Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 984
Filtrar
1.
Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol ; 26(1): 102-111, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30920248

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Given the increasing saliency of Latino/a young adults in the United States, there is a need to consider developmental theories that may better capture the cultural mechanisms by which individuals from this specific ethnic group are socialized to engage in prosocial behaviors. The inclusion of cultural processes (including identity and values) might be particularly important in models that investigate family socialization processes and prosocial behaviors, because scholars have suggested that cultural values may be transmitted via parental practices and beliefs, including ethnic socialization practices. METHOD: Participants included 381 U.S. Latino/a young adults (54.2% female; Mage = 21.99). Young adults completed measures of family ethnic socialization, ethnic identity, and endorsement of familism and respect values. They also completed a multidimensional measure of prosocial behavior, assessing different types and targets of helping. RESULTS: Structural equation modeling was conducted, and there was support for the importance of ethnic identity and cultural values as mechanisms through which ethnic socialization is associated with prosocial behaviors. Gender moderated these relations, such that family respect played a relatively more prominent mediating role for men, whereas familism played a mediating role for both men and women. CONCLUSIONS: The findings emphasize the central role of familial ethnic socialization and cultural processes in fostering prosocial behaviors among U.S. Latino/as but reveal specific patterns of relations based on gender and on target of helping. These findings highlight the need for more research on gender-based and relation-based patterns of prosocial behaviors in U.S. Latinos/a young adults. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Percepção Social , Valores Sociais/etnologia , Socialização , Adolescente , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Pais , Comportamento Social , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
2.
Sch Psychol ; 34(5): 555-565, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31343212

RESUMO

Utilizing ecological theory and multiple world theory, the current study investigated the effects of cultural factors (i.e., Familismo and school climate), parental involvement, and academic socialization on academic achievement of Latina/o secondary school students. This study had 2 primary foci. First, this study sought to address how the cultural value of Familismo and the interaction between home and school cultures play a role in parental involvement and academic achievement. Second, the effect of academic socialization was tested as a distinct factor from parental involvement. Data were collected from 116 Latina/o students living along the U.S./Mexico border. This study tested a path model that explained 30% of the variance in academic achievement, 25% of the variance in academic socialization, and 21% of the variance in parental involvement. Among 8 proposed relationships, 6 were supported while 2 were not. The mediating effects of parental involvement and academic socialization were supported that connect Familismo, school climate, and academic achievement. Implications for Latina/o secondary students who navigate between the different cultural worlds of home and school are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Cultura , Hispano-Americanos , Poder Familiar/etnologia , Valores Sociais/etnologia , Socialização , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Americanos Mexicanos , Modelos Psicológicos
3.
Int J Equity Health ; 18(1): 74, 2019 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31118025

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of smoking during pregnancy among indigenous women approaches 50% and is associated with sudden infant death, pregnancy loss, preterm delivery, low birth weight, and anatomical deformity. This study aims to synthesise qualitative studies by reporting experiences, perceptions, and values of smoking cessation among pregnant indigenous women to inform potential interventions. METHOD: A highly-sensitive search of MEDLINE, Embase, PsychINFO, and CINAHL, in conjunction with analysis of Google Scholar and reference lists of related studies was conducted in March 2018. We utilised two methods (thematic synthesis and an indigenous Maori analytical framework) in parallel to analyse data. Completeness of reporting in studies was evaluated using the Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Studies (COREQ) framework. RESULTS: We included seven studies from Australia and New Zealand involving 250 indigenous women. Three themes were identified. Realising well-being and creating agency included giving the best start to baby, pride in being a healthy mum, female role models, and family support. Understanding the drivers for smoking included the impact of stress and chaos that hindered prioritisation of self-care, the social acceptability of smoking, guilt and feeling judged, and inadequate information about the risks of smoking. Indigenous women strongly preferred culturally responsive approaches to smoking cessation, placing value on programs designed specifically for and by indigenous people, that were accessible, and provided an alternative to smoking. CONCLUSION: Future interventions and smoking cessation programmes might be more effective and acceptable to indigenous women and families when they harness self-agency and the desire for a healthy baby, recognise the high value of indigenous peer involvement, and embed a social focus in place of smoking as a way to maintain community support and relationships. Development and evaluation of smoking cessation programs for pregnant indigenous women and families is warranted.


