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1.
N Engl J Med ; 382(2): 130-139, 2020 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733182

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Subclinical leaflet thickening and reduced leaflet motion of bioprosthetic aortic valves have been documented by four-dimensional computed tomography (CT). Whether anticoagulation can reduce these phenomena after transcatheter aortic-valve replacement (TAVR) is not known. METHODS: In a substudy of a large randomized trial, we randomly assigned patients who had undergone successful TAVR and who did not have an indication for long-term anticoagulation to a rivaroxaban-based antithrombotic strategy (rivaroxaban [10 mg] plus aspirin [75 to 100 mg] once daily) or an antiplatelet-based strategy (clopidogrel [75 mg] plus aspirin [75 to 100 mg] once daily). Patients underwent evaluation by four-dimensional CT at a mean (±SD) of 90±15 days after randomization. The primary end point was the percentage of patients with at least one prosthetic valve leaflet with grade 3 or higher motion reduction (i.e., involving >50% of the leaflet). Leaflet thickening was also assessed. RESULTS: A total of 231 patients were enrolled. At least one prosthetic valve leaflet with grade 3 or higher motion reduction was found in 2 of 97 patients (2.1%) who had scans that could be evaluated in the rivaroxaban group, as compared with 11 of 101 (10.9%) in the antiplatelet group (difference, -8.8 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], -16.5 to -1.9; P = 0.01). Thickening of at least one leaflet was observed in 12 of 97 patients (12.4%) in the rivaroxaban group and in 33 of 102 (32.4%) in the antiplatelet group (difference, -20.0 percentage points; 95% CI, -30.9 to -8.5). In the main trial, the risk of death or thromboembolic events and the risk of life-threatening, disabling, or major bleeding were higher with rivaroxaban (hazard ratios of 1.35 and 1.50, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In a substudy of a trial involving patients without an indication for long-term anticoagulation who had undergone successful TAVR, a rivaroxaban-based antithrombotic strategy was more effective than an antiplatelet-based strategy in preventing subclinical leaflet-motion abnormalities. However, in the main trial, the rivaroxaban-based strategy was associated with a higher risk of death or thromboembolic complications and a higher risk of bleeding than the antiplatelet-based strategy. (Funded by Bayer; GALILEO-4D ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02833948.).


Assuntos
Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Aspirina/farmacologia , Clopidogrel/farmacologia , Inibidores do Fator Xa/farmacologia , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/farmacologia , Rivaroxabana/farmacologia , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Valva Aórtica/efeitos dos fármacos , Valva Aórtica/patologia , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Clopidogrel/efeitos adversos , Clopidogrel/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Tomografia Computadorizada Quadridimensional , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Masculino , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico , Tromboembolia/etiologia , Tromboembolia/mortalidade
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(48): e18169, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31770266

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Sinus of Valsalva aneurysm (SVA) protruding into the mitral anterior leaflet is an extremely rare clinical condition; herein, we present a case of unruptured noncoronary SVA protruding into the mitral anterior leaflet. PATIENT'S CONCERNS: A 46-year-old male was referred to hospital for exertional dyspnea. DIAGNOSIS: Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) suggested a noncoronary SVA protruding into the mitral anterior leaflet, causing mitral regurgitation and aortic insufficiency. INTERVENTIONS: The aneurysm was resected and the aortic and mitral valves were replaced with mechanical valves via a transaortic approach. OUTCOMES: Postoperative recovery was uneventful. CONCLUSIONS: A rare noncoronary SVA protruding into the mitral anterior leaflet can be diagnosed via TTE and CTA. Transaortic mitral surgery is feasible in patients with a dilated aortic annulus ring and mitral valve diseases.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Aórtico , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica , Dispneia , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/métodos , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral , Valva Mitral , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/métodos , Aneurisma Aórtico/complicações , Aneurisma Aórtico/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma Aórtico/fisiopatologia , Aneurisma Aórtico/cirurgia , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/etiologia , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Dispneia/diagnóstico , Dispneia/etiologia , Dispneia/fisiopatologia , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/etiologia , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Seio Aórtico/diagnóstico por imagem , Seio Aórtico/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Arch Cardiovasc Dis ; 112(8-9): 512-522, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474571

