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1.
Chem Biodivers ; 16(5): e1800474, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30801931

RESUMO

Twelve 3,8-epoxy iridoids, including four new compounds, jatamanins R-U (1-4), and eight known compounds (5-12), were obtained from the roots and rhizomes of Valeriana jatamansi. The structures were elucidated from analysis of spectroscopic data. The absolute configurations of 1-4 were determined by comparison of experimental and literature ECD spectra. Moreover, the compounds were evaluated for cytotoxic effects against glioma stem cells, inhibition of NO production, activity against influenza A virus and reversal of multidrug resistance of HepG2/ADR cells. Compounds 9 and 12 showed significant cytotoxic potency against GSC-18# (IC50 =1.351 and 4.439 µg ml-1 , respectively) and GSC-3# (IC50 =10.88 and 6.348 µg ml-1 , respectively) glioma stem cells, while compound 12 was also slightly less potent against GSC-12# (IC50 =13.45 µg ml-1 ) glioma stem cell growth. In addition, compounds 9 and 12 displayed obvious inhibition of NO production (IC50 =4.6 and 15.8 µm, respectively).


Assuntos
Iridoides/química , Valeriana/química , Animais , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Dicroísmo Circular , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Iridoides/isolamento & purificação , Iridoides/farmacologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Macrófagos/citologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Camundongos , Conformação Molecular , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Células RAW 264.7 , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Valeriana/metabolismo
2.
Molecules ; 21(6)2016 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27240331

RESUMO

Valeriana fauriei (V. fauriei), which emits a characteristic and unpleasant odor, is important in traditional medicine. In this study, the expression of terpenoid biosynthetic genes was investigated in different organs that were also screened for volatile compounds including valerenic acid and its derivatives. Specific expression patterns from different parts of V. fauriei were observed using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The highest transcript levels of biosynthetic genes involved in mevalonic acid (MVA) and methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) production were found in the stem. Although the amounts of volatile compounds were varied by organ, most of the volatile terpenoids were accumulated in the root. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis identified 128 volatile compounds, which represented 65.33% to 95.66% of total volatiles. Certain compounds were only found in specific organs. For example, isovalerenic acid and valerenic acid and its derivatives were restricted to the root. Organs with high transcript levels did not necessarily have high levels of the corresponding chemical constituents. According to these results, we hypothesize that translocation may occur between different organs in V. fauriei.


Assuntos
Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Terpenos/metabolismo , Valeriana/genética , Valeriana/metabolismo , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Indenos/metabolismo , Metabolômica/métodos , Sesquiterpenos/metabolismo , Terpenos/química , Transcrição Genética , Valeriana/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo
3.
J Mass Spectrom ; 50(11): 1294-304, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26505775

RESUMO

Valepotriates, plant secondary metabolites of the family Valerianaceae, contain various acyloxy group linkages to the valepotriate nucleus and exhibit significant biological activities. Identification of valepotriates is important to uncover potential lead compounds for the development of new sedative and antitumor drugs. However, making their structure elucidation by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments is too difficult to be realized because of the overlapped carbonyl carbon signals of acyloxy groups substituted at different positions. Thus, the mass spectrometric profiling of these compounds in positive ion mode was developed to unveil the exact linkage of acyloxy group and the core of valepotriate. In this study, electrospray ionization tandem multistage mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS(n)) in ion trap and collision-induced dissociation tandem MS were used to investigate the fragmentation pathways of four types of valepotriates in Valeriana jatamansi, including 5-hydroxy-5,6-dihydrovaltrate hydrin (5-hydroxy-5,6-dihydrovaltrate chlorohydrin), 5,6-dihydrovaltrate hydrin (5,6-dihydrovaltrate chlorohydrin), 5-hydroxy-5,6-dihydrovaltrate and valtrate hydrin (valtrate chlorohydrin). The high-resolution mass spectrum (HRMS) data of all the investigated valepotriates from quadrupole time-of-flight MS/MS were used as a supportive of the fragmentation rules we hypothesized from ion-trap stepwise MS(n). As a result, the loss sequence of acyloxy groups and the abundance of key product ions, in combination with the characteristic product ions corresponding to the valepotriate nucleus, could readily differentiate the four different types of valepotriates. The summarized fragmentation rules were also successfully exploited for the structural characterization of three new trace valepotriates from V. jatamansi. The results indicated that the developed analytical method could be employed as a rapid, effective technique for structural characterization of valepotriates, especially for the trace compounds that could not be identified by NMR techniques. This study may also arouse interest for further structural analysis of other valepotriate-containing type herbal medicines.