Assuntos
Grupos Populacionais/psicologia , Gestantes/etnologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/etnologia , Austrália , Feminino , Humanos , Nova Zelândia , Grupos Populacionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Gestantes/psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Valores Sociais/etnologia
4.
J Gambl Stud ; 35(4): 1331-1345, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31111295

RESUMO

Reflecting international patterns, Aboriginal people in Victoria are more likely to gamble and to experience gambling harm than non-Indigenous Victorians. This paper describes experiences of gambling reported by 50 Aboriginal people interviewed in regional Victoria in 2016 and 2017 as part of studies initiated by two Aboriginal community-controlled organisations. Data were analysed using social practice theory (SPT) and coded to the elements of 'meaning', 'material', 'competence', and 'temporality'. Across each element we identified highly contradictory experiences. Gambling held meaning as an opportunity for community gatherings but was also regarded as a cause of domestic violence, conflict, isolation and shame. Materially, the venues that offered gambling were experienced by many Aboriginal people as safe and welcoming, but at the same time gambling produced a damaging affective sense of addiction for some. Gambling was a competency that some people valued and taught to children, but it was also seen as undermining cultural practices. While Aboriginal people were historically denied access to licensed venues offering commercial gambling, many participants now found opportunities to gamble inescapable. The intermingling of benefits and harms described above supports the need for a multi-faceted response to gambling in Aboriginal communities, which includes harm reduction as well as supply restriction and treatment. Some experiences of gambling related by our participants reflected those reported also by non-Indigenous Australians, while others were differently nuanced. Because SPT is used to understand collectively-shared practices, it facilitates the identification of gambling interventions at the level of the community, as recommended by our research participants.


Assuntos
Jogo de Azar/etnologia , Jogo de Azar/psicologia , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/psicologia , Valores Sociais/etnologia , Adulto , Atitude Frente a Saúde/etnologia , Austrália , Comportamento de Escolha , Feminino , Redução do Dano , Humanos , Controle Interno-Externo
5.
J Soc Psychol ; 159(2): 210-224, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31002299

RESUMO

This work examines differences in the work-related values, expectations, and behaviors between millennials who are significant users of technology and social media, and those who are not. We delineate the development of millennial behavior using a unique group of millennials, those in the Ultra-Orthodox Jewish (known as "Haredi") community in Israel. Due to religious and community norms, many Haredi millennials were shielded from digital technology, and particularly the Internet and the various technologies associated with it, such as text messaging and social media. Those who were raised and remained in Haredi communities did not encounter the Internet with any regularity as children. Many as adults are still unfamiliar with social media. Thus, this community presents a unique natural experiment, comparing Haredi millennials who are immersed in social media with those who are not.


Assuntos
Emprego , Internet , Judaísmo , Mídias Sociais , Valores Sociais/etnologia , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Israel , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
6.
Pap. psicol ; 40(1): 57-63, ene.-abr. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-181999

RESUMO

Casi 25 años después de la extrema crueldad y violencia que hubo en Ruanda durante el genocidio de 1994, agresores y agredidos vuelven a convivir como vecinos. La psicología tiene un valor extraordinario para explicar tanto el horror como la superación del mismo. No podemos explicar los procesos de la reconciliación interpersonal o nacional sin antes entender las dinámicas del conflicto en general, y del conflicto de Ruanda en particular. Tanto antes, como durante, como después, tienen lugar procesos emocionales, cognitivos y conductuales, que afectan a los implicados y les hacen capaces de lo mejor y de lo peor. Este es el propósito de este artículo: comprender los procesos psicológicos que llevan al conflicto violento y desarrollar las condiciones para la reconstrucción y la reconciliación personal y social, todo ello ilustrado con el caso de Ruanda, uno de los más privilegiados escenarios para estudiar la violencia y su superación


Almost 25 years after the extreme cruelty and violence that occurred in Rwanda during the genocide of 1994, the perpetrators and victims live together as neighbors. Psychology is of extraordinary value in explaining both the horror and its overcoming. We cannot explain the processes of interpersonal or national reconciliation without first understanding the dynamics of the conflict in general, and of the Rwandan conflict in particular. Before, during and after any violent conflict, emotional, cognitive and behavioral processes take place, affecting those involved and making them capable of the best and the worst. This is the objective of this article: to understand the psychological processes that lead to violent conflict and to analyze the conditions for reconstruction, and personal and social reconciliation, focused on the case of Rwanda, one of the most fitting scenarios for studying violence and the overcoming of it


