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1.
BMJ Case Rep ; 17(7)2024 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38969388

RESUMO

Genital tuberculosis, a form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB), exhibits distinct presentations. In the outpatient department, an adolescent girl reported severe pain and a feeling of heaviness in her lower abdomen for the past 6-7 days. An enlarged pelvic mass, resembling a 20-week pregnancy, was observed, seemingly originating from the pelvis. During the local examination, a transverse septum was felt in the lower vagina, with a vaginal length of 2-3 cm. The ultrasound revealed distension of the vagina with fluid containing fine internal echoes, indicating haematocolpos. MRI showed the uterus pushed upward and located at the level of the umbilicus, suggesting hydrocolpos. Based on these findings, a provisional diagnosis of transvaginal septum with haematocolpos was made. Under anaesthesia, a cruciate incision was made over the vaginal septum, resulting in the drainage of 700-800 mL of pus. The drained fluid was sent for microscopic examination, gram staining, acid-fast bacilli smear culture, and Cartridge-based nucleic acid amplification test (CBNAAT). The CBNAAT test confirmed the presence of tubercle bacilli. Antitubercular therapy was initiated, and on completion of the treatment, the girl experienced the onset of menarche. This is a typical case with an unusual presentation of EPTB. What makes this case noteworthy is its initial manifestation as haematocolpos, a condition that shares a similar clinical presentation with Müllerian anomalies.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos , Tuberculose dos Genitais Femininos , Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Tuberculose dos Genitais Femininos/diagnóstico , Tuberculose dos Genitais Femininos/tratamento farmacológico , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Vagina/microbiologia , Hematocolpia/diagnóstico , Hematocolpia/etiologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Ultrassonografia
2.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 15387, 2024 07 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38965339

RESUMO

Probiotics offer a promising prophylactic approach against various pathogens and represent an alternative strategy to combat biofilm-related infections. In this study, we isolated vaginal commensal microbiota from 54 healthy Indian women to investigate their probiotic traits. We primarily explored the ability of cell-free supernatant (CFS) from Lactobacilli to prevent Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) colonization and biofilm formation. Our findings revealed that CFS effectively reduced UPEC's swimming and swarming motility, decreased cell surface hydrophobicity, and hindered matrix production by downregulating specific genes (fimA, fimH, papG, and csgA). Subsequent GC-MS analysis identified Tryptamine, a monoamine compound, as the potent bioactive substance from Lactobacilli CFS, inhibiting UPEC biofilms with an MBIC of 4 µg/ml and an MBEC of 8 µg/ml. Tryptamine induced significant changes in E. coli colony biofilm morphology, transitioning from the Red, Dry, and Rough (RDAR) to the Smooth and White phenotype, indicating reduced extracellular matrix production. Biofilm time-kill assays demonstrated a four-log reduction in UPEC viability when treated with Tryptamine, highlighting its potent antibacterial properties, comparable to CFS treatment. Biofilm ROS assays indicated a significant elevation in ROS generation within UPEC biofilms, suggesting a potential antibacterial mechanism. Gene expression studies with Tryptamine-treated samples showed a reduction in expression of curli gene (csgA), consistent with CFS treatment. This study underscores the potential of Tryptamine from probiotic Lactobacilli CFS as a promising antibiofilm agent against UPEC biofilms.


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Lactobacillus , Probióticos , Triptaminas , Escherichia coli Uropatogênica , Vagina , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Triptaminas/farmacologia , Feminino , Escherichia coli Uropatogênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli Uropatogênica/fisiologia , Probióticos/farmacologia , Vagina/microbiologia , Lactobacillus/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Lactobacillus/fisiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Escherichia coli/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Antibacterianos/farmacologia
3.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 24(1): 461, 2024 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38965486

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal Group B Streptococcus (GBS) colonization is influenced by many factors but results are inconsistent. Consideration of antenatal risk factors may help inform decision making on GBS microbiological culture screening where universal screening is not standard of care. We sought to identify independent predictors of GBS colonization at 34-37 weeks gestation incorporating vaginal symptoms, perineal hygiene measures, sexual activity, and a potential novel factor, constipation. METHODS: In this prospective cross-sectional study, 573 women at 34-37 weeks gestation had an ano-vaginal swab taken and sent for selective culture for GBS. Women were asked about vaginal bleeding, discharge, irritation and candidiasis, antibiotic use during pregnancy, ano-vaginal hygiene practices such as douching and perineal cleansing after toileting, sexual intercourse related activities, and a potential novel factor for GBS carriage, constipation. Maternal basic demographics and obstetric-related characteristics were also collected. Bivariate analyses were performed to identify associates of GBS colonization. All variables with p < 0.05 found on bivariate analysis were then included into a model for multivariable binary logistic regression analysis to identify independent risk factors for GBS colonization. RESULTS: GBS colonization was found in 235/573 (41.0%) of participants. Twenty six independent variables were considered for bivariate analysis. Eight were found to have p < 0.05. Following adjusted analysis, six independent predictors of GBS colonization were identified: ethnicity, previous neonatal GBS prophylaxis, antenatal vaginal irritation, antibiotic use, recent panty liner use, and frequency of sexual intercourse. Vaginal discharge and perineal cleansing were not associated after adjustment. Recent douching and constipation were not associated on bivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: The identification of independent predictors of GBS colonization in late pregnancy may inform the woman and care provider in their shared decision making for microbiological screening at 35-38 weeks gestation in locations where universal GBS screening is not standard of care. ETHICS OVERSIGHT: This study was approved by the Medical Ethics Committee of University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC) on August 9, 2022, reference number 2022328-11120.