Assuntos
Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Valeriana/química , Iridoides/análise , Iridoides/química , Estrutura Molecular , Metabolismo Secundário , Valeriana/metabolismo
4.
Nat Prod Commun ; 8(9): 1195-6, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24273843

RESUMO

It is proposed that the biosynthesis of the sesquiterpene valerenadiene, a key intermediate in the biosynthesis of a sedative in valerian, involves cyclopropane and not cyclobutane intermediates and includes as a key step a cyclopropylcarbinylcation-cyclopropylcarbinylcation rearrangement analogous to the one observed in the conversion of presqualene to squalene in triterpene and steroid biosynthesis. Similar mechanisms are proposed for the biosynthesis of the related sesquiterpenes pacifigorgiol, tamariscene and (+)-pacifigorgia-1,10-diene.


Assuntos
Sesquiterpenos/metabolismo , Valeriana/metabolismo
5.
Planta Med ; 76(4): 393-8, 2010 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19809971

RESUMO

In some medicinal plants a specific plant-fungus association, known as arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis, increases the levels of secondary plant metabolites and/or plant growth. In this study, the effects of three different AM treatments on biomass and sesquiterpenic acid concentrations in two IN VITRO propagated genotypes of valerian ( VALERIANA OFFICINALIS L., Valerianaceae) were investigated. Valerenic, acetoxyvalerenic and hydroxyvalerenic acid levels were analyzed in the rhizome and in two root fractions. Two of the AM treatments significantly increased the levels of sesquiterpenic acids in the underground parts of valerian. These treatments, however, influenced the biomass of rhizomes and roots negatively. Therefore this observed increase was not accompanied by an increase in yield of sesquiterpenic acids per plant. Furthermore, one of the two genotypes had remarkably high hydroxyvalerenic acid contents and can be regarded as a hydroxyvalerenic acid chemotype.


Assuntos
Fungos , Indenos/metabolismo , Micorrizas , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sesquiterpenos/metabolismo , Valeriana/metabolismo , Biomassa , Genótipo , Rizoma , Simbiose , Valeriana/genética , Valeriana/crescimento & desenvolvimento
6.
Aesthet Surg J ; 29(2): 150-7, 2009.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19371848

RESUMO

Most medications, herbal preparations, and nutraceutical supplements have notable effects on biochemical pathways and may influence wound healing, coagulation, and cardiovascular function. They can also interact with other drugs. A large portion of the data available regarding the effects of naturopathic medicines is anecdotal. Marketing of certain products may be misleading and potentially harmful, and quality control standards are highly variable. In order to ensure quality control and standardization of products, it is prudent to work with preparations manufactured by companies that adhere to pharmaceutical (good manufacturing practice [GMP]) standards. However, many of these higher-quality products are not readily available to the public over the counter. A large percentage of patients undergoing plastic surgery use one or more herbal medications, but the disclosure of such medications to allopathic providers is often incomplete. In addition, patients may not understand the importance of discontinuing such medications before surgery. The authors review research on the possible benefits and risks of commonly used herbal medications such as arnica montana, St. John's wort, bromelain, echinacea, ginkgo biloba, ephedra, valerian, and others, focusing on their potentially positive or negative impact during the perioperative period of aesthetic surgery. Good communication with surgical patients, including the administration of a presurgical questionnaire to help identify any use of herbal medications, is emphasized.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Assistência Perioperatória , Preparações de Plantas/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos , Arnica/efeitos adversos , Arnica/metabolismo , Bromelaínas/efeitos adversos , Bromelaínas/metabolismo , Interações de Medicamentos , Echinacea/efeitos adversos , Echinacea/metabolismo , Ephedra/efeitos adversos , Ephedra/metabolismo , Ginkgo biloba/efeitos adversos , Ginkgo biloba/metabolismo , Interações Ervas-Drogas , Humanos , Hypericum/efeitos adversos , Hypericum/metabolismo , Preparações de Plantas/metabolismo , Controle de Qualidade , Cirurgia Plástica , Valeriana/efeitos adversos , Valeriana/metabolismo
7.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 8: 411-20, 2008 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18454251