Assuntos
Humanos , Genocídio/psicologia , Violência/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Ruanda , Relações Comunidade-Instituição , Reconstrução Pós-Desastre , Ódio , Medo , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Valores Sociais/etnologia , Princípios Morais
7.
Br J Sociol ; 70(5): 2092-2115, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30912850

RESUMO

This article investigates the extent to which parental values differ between social groups in the UK at the start of the twenty-first century. The study of parental values is an important area of sociological enquiry that can inform scholarship from across the social sciences concerned with educational inequality and cultural variability in family life. We draw on data from the Millennium Cohort Study to show how parent's social class, religion, religiosity, race and ethnicity, and education are related to the qualities they would like their children to have. Our rank-ordered regression models show that parents in service class occupations place significantly more importance on 'thinking for self' than 'obey parents' compared to those in routine manual occupations. We also show that although class matters, the relationship between education and parental values is particularly strong. Parenting values also differ by parental racial and ethnic background and by levels of religiosity.


Assuntos
Poder Familiar , Valores Sociais , Adulto , Grupos de Populações Continentais/etnologia , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Poder Familiar/etnologia , Pais/psicologia , Religião , Classe Social , Valores Sociais/etnologia , Espiritualidade , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
8.
Transcult Psychiatry ; 56(3): 449-470, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30924415

RESUMO

Cross-national epidemiological studies show that prevalence rates of common mental disorders (i.e. depression, anxiety disorders, and PTSD) vary considerably between countries, suggesting cultural differences. In order to gather evidence on how culture relates to the aetiology and phenomenology of mental disorders, finding meaningful empirical instruments for capturing the latent (i.e. non-visible) construct of 'culture' is vital. In this review, we suggest using value orientations for this purpose. We focus on Schwartz's value theory, which includes two levels of values: cultural and personal. We identified nine studies on personal values and four studies on cultural values and their relationship with common mental disorders. This relationship was assessed among very heterogeneous cultural groups; however, no consistent correlational pattern occurred. The most compelling evidence suggests that the relationship between personal values and mental disorders is moderated by the cultural context. Hence, assessing mere correlations between personal value orientations and self-reported symptoms of psychopathology, without taking into account the cultural context, does not yield meaningful results. This theoretical review reveals important research gaps: Most studies aimed to explain how values relate to the aetiology of mental disorders, whereas the question of phenomenology was largely neglected. Moreover, all included studies used Western instruments for assessing mental disorders, which may not capture culturally-specific phenomena of mental distress. Finding systematic relationships between values and mental disorders may contribute to making more informed hypotheses about how psychopathology is expressed under different cultural circumstances, and how to culturally adapt psychological interventions.


Assuntos
Características Culturais , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental , Valores Sociais/etnologia , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/etnologia , Prevalência
9.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 15(7-8): 1715-1722, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30779691

RESUMO

Exposure to pro-vaccination messages from nonmedical peers and others perceived to share a similar value system for society (referred to as worldview outlook) improves vaccination attitudes. Nonetheless, a minority of African American parents have friends and family members who provide them with vaccine advice. The aims of the current study were to identify the presumed worldview outlook of eight types of community figures as perceived by African American parents, and determine parents' trust in these figures for vaccine advice, and whether trust varied according to the figures' racial concordance. A cross-sectional survey was administered to 110 African American parents in 2015. Parents perceived the community figures to represent a spectrum of worldview outlooks. Although levels of trust in the community figures differed overall (p < .001), it was high in the school nurse, pediatrician, mother, father, disease survivor, and vaccine scientist. All trusted figures except the father were perceived to hold a communitarian outlook. Parents shown race-concordant figures had higher levels of trust in them than those who were shown race-discordant equivalents (p < .01). These findings suggest that vaccination campaigns geared toward African American parents may be strengthened by including other nonmedical, African American spokespersons who convey their community contributions in messages.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pais/psicologia , Confiança , Vacinação/psicologia , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Valores Sociais/etnologia , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Dev World Bioeth ; 19(1): 3-8, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28960794

