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1.
Plant Sci ; 285: 151-164, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203880

RESUMO

Enhancing the accumulation of essential mineral elements in cereal grains is of prime importance for combating human malnutrition. Biofortification by breeding holds great potential for improving nutrient accumulation in grains. However, conventional breeding approaches require element analysis of many grain samples, which causes high costs. Here we applied hyperspectral imaging to estimate the concentration of 15 grain elements (C, B, Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, N, Na, P, S, Zn) in high-throughput in the wild barley nested association mapping (NAM) population HEB-25, comprising 1,420 BC1S3 lines derived from crossing 25 wild barley accessions with the cultivar 'Barke'. Nutrient concentrations varied largely with a multitude of lines having higher micronutrient concentration than 'Barke'. In a genome-wide association study (GWAS), we located 75 quantitative trait locus (QTL) hotspots, whereof many could be explained by major genes such as NO APICAL MERISTEM-1 (NAM-1) and PHOTOPERIOD 1 (Ppd-H1). The GWAS approach revealed exotic alleles that were able to increase grain element concentrations. Remarkably, a QTL linked to GIBBERELLIN 20 OXIDASE 2 (HvGA20ox2) significantly increased several grain elements without yield loss. We conclude that introgressing promising exotic alleles into elite breeding material can assist in improving the nutritional value of barley grains.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/genética , Hordeum/genética , Produção Agrícola , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Hordeum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hordeum/metabolismo , Valor Nutritivo/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Análise Espectral/métodos
2.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1931: 197-207, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30652292

RESUMO

To help alleviate malnutrition in Africa, nutritionally enhanced sorghum was developed through genetic transformation to increase pro-vitamin A (ß-carotene) accumulation and stability, to improve iron and zinc bioavailability, and to improve protein digestibility. Through many years of efforts, significant achievements have been made for these goals. We generated nutritionally enhanced sorghum lines with enhanced and stabilized pro-vitamin A that provide 20-90% of the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for children under age 3, lines with a 90% reduction in phytate that increase iron and zinc bioavailability and provide 40-80% of the EAR for iron and zinc, and lines that show no reduction in protein digestibility after cooking compared with normal levels. Once these nutritionally enhanced sorghum lines have undergone biosafety examination and have been deregulated, they will be ready for incorporation into sorghum varieties that will benefit Africa and other areas that rely upon sorghum as a staple food.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/genética , Valor Nutritivo/genética , Sorghum/genética , África , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Ferro/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Sorghum/metabolismo , Vitamina A/genética , Zinco/metabolismo
3.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1931: 209-220, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30652293

RESUMO

To help alleviate vitamin A deficiency in Africa, we have developed nutritionally enhanced sorghum with stabilized high all-trans-ß-carotene accumulation. Toward the finalization of this nutritionally enhanced sorghum for food production, confined field trials were conducted to determine the agronomic performance of thirteen independent transgenic events in Iowa and Hawaii. Through these trials, three leading events with no negative impact on agronomic performance were identified. The studies described in this chapter have laid the groundwork for development of the next generation of ß-carotene elevated sorghum as a food product.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/genética , Sorghum/genética , beta Caroteno/genética , África , Valor Nutritivo/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Vitamina A/genética
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(44): 11327-11332, 2018 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30275307

RESUMO

The rice endosperm, consisting of an outer single-cell layer aleurone and an inner starchy endosperm, is an important staple food for humans. While starchy endosperm stores mainly starch, the aleurone is rich in an array of proteins, vitamins, and minerals. To improve the nutritional value of rice, we screened for mutants with thickened aleurones using a half-seed assay and identified thick aleurone 2-1 (ta2-1), in which the aleurone has 4.8 ± 2.2 cell layers on average. Except for starch, the contents of all measured nutritional factors, including lipids, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and dietary fibers, were increased in ta2-1 grains. Map-based cloning showed that TA2 encodes the DNA demethylase OsROS1. A point mutation in the 14th intron of OsROS1 led to alternative splicing that generated an extra transcript, mOsROS1, with a 21-nt insertion from the intron. Genetic analyses showed that the ta2-1 phenotype is inherited with an unusual gametophytic maternal effect, which is caused not by imprinted gene expression but rather by the presence of the mOsROS1 transcript. Five additional ta2 alleles with the increased aleurone cell layer and different inheritance patterns were identified by TILLING. Genome-wide bisulfite sequencing revealed general increases in CG and CHG methylations in ta2-1 endosperms, along with hypermethylation and reduced expression in two putative aleurone differentiation-related transcription factors. This study thus suggests that OsROS1-mediated DNA demethylation restricts the number of aleurone cell layers in rice and provides a way to improve the nutrition of rice.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/genética , DNA/genética , Mutação/genética , Valor Nutritivo/genética , Oryza/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Alelos , Endosperma/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Íntrons/genética , Fenótipo , Sementes/genética , Amido/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
5.
Plant J ; 95(3): 414-426, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29752764