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the worldwide development of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) over the last decade, strategies that take patient characteristics into account to guide the choice of transcatheter heart valve have not been evaluated. AIM: To evaluate the immediate results of TAVI using a tailored choice of balloon-expandable or self-expanding transcatheter heart valve, according to each patient's clinical and anatomical characteristics. METHODS: This single-centre observational study included all patients treated with TAVI from 2012 to 2017. The 30-day results were reported according to Valve Academic Research Consortium-2 criteria. A total of 502 patients were included (mean age, 81±9 years; 52% men; mean EuroSCORE II, 7.0±6.5%). Three main variables guided the choice of transcatheter heart valve: the anatomy of the iliofemoral arteries and of the aortic root, and the general condition of the patient. RESULTS: A SAPIEN™ balloon-expandable transcatheter heart valve was used in 275 patients (55%) and a CoreValve™ self-expanding transcatheter heart valve in 227 patients (45%). The approach was transfemoral in 427 patients (85%), and only 29 patients (6%) required transthoracic access. At 30-day follow-up, the rates of adverse events were as follows: mortality, 3.2%; stroke, 3.0%; major bleeding, 5.9%; and major vascular complications, 6.0%. Rates of complications at 30 days were similar in the SAPIEN™ and CoreValve™ groups, except for a higher rate of pacemaker implantation in the latter group (29.5% vs. 14.5%; P<0.001). CONCLUSION: The choice of balloon-expandable or self-expanding transcatheter heart valve tailored to the patient's clinical and anatomical characteristics allows for maximal use of the transfemoral approach, and is associated with low 30-day rates of major complications and mortality.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Valvuloplastia com Balão , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Desenho de Prótese , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/instrumentação , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/mortalidade , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Seleção de Pacientes , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Fatores de Tempo , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/efeitos adversos , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/mortalidade , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Pediatr Cardiol ; 40(7): 1450-1459, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342116

RESUMO

Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) disease demonstrates a range of clinical presentations and complications. We aim to use cardiac MRI (CMR) to evaluate left ventricular (LV) parameters, myocardial strain and aortic hemodynamics in pediatric BAV patients with and without aortic stenosis (AS) or regurgitation (AR) compared to tricuspid aortic valve (TAV) controls. We identified 58 pediatric BAV patients without additional cardiovascular pathology and 25 healthy TAV controls (15.3 ± 2.2 years) who underwent CMR with 4D flow. BAV cohort included subgroups with no valvulopathy (n = 13, 14.3 ± 4.7 years), isolated AS (n = 19, 14.5 ± 4.0 years), mixed valve disease (AS + AR) (n = 13, 17.1 ± 3.2 years), and prior valvotomy/valvuloplasty (n = 13, 13.9 ± 3.2 years). CMR data included LV volumetric and mass indices, myocardial strain and aortic hemodynamics. BAV patients with no valvulopathy or isolated AS had similar LV parameters to controls excepting cardiac output (p < 0.05). AS + AR and post-surgical patients had abnormal LV volumetric and mass indices (p < 0.01). Post-surgical patients had decreased global longitudinal strain (p = 0.02); other subgroups had comparable strain to controls. Patients with valvulopathy demonstrated elevated velocity and wall shear stress (WSS) in the ascending aorta (AAo) and arch (p < 0.01), while those without valve dysfunction had only elevated AAo velocity (p = 0.03). Across the cohort, elevated AAo velocity and WSS correlated to higher LV mass (p < 0.01), and abnormal hemodynamics correlated to decreased strain rates (p < 0.045). Pediatric BAV patients demonstrate abnormalities in LV parameters as a function of valvular dysfunction, most significantly in children with AS + AR or prior valvotomy/valvuloplasty. Correlations between aortic hemodynamics, LV mass and strain suggest valvular dysfunction could drive LV remodeling. Multiparametric CMR assessment in pediatric BAV may help stratify risk for cardiac remodeling and dysfunction.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Valva Aórtica/anormalidades , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Aorta/fisiopatologia , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Feminino , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/cirurgia , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Valva Tricúspide/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Tricúspide/fisiopatologia , Remodelação Ventricular
5.
Heart Lung Circ ; 28(9): 1310-1319, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266725