RESUMO

Empirical studies have now established that many patients make clinical decisions based on models other than Anglo American model of truth-telling and patient autonomy. Some scholars also add that current medical ethics frameworks and recent proposals for enhancing communication in health professional-patient relationship have not adequately accommodated these models. In certain clinical contexts where health professional and patients are motivated by significant cultural and religious values, these current frameworks cannot prevent communication breakdown, which can, in turn, jeopardize patient care, cause undue distress to a patient in certain clinical contexts or negatively impact his/her relationship with the community. These empirical studies have now recommended that additional frameworks developed around other models of truth-telling; and which take very seriously significant value-differences which sometimes exist between health professional and patients, as well as patient's cultural/religious values or relational capacities, must be developed. This paper contributes towards the development of one. Specifically, this study proposes a framework for truth-telling developed around African model of truth-telling by drawing insights from the communitarian concept of ootó amongst the Yoruba people of south west Nigeria. I am optimistic that if this model is incorporated into current medical ethics codes and curricula, it will significantly enhance health professional-patient communication.


Assuntos
Cultura , Ética Médica , Grupos Étnicos , Relações Médico-Paciente , Religião , Valores Sociais , Revelação da Verdade , Comunicação , Tomada de Decisões , Humanos , Nigéria , Assistência ao Paciente , Autonomia Pessoal , Médicos , Características de Residência , Responsabilidade Social , Valores Sociais/etnologia
11.
Monash Bioeth Rev ; 36(1-4): 36-53, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30421096

RESUMO

I address the question of what makes addiction morally problematic, and seek to answer it by drawing on values salient in the sub-Saharan African philosophical tradition. Specifically, I appeal to life-force and communal relationship, each of which African philosophers have at times advanced as a foundational value, and spell out how addiction, or at least salient instances of it, could be viewed as unethical for flouting them. I do not seek to defend either vitality or community as the best explanation of when and why addiction is immoral, instead arguing that each of these characteristically African values grounds an independent and plausible account of that. I conclude that both vitalism and communalism merit consideration as rivals to accounts that western ethicists would typically make, according to which addiction is immoral insofar as it degrades rationality or autonomy, as per Kantianism, or causes pain or dissatisfaction, à la utilitarianism.


Assuntos
Temas Bioéticos , Teoria Ética , Valores Sociais/etnologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/etiologia , África ao Sul do Saara , Análise Ética , Humanos , Autonomia Pessoal , Pessoalidade
12.
Dev Psychopathol ; 30(5): 1611-1627, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30451140

RESUMO

Growth mixture modeling with a sample of 749 Mexican heritage families identified parallel trajectories of adolescents' and their mothers' heritage cultural values and parallel trajectories of adolescents' and their fathers' heritage cultural values from Grades 5 to 10. Parallel trajectory profiles were then used to test cultural gap-distress theory that predicts increased parent-adolescent conflict and adolescent psychopathology over time when adolescents become less aligned with Mexican heritage values compared to their parents. Six similar parallel profiles were identified for the mother-youth and father-youth dyads, but only one of the six was consistent with the hypothesized problem gap pattern in which adolescents' values were declining over time to become more discrepant from their parents. When compared to families in the other trajectory groups as a whole, mothers in the mother-adolescent problem gap trajectory group reported higher levels of mother-adolescent conflict in the 10th grade that accounted for subsequent increases in internalizing and externalizing symptoms assessed in 12th grade. Although the findings provided some support for cultural gap-distress predictions, they were not replicated with adolescent report of conflict nor with the father-adolescent trajectory group analyses. Exploratory pairwise comparisons between all six mother-adolescent trajectory groups revealed additional differences that qualified and extended these findings.


Assuntos
Conflito Familiar/psicologia , Relação entre Gerações/etnologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Americanos Mexicanos/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho/etnologia , Valores Sociais/etnologia , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Conflito Familiar/etnologia , Pai , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/etnologia , Mães , Pais , Teoria Psicológica , Estresse Psicológico/etnologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
13.
Hum Nat ; 29(4): 371-389, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30251000

RESUMO

We present a theory of honor violence as a form of costly signaling. Two types of honor violence are identified: revenge and purification. Both types are amenable to a signaling analysis whereby the violent behavior is a signal that can be used by out-groups to draw inferences about the nature of the signaling group, thereby helping to solve perennial problems of social cooperation: deterrence and assurance. The analysis shows that apparently gratuitous acts of violence can be part of a system of norms that are Pareto superior to alternatives without such signals. For societies that lack mechanisms of governance to deter aggression or to enforce contracts, norms of honor can be a rational means of achieving these functions. The theory also suggests that cultures can become trapped in inefficient equilibria owing to path-dependent phenomena. In other words, costly signals of honor may continue to be sent even when they are no longer providing useful information.