RESUMO

Gliadins are a major component of wheat seed proteins. However, the complex homoeologous Gli-2 loci (Gli-A2, -B2 and -D2) that encode the α-gliadins in commercial wheat are still poorly understood. Here we analyzed the Gli-D2 locus of Xiaoyan 81 (Xy81), a winter wheat cultivar. A total of 421.091 kb of the Gli-D2 sequence was assembled from sequencing multiple bacterial artificial clones, and 10 α-gliadin genes were annotated. Comparative genomic analysis showed that Xy81 carried only eight of the α-gliadin genes of the D genome donor Aegilops tauschii, with two of them each experiencing a tandem duplication. A mutant line lacking Gli-D2 (DLGliD2) consistently exhibited better breadmaking quality and dough functionalities than its progenitor Xy81, but without penalties in other agronomic traits. It also had an elevated lysine content in the grains. Transcriptome analysis verified the lack of Gli-D2 α-gliadin gene expression in DLGliD2. Furthermore, the transcript and protein levels of protein disulfide isomerase were both upregulated in DLGliD2 grains. Consistent with this finding, DLGliD2 had increased disulfide content in the flour. Our work sheds light on the structure and function of Gli-D2 in commercial wheat, and suggests that the removal of Gli-D2 and the gliadins specified by it is likely to be useful for simultaneously enhancing the end-use and health-related traits of common wheat. Because gliadins and homologous proteins are widely present in grass species, the strategy and information reported here may be broadly useful for improving the quality traits of diverse cereal crops.


Assuntos
Genes de Plantas , Loci Gênicos , Gliadina/genética , Valor Nutritivo/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Triticum/genética , Pão , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genes de Plantas/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia
6.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 15848, 2017 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29158565

RESUMO

Plants have evolved sophisticated embryo defences by kinetically-stable non-digestible storage proteins that lower the nutritional value of seeds, a strategy that have not been reported in animals. To further understand antinutritive defences in animals, we analysed PmPV1, massively accumulated in the eggs of the gastropod Pomacea maculata, focusing on how its structure and structural stability features affected its capacity to withstand passage through predator guts. The native protein withstands >50 min boiling and resists the denaturing detergent sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), indicating an unusually high structural stability (i.e., kinetic stability). PmPV1 is highly resistant to in vitro proteinase digestion and displays structural stability between pH 2.0-12.0 and 25-85 °C. Furthermore, PmPV1 withstands in vitro and mice digestion and is recovered unchanged in faeces, supporting an antinutritive defensive function. Subunit sequence similarities suggest a common origin and tolerance to mutations. This is the first known animal genus that, like plant seeds, lowers the nutritional value of eggs by kinetically-stable non-digestible storage proteins that survive the gut of predators unaffected. The selective pressure of the harsh gastrointestinal environment would have favoured their appearance, extending by convergent evolution the presence of plant-like hyperstable antinutritive proteins to unattended reproductive stages in animals.


Assuntos
Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Plantas/genética , Estabilidade Proteica , Proteínas de Armazenamento de Sementes/genética , Animais , Ovos/análise , Cinética , Camundongos , Valor Nutritivo/genética , Valor Nutritivo/imunologia , Comportamento Predatório/fisiologia , Conformação Proteica , Proteínas de Armazenamento de Sementes/química , Proteínas de Armazenamento de Sementes/imunologia , Sementes/química , Sementes/genética , Caramujos/química , Caramujos/genética
7.
J Anim Sci ; 95(10): 4260-4273, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29108061

