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1.
Wiad Lek ; 74(2): 341-350, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813498

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim: The purpose of this article is to expose the essence of the concept of the human right to life, including in the content of this right, the duty of the state to maintain and develop general conditions for a dignified human life. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: The article explores the modern concept of understanding the human right to life. The article analyzes the constitutions, other regulations, as well as the experience of different countries in the world on this issue (in particular, the countries of Western and Eastern Europe, Latin America, USA). The empirical basis of this research consists of two judgments of the Constitutional Court of Ukraine, Resolution of the Plenum of the Supreme Court of Ukraine «On Judicial Practice in Cases of Crimes against the Life and Health of a Person¼ of February 7, 2003, № 2, and judgments of the European Court of Human Rights (Case of Lambert and others v. France of 5 June 2015, Case Hristozov and others v. Bulgaria of 13 November 2012, Case G. N. and others v. Italy of 01 December 2009) on issues related to the human right to life. The application of methods and techniques of scientific knowledge is conditioned by a systematic approach, which enables them to consider outlined problems in the unity of their social content and legal form. In particular, the formal-logical method, methods of analysis and synthesis, comparative-legal method, formal legal and statistical methods are used. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: The modern approach to understanding the human right to life presupposes that it is the state's responsibility to protect that right, to take appropriate measures to remedy the general conditions in society that may endanger life or prevent individuals from living a dignified life.


Assuntos
Valor da Vida , Europa Oriental , França , Humanos , Itália , Ucrânia
2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1481, 2021 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33674587

RESUMO

Norm enforcement may be important for resolving conflicts and promoting cooperation. However, little is known about how preferred responses to norm violations vary across cultures and across domains. In a preregistered study of 57 countries (using convenience samples of 22,863 students and non-students), we measured perceptions of the appropriateness of various responses to a violation of a cooperative norm and to atypical social behaviors. Our findings highlight both cultural universals and cultural variation. We find a universal negative relation between appropriateness ratings of norm violations and appropriateness ratings of responses in the form of confrontation, social ostracism and gossip. Moreover, we find the country variation in the appropriateness of sanctions to be consistent across different norm violations but not across different sanctions. Specifically, in those countries where use of physical confrontation and social ostracism is rated as less appropriate, gossip is rated as more appropriate.


Assuntos
Percepção , Comportamento Social , Normas Sociais , Atenção , Compreensão , Feminino , Humanos , Julgamento , Masculino , Negociação , Apoio Social , Valor da Vida , Violência
3.
J Comp Eff Res ; 10(4): 281-284, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33594901

RESUMO

The economic burden of mortality due to the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) extends beyond the lives lost. Data from the Ohio Department of Public Health and Social Security Administration was used to estimate the years of potential life lost, 72,274 and economic value of those lost lives, US$17.39 billion. These estimates may be used to assess the risk-trade off of COVID-19 mitigation strategies in Ohio.


Assuntos
/economia , Valor da Vida/economia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ohio/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública , Adulto Jovem
4.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e47321, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1116094

RESUMO

Objetivo: analisar a produção científica nacional e internacional, buscando as interfaces existentes entre os princípios bioéticos e os cuidados em saúde prestados ao fim da vida às pessoas idosas. Método: revisão integrativa, cuja busca ocorreu entre outubro e novembro de 2019 nas bases de dados Medline via Pubmed, Lilacs e Scopus com os descritores: "Palliative Care", "Aged" e "Bioethics" de 2014-2019. Resultados: a partir dos artigos selecionados, emergiram as seguintes categorias: condutas terapêuticas frente aos cuidados ao fim da vida; tomada de decisão nos cuidados ao fim da vida; e desafios nos cuidados ao fim da vida. Conclusão: destaca-se a relevância dos profissionais manterem o compromisso com a pessoa idosa e sua família de forma a considerar suas subjetividades e preferências e os instrumentalizar para que os cuidados sejam pautados em princípios bioéticos, para assim proporcionar um processo de morte e de morrer com dignidade.


Objective: to examine the Brazilian and international scientific production for connections between bioethical principles and the health care provided to older adults at the end of their lives. Method: between October and November 2019 this integrative review searched the Medline (Pubmed), Lilacs, and Scopus databases using the descriptors: "Palliative Care", "Aged", and "Bioethics" for the period 2014-2019. Results: the following categories emerged from the selected articles: therapeutic conducted with regard to end-of-life care; decision making on end-of-life care; and challenges in end-of-life care. Conclusion: of particular importance is for health professionals to uphold their commitment to older adults and their families, consider their subjectivities and preferences, and empower and equip them so that care is guided by bioethical principles in order to assure a dignified process of dying and death.