Assuntos
Homicídio/etnologia , Relações Interpessoais , Normas Sociais/etnologia , Valores Sociais/etnologia , Violência/etnologia , Humanos
14.
Psych J ; 7(3): 111-121, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29974646

RESUMO

This study addresses the relationships that ecological worldview, environmental sensitivity, and personal norms have with pro-environmental behaviors in a particular child population in urban China. The survey questionnaires were distributed to 410 Grade 6 students from eight Green Schools in Shenzhen, China. The sample included 223 (54.3%) boys and 187 (45.6%) girls with ages ranging from 10 to 13 years. The results from structural equation modelling reveal that environmental sensitivity and personal norms were two critical factors in determining students' pro-environmental behaviors. The influence of ecological worldview was fully mediated by personal norms, whereas the effect of environmental sensitivity was partially mediated by both personal norms and ecological worldview.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Comportamento Infantil , Ecologia , Emoções , Meio Ambiente , Normas Sociais , Valores Sociais , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/etnologia , Criança , Comportamento Infantil/etnologia , China/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Normas Sociais/etnologia , Valores Sociais/etnologia
15.
J Hum Lact ; 34(2): 358-364, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29543552

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most Hispanic infants are fed formula during the first 6 weeks, and although 80% of Hispanic women initiate breastfeeding, rates of exclusive breastfeeding are much lower. Research aim: The purpose was to examine the influence of acculturation and cultural values on the breastfeeding practices of pregnant women of Mexican descent participating in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children who were enrolled in a prospective randomized clinical trial that aimed to reduce child obesity. The data were abstracted from a larger randomized clinical trial focused on prevention of child obesity. METHODS: The sample consisted of 150 women of Mexican origin who were enrolled at the time of these analyses from the randomized clinical trial and had a prepregnancy body mass index of ≥ 25 and spoke English and/or Spanish. All breastfeeding data for this report came from data collection at 1 month postpartum. RESULTS: A higher score on the Anglo orientation scale of the Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans was associated with less breastfeeding at 1 month postpartum and less exclusive breastfeeding. CONCLUSION: Acculturation plays a role in breastfeeding practice. Exploring acculturation associated with breastfeeding can guide us to design culturally relevant interventions to promote breastfeeding exclusivity among immigrant mothers.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/psicologia , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Pobreza/psicologia , Valores Sociais/etnologia , Aculturação , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Aleitamento Materno/etnologia , Aleitamento Materno/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Obesidade/etnologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Sobrepeso/etnologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Pobreza/etnologia , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Sudoeste dos Estados Unidos
16.
J Interpers Violence ; 33(20): 3232-3254, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29294983

RESUMO

Honor is an important concept that has a vital value in Turkey and affects many women's lives and even causes death. It is of utmost importance to know and scientifically demonstrate the value judgments of the academics that lead and pioneer the society in our country where honor culture is adopted. Therefore, in Turkey, where thousands of women are exposed to violence every year, 877 academics participated in this descriptive study to determine the attitudes of academics toward violence against women in the name of honor. The data were collected using "The Scale for Attitudes Towards Violence Against Women in the Name of Honor (SAVWNH)" in the form of electronic questionnaires through email addresses of the academics working at different faculties of the university in the official website of the university in September 1 to October 1, 2015. In our study, academics' "attitudes towards violence against women in the name of honor" were found low. That is, academics had negative attitudes toward the verbal or physical violence against women in the name of honor and opposed to the punishment of women for this reason. Nevertheless, the attitudes of those who were males; those who were not professors, associate professors, and assistant professors; those who were single; those who had lived in the district/village for a long time; those who had arranged marriages; those who used any kind of violence; and those who considered violence as a solution were found somewhat more conventional. These results showed that, for some academics, the traditional beliefs of the Turkish patriarchal society continued to be valid although they were included in university academic cultures. In fact, it is revealed here that social values, traditions, and customs are very effective and important on the formation of personality in socialization process.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde/etnologia , Características Culturais , Abuso Físico/etnologia , Percepção Social , Valores Sociais/etnologia , Adulto , Mulheres Maltratadas/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Abuso Físico/prevenção & controle , Punição , Identificação Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Turquia
17.
Int J Psychol ; 53(5): 356-364, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27709606

