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1.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 319(6): H1451-H1458, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064556

RESUMO

Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is increasingly used to treat severe aortic stenosis (AS) patients. However, little is known regarding the direct effect of TAVR on the ventricular-aortic interaction. In the present study, we aimed to investigate changes in central hemodynamics after successful TAVR. We retrospectively examined 33 cases of severe AS patients (84 ± 6 yr) who underwent TAVR. Invasive measurements of left ventricular and aortic pressures as well as echocardiographic aortic flow were acquired before and after TAVR (maximum within 5 days). We examined alterations in key features of central pressure and flow waveforms, including the aortic augmentation index (AIx), and performed wave separation analysis. Arterial parameters were determined via parameter-fitting on a two-element Windkessel model. Resolution of AS resulted in direct increase in the aortic systolic pressure and maximal aortic flow (131 ± 22 vs. 157 ± 25 mmHg and 237 ± 49 vs. 302 ± 69 mL/s, P < 0.001 for all), whereas the ejection duration decreased (P < 0.001). We noted a significant decrease in the AIx (from 42 ± 12 to 19 ± 11%, P < 0.001). Of note, the arterial properties remained unchanged. There was a comparable increase in both forward (61 ± 20 vs. 77 ± 20 mmHg, P < 0.001) and backward (35 ± 14 vs. 42 ± 10 mmHg, P = 0.013) pressure wave amplitudes, while their ratio, i.e., the reflection coefficient, was preserved. Our results highlight the impact of TAVR on the ventricular-aortic interaction by affecting the amplitude, shape, and related attributes of the aortic pressure and flow pulse and challenge the interpretation of AIx as a solely vascular measure in AS patients.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is linked with an immediate increase in aortic systolic blood pressure and maximal flow, as well as steeper aortic pressure and flow wave upstrokes. After TAVR, the forward wave pumped by the heart is enhanced. Although the arterial properties remain unchanged, the central augmentation index (AIx) is markedly decreased after TAVR. This challenges the interpretation of AIx as a solely vascular measure in patients with aortic valve stenosis.


Assuntos
Aorta/fisiopatologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Pressão Arterial , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Pressão Ventricular , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Cardiovasculares , Análise de Onda de Pulso , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann ; 28(7): 381-383, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023307
3.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 15568, 2020 09 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32968104

RESUMO

Aim of the present analysis was to collect and pool all available data currently in the literature regarding outcomes and complications of all approved TAVR prosthesis and to assess the transition from first to next generation TAVR devices by directly comparing both in regard of procedure related complications. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement is a well established treatment modality in patients with severe aortic stenosis deemed to be inoperable or at unacceptable risk for open heart surgery. First generation prostheses were associated with a high rate of peri-procedural complications like paravalvular regurgitation, valve malpositioning, vascular complications and conduction disorders. Refinement of the available devices incorporate features to address the limitations of the first-generation devices. A PRISMA checklist-guided systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective observational studies, national and device specific registries or randomized clinical trials was conducted. Studies were identified by searching PUBMED, SCOPUS, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and LILACs from January 2000 to October 2017. We extracted and pooled data on both mortality and complications from 273 studies for twelve different valves prostheses in a total of 68,193 patients. In second generation prostheses as compared to first generation devices, we observed a significant decrease in mortality (1.47 ± 1.73% vs. 5.41 ± 4.35%; p < 0.001), paravalvular regurgitation (1.75 ± 2.43vs. 12.39 ± 9.38, p < 0.001) and MACE. TAVR with contemporary next generation devices has led to an impressive improvement in TAVR safety driven by refined case selection, improved procedural techniques and increased site experience.