RESUMO

Degenerative or fibrocalcific aortic stenosis (AS) is now the most common native valvular heart disease assessed and managed by cardiologists in developed countries. Transthoracic echocardiography remains the quintessential imaging modality for the non-invasive characterisation of AS due to its widespread availability, superior assessment of flow haemodynamics, and a wealth of prognostic data accumulated over decades of clinical utility and research applications. With expanding technologies and increasing availability of treatment options such as transcatheter aortic valve replacements, in addition to conventional surgical approaches, accurate and precise assessment of AS severity is critical to guide decisions for and timing of interventions. Despite clear guideline echocardiographic parameters demarcating severe AS, discrepancies between transvalvular velocities, gradients, and calculated valve areas are commonly encountered in clinical practice. This often results in diagnostically challenging cases with significant implications. Greater emphasis must be placed on the quality of performance of basic two dimensional (2D) and Doppler measurements (attention to detail ensuring accuracy and precision), incorporating ancillary haemodynamic surrogates, understanding study- or patient-specific confounders, and recognising the role and limitations of stress echocardiography in the subgroups of low-flow low-gradient AS. A multiparametric approach, along with the incorporation of multimodality imaging (cardiac computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging) in certain scenarios, is now mandatory to avoid incorrect misclassification of severe AS. This is essential to ensure appropriate selection of patients who would most benefit from interventions on the aortic valve to relieve the afterload mismatch resulting from truly severe valvular stenosis.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Valva Aórtica/patologia , Calcinose/diagnóstico por imagem , Calcinose/fisiopatologia , Ecocardiografia sob Estresse , Ecocardiografia , Hemodinâmica , Imagem Multimodal , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/prevenção & controle , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/terapia , Calcinose/prevenção & controle , Calcinose/terapia , Humanos , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter
7.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 144(11): 734-738, 2019 06.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31163471

RESUMO

There is growing understanding to recognize the aorta as complex system and treat aortic diseases in an integrated fashion.The indication for interventional aortic valve replacement (TAVR) comprises patients with moderate and high perioperative risk and symptomatic, high grade aortic valve stenosis. In contrast "low risk" patients receive conventional therapy. Ongoing randomised trials analyse the expansion of indication towards low risk patients for interventional approaches. A final rating is owing, but first data support the assumption that both therapeutic options may be equivalent. Moreover, the interventional therapy of low flow, low gradient aortic valve stenosis has been revalued and interventional valve-in-valve therapy has been integrated into clinical routine as invidualised decision of the heart team.Aortic diseases include several entities which require specialised diagnostic and therapeutic tools. Studies to evaluate evidence of follow up options need to be performed in future to enable for surveillance tailored to suit medical need.