RESUMO

Genetic correlations between 29 wool production and quality traits and 25 meat quality and nutritional value traits were estimated for Merino sheep from an Information Nucleus (IN). Genetic correlations among the meat quality and nutritional value traits are also reported. The IN comprised 8 flocks linked genetically and managed across a range of sheep production environments in Australia. The wool traits included over 5,000 yearling and 3,700 adult records for fleece weight, fiber diameter, staple length, staple strength, fiber diameter variation, scoured wool color, and visual scores for breech and body wrinkle. The meat quality traits were measured on samples from the and included over 1,200 records from progeny of over 170 sires for intramuscular fat (IMF), shear force of meat aged for 5 d (SF5), 24 h postmortem pH (pHLL; also measured in the , pHST), fresh and retail meat color and meat nutritional value traits such as iron and zinc levels, and long-chain omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels. Estimated heritabilities for IMF, SF5, pHLL, pHST, retail meat color lightness (), myoglobin, iron, zinc and across the range of long-chain fatty acids were 0.58 ± 0.11, 0.10 ± 0.09, 0.15 ± 0.07, 0.20 ± 0.10, 0.59 ± 0.15, 0.31 ± 0.09, 0.20 ± 0.09, 0.11 ± 0.09, and range of 0.00 (eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic, and arachidonic acids) to 0.14 ± 0.07 (linoleic acid), respectively. The genetic correlations between the wool production and meat quality traits were low to negligible and indicate that wool breeding programs will have little or no effect on meat quality. There were moderately favorable genetic correlations between important yearling wool production traits and the omega-3 fatty acids that were reduced for corresponding adult wool production traits, but these correlations are unlikely to be important in wool/meat breeding programs because they have high SE, and the omega-3 traits have little or no genetic variance. Significant genetic correlations among the meat quality traits included IMF with SF5 (-0.76 ± 0.24), fresh meat color * (0.50 ± 0.18), and zinc (0.41 ± 0.19). Selection to increase IMF will improve meat tenderness and color which may address some of the issues with Merino meat quality. These estimated parameters allow Merino breeders to combine wool and meat objectives without compromising meat quality.


Assuntos
Carne/normas , Ovinos/genética , Lã/normas , Animais , Austrália , Peso Corporal/genética , Cruzamento , Cor , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Feminino , Ferro/análise , Masculino , Valor Nutritivo/genética , Fenótipo , Ovinos/fisiologia , Zinco/análise
8.
BMC Genomics ; 18(1): 766, 2017 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29020946

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wheat is one of the three major cereals that have been domesticated to feed human populations. The composition of the wheat grain determines the functional properties of wheat including milling efficiency, bread making, and nutritional value. Transcriptome analysis of the developing wheat grain provides key insights into the molecular basis for grain development and quality. RESULTS: The transcriptome of 35 genotypes was analysed by RNA-Seq at two development stages (14 and 30 days-post-anthesis, dpa) corresponding to the mid stage of development (stage Z75) and the almost mature seed (stage Z85). At 14dpa, most of the transcripts were associated with the synthesis of the major seed components including storage proteins and starch. At 30dpa, a diverse range of genes were expressed at low levels with a predominance of genes associated with seed defence and stress tolerance. RNA-Seq analysis of changes in expression between 14dpa and 30dpa stages revealed 26,477 transcripts that were significantly differentially expressed at a FDR corrected p-value cut-off at ≤0.01. Functional annotation and gene ontology mapping was performed and KEGG pathway mapping allowed grouping based upon biochemical linkages. This analysis demonstrated that photosynthesis associated with the pericarp was very active at 14dpa but had ceased by 30dpa. Recently reported genes for flour yield in milling and bread quality were found to influence wheat quality largely due to expression patterns at the earlier seed development stage. CONCLUSIONS: This study serves as a resource providing an overview of gene expression during wheat grain development at the early (14dpa) and late (30dpa) grain filling stages for use in studies of grain quality and nutritional value and in understanding seed biology.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Grão Comestível/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Valor Nutritivo/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Sementes/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA
9.
BMC Plant Biol ; 17(1): 97, 2017 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28583066

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is one of the most important legume forage species in China and many other countries of the world. It provides a quality source of proteins and minerals to animals. Genetic underpinnings for these important traits, however, are elusive. An alfalfa (M. sativa) association mapping study for six traits, namely crude protein (CP), rumen undegraded protein (RUP), and four mineral elements (Ca, K, Mg and P), was conducted in three consecutive years using a large collection encompassing 336 genotypes genotyped with 85 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. RESULTS: All the traits were significantly influenced by genotype, environment, and genotype × environment interaction. Eight-five significant associations (P < 0.005) were identified. Among these, five associations with Ca were repeatedly observed and six co-localized associations were identified. CONCLUSIONS: The identified marker alleles significantly associated with the traits provided important information for understanding genetic controls of alfalfa quality. The markers could be used in assisting selection for the individual traits in breeding populations for developing new alfalfa cultivars.