Assuntos
Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/terapia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/terapia , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas/tendências , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/tendências , Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/epidemiologia , Humanos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/terapia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino) ; 61(5): 586-595, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32964900

RESUMO

Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has become today a popular alternative technique to surgical valve replacement for critical patients. However, with only six years follow-up on average, little is known about the long-term durability of transcatheter implanted biological tissue. Moreover, the high cost of biological tissue harvesting and chemical treatment procedures favor the development of alternative synthetic valve leaflet materials. In that context, thin, flexible and porous textile constructions could be considered as interesting candidates. However, these constructions must be strong enough to withstand the load applied on the leaflet especially in aortic position. Moreover, the interaction of textile material with living tissue should be comparable to biological valve tissue, and the foreign body reaction (FBR) as well as the calcification mechanisms should be controlled. In the frame of heart valve tissue engineering strategies, the use of bioresorbable polymer scaffolds is expected to limit that FBR. However, to precisely control the degradation of the polymer is not trivial. Conversely, when permanent textile polymers are considered, the porosity of the fibrous scaffold tends to induce exaggerated tissue ingrowth which may prevent the implants from remaining flexible. In that context, the ideal synthetic fibrous valve leaflet remains to be found. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible strategies which have been adopted over the last 50 years regarding the use of textile as heart valve leaflet material. Results showed that textile presented potential, despite remaining strong challenges. It came out that hybrid textiles combining bioresorbable and permanent polymer fibers arranged in both non-woven and woven or knitted way could probably help providing strength and generating appropriate tissue ingrowth.


Assuntos
Implantes Absorvíveis , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/instrumentação , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Polímeros/química , Desenho de Prótese , Engenharia Tecidual , Animais , Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Reação a Corpo Estranho/etiologia , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/fisiopatologia , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Falha de Prótese , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Arch Cardiovasc Dis ; 113(11): 674-678, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868256

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Donor heart shortage has extended the waiting time and increased the mortality of patients on the transplant waiting list. Widening old standard donor criteria has successfully increased the number of heart transplantations, but for many years, a valve disease in a donor heart has been considered a primary contraindication for organ donation. AIMS: To analyse the results of aortic and mitral valvular surgery in marginal donor hearts with valvulopathy before orthotopic heart transplantation. METHODS: Between January 2012 and November 2015, we performed 53 heart transplantations in our department. In four donors, echocardiography performed at the time of organ procurement showed a valvular disease: three had moderate-to-severe mitral regurgitation; and one had moderately severe aortic valve stenosis. RESULTS: The mean bench mitral repair and aortic replacement time, aortic cross-clamp time and total ischaemic time were: 18 (range 7-25) minutes, 78.7 (range 57-98) minutes and 184 (range 89-255) minutes, respectively. Intraoperative transoesophageal echocardiography showed good mitral repair or aortic prosthetic valve function, and good right and left ventricular function. One patient died of infectious pneumonia after 1 month. The mean duration of follow-up for the patients discharged home was 75±13 months, and all have returned to an active unrestricted lifestyle. CONCLUSIONS: Our limited series demonstrates that conventional valvular procedures performed on otherwise healthy donor hearts with mitral and aortic valve pathology can efficaciously expand the donor pool for orthotopic cardiac transplantation and decrease the mortality rate on the waiting list.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Valva Aórtica/patologia , Valva Aórtica/transplante , Calcinose/cirurgia , Seleção do Doador , Insuficiência Cardíaca/cirurgia , Transplante de Coração , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Anuloplastia da Valva Mitral , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Valva Mitral/transplante , Doadores de Tecidos/provisão & distribução , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Calcinose/diagnóstico por imagem , Calcinose/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Transplante de Coração/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Anuloplastia da Valva Mitral/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther ; 18(9): 625-633, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32811206

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: While the understanding of the pathophysiology and clinical implication of bicuspid aortic valves evolves rapidly, the natural history of unicuspid aortic valves is still poorly understood. Hence, a universally accepted diagnostic work-up process and therapy recommendations for UAV still have to be established. AREAS COVERED: This article aims to give an overview on the most recent literature addressing the pathophysiology, the diagnostic tools and appropriate surgical therapy options of unicuspid aortic valve. Due to the rare prevalence, the understanding of pathophysiology is still missing. Further, symptomatic aortic valve disease are seen much earlier life stage in this cohorts. Thus, it highlights the several surgical treatment options with pro and contra especially for the young adult cohorts. EXPERT OPINION: Large scale prospective observational studies using standardized diagnostic criteria are needed to reveal the clinical course. Further appropriate treatment strategies of unicuspid aortic valve patients is demanded.