Assuntos
Doenças da Aorta , Estenose da Valva Aórtica , Aorta/fisiopatologia , Doenças da Aorta/diagnóstico , Doenças da Aorta/fisiopatologia , Doenças da Aorta/terapia , Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/terapia , Humanos
8.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 55(6)2019 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31163703

RESUMO

The case of a 61-year-old male with a recent total gastrectomy for a hemorrhagic gastric tumor is presented, with the important co-morbidities of type II diabetes mellitus requiring insulin, chronic hepatitis C with liver dysfunction, stage II essential hypertension, chronic stage III renal disease peripheral type II aorto-iliac disease with stage II ischemia of both legs, and chronic anemia. About one month following the gastrectomy, the patient presented with fever and acute inflammatory syndrome. Severe aortic insufficiency, aortic valvular vegetations, and positive blood cultures with Staphylococcus saprophytic were found. The diagnosis of infectious endocarditis on the aortic valve was established (positive blood cultures with echocardiographic features of vegetations, fever), and antibiotic treatment with Levofloxacin and Vancomycin was initiated. The evolution was favorable with the remission of the inflammatory syndrome and quick cessation of fever. However, the hemodynamic aspect showed progressive heart failure with acute pulmonary edema. The transesophageal echocardiographic examination confirmed the existence of severe aortic insufficiency and valvular vegetations with a left ventricular ejection fraction of 38%. The coronary angiography revealed double vessel disease. The calculated Euroscore II was 33.4%. Aortic valve replacement with porcine xenograft and double coronary artery bypass graft surgery was performed. The patient had a favorable postoperative course remaining afebrile and out of heart failure, with the markers of inflammation largely within normal limits. The left ventricular ejection fraction increased to 50%. The successful outcome of this case, represented by a rare association of cancer, endocarditis, and coronary disease, reveals the importance of the multidisciplinary teams involved in this case: gastroenterology, general surgery, cardiology, infectious diseases, cardiac surgery, and intensive care. Therefore, in such cases with high risk, complex patients, a strong collaboration between all specialties is needed to overcome all of the limitations of the patient's co-morbidities.


Assuntos
Endocardite/etiologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/complicações , Adenocarcinoma/complicações , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adenocarcinoma/cirurgia , Valva Aórtica/anormalidades , Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/métodos , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Endocardite/cirurgia , Gastrectomia/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/cirurgia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
9.
Arch Cardiovasc Dis ; 112(6-7): 430-440, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31153874

RESUMO

The combination of aortic and mitral regurgitation is a typical example of a frequent yet understudied multiple valve disease scenario. The aetiology is often rheumatic or degenerative; less frequently it can be induced by drugs or radiation, or caused by infective endocarditis or congenital valvular lesions. Aortic regurgitation resulting in secondary mitral regurgitation is also not uncommon. There are limited data to guide the management of combined aortic and mitral regurgitation. Left ventricular dysfunction is frequent at initial presentation, and even more so postoperatively, suggesting that surgical management should not be delayed, particularly when symptoms occur or when there is evidence of even subtle left ventricular dysfunction. The decision to operate on one or both valves not only depends on the severity of each lesion, but also on several other factors, including age, co-morbidities and frailty, the increased operative risk of double valve surgery, the increased risk of long-term thrombotic and bleeding complications with multiple mechanical valves, the risk of leaving one valve unoperated and the probability of requiring redo surgery. The role of a multidisciplinary heart valve team is critical in this setting to optimize management and outcomes. The role of transcatheter approaches is currently limited, but technological advances will probably soon change the management paradigm.


Assuntos
Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/instrumentação , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/epidemiologia , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Prevalência , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/efeitos adversos , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/instrumentação , Resultado do Tratamento , Função Ventricular Esquerda
10.
Rev Cardiovasc Med ; 20(1): 47-52, 2019 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31184096

RESUMO

Evidence for cardiac rehabilitation after valve surgery remains scarce. We retrospectively enrolled consecutive patients undergoing aortic valve surgery. The intervention group consisted of physical exercise for 3 months after surgery, while the control group underwent usual care without physical exercise. It was observed that cardiac rehabilitation has a beneficial effect on the peak oxygen uptake compared to the control group (24.2 ml/kg/min vs. 20.6 ml/kg/min) as measured by cardiopulmonary exercise testing 3 months after surgery. There was no significant difference observed in New York Heart Association class I or II between groups. Conversely, the intervention group underperformed the SF-36 Mental Component Scale at 3 months (50.3 vs. 53.8 points).


