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1.
Am J Cardiol ; 161: 70-75, 2021 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794621

RESUMO

The present study aims to assess the clinical and hemodynamic impact of percutaneous edge-to-edge mitral valve repair with MitraClip in patients with atrial functional mitral regurgitation (A-FMR) compared with ventricular functional mitral regurgitation (V-FMR). Mitral regurgitation (MR) grade, functional status (New York Heart Association class), and major adverse cardiac events (MACE; all-cause mortality or hospitalization for heart failure) were evaluated in 52 patients with A-FMR and in 307 patients with V-FMR. In 56 patients, hemodynamic assessment during exercise echocardiography was performed before and 6 months after intervention. MR reduction after MitraClip implantation was noninferior in A-FMR compared with V-FMR (MR grade ≤2 at 6 months in 94% vs 82%, respectively, p <0.001 for noninferiority) and was associated with improvement of functional status (New York Heart Association class ≤2 at 6 months in 90% vs 80%, respectively, p = 0.2). Hemodynamic assessment revealed that cardiac output at 6 months was higher in A-FMR at rest (5.1 ± 1.5 L/min vs 3.8 ± 1.5 L/min, p = 0.002) and during peak exercise (7.9 ± 2.4 L/min vs 6.1 ± 2.1 L/min, p = 0.02). In addition, the reduction in systolic pulmonary artery pressure at rest was more pronounced in A-FMR: Δ SPAP -13.1 ± 15.1 mm Hg versus -2.2 ± 13.3 mm Hg (p = 0.03). MACE rate at follow-up was significantly lower in A-FMR versus V-FMR, with an adjusted odds ratio of 0.46 (95% confidence interval 0.24 to 0.88), which was caused by a reduction in hospitalization for heart failure. In conclusion, percutaneous edge-to-edge mitral valve repair with MitraClip is at least as effective in A-FMR as in V-FMR in reducing MR. However, the hemodynamic improvement and reduction of MACE were significantly better in A-FMR.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Cardíaco/métodos , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/métodos , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Idoso , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Radiology ; 301(1): 93-102, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34313471

RESUMO

Background There are conflicting results over the improvement rate and predictors of mitral regurgitation in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Purpose To define the cause, degree of improvement, and improvement predictors of moderate to severe mitral regurgitation in patients undergoing TAVR by using a simplified D-shaped mitral annulus model derived from multisection CT (MSCT). Materials and Methods This retrospective cohort study included 528 consecutive patients who underwent TAVR between April 2012 and October 2019. Patients with previous surgical aortic valve replacement and those with moderate or severe mitral stenosis were excluded. A total of 104 patients with moderate to severe mitral regurgitation met the inclusion criteria and were included in the final analysis. At least one grade reduction in the severity of mitral regurgitation was considered indicative of mitral regurgitation improvement after TAVR. Up to 5-year post-TAVR follow-up of mitral regurgitation improvement was evaluated. Mitral annular dimensions (annular area, circumference, and trigone-to-trigone, intercommissural, and anteroposterior distances) and annular calcification were assessed at MSCT with use of dedicated postprocessing software. Associations with mitral regurgitation improvement after TAVR were explored. Results A total of 104 patients with concomitant mitral regurgitation who underwent TAVR (mean age, 74 years ± 7; 61 men) were included in the study. Mitral regurgitation improved in 79 patients after TAVR and remained unchanged in the remaining 25 patients. Maximum improvement was observed in the 1st year after TAVR. D-shaped mitral annular parameters, including annular circumference (odds ratio [OR], 1.05; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.1; P = .02) and trigone-to-trigone (OR, 1.2; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.39; P = .02) and intercommissural (OR, 1.15; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.31; P = .02) distances, were related to mitral regurgitation improvement. In addition, patients with coronary artery disease had greater improvement in mitral regurgitation after TAVR (OR, 0.17; 95% CI: 0.04, 0.76; P = .02). Primary mitral regurgitation (OR, 5.1; 95% CI: 1.1, 24; P = .04) and D-shaped annular circumference (OR, 1.06; 95% CI: 1, 1.11; P = .04) were independent predictors of less mitral regurgitation improvement after TAVR. Conclusion Concomitant mitral regurgitation in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) tends to improve after the procedure, with maximum improvement in the 1st year after TAVR. D-shaped annular circumference and primary mitral regurgitation were independent predictors of less mitral regurgitation improvement after TAVR. © RSNA, 2021 Online supplemental material is available for this article. See also the editorial by Collins in this issue.


Assuntos
Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Valva Mitral/anatomia & histologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/métodos , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 21(1): 355, 2021 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34320949