Assuntos
Medicago sativa/genética , Valor Nutritivo/genética , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Medicago sativa/metabolismo , Repetições de Microssatélites , Minerais/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
10.
Food Chem ; 211: 374-82, 2016 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27283645

RESUMO

Efficient selection of potato varieties with enhanced nutritional quality requires simple, accurate and cost effective assays to obtain tuber chemical composition information. In this study, 75 Andean native potato samples from 7 Solanum species with different colors were characterized and quantified for their anthocyanin, phenolics and sugar content using traditional reference methods. IR (infrared) spectra of potato extracts were collected using a portable infrared system and partial least squares regression (PLSR) calibration models were developed. These models were validated using both full cross-validation and an independent sample set giving strong linear correlation coefficients of prediction (rPred)>0.91 and standard error of prediction (SEP) of 24mg/100g phenolics, 7mg/100g monomeric anthocyanins, 0.1g/100g reducing sugars and 0.12g/100g sucrose. Overall, portable infrared system with PLSR showed great potential to facilitate potato breeding and certain aspects of crop management, material selection for potato processing and related research by providing alternative prediction models.


Assuntos
Valor Nutritivo , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Solanum tuberosum/química , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho/métodos , Antocianinas/análise , Carboidratos/análise , Análise Multivariada , Valor Nutritivo/genética , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/genética , Tubérculos/química , Solanum tuberosum/genética , Sacarose/análise
11.
Plant Biotechnol J ; 14(6): 1394-405, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26798990

RESUMO

Soya bean (Glycine max) and grass pea (Lathyrus sativus) seeds are important sources of dietary proteins; however, they also contain antinutritional metabolite oxalic acid (OA). Excess dietary intake of OA leads to nephrolithiasis due to the formation of calcium oxalate crystals in kidneys. Besides, OA is also a known precursor of ß-N-oxalyl-L-α,ß-diaminopropionic acid (ß-ODAP), a neurotoxin found in grass pea. Here, we report the reduction in OA level in soya bean (up to 73%) and grass pea (up to 75%) seeds by constitutive and/or seed-specific expression of an oxalate-degrading enzyme, oxalate decarboxylase (FvOXDC) of Flammulina velutipes. In addition, ß-ODAP level of grass pea seeds was also reduced up to 73%. Reduced OA content was interrelated with the associated increase in seeds micronutrients such as calcium, iron and zinc. Moreover, constitutive expression of FvOXDC led to improved tolerance to the fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum that requires OA during host colonization. Importantly, FvOXDC-expressing soya bean and grass pea plants were similar to the wild type with respect to the morphology and photosynthetic rates, and seed protein pool remained unaltered as revealed by the comparative proteomic analysis. Taken together, these results demonstrated improved seed quality and tolerance to the fungal pathogen in two important legume crops, by the expression of an oxalate-degrading enzyme.


Assuntos
Carboxiliases/genética , Resistência à Doença/genética , Lathyrus/genética , Valor Nutritivo/genética , Ácido Oxálico/metabolismo , Soja/genética , Carboxiliases/metabolismo , Carboxiliases/fisiologia , Flammulina/genética , Lathyrus/química , Lathyrus/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo , Soja/química , Soja/metabolismo
12.
Proc Nutr Soc ; 74(3): 198-201, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26186672