Assuntos
/fisiopatologia , Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/fisiopatologia , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
8.
Am Heart J ; 228: 57-64, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32828047

RESUMO

AIMS: Data regarding outcomes for patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) with concomitant aortic insufficiency (AI), undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) are limited. This study aimed to analyze the prevalence of severe AS with concomitant AI among patients undergoing TAVR and outcomes of TAVR in this patient group. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using data from the STS/ACC-TVT Registry, we identified patients with severe AS with or without concomitant AI who underwent TAVR between 2011 and 2016. Patients were categorized based on the severity of pre-procedural AI. Multivariable proportional hazards regression models were used to examine all-cause mortality and heart failure (HF) hospitalization at 1-year. Among 54,535 patients undergoing TAVR, 42,568 (78.1%) had severe AS with concomitant AI. Device success was lower in patients with severe AS with concomitant AI as compared with isolated AS. The presence of baseline AI was associated with lower 1 year mortality (HR 0.94 per 1 grade increase in AI severity; 95% CI, 0.91-0.98, P < .001) and HF hospitalization (HR 0.87 per 1 grade increase in AI severity; 95% CI, 0.84-0.91, P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Severe AS with concomitant AI is common among patients undergoing TAVR, and is associated with lower 1 year mortality and HF hospitalization. Future studies are warranted to better understand the mechanisms underlying this benefit. SHORT ABSTRACT: In this nationally representative analysis from the United States, 78.1% of patients undergoing TAVR had severe AS with concomitant AI. Device success was lower in patients with severe AS with concomitant AI as compared with isolated AS. The presence of baseline AI was associated with lower 1 year mortality (HR 0.94 per 1 grade increase in AI severity; 95% CI, 0.91-0.98, P < .001) and HF hospitalization (HR 0.87 per 1 grade increase in AI severity; 95% CI, 0.84-0.91, P < .001).


Assuntos
Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica , Estenose da Valva Aórtica , Valva Aórtica , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Idoso , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/complicações , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/complicações , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/epidemiologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/terapia , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/efeitos adversos , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/métodos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
9.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 22(1): 59, 2020 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32772927

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anatomically pre-shaped sinus prostheses (SP) were developed to mimic the aortic sinus with the goal to preserve near physiological hemodynamic conditions after valve-sparing aortic root replacement. Although SP have shown more physiological flow patterns, a comparison to straight tube prosthesis and the analysis of derived quantitative parameters is lacking. Hence, this study sought to analyze differences in aortic wall shear stress (WSS) between anatomically pre-shaped SP, conventional straight tube prostheses (TP), and age-matched healthy subjects) using time-resolved 3-dimensional flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance (4D Flow CMR). Moreover, the WSS gradient was introduced and analyzed regarding its sensitivity to detect changes in hemodynamics and its dependency on the expression of secondary flow patterns. METHODS: Twelve patients with SP (12 male, 62 ± 9yr), eight patients with TP (6 male, 59 ± 9yr), and twelve healthy subjects (2 male, 55 ± 6yr) were examined at 3 T with a 4D Flow CMR sequence in this case control study. Six analysis planes were placed in the thoracic aorta at reproducible landmarks. The following WSS parameters were recorded: WSSavg (spatially averaged over the contour at peak systole), max. WSSseg (maximum segmental WSS), min. WSSseg (minimum segmental WSS) and the WSS Gradient, calculated as max. WSSseg - min. WSSseg. Kruskal-Wallis- and Mann-Whitney-U-Test were used for statistical comparison of groups. Occurrence and expression of secondary flow patterns were evaluated and correlated to WSS values using Spearman's correlation coefficient. RESULTS: In the planes bordering the prosthesis all WSS values were significantly lower in the SP compared to the TP, approaching the physiological optimum of the healthy subjects. The WSS gradient showed significantly different values in the four proximally localized contours when comparing both prostheses with healthy subjects. Strong correlations between an elevated WSS gradient and secondary flow patterns were found in the ascending aorta and the aortic arch. CONCLUSION: Overall, the SP has a positive impact on WSS, most pronounced at the site and adjacent to the prosthesis. The WSS gradient differed most obviously and the correlation of the WSS gradient with the occurrence of secondary flow patterns provides further evidence for linking disturbed flow, which was markedly increased in patients compared to healthy sub jects, to degenerative remodeling of the vascular wall.