Objetivo: examinar la producción científica brasileña e internacional en busca de conexiones entre los principios bioéticos y la atención médica brindada a los adultos mayores al final de sus vidas. Método: entre octubre y noviembre de 2019, esta revisión integradora buscó en las bases de datos Medline (Pubmed), Lilacs y Scopus utilizando los descriptores: "Cuidados paliativos", "Envejecido" y "Bioética" para el período 2014-2019. Resultados: las siguientes categorías surgieron de los artículos seleccionados: terapéutico realizado con respecto a la atención al final de la vida; toma de decisiones sobre la atención al final de la vida; y desafíos en la atención al final de la vida. Conclusión: es de particular importancia que los profesionales de la salud mantengan su compromiso con los adultos mayores y sus familias, consideren sus subjetividades y preferencias, y los empoderen y equipen para que la atención se guíe por principios bioéticos para asegurar un proceso digno de muerte y muerte.


Assuntos
Humanos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Cuidados Paliativos na Terminalidade da Vida/ética , Temas Bioéticos , Pessoalidade , Morte , Relações Profissional-Família/ética , Relações Profissional-Paciente/ética , Atitude Frente a Morte , Valor da Vida
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5150, 2020 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33051452

RESUMO

It is often assumed that incongruence between individuals' values and those of their country is distressing, but the evidence has been mixed. Across 29 countries, the present research investigated whether well-being is higher if people's values match with those of people living in the same country or region. Using representative samples, we find that person-country and person-region value congruence predict six well-being measures (e.g., emotional well-being, relationship support; N = 54,673). Crucially, however, value type moderates whether person-country fit is positively or negatively associated with well-being. People who value self-direction, stimulation, and hedonism more and live in countries and regions where people on average share these values report lower well-being. In contrast, people who value achievement, power, and security more and live in countries and regions where people on average share these values, report higher well-being. Additionally, we find that people who moderately value stimulation report the highest well-being.


Assuntos
Cultura , Valor da Vida , Emoções , Humanos , Percepção , Filosofia , Previdência Social
6.
Gac. sanit. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 34(5): 485-492, sept.-oct. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-198872

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Identificar variables y argumentaciones valóricas que configuran la percepción de la interrupción del embarazo como delito bajo cualquier causal, en una muestra comunitaria de una ciudad al sur de Chile durante el debate de la Ley 21.030. MÉTODO: Estudio mixto, cuantitativo, observacional, de corte transversal correlacional y cualitativo. Una muestra cuantitativa de 289 personas de Temuco (Chile) contestó a un cuestionario sobre categorías sociales y su percepción de la gravedad de 15 conductas como delito. Para la fase cualitativa se realizaron 12 entrevistas semiestandarizadas sometidas a análisis de contenido, incorporando algunos elementos de la teoría fundamentada desde la perspectiva constructivista. RESULTADOS: Con independencia del sexo, más de la mitad de la muestra de estudio consideran el aborto como un delito entre grave y extremadamente grave. Las personas religiosas, sin importar el tipo de religión, políticamente conservadoras y con menor nivel educativo, presentan una percepción del aborto como delito de mayor gravedad. La participación con frecuencia en actos religiosos presenta un efecto mediador. Los resultados cualitativos establecen una perspectiva multidimensional y el dogma de la religión como argumento central para rechazar el aborto. CONCLUSIONES: La religión y una visión política conservadora afectan las construcciones tradicionales de género y maternidad, y por ende se observa una tendencia a rechazar el aborto. Estos resultados hacen hincapié en la necesidad de prestar especial atención a la aceptación de la Ley 21.030 sobre la interrupción voluntaria del embarazo para una aplicación efectiva


OBJECTIVE: To identify the variables and the axiological argumentations that configure the perception of abortion as a crime, in a sample of a city in southern Chile during the debate of law 21.030. METHOD: The design is quantitative, observational correlation cross-sectional followed by a qualitative approach. The quantitative sample of 289 members of the community of Temuco (Chile) answered a questionnaire about social categories, and their perception of the seriousness of 15 behaviours defined in Chile as crimes. For the qualitative phase, we carried out 12 semi-standardized interviews in the same community, subject to content analysis, incorporating some elements of grounded theory from the constructivist perspective. RESULTS: Regardless of sex, more than half of the study sample considers abortion to be between a serious and an extremely serious crime, despite its current decriminalization. Religious people, no matter what kind of religion, political conservatives and people of a lower educational level, perceive abortion as a serious crime. Frequency of participation in religious events has a mediating effect. The qualitative results establish t religious teaching as a very important argument to reject abortion, and that the perception of the severity of abortion as a crime is multidimensional. CONCLUSION: Religion and a conservative political vision affect the traditional constructions of gender and motherhood, and therefore, there is a marked tendency to reject abortion. These results emphasize the need to pay special attention to the acceptance of Law 21.030 on the voluntary termination of pregnancy in regions. This is important for effective application of the Law


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aborto Legal/legislação & jurisprudência , Valores Sociais , Valor da Vida , Crime/ética , Aborto Legal/ética , Religião e Medicina , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Chile/epidemiologia
7.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238683, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936815

RESUMO

We report and interpret preferences of a sample of the Dutch adult population for different strategies to end the so-called 'intelligent lockdown' which their government had put in place in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Using a discrete choice experiment, we invited participants to make a series of choices between policy scenarios aimed at relaxing the lockdown, which were specified not in terms of their nature (e.g. whether or not to allow schools to re-open) but in terms of their effects along seven dimensions. These included health-related effects, but also impacts on the economy, education, and personal income. From the observed choices, we were able to infer the implicit trade-offs made by the Dutch between these policy effects. For example, we find that the average citizen, in order to avoid one fatality directly or indirectly related to COVID-19, is willing to accept a lasting lag in the educational performance of 18 children, or a lasting (>3 years) and substantial (>15%) reduction in net income of 77 households. We explore heterogeneity across individuals in terms of these trade-offs by means of latent class analysis. Our results suggest that most citizens are willing to trade-off health-related and other effects of the lockdown, implying a consequentialist ethical perspective. Somewhat surprisingly, we find that the elderly, known to be at relatively high risk of being affected by the virus, are relatively reluctant to sacrifice economic pain and educational disadvantages for the younger generation, to avoid fatalities. We also identify a so-called taboo trade-off aversion amongst a substantial share of our sample, being an aversion to accept morally problematic policies that simultaneously imply higher fatality numbers and lower taxes. We explain various ways in which our results can be of value to policy makers in the context of the COVID-19 and future pandemics.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Política de Saúde , Modelos Econométricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Valor da Vida , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Altruísmo , Comportamento de Escolha , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/legislação & jurisprudência , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Comportamento do Consumidor , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Pesquisa Empírica , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Pandemias/economia , Pandemias/legislação & jurisprudência , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena/economia , Quarentena/legislação & jurisprudência , Quarentena/estatística & dados numéricos , Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas , Valores Sociais , Impostos , Adulto Jovem
8.
Rev. esp. med. legal ; 46(3): 119-126, jul.-sept. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-192313

RESUMO

La pandemia por COVID-19 ha suscitado problemas éticos y médico-legales, entre los que destaca la asignación equitativa de recursos sanitarios, sobre todo en relación a la priorización de pacientes y el racionamiento de recursos. El establecimiento de prioridades está siempre presente en los sistemas sanitarios y depende de la teoría de justicia aplicable en cada sociedad. El racionamiento de recursos ha sido necesario en la pandemia por COVID-19, por lo que se han publicado documentos de consenso para la toma de decisiones sustentadas en cuatro valores éticos fundamentales: maximización de los beneficios, tratar a las personas igualmente, contribuir en la creación de valor social y dar prioridad a la situación más grave. De ellos derivan recomendaciones específicas: maximizar beneficios; priorizar a los trabajadores de la salud; no priorizar la asistencia por orden de llegada; ser sensible a la evidencia científica; reconocer la participación en la investigación y aplicar los mismos principios a los pacientes COVID-19 que a los no-COVID-19


The COVID-19 pandemic has raised ethical and medico-legal problems, which include the equitable allocation of health resources, especially in relation to the prioritization of patients and the rationing of resources. Priority setting is always present in healthcare systems and depends on the theory of justice applicable in each society. Resource rationing has been necessary in the COVID-19 pandemic, and therefore consensus documents have been published for decision-making based on four fundamental ethical values: maximization of benefits, treating people equally, contributing to creating social value and giving priority to the worst off, from which specific recommendations derive: maximize benefits; prioritize health workers; do not prioritize attendance on a first-come, first-served basis; be sensitive to scientific evidence; recognize participation in research and apply the same principles to COVID-19 patients as to non-COVID-19 patients


Assuntos
Humanos , Valor da Vida , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente/legislação & jurisprudência , Seleção de Pacientes/ética , Infecções por Coronavirus , Cuidados Paliativos na Terminalidade da Vida/ética , Cuidados para Prolongar a Vida/ética , Pandemias/legislação & jurisprudência , Tomada de Decisões/ética , Temas Bioéticos , Revisão da Utilização de Recursos de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Alocação de Recursos/legislação & jurisprudência , Recusa do Médico a Tratar/ética , Recusa do Médico a Tratar/legislação & jurisprudência
9.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 20(2): 151-162, mayo-ago. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-199095

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to adapt the Personal Meaning Profile-Brief (PMP-B) to the Spanish-speaking population and investigate its psychometric properties. The PMP-B is a 21-item instrument that assesses meaning in life through seven sources: relationship, intimacy, achievement, self-acceptance, self-transcendence, fair treatment, and religion. METHOD: Participants were 546 Spanish adults comprised of a community sample (n = 171) and university students (n = 375). The PMP-B, the Ryff's Scales of Psychological Well-Being, and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale were administrated. RESULTS: The PMP-B showed a bifactor structure with one general factor and seven subfactors. Measurement invariance was found across age, gender, and samples. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were generally good. Older people showed higher PMP-B scores than younger people. The PMP-B scores, especially relational sources of meaning, were positively associated with psychological well-being and negatively related to psychological distress, mainly to depression. CONCLUSIONS: The validity evidence gathered in this study supports the reliable use of the PMP-B to measure meaning in life. The PMP-B can be a noteworthy contribution to the meaning-centered research


ANTECEDENTES/OBJETIVO: El objetivo de este estudio fue adaptar el Personal Meaning Profile-Brief (PMP-B) a la población hispanohablante e investigar sus propiedades psicométricas. El PMP-B es un instrumento de 21 ítems que mide el sentido en la vida a través de siete fuentes: relaciones, intimidad, logro, auto-aceptación, auto-transcendencia, trato justo y religión. MÉTODO: Los participantes fueron 546 adultos españoles: una muestra comunitaria (n = 171) y estudiantes universitarios (n = 375). El PMP-B, las Ryff's Scales of Psychological Well-Being y la Depression Anxiety Stress Scale fueron administradas. RESULTADOS: El PMP-B mostró una estructura bifactorial con un factor general y siete subfactores. Se encontró invarianza de medida entre edades, género y muestras. La consistencia interna y la fiabilidad test-retest fueron buenas. Las personas de mayor edad mostraron puntuaciones más altas en el PMP-B que los más jóvenes. Las puntuaciones del PMP-B, especialmente las fuentes de sentido relacionales, se asociaron positivamente con el bienestar psicológico y negativamente con el malestar psicológico, principalmente con depresión. CONCLUSIONES: La evidencia de validez recogida en este estudio apoya el uso fiable del PMP-B para medir el sentido en la vida. El PMP-B puede suponer una valiosa contribución en la investigación sobre el sentido en la vida


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Seguridade Social/psicologia , Valor da Vida , Características Culturais , Psicometria , Tradução , Espanha
10.
Salud Publica Mex ; 62(5): 607-609, 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614545

RESUMO

The bioethical inquiry about allocating fairly scarce health resources is not new, all countries around the world that were seriously afflicted by SARS-CoV-2 have issued triage guidelines in order to address the dilemmas raised by the pandemic. There is no question about the need to create bioethical guidelines, since its creation provides a degree of certainty that fair and ethical decisions are taken. This also prevents that decisions are made in solitary and maybe motivated by corrupted actions. In Mexico, the creation of this guideline was a proactive and preventive measure to what was unavoidable, the exponential contagion phase of the pandemical scenario caused by Covid-19. On April 30, 2020 the General Sanitary Council published the Bioethical Guide to Allocate Scarce Resources on Critical Care Medicine in Emergency Situation. This guide has at its core that principle of utmost importance in social justice which main thesis is: "All lives have the same value". The aim of this contribution is to provide the ethical and legal principles established in the aforementioned bioethi-cal guideline. In sum, a brief exploration of the ethical reasons that support a specific way to allocate scarce health resources is provided, as well as the foundations of the procedural part from a human rights-based approach.


Assuntos
Temas Bioéticos/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus , Recursos em Saúde/provisão & distribução , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Alocação de Recursos/ética , Triagem/ética , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Tomada de Decisões , Órgãos Governamentais , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , México , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Justiça Social , Triagem/normas , Valor da Vida , Suspensão de Tratamento/ética , Suspensão de Tratamento/normas
12.
Salud Publica Mex ; 62(5): 590-592, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516867

RESUMO

On April 12, 2020, a bioethics guide for allocating scarce hospital resources during the current Covid-19 pandemic was posted on the website of the Consejo de Salubridad General(CSG) of the Government of Mexico. The guide, entitled Guía bioética para asignación de recursos limitados de medicina crítica en situación de emergencia, was intended as a preliminary document, but the website posting did not describe it as a first step in the process. The publicity resulted in a wide array of comments and criticisms. That first version posted on the CSG website contained an age-based criterion for breaking a tie between two or more medically eligible patients who needed of a ventilator: younger patients would have prefer-ence over older ones. The final version of the guide eliminated that criterion and instead, relied on the leading public health principle, "save the most lives", without regard to personal characteristics other than the possibility of benefitting from the scarce medical resources.


Assuntos
Temas Bioéticos/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus , Recursos em Saúde/provisão & distribução , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Alocação de Recursos/ética , Triagem/ética , Ageismo , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Tomada de Decisões , Dissidências e Disputas , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Expectativa de Vida , México , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Justiça Social , Triagem/normas , Valor da Vida , Ventiladores Mecânicos/provisão & distribução , Suspensão de Tratamento/ética , Suspensão de Tratamento/normas
13.
Georgian Med News ; (300): 134-139, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32383717

RESUMO

In order to better protect the human right to life, to improve the implementation of Art. 2 of the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, as well as the reduction of the number of judgments of the European Court of Human Rights against Ukraine, we propose avoid unjustifiably lengthy investigations into the causes of death of citizens and provide specialized resuscitation assistance to all who need it. Share Art. 52 of the Law of Ukraine "Fundamentals of the legislation of Ukraine on health care" the following wording: "Medical workers are allowed to euthanize - intentionally accelerating the death or death of a terminally ill patient in order to end his or her suffering, subject to his consent and the conclusion of the commission, which is not less than of three doctors on the incurability of a disease that causes significant physical pain (suffering) for the patient".


Assuntos
Eutanásia , Valor da Vida , Assistência à Saúde , Feminino , Direitos Humanos , Humanos , Ucrânia
16.
Acta bioeth ; 26(1): 9-16, mayo 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1114593

RESUMO

Este artículo tiene por objetivo introducir la noción de "autorrespeto" en el marco de la discusión sobre la eutanasia. Para ello muestra brevemente, en primer lugar, dos rasgos que caracterizan gran parte de los debates morales contemporáneos sobre temas de ética aplicada, rasgos que permitirán explicar, con mayor claridad, la necesidad de ampliar las razones que permitan a las personas estar en condiciones de adelantar su muerte. En segundo término, se expone una de las primeras reflexiones de Platón acerca de la diferencia entre el mero hecho de estar vivos (to zen) y el vivir bien (to eu zen), y cuyos argumentos podemos trasladar en parte al debate sobre la eutanasia. Luego de discutir la idea de "persona", el artículo aborda finalmente la noción de "autorrespeto" como criterio para considerar la legitimidad moral de poner anticipadamente fin a nuestra vida.


This paper aims to introduce the notion of self-respect in the context of the discussion on euthanasia. First, I briefly show two features that characterize much of the contemporary moral debates on issues of applied ethics, features that will allow me to explain more clearly the discussion about euthanasia. Looking back at the history of Philosophy, in the second part, I will show how Plato offered one of the first reflections on the difference between the mere fact of being alive (to zen) and living well (to eu zen), and whose arguments we can use to discuss euthanasia. Third, I will examine what we understand by a person and how a particular comprehension of this notion will allow me to elaborate arguments in favour of euthanasia based on the idea of self-respect.


Este artigo tem por objetivo introduzir a noção de "auto-respeito" no contexto da discussão sobre eutanásia. Para isto, mostra brevemente, em primeiro lugar, dois aspectos que caracterizam grande parte dos debates morais contemporâneos sobre temas de ética aplicada, aspectos estes que permitirão explicar, com maior clareza, a necessidade de ampliar as razões que permitam às pessoas estarem em condições de adiantar sua morte. Em segundo lugar, expõe-se uma das primeiras reflexões de Platão acerca da diferença entre o mero fato de estar vivos (to zen) e o viver bem (to eu zen), e cujos argumentos podemos transferir em parte ao debate sobre a eutanásia. Depois de discutir a ideia de "pessoa", o artigo aborda finalmente a noção de "auto-respeito" como critério para considerar a legitimidade moral de por antecipadamente fim à nossa vida.


Assuntos
Eutanásia/ética , Suicídio Assistido/ética , Autonomia Pessoal , Valor da Vida , Respeito , Autoimagem
17.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 145(10): 687-692, 2020 05.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236913

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic poses unprecedented challenges for the German health care system. What is already the case in some other countries, may occur in Germany in the near future also: Faced with limited ICU resources, doctors will be forced to decide which patients to treat and which to let die. This paper examines the legal implications of such decisions. It takes up arguments from the general discussion on prioritization in medicine. A constitutional hurdle for the application of utilitarian criteria (in particular patients' age or social role) comes from the principle that every human life is of equal value and must not be traded off against others ("life value indifference"). However, the limits that the Grundgesetz (German Basic Law) sets for state actions do not apply directly to doctors. According to the Musterberufsordnung (professional code of conduct), doctors act based on their conscience and the requirements of medical ethics and humanity. The implications of this normative standard for the prioritizing in an exceptional situation as the COVID 19 pandemic have not been sufficiently clarified. This uncertainty leads to emotional and moral burdens for doctors. The authors conclude that the German law grants a limited freedom of choice that allows physicians to apply utilitarian criteria in addition to purely medical decision algorithms.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Tomada de Decisões/ética , Ética Médica , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Alocação de Recursos/ética , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Assistência à Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Alemanha , Humanos , Legislação Médica , Pandemias , Médicos/ética , Médicos/normas , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Alocação de Recursos/legislação & jurisprudência , Valor da Vida
18.
Cuad. bioét ; 31(101): 59-70, ene.-abr. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-197137

RESUMO

El diferente estatuto jurídico de hombres y animales es consecuencia de su diferente estatuto onto-lógico. El ser humano está revestido de dignidad, lo que exige el reconocimiento de unos derechos que aseguren una vida digna. El animal carece de dignidad, pero debe ser objeto de protección por el Derecho, aunque no se le reconozcan derechos. Este estudio se centra en las diferencias ontológicas de mayor relieve entre el hombre y los animales, diferencias susceptibles de ser contrastadas empíricamente en la actualidad y por los datos aportados por la paleoantropología. Los derechos humanos, con su fundamento en la dignidad, constituyen la garantía de que los hombres puedan desarrollar capacidades exclusivas de su modo de ser y de las que carecen los animales


The different legal status of human being and animals is a consequence of their different ontological status. Human being has dignity, which requires the recognition of rights that ensure a dignified life. The animal lacks dignity, but it must be protected by law, even though it does not have recognized rights. This study focuses on the ontological main differences between human being and animals, differences that nowadays can be tested empirically by the data provided by paleoanthropology. Human rights, based on dignity, are the guarantee that human being can develop exclusive capabilities to their way of being and that animals lack


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Direitos Humanos/legislação & jurisprudência , Direitos dos Animais/legislação & jurisprudência , Pessoalidade , Respeito , Consciência , Personalidade , Valor da Vida , Racionalização , Ética
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164392

RESUMO

Located in the subtropics, Taiwan is one of the major epidemic areas for dengue fever, with severe epidemics occurring in recent years. Dengue fever has become a serious health threat to Taiwan's residents and a potentially serious economic cost to society. This study recruited 730 random participants and adopted the contingent valuation method to understand the factors influencing the populace's willingness to pay (WTP) to reduce the health risk of dengue fever. The results show that high-income women with children and people with higher preventive perceptions and behavior are more willing to invest in preventive measures against dengue fever. In the evaluation of WTP for preventive treatment for health risks, each person was willing to pay on average NT$751 annually to lower psychological health risks, NT$793 annually to lower the risk of illness, and NT$1086 annually to lower the risk of death.


Assuntos
Dengue , Serviços de Saúde , Criança , Dengue/economia , Dengue/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Serviços de Saúde/economia , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Risco Ajustado/economia , Risco Ajustado/estatística & dados numéricos , Taiwan , Valor da Vida
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