RESUMO

There are many quality targets in cereals that could generate step-change improvements in nutritional or food-processing characteristics. For instance, levels of acrylamide, soluble and insoluble fibre, antioxidants, allergens and intolerance factors in food are, to a large extent, determined by the genetics of the raw materials used. However, improvements to these traits pose significant challenges to plant breeders. For some traits, this is because the underlying genetic and biochemical basis of the traits is not fully understood but for others, there is simply a lack of natural genetic variation in commercially useful germplasm. One strategy to overcome the latter hindrance is to use wide crosses with more exotic germplasm; however, this can bring other difficulties such as yield loss and linkage drag of deleterious alleles. As DNA sequencing becomes cheaper and faster, it drives the research fields of reverse genetics and functional genomics which in turn will enable the incorporation of desirable traits into crop varieties via molecular breeding and biotechnology. I will discuss the evolution of these techniques from conventional genetic modification to more recent developments in targeted gene editing and the potential of biotechnology to complement conventional breeding methods. I will also discuss the role of risk assessment and regulation in the commercialisation of GM crops.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Alimentos Geneticamente Modificados , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos , Valor Nutritivo/genética , Genética Reversa/métodos
13.
Proc Nutr Soc ; 74(3): 191-7, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25702698

RESUMO

This review uses production and climate data to examine global and local production trends that can be related to events such as drought. UK grain quality data is also available and provides an overview of trends in protein content. Literature surveys show a consistent reduction in grain size due to the effects of temperature and/or drought. A review of gene expression studies showed that most genes involved in starch synthesis are down regulated under heat stress. Net protein production is also reduced under heat and/or drought stress but apparently to a lesser degree as the reduction in grain mass is larger, resulting in an increase in protein concentration. Modelling has suggested that adaptation could be achieved by moving production to more extreme latitudes but other research suggests that simply transferring germplasm from one region to another is unlikely to be successful. Another review has identified drought tolerance phenotypes that could be used to breed more drought tolerant crops. At the time of the review, the authors concluded that phenotypic selection was generally preferable to forms of marker-assisted breeding and have used the approach to produce drought tolerant wheat cultivars. Transgenic approaches have also been shown to improve drought tolerance under controlled environment conditions but there are no results to show how well these results translate into improved crop performance under field conditions. The recent advances in genomic data and detecting marker-trait associations suggest that marker-assisted breeding will play a much more important role in breeding drought tolerant cereals in the future.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Secas , Grão Comestível/fisiologia , Melhoramento Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Grão Comestível/genética , Genômica , Humanos , Valor Nutritivo/genética , Valor Nutritivo/fisiologia , Fenótipo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Temperatura , Água
14.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; 55(4): 562-9, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24915369

RESUMO

Concerns have been expressed regarding the safety of using biotechnology derived feeds in diets of livestock animals and in regard to human consumption of products from species fed transgenic crops. As a consequence, a large number of poultry nutrition studies have been conducted to evaluate the wholesomeness of transgenic crops by examining performances of animals during growth or egg laying. Studies also evaluated whether foreign DNA and proteins could be detected in meat, egg, and tissue samples from broiler chickens and laying hens fed diets containing transgenic feeds. In all studies, the conclusions were in agreement that the transgenic crops provided comparable performance, carcass and egg yields, and meat and egg composition, when compared with conventional grains. Moreover, it was demonstrated that transgenic proteins and DNA present in livestock feeds are not detectable in food products derived from these animals, using the most sensitive detection methods available, confirming that they are rapidly degraded by normal digestive processes. The lack of significant differences were a result of the similarity in nutrient composition of the genetically modified feeds and lack of differences in intake and digestibility, while there were no evidences that the differences reported for performance response variables and carcass measurements between treatment groups were attributable to the presence of the transgenic gene and protein in the biotechnology derived plants. Results demonstrated that genetically modified feeds are substantially equivalent and they result as safe as existing conventional feeds.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/toxicidade , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Alimentos Geneticamente Modificados/efeitos adversos , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/efeitos adversos , Aves Domésticas , Ração Animal/normas , Animais , Humanos , Valor Nutritivo/genética , Testes de Toxicidade/métodos
15.
Nutr. hosp ; 30(5): 1039-1043, nov. 2014. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-132308

RESUMO

Introducción: El sobrepeso y la obesidad son desordenes metabólicos que se han convertido en un problema de salud pública debido a la alta prevalencia que presentan actualmente, lo que hace importante crear sistemas de monitoreo sencillos para evaluar su comportamiento. Objetivo: Determinar la concordancia del peso, la talla, el índice de masa corporal auto-reportados versus los medidos directamente, en personas de 25 a 50 años sin educación superior. Pacientes y métodos: estudio descriptivo de corte transversal, en el que participaron 207 personas de ambos sexos entre 25 y 50 años. A cada participante se le preguntó el peso y la talla; y el índice de masa corporal fue calculado a partir de estos datos. Adicional a esto, una persona capacitada determinó el valor real de estas variables. Se obtuvo el coeficiente de correlación intraclase entre el auto- reporte y las mediciones. Resultados: el valor del índice de masa corporal medido para los hombres fue de 25,8±3,7 kg/m2 y para las mujeres de 26,0±4,1 kg/m2. Los coeficientes de correlación intraclase fueron para el peso: 0,962 (IC95%:0,950-0,971); la estatura: 0,909 (IC95%: 0,882-0,930), y el índice de masa corporal: 0,929 (IC95% 0,907-0,945); la prevalencia real de personas con un índice de masa corporal superior a 25 kg/m2 fue de 52,1%, mientras que la obtenida por medio de los datos auto-reportados fue de 44%. Conclusiones: Los datos auto-reportados de peso y talla, en personas de 25 a 50 años sin educación superior son útiles (AU)


Introduction: Overweight and obesity are metabolic disorders that have become a public health problem due to the current high prevalence; therefore, it is important to create simple monitoring systems to assess their trends. Objective: To determine the correlation between weight, height and body mass index reported by patients and the values measured directly in adults between 25 and 50 years old without higher education. Patients and methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted with participation of 207 adults between 25 and 50 years old. Each participant was asked weight and height; and body mass index was calculated with these data. Moreover, a qualified person determined the real value of these variables. The coefficient of intra-class correlation between self-reported and measurements was obtained. Results: The body mass index measured for men was 25,8±3,7 kg/m2 and for women 26,0±4,1 kg/m2. Intraclass correlation coefficients were for weight 0,962 (IC95%: 0,950-0,971), height 0,909 (IC95%: 0,882-0,930), and body mass index 0,929 (IC95% 0,907-0,945); the real prevalence of people with a body mass index greater than 25 kg/m2 was 52.1%, whereas the value obtained by self-reported data was 44%. Conclusions: Self-reported weight and height data are useful for obesity assessment in adults aged between 25 and 50 years without higher education at the population level (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estatura , Ganho de Peso/genética , Valor Nutritivo/genética , Peso Corporal , Avaliação Nutricional , Escolaridade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia , Valor Nutritivo/fisiologia , Autorrelato
16.
Mol Biol Rep ; 41(11): 7395-411, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25085039

RESUMO

Common purslane (Portulaca oleracea), also known as pigweed, fatweed, pusle, and little hogweed, is an annual succulent herb in the family Portulacaceae that is found in most corners of the globe. From the ancient ages purslane has been treated as a major weed of vegetables as well as other crops. However, worldwide researchers and nutritionists have studied this plant as a potential vegetable crop for humans as well as animals. Purslane is a nutritious vegetable with high antioxidant properties and recently has been recognized as the richest source of α-linolenic acid, essential omega-3 and 6 fatty acids, ascorbic acid, glutathione, α-tocopherol and ß-carotene. The lack of vegetable sources of ω-3 fatty acids has resulted in a growing level of attention to introduce purslane as a new cultivated vegetable. In the rapid-revolutionizing worldwide atmosphere, the ability to produce improved planting material appropriate to diverse and varying rising conditions is a supreme precedence. Though various published reports on morphological, physiological, nutritional and medicinal aspects of purslane are available, research on the genetic improvement of this promising vegetable crop are scant. Now it is necessary to conduct research for the genetic improvement of this plant. Genetic improvement of purslane is also a real scientific challenge. Scientific modernization of conventional breeding with the advent of advance biotechnological and molecular approaches such as tissue culture, protoplast fusion, genetic transformation, somatic hybridization, marker-assisted selection, qualitative trait locus mapping, genomics, informatics and various statistical representation have opened up new opportunities of revising the relationship between genetic diversity, agronomic performance and response to breeding for varietal improvement. This review is an attempt to amalgamate the assorted scientific information on purslane propagation, cultivation, varietal improvement, nutrient analyses, medicinal uses and to describe prospective research especially for genetic improvement of this crop.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Cruzamento/métodos , Produtos Agrícolas , Engenharia Genética/métodos , Valor Nutritivo/genética , Portulaca/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Portulaca/genética , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/análise , Engenharia Genética/tendências , Portulaca/química
17.
Plant Biotechnol J ; 12(7): 821-31, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25040343

RESUMO

RNA interference (RNAi) has emerged as a powerful genetic tool for scientific research over the past several years. It has been utilized not only in fundamental research for the assessment of gene function, but also in various fields of applied research, such as human and veterinary medicine and agriculture. In plants, RNAi strategies have the potential to allow manipulation of various aspects of food quality and nutritional content. In addition, the demonstration that agricultural pests, such as insects and nematodes, can be killed by exogenously supplied RNAi targeting their essential genes has raised the possibility that plant predation can be controlled by lethal RNAi signals generated in planta. Indeed, recent evidence argues that this strategy, called host-induced gene silencing (HIGS), is effective against sucking insects and nematodes; it also has been shown to compromise the growth and development of pathogenic fungi, as well as bacteria and viruses, on their plant hosts. Here, we review recent studies that reveal the enormous potential RNAi strategies hold not only for improving the nutritive value and safety of the food supply, but also for providing an environmentally friendly mechanism for plant protection.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Valor Nutritivo/genética , Interferência de RNA , Cruzamento , Produtos Agrícolas/microbiologia , Produtos Agrícolas/parasitologia , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Modelos Genéticos , Controle Biológico de Vetores
18.
Plant Biotechnol J ; 12(7): 934-40, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24851712

RESUMO

Soybean oil is high in polyunsaturated fats and is often partially hydrogenated to increase its shelf life and improve oxidative stability. The trans-fatty acids produced through hydrogenation pose a health threat. Soybean lines that are low in polyunsaturated fats were generated by introducing mutations in two fatty acid desaturase 2 genes (FAD2-1A and FAD2-1B), which in the seed convert the monounsaturated fat, oleic acid, to the polyunsaturated fat, linoleic acid. Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) were engineered to recognize and cleave conserved DNA sequences in both genes. In four of 19 transgenic soybean lines expressing the TALENs, mutations in FAD2-1A and FAD2-1B were observed in DNA extracted from leaf tissue; three of the four lines transmitted heritable FAD2-1 mutations to the next generation. The fatty acid profile of the seed was dramatically changed in plants homozygous for mutations in both FAD2-1A and FAD2-1B: oleic acid increased from 20% to 80% and linoleic acid decreased from 50% to under 4%. Further, mutant plants were identified that lacked the TALEN transgene and only carried the targeted mutations. The ability to create a valuable trait in a single generation through targeted modification of a gene family demonstrates the power of TALENs for genome engineering and crop improvement.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Dessaturases/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Óleo de Soja/química , Soja/genética , Sequência de Bases , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Mutação , Valor Nutritivo/genética , Ácido Oleico/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/química , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Sementes/enzimologia , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência , Soja/enzimologia , Soja/metabolismo
19.
Genome ; 57(2): 61-7, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24702063

RESUMO

3M(b) Triticum aestivum L. (Mv9kr1) - Aegilops biuncialis Vis. (MvGB642) addition lines were crossed with the Chinese Spring ph1b mutant genotype (CSph1b) to produce 3M(b)-wheat chromosome rearrangements. In the F3 generation, 3M(b)(4B) substitution lines and 3M(b).4BS centric fusions were identified with in situ hybridization using repetitive and genomic DNA probes, and with SSR markers. Grain micronutrient analysis showed that the investigated Ae. biuncialis accession MvGB382 and the parental line MvGB642 are suitable gene sources for improving the grain micronutrient content of wheat, as they have higher K, Zn, Fe, and Mn contents. The results suggested that the Ae. biuncialis chromosome 3M(b) carries genes determining the grain micronutrient content, as the 3M(b).4BS centric fusion had significantly higher Zn and Mn contents compared with the recipient wheat cultivar. As yield-related traits, such as the number of tillers, the length of main spike, and spikelets per main spike, were similar in the 3M(b).4BS centric fusion and the parental wheat genotype, it can be concluded that this line could be used in pre-breeding programs aimed at enriching elite wheat cultivars with essential micronutrients.


Assuntos
Cruzamentos Genéticos , Micronutrientes/análise , Valor Nutritivo/genética , Triticum/genética , Cruzamento , Cromossomos de Plantas , DNA de Plantas/análise , Genoma de Planta , Hibridização Genética , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Ferro/metabolismo , Manganês/metabolismo , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Potássio/metabolismo , Recombinação Genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Translocação Genética , Zinco/metabolismo
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