Assuntos
Aorta Torácica/diagnóstico por imagem , Aorta Torácica/cirurgia , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Implante de Prótese Vascular/instrumentação , Prótese Vascular , Hemodinâmica , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Imagem de Perfusão/métodos , Desenho de Prótese , Adulto , Idoso , Aorta Torácica/fisiopatologia , Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Técnicas de Imagem de Sincronização Cardíaca , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional , Estresse Mecânico , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Open Heart ; 7(2)2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817269

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate how common echocardiographic metrics of aortic stenosis (AS) influence the proportion of patients who may be categorised as having severe stenosis and therefore considered for valve replacement. METHODS: Retrospective analysis was performed of all echocardiograms with aortic valve area (AVA) ≤1.2 cm2 and peak jet velocity (Vmax) ≥3 m/s from 1 December 2014 through 30 October 2017 at a single academic medical centre. Echocardiographic indices collected include AVA, Vmax, left ventricular ejection fraction, stroke volume and annotated aortic stenosis severity. RESULTS: Among 807 patients with AVA ≤1.2 cm2 and Vmax ≥3 m/s (44.0% female, median age 74 years (IQR: 66-81)), 45.6% had Vmax ≥4 m/s, while 75.8% had AVA ≤1 cm2. 40.0% of patients had concordant indices (Vmax ≥4 m/s and AVA ≤1 cm2), and 35.8% had discordant indices (Vmax <4 m/s and AVA ≤1 cm2) of severe AS. Compared with those with concordant indices, patients with discordant indices were more commonly female (54.0% vs 44.3%, p<0.05) and less commonly characterised as severe (42.6% vs 93.8%, p<0.001). Patients with paradoxical low-flow, low-gradient severe AS by echocardiography were disproportionately female (61.5% vs 41.8%, p<0.001), and their disease was characterised as severe only 49.5% of the time. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with discordant indices, who are disproportionately female, are commonly described in clinical echocardiography reports as having less than severe AS. Given the potential benefit of AVR in patients with AVA ≤1 cm2 regardless of Vmax, this could have important clinical implications.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Ecocardiografia Doppler , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
11.
Am J Cardiol ; 128: 151-158, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650909

RESUMO

Normal-flow low-gradient severe aortic stenosis (NF-LG-SAS), defined by an aortic valve area (AVA) <1 cm², mean pressure gradient (MPG) <40 mm Hg and indexed stroke volume ≥35 ml/m², is the most prevalent form of low-gradient aortic stenosis (AS) with preserved ejection fraction (PEF). However, the true severity of AS in these patients is controversial. The aim of this Doppler echocardiographic study was to investigate changes over time in the hemodynamic severity of patients with NF-LG-SAS with PEF. We retrospectively identified 96 patients who had 2 Doppler echocardiographic examinations without an intervening event. After a median follow-up of 25 (interquartile range 15 to 52) months, progression was observed, with increased transaortic MPG (from 28 [25 to 33] to 39 [34 to 50] mm Hg; p<0.001), peak aortic jet velocity (from 3.46 [3.20 to 3.64] to 4.01 [3.70 to 4.39] m/s; p<0.001), and decreased AVA (from 0.87 [0.82 to 0.94] to 0.72 [0.62 to 0.81] cm²; p<0.001). Median annual rates of progression were 4.3 (1.7 to 8.1) mm Hg/year, 0.25 (0.08 to 0.44) m/s/year, and -0.05 (-0.10 to -0.02) cm²/year, respectively. There was no significant change in left ventricular ejection fraction over time (p = 0.74). At follow-up, 46 patients (48%) acquired the features of classical high-gradient severe AS (MPG ≥40 mm Hg). This study shows that most patients with NF-LG-SAS with PEF exhibit significant hemodynamic progression of AS severity without EF impairment. These findings suggest that NF-LG-SAS with PEF is an "intermediate" stage between moderate AS and classical high-gradient severe AS requiring close monitoring.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Volume Sistólico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/patologia , Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo , Progressão da Doença , Ecocardiografia Doppler , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Pressão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
12.
Circ J ; 84(8): 1271-1276, 2020 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32612017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perioperative risk during surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) is reportedly high in dialysis patients. We aimed to determine the postoperative mortality and morbidity and identify the perioperative risk factors of mortality during SAVR in dialysis-dependent patients.Methods and Results:From the Japan Adult Cardiovascular Surgery Database, we compared 2,875 dialysis-dependent patients with 18,839 non-dialysis patients who all underwent SAVR between January 2013 and December 2016. The operative mortality was 8.7% vs. 2.0% in the dialysis and non-dialysis groups, respectively. Multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis for operative mortality revealed 8 independent risk factors including age (odds ratio [OR]=1.2), concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting (OR=1.5), peripheral arterial disease (OR=1.9), atrial fibrillation (OR=2.5), New York Heart Association class IV (OR=2.5), liver dysfunction (OR=5.8), reduced left ventricular function (OR=1.4), and history of previous cardiac surgery (OR=2.1). In addition, 8 postoperative predictors of operative mortality were identified including bleeding deep sternal infection (OR=3.4), prolonged ventilation (OR=5.4) and gastrointestinal complications (OR=10.3). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with non-dialysis patients, SAVR in dialysis patients was associated with high rates of mortality and morbidity. An appropriate surgical strategy and careful perioperative assessment and management for prevention of infection, and respiratory and gastrointestinal complications might contribute to improved clinical outcomes after SAVR in these patients.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Nefropatias/terapia , Diálise Renal , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/mortalidade , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/mortalidade , Humanos , Japão , Nefropatias/diagnóstico , Nefropatias/mortalidade , Nefropatias/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/terapia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , Diálise Renal/mortalidade , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Methodist Debakey Cardiovasc J ; 16(2): 106-113, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32670470

RESUMO

Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) has emerged as the gold standard in assessing ventricular mass, volume, and systolic function. Due to these and other strengths, CMR has increasingly been used to study valvular heart disease (VHD) and resultant cardiac remodeling. By using CMR to assess flow, limitations in echocardiographic assessment of VHD can be overcome, particularly in regurgitant lesions. The following article reviews the current role of CMR imaging in studying disease severity and myocardial remodeling in patients with VHD.


Assuntos
Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Remodelação Ventricular , Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
14.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 36(11): 2291-2297, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621038

RESUMO

To determine the potential impact of automated computed tomography (CT) software used for aortic annular sizing for transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) on paravalvular leak (PVL) and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) as compared to standard CT manual measurement. In 60 TAVR patients (84 ± 7 years, 60% male), we evaluated the preprocedural CT scans. For the standard manual measurement, we measured the perimeter and area from a single cardiac phase deemed to be of maximum systolic opening. Valve type and size were determined by a multidisciplinary TAVR team per clinical routine. From the dynamic automated software, we determined the aortic annular perimeter and area as the maximum value from an entire cardiac cycle. Valve size was readjudicated by a blinded interventional cardiologist who was provided with valve type and automated values. Clinical endpoints were adjudicated for presence of at least mild PVL and MACE at 30 days. There were 16 (28%) patients with PVL and 4 (7%) with 30-day MACE. When reclassifying valve size using dynamic automated values, 12 (20%) patients were undersized and 3 (5%) patients were oversized. Undersized patients were more likely to have mild-to-moderate PVL at 30 days (27% vs 4%, p = 0.04) than those not undersized. Of the 5 (45%) undersized patients with at least mild PVL, all were balloon-expandable valves. Automated dynamic CT annular measurements have the potential to reclassify patients with PVL with larger TAVR valve size, particularly balloon-expandable valves.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Tomografia Computadorizada Multidetectores , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/instrumentação , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Automação , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico por imagem , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/fisiopatologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Desenho de Prótese , Interpretação de Imagem Radiográfica Assistida por Computador , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Software , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Life Sci ; 257: 118086, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32679147

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate the role of PP2A in calcified aortic valve disease (CAVD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expressions of PP2A subunits were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot in aortic valves from patients with CAVD and normal controls, the activities of PP2A were analyzed by commercial assay kit at the same time. Aortic valve calcification of mice was evaluated through histological and echocardiographic analysis. ApoE-/- mice and ApoE-/- mice injected intraperitoneally with PP2A inhibitor LB100 were fed a high-cholesterol diet for 24 weeks. Immunofluorescent staining was used to locate the cell-type in which PP2A activity was decreased, the PP2A activity of valvular interstitial cells (VICs) treated with osteogenic induction medium was assessed by western blot and commercial assay kit. After changing the activity of VICs through pharmacologic and genetic intervention, the osteoblast differentiation and mineralization were assessed by western blot and Alizarin Red staining. Finally, the mechanism was clarified by using several specific inhibitors. KEY FINDINGS: PP2A activity was decreased both in calcified aortic valves and human VICs under osteogenic induction. The PP2A inhibitor LB100 aggravated the aortic valve calcification of mice. Furthermore, PPP2CA overexpression inhibited osteogenic differentiation of VICs, whereas PPP2CA knockdown promoted the process. Further study revealed that the ERK/p38 MAPKs signaling pathways mediated the osteogenic differentiation of VICs induced by PP2A inactivation. SIGNIFICANCE: This study demonstrated that PP2A plays an important role in CAVD pathophysiology, PP2A activation may provide a novel strategy for the pharmacological treatment of CAVD.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Valva Aórtica/patologia , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Calcinose/fisiopatologia , Osteogênese/genética , Proteína Fosfatase 2/genética , Animais , Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/genética , Calcinose/genética , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(32): 19007-19016, 2020 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709744

RESUMO

Valvular heart disease has recently become an increasing public health concern due to the high prevalence of valve degeneration in aging populations. For patients with severely impacted aortic valves that require replacement, catheter-based bioprosthetic valve deployment offers a minimally invasive treatment option that eliminates many of the risks associated with surgical valve replacement. Although recent percutaneous device advancements have incorporated thinner, more flexible biological tissues to streamline safer deployment through catheters, the impact of such tissues in the complex, mechanically demanding, and highly dynamic valvular system remains poorly understood. The present work utilized a validated computational fluid-structure interaction approach to isolate the behavior of thinner, more compliant aortic valve tissues in a physiologically realistic system. This computational study identified and quantified significant leaflet flutter induced by the use of thinner tissues that initiated blood flow disturbances and oscillatory leaflet strains. The aortic flow and valvular dynamics associated with these thinner valvular tissues have not been previously identified and provide essential information that can significantly advance fundamental knowledge about the cardiac system and support future medical device innovation. Considering the risks associated with such observed flutter phenomena, including blood damage and accelerated leaflet deterioration, this study demonstrates the potentially serious impact of introducing thinner, more flexible tissues into the cardiac system.


Assuntos
Valva Aórtica/química , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/fisiopatologia , Animais , Valva Aórtica/anatomia & histologia , Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Bovinos , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/cirurgia , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Modelos Cardiovasculares
17.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 22(1): 41, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32475350