RESUMO

Insomnia is prevalent and complementary therapies are common, but data are lacking on the effectiveness and tolerability of preparations beyond valerian. Here we report on an open-label, prospective cohort study in 89 German centers offering both conventional and complementary therapies. Subjects received the homeopathic preparation Neurexan or valerian for 28 days. Doses were at physicians' judgments. Sleep duration and latency were evaluated based on patients' sleep diaries over 14 days; sleep quality was evaluated at 28 +/- 1 days. A total of 409 subjects were enrolled. The groups were balanced at baseline for age, sex, weight, and sleep disturbances. At day 14, both groups reported improved sleep latency and duration; latency was reduced from baseline by 37.3 +/- 36.3 min with Neurexan and by 38.2 +/- 38.5 min with valerian. The duration of sleep increased by 2.2 (+/-1.6) h in the Neurexan group and by 2.0 (+/-1.5) h in the valerian group. Differences between the groups in improvement on sleep duration were significantly in favor of Neurexan therapy at days 8, 12, and 14. At day 28, quality of sleep was improved in both groups with no significant differences between the treatments. Significantly more patients reported lack of daytime fatigue with Neurexan than with valerian therapies (49% vs. 32%; p < 0.05 for the comparison). For patients favorable towards a CAM-based therapy, Neurexan might be an effective and well-tolerated alternative to conventional valerian-based therapies for the treatment of mild to moderate insomnia.


Assuntos
Materia Medica/uso terapêutico , Fitoterapia/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/diagnóstico , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/tratamento farmacológico , Valeriana/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
J AOAC Int ; 89(1): 8-15, 2006.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16512222

RESUMO

The roots and rhizomes of various valeriana species are currently used as a sleeping aid or mild sedative. A liquid chromatography method has been developed that permits the analysis of chlorogenic acid, lignans, flavonoids, valerenic acids, and valpotrates in various valerian samples. The best results were obtained with a Phenomenex Luna C18(2) column using gradient elution with a mobile phase consisting of water and 0.05% phosphoric acid and 2-100% acetonitrile-methanol (1 + 1) with 0.05% phosphoric acid. The flow rate was 0.8 mL/min and ultraviolet detection was at 207, 225, 254, 280, and 325 nm. Different valerian species and commercial products showed remarkable quantitative variations. Chlorogenic acid (0.2-1.2%), 3 lignans, linarin (0.002-0.24%), and valepotriates were detected in all the valeriana species analyzed. Highest amounts of valerenic acids were detected in V. officinalis L., trace amounts in V. sitchensis, and none in the other species analyzed.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/química , Indenos/química , Sesquiterpenos/química , Valeriana/metabolismo , Acetonitrilos/química , Calibragem , Técnicas de Química Analítica/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida , Glicosídeos/química , Temperatura Alta , Lignanas/química , Metanol/química , Modelos Químicos , Ácidos Fosfóricos/química , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Raios Ultravioleta
9.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 77(5): 415-26, 2005 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15900287

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Phytochemical-mediated modulation of cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity may underlie many herb-drug interactions. Single-time point phenotypic metabolic ratios were used to determine whether long-term supplementation of goldenseal ( Hydrastis canadensis ), black cohosh ( Cimicifuga racemosa ), kava kava ( Piper methysticum ), or valerian ( Valeriana officinalis ) extracts affected CYP1A2, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, or CYP3A4/5 activity. METHODS: Twelve healthy volunteers (6 women) were randomly assigned to receive goldenseal, black cohosh, kava kava, or valerian for 28 days. For each subject, a 30-day washout period was interposed between each supplementation phase. Probe drug cocktails of midazolam and caffeine, followed 24 hours later by chlorzoxazone and debrisoquin (INN, debrisoquine), were administered before (baseline) and at the end of supplementation. Presupplementation and postsupplementation phenotypic trait measurements were determined for CYP3A4/5, CYP1A2, CYP2E1, and CYP2D6 by use of 1-hydroxymidazolam/midazolam serum ratios (1-hour sample), paraxanthine/caffeine serum ratios (6-hour sample), 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone/chlorzoxazone serum ratios (2-hour sample), and debrisoquin urinary recovery ratios (8-hour collection), respectively. The content of purported "active" phytochemicals was determined for each supplement. RESULTS: Comparisons of presupplementation and postsupplementation phenotypic ratio means revealed significant inhibition (approximately 40%) of CYP2D6 (difference, -0.228; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.268 to -0.188) and CYP3A4/5 (difference, -1.501; 95% CI, -1.840 to -1.163) activity for goldenseal. Kava produced significant reductions (approximately 40%) in CYP2E1 only (difference, -0.192; 95% CI, -0.325 to -0.060). Black cohosh also exhibited statistically significant inhibition of CYP2D6 (difference, -0.046; 95% CI, -0.085 to -0.007), but the magnitude of the effect (approximately 7%) did not appear to be clinically relevant. No significant changes in phenotypic ratios were observed for valerian. CONCLUSIONS: Botanical supplements containing goldenseal strongly inhibited CYP2D6 and CYP3A4/5 activity in vivo, whereas kava inhibited CYP2E1 and black cohosh weakly inhibited CYP2D6. Accordingly, serious adverse interactions may result from the concomitant ingestion of goldenseal supplements and drugs that are CYP2D6 and CYP3A4/5 substrates. Kava kava and black cohosh may interact with CYP2E1 and CYP2D6 substrates, respectively. Valerian appears to be less likely to produce CYP-mediated herb-drug interactions.


Assuntos
Hidrocarboneto de Aril Hidroxilases/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrocarboneto de Aril Hidroxilases/genética , Cimicifuga/metabolismo , Hydrastis/metabolismo , Kava/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Valeriana/química , Adulto , Cafeína/farmacologia , Cápsulas , Cimicifuga/química , Suplementos Nutricionais , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Interações Ervas-Drogas/fisiologia , Humanos , Hydrastis/química , Kava/química , Masculino , Midazolam/farmacologia , Seleção de Pacientes , Fatores de Tempo , Valeriana/metabolismo
10.
J AOAC Int ; 88(1): 221-5, 2005.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15759744

RESUMO

Phytopharmaceuticals containing Valerian are used as mild sleep-inducing agents. The elemental composition of 3 different marks of Valeriana officinalis roots commercially available in the Argentinian market, their teas, and a commercial tincture have been studied. The content of Al, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn was determined in phytopharmaceuticals by flame atomic emission/absorption spectrometry, electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry, and ultrasonic nebulization coupled to inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. Prior to analyses of the samples, a digestion procedure was optimized. The analytical results obtained for Fe, Al, Ca, and V in the solid sample study were within the range 100-1000 mg/kg, and for Mn, Zn, and Pb within the range 10-100 mg/kg. Cadmium was found at levels up to 0.0125 mg/kg.


Assuntos
Preparações Farmacêuticas/análise , Espectrofotometria Atômica/métodos , Oligoelementos/análise , Valeriana/metabolismo , Cádmio/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Metais , Fitoterapia/métodos , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Estruturas Vegetais/metabolismo
11.
J AOAC Int ; 88(6): 1621-5, 2005.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16526441

RESUMO

Valeriana procera Kunth (Mexican Valerian) is a commercially important species, sometimes used as a substitute for Valeriana officinalis L., an important sedative in herbal medicine. A detailed macroscopic and microscopic account was provided for V. procera Kunth and a comparison was made between the wild and cultivated samples of V. procera Kunth. Macro- and microscopic comparative analyses were performed to differentiate V. procera Kunth from V. officinalis L. and other commercially important Valerian species such as V. jatamansi Jones, Valeriana edulis Nutt, and V. sitchensis Bong.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Química Analítica/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Valeriana/metabolismo , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Microscopia/métodos , Raízes de Plantas , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo , Especificidade da Espécie , Amido/análise
12.
Plant Cell Rep ; 23(4): 251-5, 2004 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15252693

RESUMO

Valeriana glechomifolia is a plant species endemic to southern Brazil that accumulates valepotriates, which are terpene derivatives, in all of its organs. Valepotriates are the presumed sedative generic components of the pharmaceutically used species of Valeriana. The influence of various concentrations of the auxins indole-3-acetic acid, indole-3-butyric acid and alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid on the growth of micropropagated V. glechomifolia was investigated under conditions of transient and continuous exposure. Changes in the development of roots and shoots as well as the production of the valepotriates acevaltrate, valtrate and didrovaltrate (analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography) were evaluated. The best performance in valepotriate production, growth and survival under ex vitro conditions following plant acclimatization was achieved in the continuous presence of 5.71 microM IAA. When cultured in medium containing IAA plants produced stable levels of valepotriates throughout the entire cultivation period.


Assuntos
Ácidos Indolacéticos/farmacologia , Iridoides/metabolismo , Valeriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Valeriana/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aclimatação/efeitos dos fármacos , Aclimatação/fisiologia , Indóis/farmacologia , Ácidos Naftalenoacéticos/farmacologia , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Valeriana/metabolismo
13.
Am J Ther ; 10(3): 163-9, 2003.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12756423

RESUMO

The objective of the review was to consolidate the clinical and pharmacologic aspects of drug-herb interactions to develop a compendium of information to provide prescribers with a measure of the risk of interactions, a description of the clinical consequences, and an assessment of the quality (ie, validity) of evidence. A variety of electronic databases and hand-searched references were used to identify documentation of interactions between herbal products and drugs from the most commonly used therapeutic classes. MEDLINE, Allied and Complementary Medicine Database, CINHAL, HealthSTAR, and EMBASE were searched from 1966 to the present. One hundred sixty-two citations were identified. Only 22 citations met the inclusion criteria. Using a matrix of 165 possible drug-herb interaction pairs (15 therapeutic drug classes by 11 herbal products), we identified 51 (31%) interactions discussed in the literature. Twenty-two of these 51 drug-herb pairs (43%) were supported by randomized clinical trials, case-control studies, cohort studies, case series, or case studies. The remaining interaction pairs reflected theoretic reasoning in the absence of clinical data. Most interactions were pharmacokinetic, with most actually or theoretically affecting the metabolism of the affected product by way of the cytochrome p450 enzymes. In this review, warfarin was the most common drug and St. John's wort was the most common herbal product reported in drug-herb interactions. To create a comprehensive and valid list of herb-drug interactions would require a substantial increase in research activities in this area. Improvements in the quality of methodology used are also necessary.


Assuntos
Interações de Medicamentos , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais , Plantas Medicinais/efeitos adversos , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Echinacea/efeitos adversos , Echinacea/metabolismo , Alho/efeitos adversos , Alho/metabolismo , Ginkgo biloba/efeitos adversos , Ginkgo biloba/metabolismo , Humanos , Hypericum/efeitos adversos , Hypericum/metabolismo , Kava/efeitos adversos , Kava/metabolismo , Medicamentos sem Prescrição , Panax/efeitos adversos , Panax/metabolismo , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Risco , Valeriana/efeitos adversos , Valeriana/metabolismo
14.
Ugeskr Laeger ; 164(36): 4161-5, 2002 Sep 02.
Artigo em Dinamarquês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12362826

RESUMO

We present an evidence-based literature review of five commonly used herbs in Denmark: St John's wort, ginkgo biloba, valerian, garlic, and ginseng. Various drug interactions are associated with the intake of some herbal medicines, and may result in many clinical conditions. We bring this to the attention of clinical practitioners. Attention to clinical practice and recommendations for discontinuation of the five herbs are given before surgery. Physicians should be aware of and report potential drug interactions and adverse effects, so as to throw more light on this subject.


Assuntos
Interações de Medicamentos , Extratos Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Plantas Medicinais/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados como Assunto , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Alho/efeitos adversos , Alho/metabolismo , Ginkgo biloba/efeitos adversos , Ginkgo biloba/metabolismo , Interações Ervas-Drogas , Humanos , Hypericum/efeitos adversos , Hypericum/metabolismo , Panax/efeitos adversos , Panax/metabolismo , Fitoterapia/efeitos adversos , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacocinética , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Valeriana/efeitos adversos , Valeriana/metabolismo
15.
JAMA ; 286(2): 208-16, 2001 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11448284

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Widespread use of herbal medications among the presurgical population may have a negative impact on perioperative patient care. OBJECTIVES: To review the literature on commonly used herbal medications in the context of the perioperative period and provide rational strategies for managing their preoperative use. DATA SOURCES: The MEDLINE and Cochrane Collaboration databases were searched for articles published between January 1966 and December 2000 using the search terms herbal medicine, phytotherapy, and alternative medicine and the names of the 16 most commonly used herbal medications. Additional data sources were obtained from manual searches of recent journal articles and textbooks. STUDY SELECTION: We selected studies, case reports, and reviews addressing the safety and pharmacology of 8 commonly used herbal medications for which safety information pertinent to the perioperative period was available. DATA EXTRACTION: We extracted safety, pharmacodynamic, and pharmacokinetic information from the selected literature and reached consensus about any discrepancies. DATA SYNTHESIS: Echinacea, ephedra, garlic, ginkgo, ginseng, kava, St John's wort, and valerian are commonly used herbal medications that may pose a concern during the perioperative period. Complications can arise from these herbs' direct and pharmacodynamic or pharmacokinetic effects. Direct effects include bleeding from garlic, ginkgo, and ginseng; cardiovascular instability from ephedra; and hypoglycemia from ginseng. Pharmacodynamic herb-drug interactions include potentiation of the sedative effect of anesthetics by kava and valerian. Pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions include increased metabolism of many drugs used in the perioperative period by St John's wort. CONCLUSIONS: During the preoperative evaluation, physicians should explicitly elicit and document a history of herbal medication use. Physicians should be familiar with the potential perioperative effects of the commonly used herbal medications to prevent, recognize, and treat potentially serious problems associated with their use and discontinuation.


Assuntos
Assistência Perioperatória , Fitoterapia , Plantas Medicinais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Interações de Medicamentos , Echinacea/efeitos adversos , Echinacea/metabolismo , Alho/efeitos adversos , Alho/metabolismo , Ginkgo biloba/efeitos adversos , Ginkgo biloba/metabolismo , Humanos , Hypericum/efeitos adversos , Hypericum/metabolismo , Kava/efeitos adversos , Kava/metabolismo , Panax/efeitos adversos , Panax/metabolismo , Plantas Medicinais/efeitos adversos , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Risco , Valeriana/efeitos adversos , Valeriana/metabolismo
17.
J Nat Prod ; 48(1): 17-21, 1985.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-4009183

RESUMO

Colchicine-treated suspension cultures of Valeriana wallichii produce higher amounts of valepotriates than did the respective untreated cultures. The ability to produce valepotriates in the treated culture remains in the absence of colchicine even if the chromosome status returns to normal. When the colchicine treatment is repeated, a further increase in valepotriate production can be obtained. Besides known valepotriates, a series of fourteen new compounds, hitherto not described for the parent plant, were isolated from the cell suspension culture. Eight of them are also found in plant parts in minor amounts, but six seem to be present only in tissue cultures of V. wallichii.


Assuntos
Colchicina/farmacologia , Iridoides , Plantas Medicinais , Piranos/metabolismo , Valeriana/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Fenômenos Químicos , Química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada
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