Assuntos
Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Reabilitação Cardíaca/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/reabilitação , Teste de Esforço , Terapia por Exercício , Tolerância ao Exercício , Consumo de Oxigênio , Idoso , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Reabilitação Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Terapia por Exercício/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 31(4): 643-649, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31229691

RESUMO

Aortic valve surgery in non-elderly patients represents a very challenging patient population. The younger the patient is at the point of aortic valve intervention, the longer their anticipated life expectancy will be, with longer exposure to valve-related complications and risk for re-operation. Although the latest international guidelines recommend aortic valve repair in patients with aortic valve insufficiency, what we see in the real world is that the vast majority of these aortic valves are replaced. However, current prosthetic valves has now been shown to lead to significant loss of life expectancy for non-elderly patients up to 50% for patients in their 40s undergoing mechanical aortic valve replacement. Bioprostheses carry an even worse long-term survival, with higher rates of re-intervention. The promise of trans-catheter valve-in-valve technology is accentuating the trend of bioprosthetic implantation in younger patients, without yet the appropriate evidence. In contrast, aortic valve repair has shown excellent outcomes in terms of quality of life, freedom from re-operation and freedom from major adverse valve-related events with similar life expectancy to general population as it is also found for the Ross procedure, the only available living valve substitute. We are at a time when the paradigm of aortic valve surgery needs to change for the better. To better serve our patients, we must acquire high quality real-world evidence from multiple centers globally - this is the vision of the AVIATOR registry and our common responsibility.


Assuntos
Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Bioprótese , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/mortalidade , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/fisiopatologia , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/instrumentação , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/mortalidade , Humanos , Expectativa de Vida , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Falha de Prótese , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/efeitos adversos , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/instrumentação , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/mortalidade , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 31(4): 650-655, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31220531

RESUMO

Aortic valve repair has become an important treatment alternative to patients with aortic insufficiency. In this paper, we review refinements and advances in the understanding of core concepts of aortic valve anatomy and pathophysiology which have enhanced our approach to aortic valve preservation and repair. With these improvements in understanding and techniques, the outcome for aortic valve repair continues to improve. We also review current challenges in the field and explore potential areas of innovation and future study including timing of surgical intervention for aortic insufficiency, comparisons between aortic valve repair and replacement in randomized trials, and development of personalized surgical management plan based on patient-specific pathologies. These advances will further establish the role of aortic valve repair in the management of aortic valve and aortic disease.


Assuntos
Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Anuloplastia da Valva Cardíaca/tendências , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/tendências , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Anuloplastia da Valva Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Anuloplastia da Valva Cardíaca/instrumentação , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas/tendências , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/instrumentação , Humanos , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Tempo para o Tratamento/tendências , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Laeknabladid ; 105(5): 215-221, 2019.
Artigo em Islandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31048555

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Aortic valve replacement (AVR) for aortic stenosis (AS) is the second most common open-heart procedure performed in Iceland. The aim of this study was to analyze the early outcome of AVR among females in Iceland. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study including 428 patients who underwent surgical AVR due to AS in Iceland from 2002-2013. Information was gathered from medical records, including pre- and postoperative results of echocardiography and complications. Overall survival was estimated (Kaplan-Meier) and logistic regression used to identify predictors of operative mortality. The median follow-up time was 8.8 years (0-16.5 years). RESULTS: Of the 428 patients, 151 were female (35.3%), that were on average 2 years older than men (72.6 ± 9.4 vs. 70.4 ± 9.8 yrs., p=0.020). Preoperative symptoms were similar, but women had significantly higher EurosSCORE II than men (5.2 ± 8.8 vs. 3.2 ± 4.6, p=0.002). Maximal pressure-gradient across the aortic valve was higher for women (74.4 ± 29.3 mmHg vs. 68.0 ± 23.4 mmHg, p=0,013) but postoperative complications, operative mortality (8.6% vs. 4.0%, p=0.068) and 5-year survival (78.6% vs. 83.1%, p=0.245) were comparable for women and men. Logistic regression analysis showed that female gender was not an independent predictor of 30-day mortality (OR 1.54, 95% CI 0.63-3.77). CONCLUSIONS: Females constitute one third of patients that undergo AVR for AS in Iceland. At the time of surgery females are two years older than men and appear to have a more significant aortic stenosis at the time of surgery. However, complication rates, operative mortality and long-term survival were comparable for both genders.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/mortalidade , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/mortalidade , Humanos , Islândia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/terapia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Ann Biomed Eng ; 47(8): 1748-1763, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31037445

RESUMO

The simplified and modified Bernoulli equations break down in estimating the true pressure gradient across the stenotic aortic valve due to their over simplifying assumptions of steady and inviscid conditions as well as the fundamental nature in which aortic valves are different than idealized orifices. Nevertheless, despite having newer models based on time-dependent momentum balance across an orifice, the simplified and modified Bernoulli continue to be the clinical standard because to date, they remain the only models clinically implementable. The objective of this study is to (1) illustrate the fundamental considerations necessary to accurately model the time-dependent instantaneous pressure gradient across a fixed orifice and (2) propose empirical corrections when applying orifice based models to severely stenotic aortic valves. We introduce a general model to predict the time-dependent instantaneous pressure gradient across an orifice that explicitly model the Reynolds number dependence of both the steady and unsteady terms. The accuracy of this general model is assessed with respect to previous models through pulse duplicator experiments on a round orifice model as well as an explanted stenotic surgical aortic valve both with geometric areas of 0.6 cm2 (less than 1 cm2 which is the threshold for stenosis determination) over cardiac outputs of 3 and 5 L/min and heart rates of 60, 90 and 120 bpm. The model and the raw experimental data corresponding to the orifice showed good agreement over a wide range of cardiac outputs and heart rates (R2 exceeding 0.91). The derived average and peak transvalvular pressure gradients also demonstrated good agreement with no significant differences between the respective peaks (p > 0.09). The new model proposed holds promise with its physical and closed form representation of pressure drop, however accurate modeling of the time-variability of the valve area is necessary for the model to be applied on stenotic valves.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Modelos Cardiovasculares , Débito Cardíaco , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Pressão
16.
BMJ Case Rep ; 12(5)2019 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31068347

RESUMO

A 79-year-old man with a history of bioprosthetic aortic valve (AV) replacement in 2008 and atrial fibrillation was admitted with acute pulmonary oedema. Transthoracic and transoesophageal echocardiograms revealed significantly elevated AV gradients and thickened AV leaflets. These findings were suggestive of bioprosthetic valve thrombosis (BVT). The patient was treated with intravenous heparin and commenced on vitamin K antagonist. BVT remains an under recognised cause of late prosthetic valve dysfunction. A lack of awareness of BVT occurring beyond 3 months post-implantation is likely to account for this. Furthermore, structural valve degeneration is the most common mechanism of late prosthetic valve dysfunction. Recognising the difference between the two aetiologies is crucial as the management plan differs significantly. Here, we report a case of very late bioprosthetic AV thrombosis diagnosed 8 years after implantation. This was successfully treated with systemic anticoagulation, thereby avoiding the need for redo cardiac surgery.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Heparina/administração & dosagem , Edema Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Trombose/fisiopatologia , Vitamina K/antagonistas & inibidores , Idoso , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Bioprótese , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana , Humanos , Masculino , Edema Pulmonar/etiologia , Trombose/diagnóstico , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Angiology ; 70(10): 969-977, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31064194

RESUMO

Aortic diameter and progression to thoracic aortic aneurysm are influenced by several factors. In this study, we investigated the association of alcohol consumption with aortic root and ascending aorta dilatation. In the context of the Corinthia study, we examined 1751 patients with echocardiography. Several demographic and clinical characteristics were recorded. Alcohol consumption was assessed based on a questionnaire of frequency, type, and quantity. Accordingly, patients were categorized as everyday alcohol consumers (EDACs) and as social drinkers (SoD). Everyday alcohol consumers were further categorized to group 1: 0 to 1 drink/d; group 2: 1 to 2 drinks/d; and group 3: ≥3 drinks/d. From the study population, 40% were categorized as EDAC and had an increased aortic root diameter (AoRD) and an elevated AoRD index compared with SoD. Interestingly, there was a stepwise increase in aortic root and ascending aorta diameter according to daily alcohol consumption. Specifically, patients consuming ≥3 drinks of alcohol/d had increased indexed aortic by 1.4 mm/m2 compared with SoD even after adjustment for possible confounders. Daily alcohol consumption is associated with increased aortic root diameter. These findings may have important clinical implications, especially in patients with borderline or dilated aortic root, and merit further investigation.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Aorta Torácica/patologia , Doenças da Aorta/patologia , Cardiopatias Congênitas/patologia , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/metabolismo , Aorta Torácica/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças da Aorta/fisiopatologia , Valva Aórtica/patologia , Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Dilatação Patológica/patologia , Dilatação Patológica/fisiopatologia , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana/métodos , Feminino , Cardiopatias Congênitas/fisiopatologia , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
18.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 35(10): 1925-1934, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31144256

RESUMO

Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is associated with abnormal valve-mediated hemodynamics including high velocity jets and elevated wall shear stress (WSS). This study investigated interval changes in flow and WSS in a multi-year follow-up study. This cross-sectional study included n = 44 patients with BAV (age = 44.9 ± 12 years), n = 17 patients with tricuspid aortic valve and thoracic aortic dilatation (TAV with dilation, age = 54.6 ± 16.5 years), and n = 9 healthy controls (age = 49.3 ± 14.7 years) underwent baseline and serial aortic 4D flow MRI (follow-up duration: BAV: 2.6 ± 0.7 years, TAV with dilation: 2.7 ± 0.5 years, controls: 1.1 ± 0.5 years). Data analysis included quantification of aortic dimensions, peak systolic velocities, as well as regional 3D WSS in the ascending aorta. At baseline, BAV patients demonstrated uniformly elevated peak velocity and WSS compared to TAV with dilation and control groups (peak velocity 2.2 m/s vs. 1.6 m/s vs. 1.5 m/s, p < 0.004; WSS: 0.74 Pa vs. 0.45 Pa vs. 0.55 Pa, p < 0.001). For BAV, peak velocity increased from baseline to follow up (2.2 ± 0.8 to 2.3 ± 0.9 m/s, p < 0.001) while WSS decreased (0.74 ± 0.22 to 0.65 ± 0.21 Pa, p < 0.001). Aortic growth was minimal for both BAV (0.05 cm/year) and TAV with dilation (0.03-0.04 cm/year) patients. For BAV patients, increase of ascending aorta peak velocities indicated worsening of valve function at follow-up. Compared to TAV with dilation patients, BAV patients demonstrated a reduction in WSS which may indicate a compensatory mechanism to reduce elevated WSS forces by aortic remodeling.


Assuntos
Aorta/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/anormalidades , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemodinâmica , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética , Adulto , Idoso , Aorta/fisiopatologia , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo , Estudos Transversais , Dilatação Patológica , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estresse Mecânico , Fatores de Tempo , Remodelação Vascular
19.
Pediatr Cardiol ; 40(5): 980-986, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31016325

RESUMO

Aneurysms of the ascending aorta are frequently found in patients with a bicuspid aortic valve (BAV). This study assessed the risk factors of ascending aortic aneurysms and aortic elasticity in children with BAV. The study included 66 patients with no history of transcatheter intervention or surgical procedure who had been diagnosed with isolated BAV. Echocardiographic, blood pressure, and pulse measurements were obtained for all patients. The BAVs were classified as described by Sievers et al. (J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 133:1226-1233, 2007), and aortic elasticity parameters were calculated using various formulas. The patients were divided into groups with and without cusp fusion, aortic stenosis (AS), aortic regurgitation (AR), or mixed lesions; the groups were then compared. The mean patient age was 10.43 ± 3.91 years; 15%he patients had no AS or AR, 33% had both AS and AR, 17% had AS alone, and 35% had AR alone. The most common type of BAV was type 5, and the ascending aorta z-scores were higher in children with mixed lesions and without a cusp fusion. Aortic distensibility (AD) was significantly higher, and the stiffness index was significantly lower, in patients with an ascending aorta z-score > 4. The ascending aortic z-scores were higher in the no-fusion and mixed lesion (AS + AR) groups, especially those originating from post-stenotic dilation due to AS. The AD was increased in patients with an ascending aorta z-score > 4. Patients should thus be monitored closely for dissection risk, and preventive medical treatment should be started early in those with AS without cusp fusion.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Aórtico/fisiopatologia , Valva Aórtica/anormalidades , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/fisiopatologia , Rigidez Vascular , Adolescente , Aorta/diagnóstico por imagem , Aorta/patologia , Aneurisma Aórtico/etiologia , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/etiologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/etiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Feminino , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/complicações , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
20.
Cardiovasc Pathol ; 41: 29-37, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31029755

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is the most common congenital cardiac malformation and is associated with ascending aortic dilation in 60%-80% of patients. In this study, we aimed to address the role of hemodynamic influences on the development of aortopathy in BAV patients. PATIENT AND METHODS: BAV (n=36) and tricuspid aortic valve (TAV) patients (n=17) undergoing aortic valve replacement underwent preoperative flow magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assessment to detect the area of maximal flow-induced stress in the proximal aorta. Based on these MRI data, paired ascending aortic wall samples [i.e., area of maximal jet impact (jet sample) and the opposite aortic wall (nonjet sample)] were collected during surgery. To study and describe the effects of jet stream on the complete vascular wall, a pathology score was developed based on the recently published aortic consensus paper statement on surgical pathology of the aorta using routine histologic stainings (resorcin fuchsin, hematoxylin-eosin, and Movat) and immunohistochemistry (alpha smooth muscle actin, smooth muscle 22 alpha, platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule). RESULTS: Comparing the jet and nonjet samples in both BAV and TAV, regions of maximal jet impact did not show any difference in the pathology score in the adventitia and the middle and outer media. In the jet samples, the inner media however showed loss of actin expression in both BAV (P<.0001) and the TAV (P=.0074), and the intimal thickness was significantly enlarged in both patient groups (BAV P=.0005, TAV P=.0041), which was not accompanied by loss of elastic lamellae or vascular smooth muscle cell nuclei. CONCLUSIONS: In our study population, we could not demonstrate a potential distinct role for hemodynamics in the development of aortopathy in BAV patients even if corrected for aortic diameter, raphe position, or whether the valve is stenotic or regurgitant. The intimal layer and inner media however showed alterations in all jet specimens.


Assuntos
Aorta/fisiopatologia , Aneurisma Aórtico/fisiopatologia , Valva Aórtica/anormalidades , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/fisiopatologia , Hemodinâmica , Actinas/análise , Idoso , Aorta/química , Aorta/diagnóstico por imagem , Aorta/patologia , Aneurisma Aórtico/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma Aórtico/etiologia , Aneurisma Aórtico/metabolismo , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/etiologia , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/etiologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Dilatação Patológica , Feminino , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/complicações , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/análise , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Musculares/análise , Molécula-1 de Adesão Celular Endotelial a Plaquetas/análise
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