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is increasingly used to treat patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS). Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) provides reliable and reproducible estimates for assessment of cardiac structure and function after TAVR. The goal of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature to assess left ventricular (LV) volumes, mass and function by CMR after TAVR. METHODS: Using Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines, we searched PubMed and Embase for studies reporting CMR findings before and at least 1 month after TAVR. Main factors of interest were LV end-diastolic volume index (LVEDVi), LV end-systolic volume index (LVESVi), LV mass index (LVMi), and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Standardized mean differences (SMD) were pooled by random effects meta-analytic techniques. RESULTS: Of 453 screened publications, 10 studies (published between 2012 and 2018) were included. A total of 305 patients completed pre- and post-TAVR follow-up CMR (mean age range 78.6-85.0 years, follow-up range 6-15 months). Random effects analysis showed TAVR resulted in reduced LVEDVi (SMD: -0.25, 95% CI: - 0.43 to - 0.07, P = 0.006), LVESVi (SMD: -0.24, 95% CI: - 0.44 to - 0.05, P = 0.01), LVMi (SMD: -0.82, 95% CI: - 1.0 to - 0.63, P < 0.001) and increased LVEF (SMD: 22, 95% CI: 6 to 38%, P = 0.006). Heterogeneity across studies was low (I2: 0%, Pheterogeneity > 0.05 for all). The median reduction was 4 ml/m2 (IQR: 3.1 to 8.2) for LVEDVi, 5 ml/m2 (IQR: 3.0 to 6.0) for LVESVi, and 15.1 g/m2 (IQR: 11.8 to 18.3) for LVMi. The median increase for LVEF was 3.4% (IQR 1.0 to 4.6%). CONCLUSIONS: CMR demonstrates reverse LV remodeling occurrs within 6-15 months after TAVR, with reductions in LVEDVi, LVESVi and LVMi, and increased LVEF.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Remodelação Ventricular , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Fatores de Tempo , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 36(10): 1917-1929, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32500398

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In echocardiography the severity of aortic stenosis (AS) is defined by effective orifice area (EOA), mean pressure gradient (mPGAV) and transvalvular flow velocity (maxVAV). The hypothesis of the present study was to confirm the pathophysiological presence of combined left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), diastolic dysfunction (DD) and pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) in patients with "pure" severe AS. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients (n = 306) with asymptomatic (n = 133) and symptomatic (n = 173) "pure" severe AS (mean age 78 ± 9.5 years) defined by indexed EOA < 0.6 cm2 were enrolled between 2014 and 2016. AS patients were divided into 4 subgroups according to mPGAV and indexed left ventricular stroke volume: low flow (LF) low gradient (LG)-AS (n = 133), normal flow (NF) LG-AS (n = 91), LF high gradient (HG)-AS (n = 21) and NFHG-AS (n = 61). Patients with "pure" severe AS showed mean mPGAV of 31.7 ± 9.1 mmHg and mean maxVAV of 3.8 ± 0.6 m/s. Only 131 of 306 patients (43%) exhibited mPGAV > 40 mmHg and maxVAV > 4 m/s documenting incongruencies of the AS severity assessment by Doppler echocardiography. LVH was documented in 81%, DD in 76% and PAH in 80% of AS patients. 54% of "pure" AS patients exhibited all three alterations. Ranges of mPGAV and maxVAV were higher in patients with all three alterations compared to patients with less than three. 224 (73%) patients presented LG-conditions and 82 (27%) HG-conditions. LVH was predominant in NF-AS (p = 0.014) and PAH in LFHG-AS (p = 0.014). Patients' treatment was retrospectively assessed (surgery: n = 100, TAVI: n = 48, optimal medical treatment: n = 156). CONCLUSION: In patients with "pure" AS according to current guidelines the presence of combined LVH, DD and PAH as accepted pathophysiological sequelae of severe AS cannot be confirmed. Probably, the detection of these secondary cardiac alterations might improve the diagnostic algorithm to avoid overestimation of AS severity.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Ecocardiografia Doppler , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipertensão Arterial Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/terapia , Pressão Arterial , Doenças Assintomáticas , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Humanos , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Hipertensão Arterial Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Artéria Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Resultado do Tratamento , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Remodelação Ventricular
19.
Am J Cardiol ; 128: 210-215, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32534732

RESUMO

The clinical and imaging differences between bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) and tricuspid aortic valve (TAV) patients with medically managed asymptomatic moderate-to-severe aortic stenosis (AS) have not been studied previously. We aim to characterize these differences and their clinical outcomes in this study. A retrospective observational study was conducted on 836 consecutive cases of isolated asymptomatic moderate-to-severe AS, with median follow-up of 3.4 years. Clinical and echocardiographic characteristics were compared between BAV and TAV patients. Subgroup analysis stratified by AS severity were performed. Survival analysis of all-cause mortality was performed using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazards model. Compared to BAV patients, TAV patients were older (76 ± 11 vs 55 ± 16 years, p <0.001) and had more co-morbidities including hypertension (78% vs 56%; p <0.001), diabetes (41% vs 24%; p <0.001), and chronic kidney disease (20% vs 3%; p = 0.001). TAV patients had less severe aortic valve disease than BAV patients, with a higher aortic valve area index (0.71 ± 0.20 cm2/m2 vs 0.61 ± 0.18 cm2/m2, p <0.001) and less aortic dilation (sinotubular junction: 23.7 ± 4.0 mm vs 26.9 ± 4.8 mm, p <0.001; mid-ascending aorta: 31.4 ± 4.7 mm vs 36.3 ± 6.3 mm, p <0.001). TAV patients were more likely to have eccentric left ventricular hypertrophy and less likely to have a normal geometry (p = 0.003). Competing risk analysis identified increased age (hazard ratio 1.03, 95% confidence interval 1.02 to 1.05, p <0.001) and LVEF (hazard ratio 0.98, 95% confidence interval 0.97 to 0.99, p <0.001) as independent risk factors of all-cause mortality. Valve morphology was not a significant independent risk factor for aortic valve replacement or mortality. In conclusion, asymptomatic TAV patients had more cardiovascular risk factors, less severe aortic valve disease, less sinotubular and mid-ascending aortic dilation, more severe LV remodeling.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/anormalidades , Doenças Assintomáticas , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças da Aorta/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças da Aorta/epidemiologia , Doenças da Aorta/fisiopatologia , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/complicações , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/epidemiologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Causas de Morte , Dilatação Patológica/diagnóstico por imagem , Dilatação Patológica/epidemiologia , Dilatação Patológica/fisiopatologia , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/complicações , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/fisiopatologia , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/epidemiologia , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Volume Sistólico
20.
Open Heart ; 7(1): e001233, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32518659

RESUMO

Objective: This cross-sectional observational study sought to describe variations in CT in the context of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (CT-TAVI) as currently performed in the UK. Methods: 408 members of the British Society of Cardiovascular Imaging were invited to complete a 27-item online CT-TAVI survey. Results: 47 responses (12% response rate) were received from 40 cardiac centres, 23 (58%) of which performed TAVI on-site (TAVI centres). Only six respondents (13%) performed high-volume activity (>200 scans per year) compared with 13 (28%) performing moderate (100-200 scans per year) and 27 (59%) performing low (0-99 scans per year) volume activity. Acquisition protocols varied (41% retrospective, 12% prospective with wide padding, 47% prospective with narrow padding), as did the phase of reporting (45% systolic, 37% diastolic, 11% both, 6% unreported). Median dose length product was 675 mGy.cm (IQR 477-954 mGy.cm). Compared with non-TAVI centres, TAVI centres were more likely to report minimum iliofemoral luminal diameter (n=25, 96% vs n=7, 58%, p=0.003) and optimal tube angulation for intervention (n=12, 46% vs n=1, 8%, p=0.02). Conclusions: This national survey formally describes current CT-TAVI practice in the UK. High-volume activity was only present at one in seven cardiac CT centres. There is wide variation in scan acquisition, scan reporting and radiation dose exposure in cardiac CT centres.


Assuntos
Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/diagnóstico por imagem , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/tendências , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/tendências , Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Estudos Transversais , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/tendências , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/fisiopatologia , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/cirurgia , Hospitais com Alto Volume de Atendimentos/tendências , Hospitais com Baixo Volume de Atendimentos/tendências , Humanos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Doses de Radiação , Exposição à Radiação , Reino Unido
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