Assuntos
Constipação Intestinal , Higiene , Períneo , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Comportamento Sexual , Infecções Estreptocócicas , Streptococcus agalactiae , Vagina , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Streptococcus agalactiae/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Constipação Intestinal/microbiologia , Constipação Intestinal/prevenção & controle , Vagina/microbiologia , Estudos Transversais , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/microbiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Infecções Estreptocócicas/prevenção & controle , Infecções Estreptocócicas/diagnóstico , Períneo/microbiologia , Períneo/lesões , Fatores de Risco , Canal Anal/microbiologia , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez
4.
Microbiome ; 12(1): 118, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38951935

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endometrial cancer is a multifactorial disease with inflammatory, metabolic and potentially microbial cues involved in disease pathogenesis. The endometrial cancer microbiome has been poorly characterised so far and studies have often overestimated bacterial biomass due to lack of integration of appropriate contamination controls. There is also a scarcity of evidence on the functionality of microbial microenvironments in endometrial cancer. This work addresses that knowledge gap by interrogating the genuine, contamination-free microbial signatures in the female genital tract and rectum of women with endometrial cancer and the mechanistic role of microbiome on carcinogenic processes. RESULTS: Here we sampled different regions of the reproductive tract (vagina, cervix, endometrium, fallopian tubes and ovaries) and rectum of 61 patients (37 endometrial cancer; 24 benign controls). We performed 16S rRNA gene sequencing of the V1-V2 hypervariable regions and qPCR of the 16S rRNA gene to qualitatively and quantitatively assess microbial communities and used 3D benign and endometrial cancer organoids to evaluate the effect of microbial products of L. crispatus, which was found depleted in endometrial cancer patients following primary analysis, on endometrial cell proliferation and inflammation. We found that the upper genital tract of a subset of women with and without endometrial cancer harbour microbiota quantitatively and compositionally distinguishable from background contaminants. Endometrial cancer was associated with reduced cervicovaginal and rectal bacterial load together with depletion of Lactobacillus species relative abundance, including L. crispatus, increased bacterial diversity and enrichment of Porphyromonas, Prevotella, Peptoniphilus and Anaerococcus in the lower genital tract and endometrium. Treatment of benign and malignant endometrial organoids with L. crispatus conditioned media exerted an anti-proliferative effect at high concentrations but had minimal impact on cytokine and chemokine profiles. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide evidence that the upper female reproductive tract of some women contains detectable levels of bacteria, the composition of which is associated with endometrial cancer. Whether this is a cause or consequence of cancer pathophysiology and what is the functional significance of this finding remain to be elucidated to guide future screening tools and microbiome-based therapeutics. Video Abstract.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Neoplasias do Endométrio , Microbiota , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Humanos , Feminino , Neoplasias do Endométrio/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Endométrio/microbiologia , Endométrio/patologia , Idoso , Reto/microbiologia , Vagina/microbiologia , Adulto
5.
Benef Microbes ; 15(4): 387-396, 2024 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38955352

RESUMO

Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the leading cause of bacterial neonatal sepsis. This study aimed to confirm the effect of Ligilactobacillus salivarius V4II-90 on GBS colonisation during pregnancy. A randomised, multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study was conducted in seven hospitals in Madrid, Spain. The sample was broken down into two groups with 20 participants each (n = 40) in order to show reduced GBS colonisation frequency in the probiotic versus the placebo group. Pregnant participants positive for vaginal-rectal colonisation before or during the 13th week of gestation were randomly assigned to either the placebo or the probiotic group. The probiotic, L. salivarius V4II-90 at 1 × 109 cfu/day was administered for 12 weeks, starting at week 21-23 of gestation. The primary outcome was the percentage of participants with vaginal and/or rectal GBS colonisation at the end of the intervention period (35 weeks of gestation). Secondary outcomes were changes in the microbial composition of vaginal and rectal exudates; premature delivery; premature rupture of membranes; intrapartum antibiotics; new-borns with early or late-onset GBS sepsis; adverse events (AEs); and GBS test results performed at the hospital at week 35 of gestation. Of the 481 participants included, 44 were vaginal-rectal colonised with GBS and randomised. 43 completed the study (20 in the probiotic group and 23 in the placebo group). After intervention, GBS was eradicated in six participants (27%) from the placebo group and in twelve participants (63%) from the probiotic group ( P = 0.030). None of the 185 AEs reported were identified as possibly, probably, or definitely related to the investigational product. In conclusion, oral administration of L. salivarius V4II-90 is a safe and successful strategy to significantly decrease the rates of GBS colonisation at the end of pregnancy and, therefore, to reduce the exposure of subjects and their infants to intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis. Trial registered at ClinicalTrials.gov: number NCT03669094.


Assuntos
Ligilactobacillus salivarius , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Probióticos , Reto , Infecções Estreptocócicas , Streptococcus agalactiae , Vagina , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Método Duplo-Cego , Streptococcus agalactiae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Streptococcus agalactiae/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções Estreptocócicas/prevenção & controle , Infecções Estreptocócicas/microbiologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Vagina/microbiologia , Reto/microbiologia , Ligilactobacillus salivarius/fisiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/microbiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Recém-Nascido , Espanha , Adulto Jovem
6.
PLoS One ; 19(7): e0306780, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38976704

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endometriosis, a complex gynecological condition, involves inflammation and immune dysregulation. The vaginal microbiota, characterized by its diversity, is an integral part of the vaginal microecology-interacting with vaginal anatomy, the endocrine system, and local mucosal immunity. Imbalances in this microecology are known to precipitate various inflammatory diseases. Despite extensive research, the connection between vaginal microbiota dysbiosis and endometriosis remains a subject of debate. Our study assesses the association between vaginal microecology dysbiosis and endometriosis. METHODS: We systematically searched major electronic databases in English, including Embase, PubMed, The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (Ovid), BIOSIS (Ovid), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Wanfang, up to August 15, 2023. Selected articles underwent screening based on predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Normal vaginal microecology was defined as a negative Amsel/Spiegel test or Nugent score of 0-3, or Lactobacillus predominance determined by 16S rRNA gene amplification sequencing. Deviations from this norm were classified as dysbiosis, further categorized into bacterial vaginosis (BV) and intermediate BV. Data analysis utilized Revman 5.4, with effect sizes presented as Odds Ratios (OR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI). RESULTS: Out of 1081 articles, eight met the inclusion criteria. Utilizing fixed-effect models due to low heterogeneity, the analysis revealed a positive association between dysbiosis and endometriosis (OR = 1.17, 95% CI 0.81-1.70; I2 = 0%), but showed a slight negative association between normal vaginal microecology with endometriosis (OR = 0.90, 95% CI 0.55-1.46; I2 = 29%). However, the association was not significant. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses corroborated the stability of these associations. CONCLUSION: A positive correlation exists between vaginal microecology dysbiosis and endometriosis, notably with intermediate BV. However, the mechanisms underpinning this relationship remain elusive, highlighting the need for further research to overcome limitations. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registration number: CRD42023445163.


Assuntos
Disbiose , Endometriose , Microbiota , Vagina , Feminino , Endometriose/microbiologia , Endometriose/patologia , Humanos , Vagina/microbiologia , Vagina/patologia , Disbiose/microbiologia , Vaginose Bacteriana/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
7.
PLoS One ; 19(7): e0306237, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39008499

RESUMO

Adolescent girls bear a disproportionate burden of both the HIV epidemic and unintended pregnancies; yet important questions remain unanswered regarding the effects of hormonal contraceptives on the vaginal immune microenvironment, which can impact HIV susceptibility in this group. Multiple studies report genital immune alterations associated with the progestin-based contraceptive Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) in adult women, but there is little available data in adolescents. The objective of this longitudinal cohort study was to evaluate the effects of short-term use of three progestin-based contraceptives, levonorgestrel intrauterine device (LNG-IUD), subdermal etonogestrel (ETNG), and injectable DMPA, on HIV-associated vaginal immune biomarkers and microbiome in adolescent girls. Fifty-nine sexually active, HIV-uninfected girls aged 15-19, were recruited from the Washington DC metro area and self-selected into Control (condoms only), combined oral contraceptive pills, LNG-IUD, ETNG and DMPA groups. Vaginal swabs were collected at baseline prior to contraceptive use and at 3-month follow-up visit. Vaginal secretions were tested for pro-inflammatory (IL-1α, IL-1ß, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, MIP-3α, IP-10, RANTES, MIP-1α, MIP-1ß) and anti-inflammatory/anti-HIV (Serpin-A1, Elafin, Beta-Defensin-2, SLPI) immune biomarkers using ELISA and for anti-HIV activity using TZM-bl assay. Vaginal microbiome was evaluated using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Data were analyzed using SAS Version 9. Among the 34 participants who completed both visits, no significant changes in median biomarker concentrations, HIV inhibition and microbiome composition were observed between baseline and follow-up visits for any of the contraceptive groups. IL-8 (p<0.01), MIP-3α (0.02), Elafin (p = 0.03) and RANTES (p<0.01) differed significantly by race whereas IL-6 was significantly different by age (p = 0.03). We conclude that 3-month use of LNG-IUD, ETNG and DMPA have minimal effects on adolescent vaginal immune microenvironment, and therefore unlikely to impact HIV risk. Future studies with larger sample size and longer follow-up are recommended to continue to evaluate effects of contraceptives on the lower genital tract immunity and susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Desogestrel , Infecções por HIV , Levanogestrel , Acetato de Medroxiprogesterona , Microbiota , Vagina , Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Vagina/microbiologia , Vagina/imunologia , Vagina/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Acetato de Medroxiprogesterona/administração & dosagem , Acetato de Medroxiprogesterona/efeitos adversos , Acetato de Medroxiprogesterona/farmacologia , Adulto Jovem , Levanogestrel/farmacologia , Levanogestrel/administração & dosagem , Desogestrel/administração & dosagem , Anticoncepcionais Femininos/administração & dosagem , Anticoncepcionais Femininos/farmacologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Progestinas/farmacologia , Progestinas/administração & dosagem , Elafina
8.
Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob ; 23(1): 65, 2024 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39026373

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the performance of simultaneous amplification and testing (SAT) assay for the detection of group B Streptococcus (GBS) in maternal vaginal and perianal swabs compared with real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). METHODS: We obtained vaginal and perianal swabs from 1474 pregnant women at the Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University (Shanghai, China) between April 2023 and June 2023. Vaginal and perianal swabs were collected at 35-37 weeks of gestation. Swabs were tested for GBS simultaneously by using the SAT assay and RT-PCR, and a comparative analysis (kappa coefficient) was performed. Furthermore, we conducted additional droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) tests to confirm the results when there were controversial results between SAT and RT-PCR. In addition, we compared the limit of detection, technical specificity, repeatability and reproducibility of SAT-GBS with those of routine RT-PCR assays. RESULTS: In our study, the detection rate of clinical GBS according to the SAT assay was 11.5% (169/1471). The SAT assay showed a sensitivity of 91.8%, a specificity of 99.9%, a diagnostic accuracy of 98.9%, a positive predictive value (PPV) of 99.4% and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 98.8%. The kappa value between RT-PCR and SAT was 0.917. CONCLUSIONS: This SAT assay for the detection of group B Streptococcus is not only easy to perform but can also detect GBS sensitively and specifically and may be used in the regular molecular diagnosis of GBS infection among pregnancies.


Assuntos
Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Infecções Estreptocócicas , Streptococcus agalactiae , Vagina , Humanos , Feminino , Streptococcus agalactiae/genética , Streptococcus agalactiae/isolamento & purificação , Gravidez , Infecções Estreptocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecções Estreptocócicas/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Vagina/microbiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/microbiologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto , China , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos
9.
Cancer Med ; 13(14): e70000, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39031958

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the last decade, technical innovations have resulted in the development of several minimally invasive diagnostic cancer tools. Within women at high risk of developing ovarian or endometrial cancer (EC) due to hereditary cancer syndrome, there is an urgent need for minimally invasive and patient-friendly methods to detect ovarian cancer and EC at an early stage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a systematic search of studies using DNA methylation or mutation analysis, microbiome, or proteomics performed on cervicovaginal specimens (smear, swab, or tampon) intended to detect ovarian and EC published until January 2024. RESULTS: Included studies (n = 36) showed high heterogeneity in terms of biomarkers used and outcomes, and only a few studies reported on the detection of biomarkers in high-risk subgroups. CONCLUSION: Based on the findings in this review, DNA methylation techniques seem to be the most promising for detecting ovarian and EC at early stages in the general population. Future validation of cervicovaginal DNA methylation techniques is needed to determine whether this technique might be beneficial in hereditary high-risk subgroups.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Metilação de DNA , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Neoplasias do Endométrio , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Humanos , Feminino , Neoplasias do Endométrio/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Endométrio/genética , Neoplasias do Endométrio/metabolismo , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Vagina/metabolismo , Vagina/microbiologia , Colo do Útero/metabolismo , Colo do Útero/patologia , Proteômica/métodos
10.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 24(1): 488, 2024 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39033123

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal rectovaginal colonization by group B Streptococcus (GBS) increases the risk of perinatal GBS disease that can lead to death or long-term neurological impairment. Factors that increase the risk of rectovaginal GBS carriage are incompletely understood resulting in missed opportunities for detecting GBS in risk-based clinical approaches. There is a lacking consensus on whether gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a risk factor for rectovaginal GBS. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to address current conflicting findings and determine whether GDM should be clinically considered as a risk factor for maternal GBS colonization. METHODS: Peer-reviewed studies that provided GDM prevalence and documented GBS vaginal and/or rectal colonization in women with and without GDM were included in this analysis. From study inception to October 30, 2023, we identified 6,275 relevant studies from EMBASE and PUBMED of which 19 were eligible for inclusion. Eligible studies were analyzed and thoroughly assessed for risk of bias with a modified Newcastle-Ottawa Scale that interrogated representativeness and comparability of cohorts, quality of reporting for GDM and GBS status, and potential bias from other metabolic diseases. Results were synthesized using STATA 18 and analyzed using random-effects meta-analyses. RESULTS: Studies encompassed 266,706 women from 10 different countries, with study periods spanning from 1981 to 2020. Meta-analysis revealed that gestational diabetes is associated with a 16% increased risk of rectovaginal GBS carriage (OR 1.16, CI 1.07-1.26, P = 0.003). We also performed subgroup analyses to assess independent effects of pregestational vs. gestational diabetes on risk of maternal GBS carriage. Pregestational diabetes (Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes mellitus) was also associated with an increased risk of 76% (pooled OR 1.76, CI 1.27-2.45, P = 0.0008). CONCLUSIONS: This study achieved a consensus among previously discrepant observations and demonstrated that gestational diabetes and pregestational diabetes are significant risk factors for maternal rectovaginal carriage of GBS. Recognition of GDM as a risk factor during clinical decisions about GBS screening and intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis may decrease the global burden of GBS on maternal-perinatal health.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Reto , Infecções Estreptocócicas , Streptococcus agalactiae , Vagina , Humanos , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Feminino , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Infecções Estreptocócicas/epidemiologia , Vagina/microbiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/microbiologia , Reto/microbiologia
11.
Am J Reprod Immunol ; 92(1): e13905, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39033501

RESUMO

PROBLEM: The vaginal microbiome has a substantial role in the occurrence of preterm birth (PTB), which contributes substantially to neonatal mortality worldwide. However, current bioinformatics approaches mostly concentrate on the taxonomic classification and functional profiling of the microbiome, limiting their abilities to elucidate the complex factors that contribute to PTB. METHOD OF STUDY: A total of 3757 vaginal microbiome 16S rRNA samples were obtained from five publicly available datasets. The samples were divided into two categories based on pregnancy outcome: preterm birth (PTB) (N = 966) and term birth (N = 2791). Additionally, the samples were further categorized based on the participants' race and trimester. The 16S rRNA reads were subjected to taxonomic classification and functional profiling using the Parallel-META 3 software in Ubuntu environment. The obtained abundances were analyzed using an integrated systems biology and machine learning approach to determine the key microbes, pathways, and genes that contribute to PTB. The resulting features were further subjected to statistical analysis to identify the top nine features with the greatest effect sizes. RESULTS: We identified nine significant features, namely Shuttleworthia, Megasphaera, Sneathia, proximal tubule bicarbonate reclamation pathway, systemic lupus erythematosus pathway, transcription machinery pathway, lepA gene, pepX gene, and rpoD gene. Their abundance variations were observed through the trimesters. CONCLUSIONS: Vaginal infections caused by Shuttleworthia, Megasphaera, and Sneathia and altered small metabolite biosynthesis pathways such as lipopolysaccharide folate and retinal may increase the susceptibility to PTB. The identified organisms, genes, pathways, and their networks may be specifically targeted for the treatment of bacterial infections that increase PTB risk.


Assuntos
Aprendizado de Máquina , Microbiota , Nascimento Prematuro , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Biologia de Sistemas , Vagina , Humanos , Feminino , Vagina/microbiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/microbiologia , Microbiota/genética , Gravidez , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Biomarcadores , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Recém-Nascido
12.
BMC Womens Health ; 24(1): 412, 2024 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39030542

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vulvovaginal candidiasis is a common fungal infection that affects the female lower genital tract. This study determined the major risk factors associated with vulvovaginal infection (VVI) in the Ashanti region of Ghana and also determined the antifungal resistance patterns of Candida albicans isolates to some antifungals. METHODS: Three hundred and fifty (350) high vaginal swab (HVS) samples were collected from women who presented with signs and symptoms of VVI. A structured questionnaire was administered to one hundred and seventy-two (172) of the women. HVS samples were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar with 2% chloramphenicol. The polymerase chain reaction was employed to confirm C. albicans. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed and the susceptibility of C. albicans isolates to fluconazole, clotrimazole, amphotericin B, nystatin, miconazole and 5-flurocytosine were assessed. RESULTS: Vaginal infection was most prevalent amongst females in their reproductive age (21 to 30 years; 63.0%). The study found a significant association between vaginal infections and some risk factors such as sexual practices (p < 0.001), antibiotic misuse (p < 0.05), poor personal hygiene (p < 0.005) and birth control methods (p < 0.049). Out of the 350 HVS samples collected, 112 yielded yeast cells with 65 (58%) identified as C. albicans. The C. albicans isolates were resistant to 5' flucytosine (100%), fluconazole (70%), voriconazole (69.2%), miconazole (58.5%) and nystatin (49.2%). C. albicans isolates were more susceptible to amphotericin B (53.8%) and clotrimazole (45.1%), although an appreciable number of isolates showed resistance (46.1% and 52.3%, respectively). CONCLUSION: There should be nationwide education on all associated risk factors of VVI. Also, use of the various antifungal agents in vaginal candidiasis should proceed after antifungal susceptibility testing to ensure efficacious use of these agents.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Candida albicans , Candidíase Vulvovaginal , Farmacorresistência Fúngica , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Humanos , Feminino , Candidíase Vulvovaginal/microbiologia , Candidíase Vulvovaginal/epidemiologia , Candidíase Vulvovaginal/tratamento farmacológico , Gana/epidemiologia , Candida albicans/isolamento & purificação , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem , Fatores de Risco , Adolescente , Vagina/microbiologia , Recidiva , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos , Anfotericina B/uso terapêutico , Anfotericina B/farmacologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
BMC Womens Health ; 24(1): 410, 2024 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39026297

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chlamydia genital infections continue to be a serious health concern globally. Previous studies have reported that Chlamydia trachomatis infection alters the vaginal microbiota of infected women. This study investigated differences in the vaginal microbiome of South African pregnant women living with HIV with and without C. trachomatis infection. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study among 385 pregnant women, recruited from the King Edward VIII Hospital in Durban, South Africa. C. trachomatis was detected using the Applied Biosystems™ TaqMan® Assays. A total of 40 samples, 20 C. trachomatis positive and 20 C. trachomatis negative, were selected for sequencing. The sequencing of the vaginal microbiome was performed using the PacBio platform. Statistical analysis was performed on IBM SPSS version 26. RESULTS: The prevalence of C. trachomatis infection was 12.2% (47/385). The genus Gardnerella (32.14% vs. 24.02%) and species in the genus Gardnerella (31.97% vs. 24.03%) were more abundant in the C. trachomatis-infected group compared to the uninfected group. Lactobacillus iners were also more abundant in the C. trachomatis-infected women (28.30%) compared to the uninfected women. However, these observed patterns did not reach statistical significance. Discriminant analysis showed that the class Alpha-Proteobacteria; order Bacillales; family Enterococcaceae; the genera Enhydrobacter, Enterococcus, and Parabacteroides; Enterococcus spp.; and Pseudomonas stutzeri significantly contributed to a model separating C. trachomatis-infected women from the uninfected group (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The organisms and taxa that significantly contributed to separating the vaginal microbiota of C. trachomatis-infected women from the uninfected women in this study cohort have not been previously observed in association with C. trachomatis infection or the vaginal microbiota. Future studies in larger cohorts that will investigate the role of these microorganisms in C. trachomatis infection and the vaginal microbiota are required.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia , Chlamydia trachomatis , Infecções por HIV , Microbiota , Vagina , Humanos , Feminino , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Vagina/microbiologia , Adulto , Gravidez , Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Estudos Transversais , Infecções por HIV/microbiologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolamento & purificação , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/microbiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem , Gardnerella , Lactobacillus/isolamento & purificação
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(13)2024 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39000395

RESUMO

As a widely distributed plant in Northeast China, Carex meyeriana Kunth (CMK) is generally considered to have antibacterial properties; however, there is a lack of scientific evidence for this. Therefore, we investigated the chemical composition of CMK extract and its effect against C. albicans. A total of 105 compounds were identified in the alcohol extracts of CMK by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS. Most were flavonoids, with Luteolin being the most represented. Among them, 19 compounds are found in the C. albicans lysates. After treatment with CMK ethanol extract, a significant reduction in the number of C. albicans colonies was observed in a vaginal douche solution from day 5 (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the CMK extract can reduce the number of C. albicans spores. The levels of IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-1ß, and TNF-α in vaginal tissues all exhibited a significant decrease (p < 0.05) compared to those in the model group as determined by ELISA. The results of HE staining showed that CMK extract can eliminate vaginal mucosa inflammation. CMK adjusts the vaginal mucosa cells by targeting twenty-six different metabolites and five specific metabolic pathways in order to effectively eliminate inflammation. Simultaneously, the CMK regulates twenty-three types of metabolites and six metabolic pathways against C. albicans infection. So, CMK strongly inhibits the growth of C. albicans and significantly reduces vaginal inflammation, making it a promising candidate for treating C. albicans infection.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Candida albicans , Extratos Vegetais , Vagina , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Feminino , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/química , Vagina/microbiologia , Vagina/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos
15.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 14: 1409774, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39006741

RESUMO

Background: Numerous bacteria are involved in the etiology of bacterial vaginosis (BV). Yet, current tests only focus on a select few. We therefore designed a new test targeting 22 BV-relevant species. Methods: Using 946 stored vaginal samples, a new qPCR test that quantitatively identifies 22 bacterial species was designed. The distribution and relative abundance of each species, α- and ß-diversities, correlation, and species co-existence were determined per sample. A diagnostic index was modeled from the data, trained, and tested to classify samples into BV-positive, BV-negative, or transitional BV. Results: The qPCR test identified all 22 targeted species with 95 - 100% sensitivity and specificity within 8 hours (from sample reception). Across most samples, Lactobacillus iners, Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus jensenii, Gardnerella vaginalis, Fannyhessea (Atopobium) vaginae, Prevotella bivia, and Megasphaera sp. type 1 were relatively abundant. BVAB-1 was more abundant and distributed than BVAB-2 and BVAB-3. No Mycoplasma genitalium was found. The inter-sample similarity was very low, and correlations existed between key species, which were used to model, train, and test a diagnostic index: MDL-BV index. The MDL-BV index, using both species and relative abundance markers, classified samples into three vaginal microbiome states. Testing this index on our samples, 491 were BV-positive, 318 were BV-negative, and 137 were transitional BV. Although important differences in BV status were observed between different age groups, races, and pregnancy status, they were statistically insignificant. Conclusion: Using a diverse and large number of vaginal samples from different races and age groups, including pregnant women, the new qRT-PCR test and MDL-BV index efficiently diagnosed BV within 8 hours (from sample reception), using 22 BV-associated species.


Assuntos
Gardnerella vaginalis , Lactobacillus , Microbiota , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Vagina , Vaginose Bacteriana , Feminino , Vaginose Bacteriana/diagnóstico , Vaginose Bacteriana/microbiologia , Humanos , Vagina/microbiologia , Microbiota/genética , Lactobacillus/isolamento & purificação , Lactobacillus/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Adulto , Gardnerella vaginalis/isolamento & purificação , Gardnerella vaginalis/genética , Adulto Jovem , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Prevotella/isolamento & purificação , Prevotella/genética , Megasphaera/isolamento & purificação , Megasphaera/genética , Actinobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Actinobacteria/genética , Actinobacteria/classificação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Lactobacillus crispatus/isolamento & purificação , Lactobacillus crispatus/genética , Adolescente , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/classificação , Gravidez , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
16.
Bull Exp Biol Med ; 177(1): 84-87, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38960954

RESUMO

A cultural microbiological study of the vaginal microbiota of patients of reproductive age was carried out to isolate the species Lactobacillus iners with subsequent study of phenotypic features. The presence of two phenotypically different species variants was found in patients with bacterial vaginosis.


Assuntos
Lactobacillus , Vagina , Vaginose Bacteriana , Humanos , Feminino , Lactobacillus/isolamento & purificação , Lactobacillus/classificação , Vaginose Bacteriana/microbiologia , Vagina/microbiologia , Adulto , Microbiota/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
17.
BMC Vet Res ; 20(1): 315, 2024 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39010076

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While the urogenital microbiota has recently been characterized in healthy male and female dogs, the influence of sex hormones on the urogenital microbiome of bitches is still unknown. A deeper understanding of the cyclic changes in urinary and vaginal microbiota would allow us to compare the bacterial populations in healthy dogs and assess the impact of the microbiome on various urogenital diseases. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterize and compare the urogenital microbiota during different phases of the estrous cycle in healthy female dogs. DNA extraction, 16 S rDNA library preparation, sequencing and informatic analysis were performed to determine the vaginal and urinary microbiota in 10 healthy beagle dogs at each phase of the estrous cycle. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in alpha and beta diversity of the urinary microbiota across the different cycle phases. Similarly, alpha diversity, richness and evenness of vaginal bacterial populations were not significantly different across the cycle phases. However, there were significant differences in vaginal beta diversity between the different cycle phases, except for between anestrus and diestrus. CONCLUSION: This study strongly suggests that estrogen influences the abundance of the vaginal microbiota in healthy female dogs, but does not appear to affect the urinary microbiome. Furthermore, our data facilitate a deeper understanding of the native urinary and vaginal microbiota in healthy female dogs.


Assuntos
Ciclo Estral , Microbiota , Vagina , Animais , Cães , Feminino , Vagina/microbiologia , Ciclo Estral/fisiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Sistema Urinário/microbiologia , Urina/microbiologia , DNA Bacteriano/genética
18.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 14: 1324794, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39015337

RESUMO

Background: Despite mounting evidence of gut-brain involvement in psychiatric conditions, functional data remain limited, and analyses of other microbial niches, such as the vaginal microbiota, are lacking in relation to mental health. This aim of this study was to investigate if the connections between the gut microbiome and mental health observed in populations with a clinical diagnosis of mental illness extend to healthy women experiencing stress and depressive symptoms. Additionally, this study examined the functional pathways of the gut microbiota according to the levels of psychological symptoms. Furthermore, the study aimed to explore potential correlations between the vaginal microbiome and mental health parameters in young women without psychiatric diagnoses. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 160 healthy Danish women (aged 18-40 years) filled out questionnaires with validated scales measuring symptoms of stress and depression and frequency of dietary intake. Fecal and vaginal microbiota samples were collected at the beginning of the menstrual cycle and vaginal samples were also collected at cycle day 8-12 and 18-22. Shotgun metagenomic profiling of the gut and vaginal microbiome was performed. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) was used for functional profiling and 56 Gut Brain Modules were analyzed in the fecal samples. Results: The relative abundance in the gut of the genera Escherichia, Parabacteroides, and Shigella was higher in women with elevated depressive symptoms. Women with high perceived stress showed a tendency of increased abundance of Escherichia, Shigella, and Blautia. Amongst others, the potentially pathogenic genera, Escherichia and Shigella correlate with alterations in the neuroactive pathways such as the glutamatergic, GABAeric, dopaminergic, and Kynurenine pathways. Vaginosis symptoms were more prevalent in women reporting high levels of stress and depressive symptoms. Conclusions: The findings of this study support the concept of a microbiota-associated effect on the neuroactive pathways even in healthy young women. This suggest, that targeting the gut microbiome could be a promising approach for future psychiatric interventions.


Assuntos
Depressão , Fezes , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Estresse Psicológico , Vagina , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Estudos Transversais , Adolescente , Depressão/microbiologia , Vagina/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Estresse Psicológico/microbiologia , Microbiota , Dinamarca , Voluntários Saudáveis , Eixo Encéfalo-Intestino/fisiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Metagenômica/métodos , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação
19.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 18(6): 925-931, 2024 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38990996

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most frequent vaginal infection affecting women of childbearing age worldwide. It is associated with significant adverse healthcare outcomes, especially during pregnancy. Although screening for BV could reduce potential pregnancy-related obstetric complications, there is no routine screening of pregnant women for BV in Vietnam. We aimed to identify the prevalence of BV among pregnant women and the associated factors in two tertiary hospitals in Hue, Vietnam. METHODOLOGY: This cross-sectional descriptive study included 885 pregnant women in third trimester, who received routine antenatal care in the Hue Central Hospital and Hue University Hospital of Medicine and Pharmacy, Hue city, Thua Thien Hue province, Vietnam. Gram-stained vaginal smears were used for calculating the Nugent score and recording the fungal elements. RESULTS: In total, 435 (49.1%) women had a normal BV score, 352 (39.8%) had intermediate vaginal microbiota, and 98 (11.1%) had BV. Among the 98 women with BV, 71 (72.4%) also had fungal infection. There was a significant association of BV with discharge (p = 0.004) and abnormal cervix (p = 0.014). BV was significantly more frequent among the women who reported previous abortion or miscarriage (p = 0.007). CONCLUSIONS: About a tenth of women in Thua Thien Hue province have BV in the third trimester of pregnancy being associated with previous adverse outcome. Discharge with fishy odour is still a characteristic feature among subtle clinical presentations of BV. Better awareness about this disease and routine test-and-treat management during pregnancy may improve pregnancy outcome.


Assuntos
Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Vaginose Bacteriana , Humanos , Feminino , Vaginose Bacteriana/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Estudos Transversais , Vietnã/epidemiologia , Adulto , Prevalência , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem , Fatores de Risco , Adolescente , Vagina/microbiologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez
20.
BMC Med ; 22(1): 283, 2024 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38972981

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) is a multifactorial syndrome that can substantially affect a patient's quality of life. Endometriosis is one cause of CPP, and alterations of the immune and microbiome profiles have been observed in patients with endometriosis. The objective of this pilot study was to investigate differences in the vaginal and gastrointestinal microbiomes and cervicovaginal immune microenvironment in patients with CPP and endometriosis diagnosis compared to those with CPP without endometriosis and no CPP. METHODS: Vaginal swabs, rectal swabs, and cervicovaginal lavages (CVL) were collected among individuals undergoing gynecologic laparoscopy. Participants were grouped based on patients seeking care for chronic pain and/or pathology results: CPP and endometriosis (CPP-Endo) (n = 35), CPP without endometriosis (n = 23), or patients without CPP or endometriosis (controls) (n = 15). Sensitivity analyses were performed on CPP with endometriosis location, stage, and co-occurring gynecologic conditions (abnormal uterine bleeding, fibroids). 16S rRNA sequencing was performed to profile the microbiome, and a panel of soluble immune mediators was quantified using a multiplex assay. Statistical analysis was conducted with SAS, R, MicrobiomeAnalyst, MetaboAnalyst, and QIIME 2. RESULTS: Significant differences were observed between participants with CPP alone, CPP-Endo, and surgical controls for body mass index, ethnicity, diagnosis of ovarian cysts, and diagnosis of fibroids. In rectal microbiome analysis, both CPP alone and CPP-Endo exhibited lower alpha diversity than controls, and both CPP groups revealed enrichment of irritable bowel syndrome-associated bacteria. CPP-Endo exhibited an increased abundance of vaginal Streptococcus anginosus and rectal Ruminococcus. Patients with CPP and endometrioma (s) demonstrated increased vaginal Streptococcus, Lactobacillus, and Prevotella compared to other endometriosis sites. Further, abnormal uterine bleeding was associated with an increased abundance of bacterial vaginosis-associated bacteria. Immunoproteomic profiles were distinctly clustered by CPP alone and CPP-Endo compared to controls. CPP-Endo was enriched in TNF⍺, MDC, and IL-1⍺. CONCLUSIONS: Vaginal and rectal microbiomes were observed to differ between patients with CPP alone and CPP with endometriosis, which may be useful in personalized treatment for individuals with CPP and endometriosis from those with other causes of CPP. Further investigation is warranted in patients with additional co-occurring conditions, such as AUB/fibroids, which add additional complexity to these conditions and reveal the enrichment of distinct pathogenic bacteria in both mucosal sites. This study provides foundational microbiome-immunoproteomic knowledge related to chronic pelvic pain, endometriosis, and co-occurring gynecologic conditions that can help improve the treatment of patients seeking care for pain.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica , Endometriose , Microbiota , Dor Pélvica , Vagina , Humanos , Feminino , Vagina/microbiologia , Adulto , Dor Pélvica/microbiologia , Projetos Piloto , Endometriose/microbiologia , Dor Crônica/microbiologia , Reto/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inflamação/microbiologia
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