RESUMO

Chinese consumers' spending has been expanding rapidly in the past decade, and along with it household and credit card debt. The present research collected evidence to triangulate the contention that materialism is positively related with Chinese's problem spending tendency (PST), and that present-time-perspective (PTP) and future-time perspectives (FTP) interact systematically with materialism to affect PST. A survey of the general population in Macao, China (Study 1; N = 239) confirmed that materialism was positively correlated with PST. An interaction between materialism and PTP intensified the relationship, whereas an interaction with FTP weakened the relationship. Another survey with a sample of university students (Study 2; N = 223) again found positive relationships among PST, materialism, and PTP, as measured by temporal discount rate. But further exploration showed that PST was only related with temporal discounting among high materialists, but not among low materialists. Study 3 experimentally examined the causal effects of materialism and FTP on PST. When being primed of an orientation towards materialism (n = 33), the participants' planned consumption doubled that of the control group (n = 31). A FTP prime interacted with materialism prime and put a "damper" on participants' planned spending (n = 29), compared to their counterparts who were not primed of such a time perspective.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Valores Sociais/etnologia , Percepção do Tempo/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
18.
Int J Psychol ; 53(5): 339-348, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27709607

RESUMO

This study examined the circular structure of values in China. The circular structure is a central element of Schwartz value theory and visualises the idea that some values are similar while others conflict with one another. Whereas numerous studies addressed the question whether the circular structure of values can be generalised cross-culturally, results for China are inconclusive. In this paper, we argue that taking a closer look at China provides a challenge to the circular structure and allows for drawing conclusions regarding the limits versus generalizability of Schwartz' theory. For this purpose, we first conduct a re-analysis of Chinese data from a former meta-analysis (Study 1) and second, present results from a large study of 10,652 Chinese college students (Study 2). Results of Study 1 revealed that graphical representation of the circular structure matched theoretical expectations but five out of six samples showed relatively bad fit to the theorised structure. By contrast, data in Study 2 showed a good model fit. As an overall conclusion, the circular structure is well supported in the Chinese context, and small sample sizes in previous studies might have caused the imperfect match to the prototypical circular structure.


Assuntos
Valores Sociais/etnologia , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
J Transcult Nurs ; 29(2): 139-145, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28826339

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To understand Jordanian women's beliefs and values related to breast health and how these beliefs influence their decisions to receive breast cancer screening. DESIGN: A focused ethnography method was used; 31 key informants were recruited from Ma'an city located in the southern part of Jordan. Data were collected using semistructured interviews. DATA ANALYSIS: Leininger's four phases of qualitative data analysis. FINDINGS: Three major themes were identified: (a) Feeling of embarrassment, fear, denial, and lack of knowledge are common experience among women regarding breast cancer screening; (b) Hesitancy on the part of health care professionals to offer education about breast health and screening; and (c) Willingness to learn about breast health and cancer screening. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the findings, it is recommended that nurses be trained about breast assessment and additional resources mobilized for mammography and health promotion programs targeting rural Jordan.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Valores Sociais/etnologia , Adulto , Antropologia Cultural/métodos , Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Neoplasias da Mama/etnologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/psicologia , Feminino , Grupos Focais/métodos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto/métodos , Jordânia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa
20.
Fam Process ; 57(4): 1029-1048, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29034460

RESUMO

This study tests the psychometric properties of multiple survey items and scales that are either underused or newly developed to assess familism among Asian Americans. Using data collected from 150 Filipino and 188 Korean American parents (mostly mothers) in the Midwest region in 2013, the measures were examined for validity and reliability for each group and, when appropriate, for cross-cultural equivalence across the groups. Several scales and their items showed high quality psychometric properties and are ready for use to more accurately assess family process of each target group and to conduct comparative analyses. The findings also show that, contrary to the expectation, Filipino American families express more traditional aspects of familism than do Korean American families, and are more likely to reinforce traditional familism beliefs and behaviors among their children. This study reinforces a need for more empirical- and subgroup-specific research effort.


Assuntos
Relações Familiares/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Valores Sociais/etnologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Aculturação , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Americanos Asiáticos , Comparação Transcultural , Relações Familiares/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Meio-Oeste dos Estados Unidos , Filipinas/etnologia , Psicometria , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , República da Coreia/etnologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA