisus (OR 4.89, 95% CI 1.20-19.94), Finegoldia magna (OR 6.00, 95% CI 1.08-33.27), Gardnerella vaginalis (OR 7.43, 95% CI 1.78-31.04), Prevotella buccalis (OR 11.00, 95% CI 2.00-60.57), and Prevotella timonensis (OR 6.00, 95% CI 1.46-24.69) were significantly associated with the risk of CIN 2/3 or cervical cancer. CONCLUSION: Women with the CIN and cervical cancer showed a high diversity in vaginal microbiota. Depletion of Lactobacillus crispatus and increased abundance of anaerobic bacteria were detected in women with cervical disease.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/patologia , Microbiota , Papillomaviridae/fisiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/microbiologia , Vagina/microbiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Biodiversidade , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Componente Principal , Especificidade da Espécie
14.
Obstet Gynecol ; 136(4): 756-764, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925625

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare maternal and cord blood penicillin concentrations in women with and without obesity who are receiving intrapartum group B streptococcus (GBS) prophylaxis. METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study of term women receiving intrapartum penicillin prophylaxis for GBS colonization (determined by antenatal rectovaginal culture). The following outcomes were compared between obese (body mass index [BMI] 35 or higher at delivery) and nonobese (BMI less than 30 at delivery) groups: penicillin concentration in maternal blood (after two penicillin doses) and umbilical cord blood, GBS rectovaginal colonization status on admission and after two completed doses, and neonatal GBS colonization (using a postnatal ear swab). Fifty-five women were needed to detect a 0.75 SD difference in cord blood penicillin concentrations. RESULTS: Fifty-five women were enrolled and had all specimens collected; 49 had complete data for analysis (obese n=25, nonobese n=24). There was no difference in the median maternal penicillin concentration between groups (obese 4.2 micrograms/mL vs nonobese 4.0 micrograms/mL, P=.58). There was, however, a 60% lower median cord blood penicillin concentration in the obese compared with the nonobese group (2.7 micrograms/mL vs 6.7 micrograms/mL, respectively, P<.01), with no significant difference in time from last penicillin dose to delivery (obese 2.9 hours vs nonobese 1.7 hours, P=.07). The difference in cord blood concentrations remained significant after adjustment for nulliparity, hypertensive disorders, and time from last penicillin dose to delivery. Only 59.6% of women tested positive for GBS by rectovaginal culture on admission (obese 60.9% vs nonobese 58.3%, P=.86). CONCLUSION: The median cord blood penicillin concentration was 60% lower in neonates born to women with obesity compared with those born to women without obesity. However, all concentrations exceeded the minimum inhibitory concentration. Maternal penicillin levels were not significantly different between groups. More than 40% of women who previously tested positive for GBS by antenatal culture tested negative for GBS on admission for delivery.


Assuntos
Sangue Fetal/química , Triagem Neonatal/métodos , Obesidade , Penicilinas , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Infecções Estreptocócicas , Streptococcus agalactiae/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Antibacterianos/sangue , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antibioticoprofilaxia/métodos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Penicilinas/sangue , Penicilinas/uso terapêutico , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/sangue , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Reto/microbiologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/sangue , Infecções Estreptocócicas/complicações , Infecções Estreptocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Vagina/microbiologia
15.
PLoS Biol ; 18(8): e3000788, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841232

RESUMO

Women with bacterial vaginosis (BV), an imbalance of the vaginal microbiome, are more likely to be colonized by potential pathogens such as Fusobacterium nucleatum, a bacterium linked with intrauterine infection and preterm birth. However, the conditions and mechanisms supporting pathogen colonization during vaginal dysbiosis remain obscure. We demonstrate that sialidase activity, a diagnostic feature of BV, promoted F. nucleatum foraging and growth on mammalian sialoglycans, a nutrient resource that was otherwise inaccessible because of the lack of endogenous F. nucleatum sialidase. In mice with sialidase-producing vaginal microbiotas, mutant F. nucleatum unable to consume sialic acids was impaired in vaginal colonization. These experiments in mice also led to the discovery that F. nucleatum may also "give back" to the community by reinforcing sialidase activity, a biochemical feature of human dysbiosis. Using human vaginal bacterial communities, we show that F. nucleatum supported robust outgrowth of Gardnerella vaginalis, a major sialidase producer and one of the most abundant organisms in BV. These results illustrate that mutually beneficial relationships between vaginal bacteria support pathogen colonization and may help maintain features of dysbiosis. These findings challenge the simplistic dogma that the mere absence of "healthy" lactobacilli is the sole mechanism that creates a permissive environment for pathogens during vaginal dysbiosis. Given the ubiquity of F. nucleatum in the human mouth, these studies also suggest a possible mechanism underlying links between vaginal dysbiosis and oral sex.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Disbiose/microbiologia , Fusobacterium/metabolismo , Gardnerella vaginalis/metabolismo , Neuraminidase/genética , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Vaginose Bacteriana/microbiologia , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Disbiose/patologia , Feminino , Fusobacterium/genética , Fusobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Fusobacterium/patogenicidade , Gardnerella vaginalis/genética , Gardnerella vaginalis/isolamento & purificação , Gardnerella vaginalis/patogenicidade , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Microbiota/genética , Neuraminidase/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Ácidos Siálicos/metabolismo , Simbiose/genética , Vagina/microbiologia , Vaginose Bacteriana/patologia
16.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237046, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817677

RESUMO

Candida africana is a pathogenic species within the Candida albicans species complex. Due to the limited knowledge concerning its prevalence and antifungal susceptibility profiles, a comprehensive study is overdue. Accordingly, we performed a search of the electronic databases for literature published in the English language between 1 January 2001 and 21 March 2020. Citations were screened, relevant articles were identified, and data were extracted to determine overall intra-C. albicans complex prevalence, geographical distribution, and antifungal susceptibility profiles for C. africana. From a total of 366 articles, 41 were eligible for inclusion in this study. Our results showed that C. africana has a worldwide distribution. The pooled intra-C. albicans complex prevalence of C. africana was 1.67% (95% CI 0.98-2.49). Prevalence data were available for 11 countries from 4 continents. Iran (3.02%, 95%CI 1.51-4.92) and Honduras (3.03%, 95% CI 0.83-10.39) had the highest values and Malaysia (0%) had the lowest prevalence. Vaginal specimens were the most common source of C. africana (92.81%; 155 out of 167 isolates with available data). However, this species has also been isolated from cases of balanitis, from patients with oral lesions, and from respiratory, urine, and cutaneous samples. Data concerning the susceptibility of C. africana to 16 antifungal drugs were available in the literature. Generally, the minimum inhibitory concentrations of antifungal drugs against this species were low. In conclusion, C. africana demonstrates geographical variation in prevalence and high susceptibility to antifungal drugs. However, due to the relative scarcity of existing data concerning this species, further studies will be required to establish more firm conclusions.


Assuntos
Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida/genética , Candida/metabolismo , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/patogenicidade , Candidíase Vulvovaginal/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Fúngica/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Fúngica/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Prevalência , Vagina/microbiologia
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(30): e21315, 2020 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791721

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There is evidence that caesarean section (CS) is associated with increased risk of childhood obesity, asthma, and coeliac disease. The gut microbiota of CS-born babies differs to those born vaginally, possibly due to reduced exposure to maternal vaginal bacteria during birth. Vaginal seeding is a currently unproven practice intended to reduce such differences, so that the gut microbiota of CS-born babies is similar to that of babies born vaginally. Our pilot study, which uses oral administration as a novel form of vaginal seeding, will assess the degree of maternal strain transfer and overall efficacy of the procedure for establishing normal gut microbiota development. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Protocol for a single-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study of a previously untested method of vaginal seeding (oral administration) in 30 CS-born babies. A sample of maternal vaginal bacteria is obtained prior to CS, and mixed with 5 ml sterile water to obtain a supernatant. Healthy babies are randomized at 1:1 to receive active treatment (3 ml supernatant) or placebo (3 ml sterile water). A reference group of 15 non-randomized vaginal-born babies are also being recruited. Babies' stool samples will undergo whole metagenomic shotgun sequencing to identify potential differences in community structure between CS babies receiving active treatment compared to those receiving placebo at age 1 month (primary outcome). Secondary outcomes include differences in overall gut community between CS groups (24 hours, 3 months); similarity of CS-seeded and placebo gut profiles to vaginally-born babies (24 hours, 1 and 3 months); degree of maternal vaginal strain transfer in CS-born babies (24 hours, 1 and 3 months); anthropometry (1 and 3 months) and body composition (3 months). ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval by the Northern A Health and Disability Ethics Committee (18/NTA/49). Results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at international conferences. REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12618000339257).


Assuntos
Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Microbiota/fisiologia , Placebos/administração & dosagem , Vagina/microbiologia , Adulto , Antropometria/métodos , Asma/epidemiologia , Asma/etiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Composição Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doença Celíaca/epidemiologia , Doença Celíaca/etiologia , Parto Obstétrico/tendências , Fezes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Metagenômica/métodos , Microbiota/genética , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/etiologia , Gravidez
18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 629, 2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842982

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In this study, the association between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and related cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) or cervical cancer and vaginal microbiome was evaluated in Chinese cohorts. METHODS: The vaginal bacterial composition of five groups, HPV-infected women without CINs (HPV, n = 78), women with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL, n = 51), women with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL, n = 23), women with invasive cervical cancer (Cancer, n = 9) and healthy women without HPV infection (Normal, n = 68), was characterized by deep sequencing of barcoded 16S rRNA gene fragments (V3-4) using Illumina MiSeq. RESULTS: HPV infection increased vaginal bacterial richness and diversity regardless of the status of CINs. The vaginal bacterial richness and diversity were further augmented in women with cervical cancer. Lactobacillus was the most abundant genus in all groups. HPV infection had a negative influence on the abundances of Lactobacillus, Gardnerella and Atopobium. Accordingly, HPV infection increased the relative abundance of Prevotella, Bacillus, Anaerococcus, Sneathia, Megasphaera, Streptococcus and Anaerococcus. The increased proportions of Bacillus, Anaerococcus and the reduced abundance of Gradnerella vaginalis were probably related with the progression of CINs severity. HPV infection without CINs or cancerous lesions was strongly associated with Megasphaera. The most abundant bacterium in the LSIL group was Prevotella amnii. However, Prevotella timonensis, Shuttleworthia and Streptococcaceae at the family level were three taxa related to HSIL. Furthermore, more taxa were associated with the Cancer group including Bacillus, Sneathia, Acidovorax, Oceanobacillus profundus, Fusobacterium, Veillonellaceae at the family level, Anaerococcus and Porphyromonas uenonis. Samples in the Normal group were mostly assigned to CST III. HPV infection converted the vaginal bacterial community structure from CST III to CST IV. Furthermore, the proportions of CST IV were gradually augmented with the progression of the severity of CINs. CONCLUSIONS: This work interpreted the differential vaginal bacteria under HPV infection and various precancerous or cancerous lesions in a Chinese cohort. We distinguished the specific microbes and the vaginal bacterial structure that were related with the progression of CINs severity in Chinese women.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/epidemiologia , Progressão da Doença , Microbiota/genética , Papillomaviridae/genética , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Vagina/microbiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/virologia , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactobacillus/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia
19.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236036, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32722712

RESUMO

The human vagina harbor a rich microbiota. The optimal state is dominated by lactobacilli that help to maintain health and prevent various diseases. However, the microbiota may rapidly change to a polymicrobial state that has been linked to a number of diseases. In the present study, the temporal changes of the vaginal microbiota in patients treated for sexually transmitted diseases or bacterial vaginosis (BV) and in untreated controls were studied for 26 days. The patients included 52 women treated with azithromycin, tetracyclines or moxifloxacin for present or suspected infection with Chlamydia trachomatis or Mycoplasma genitalium. Women with concurrent BV were also treated with metronidazole. The controls were 10 healthy women of matching age. The microbiota was analyzed by 16S rRNA gene deep sequencing, specific qPCRs and microscopy. There was generally good correlation between Nugent score and community state type (CST) and qPCR confirmed the sequencing results. By sequencing, more than 600 different taxa were found, but only 33 constituted more than 1 ‰ of the sequences. In both patients and controls the microbiota could be divided into three different community state types, CST-I, CST-III and CST-IV. Without metronidazole, the microbiota remained relatively stable regarding CST although changes were seen during menstrual periods. Administration of metronidazole changed the microbiota from CST-IV to CST-III in approximately 50% of the treated patients. In contrast, the CST was generally unaffected by azithromycin or tetracyclines. In 30% of the BV patients, Gardnerella vaginalis was not eradicated by metronidazole. The majority of women colonized with Ureaplasma parvum remained positive after azithromycin while U. urealyticum was eradicated.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/microbiologia , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Vagina/microbiologia , Vaginose Bacteriana/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Infecções por Chlamydia/tratamento farmacológico , Chlamydia trachomatis/efeitos dos fármacos , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Gardnerella vaginalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Gardnerella vaginalis/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Mycoplasma/tratamento farmacológico , Mycoplasma genitalium/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycoplasma genitalium/isolamento & purificação , Vagina/efeitos dos fármacos , Vaginose Bacteriana/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto Jovem
20.
Pediatrics ; 146(2)2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32636237

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend testing for Chlamydia trachomatis in sexually active female patients <25 years old using nucleic-acid amplification tests (NAAT) from a vaginal swab. Our providers were typically testing using the less sensitive urine NAATs. We aimed to increase the percentage of urogenital C trachomatis NAATs performed by using vaginal swabs in adolescent female patients ages 10 through 20 years from 1.4% to 25%. METHODS: We implemented 3 interventions at 3 pediatric practices over 12 months including education, process standardization, and cross-training. We used statistical process control to analyze the effect of interventions on our primary outcome: the percentage of urogenital C trachomatis tests performed with a vaginal swab. Our balance measure was the total number of urogenital C trachomatis tests. RESULTS: There were 818 urogenital C trachomatis tests performed: 289 before and 529 after the first intervention. Of urogenital C trachomatis tests in the preintervention time period, 1.4% were performed by using vaginal swabs. We surpassed our aim of 25% 6 weeks after the first intervention. We noted sustained improvement after the second intervention, with an average of 68.3% of tests performed by using vaginal swabs for the remaining postintervention period. There was no difference in the overall number of urogenital C trachomatis tests pre- and postintervention. CONCLUSIONS: Using quality improvement methodology and implementing easily replicable interventions, we significantly and sustainably increased use of vaginal swabs. The interventions standardizing processes were associated with a higher impact than the educational intervention.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Pediatras/educação , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Vagina/microbiologia , Esfregaço Vaginal/tendências , Adolescente , Criança , Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Massachusetts/epidemiologia , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/estatística & dados numéricos , Folhetos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Utilização de Procedimentos e Técnicas/tendências , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Melhoria de Qualidade , Comportamento Sexual , Adulto Jovem
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