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is still a concerning issue in developing countries. Among delayed RHD presentations, rheumatic mitral valve stenosis (MS) remains a prevalent finding. Percutaneous transvenous mitral commissurotomy (PTMC) is the intervention of choice for severe mitral stenosis (MS). We aimed to assess the mid-term outcome of PTMC in patients with immediate success. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, out of 220 patients who had undergone successful PTMC between 2006 and 2018, the clinical course of 186 patients could be successfully followed. Cardiac-related death, undergoing a second PTMC or mitral valve replacement (MVR) were considered adverse cardiac events for the purpose of this study. In order to find significant factors related to adverse cardiac outcomes, peri-procedural data for the studied patients were collected.The patients were also contacted to find out their current clinical status and whether they had continued secondary antibiotic prophylaxis regimen or not. Those who had not suffered from the adverse cardiac events were additionally asked to undergo echocardiographic imaging, in order to assess the prevalence of mitral valve restenosis, defined as mitral valve area (MVA) < 1.5 cm2 and loss of ≥ 50% of initial area gain. RESULTS: During the mean follow-up time of 5.69 ± 3.24 years, 31 patients (16.6% of patients) had suffered from adverse cardiac events. Atrial fibrillation rhythm (p = 0.003, HR = 3.659), Wilkins echocardiographic score > 8 (p = 0.028, HR = 2.320) and higher pre-procedural systolic pulmonary arterial pressure (p = 0.021, HR = 1.031) were three independent predictors of adverse events and immediate post-PTMC mitral valve area (IMVA) ≥ 2 cm2 (p < 0.001, HR = 0.06) was the significant predictor of event-free outcome. Additionally, follow-up echocardiographic imaging detected mitral restenosis in 44 patients (23.6% of all patients). The only statistically significant protective factor against restenosis was again IMVA ≥ 2 cm2 (p = 0.001, OR = 0.240). CONCLUSION: The mid-term results of PTMC are multifactorial and may be influenced by heterogeneous peri-procedural determinants. IMVA had a great impact on the long-term success of this procedure. Continuing secondary antibiotic prophylaxis was not a protective factor against adverse cardiac events in this study. (clinicaltrial.gov registration: NCT04112108).


Assuntos
Valvuloplastia com Balão , Cateterismo Cardíaco , Ecocardiografia Doppler em Cores , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana , Estenose da Valva Mitral/terapia , Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiopatia Reumática/terapia , Adulto , Valvuloplastia com Balão/efeitos adversos , Cateterismo Cardíaco/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Estenose da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Cardiopatia Reumática/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiopatia Reumática/fisiopatologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo
5.
Methodist Debakey Cardiovasc J ; 17(1): e1-e4, 2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34104329

RESUMO

Patients with symptomatic stage D heart failure who require left ventricular assist device (LVAD) support and suffer concomitant severe mitral regurgitation are often difficult to manage. One reason is due to cardiac anatomic constraints that limit optimization of the mechanical assist device. Typically, these patients are not candidates for repeat sternotomy with surgical mitral valve repair, and heart transplantation may not be feasible or timely. This case describes two patients with LVAD support who received transcatheter edge-to-edge mitral valve repair for severe, symptomatic mitral regurgitation. We believe this procedure may be a therapeutic option in stable patients with severe mitral regurgitation who require mechanical support.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Coração Auxiliar , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Adulto , Idoso , Cateterismo Cardíaco , Ecocardiografia Doppler em Cores , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/instrumentação , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Masculino , Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Desenho de Prótese , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(13): e019548, 2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34187184

RESUMO

Background Optimizing risk stratification in patients undergoing transcatheter mitral valve repair is an ongoing challenge. The Mitral Regurgitation International Database (MIDA) score represents a user-friendly mortality risk stratification tool that is validated on a large-scale registry of patients with degenerative mitral regurgitation (MR). We here assessed the potential benefit of the MIDA risk score for patients with functional or degenerative MR undergoing transcatheter mitral valve repair. Methods and Results In total, 680 patients undergoing MitraClip implantation were stratified according to MIDA score tertiles into a low (0-7), intermediate (8-9), and a high (10-12) MIDA score group. MR was assessed in follow-up echocardiograms in 416 patients at 323±169 days after transcatheter mitral valve repair. During 2-year follow-up, 8.2% (15/182) of patients with low, 21.3% (64/300) with intermediate, and 26.3% (52/198) with high MIDA score died (log-rank test P<0.001). Hazard of all-cause mortality increased by 13% (95% CI, 3%-25%) with every additional point of the MIDA score. Subanalysis of 431 patients with functional MR showed similar results. Furthermore, rates of a combined end point of mortality and hospitalization for heart failure were higher with increasing MIDA score (30% [54/182], 38% [113/300] and 48% [94/198], respectively, log-rank test P=0.001). Frequency of residual MR ≥II at follow-up increased with increasing MIDA score group (33%, 44%, and 59%, respectively, P<0.001). Conclusions The MIDA mortality risk score maintains its predictive utility in patients undergoing transcatheter mitral valve repair, regardless of MR cause. Moreover, it was predictive of worse event-free survival regarding a combined end point of mortality and hospitalization for heart failure, and was associated with postprocedural residual MR ≥II and MR recurrence.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Cardíaco , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/complicações , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/mortalidade , Prognóstico , Recidiva , Sistema de Registros , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 21(1): 314, 2021 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34174818

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mitral valve (MV) surgery has traditionally been performed by conventional sternotomy (CS), but more recently minimally invasive surgery (MIS) has become another treatment option. The aim of this study is to compare short- and long-term results of MV surgery after CS and MIS. METHODS: This study was a retrospective propensity-matched analysis of MV operations between January 2005 and December 2015. RESULTS: Among 1357 patients, 496 underwent CS and 861 MIS. Matching resulted in 422 patients per group. The procedure time was longer with MIS than CS (192 vs. 185 min; p = 0.002) as was cardiopulmonary bypass time (133 vs. 101 min; p < 0.001) and X-clamp time (80 vs. 71 min; p < 0.001). 'Short-term' successful valve repair was higher with MIS (96.0% vs. 76.0%, p < 0.001). Length of hospital stay was shorter in MIS than CS patients (10 vs. 11 days; p = 0.001). There was no difference in the overall 30-day mortality rate. Cardiovascular death was lower after MIS (1.2%) compared with CS (3.8%; OR 0.30; 95%CI 0.11-0.84). The difference did not remain significant after adjustment for procedural differences (aOR 0.40; 95%CI 0.13-1.25). Pacemaker was required less often after MIS (3.3%) than CS (11.2%; aOR 0.31; 95%CI 0.16-0.61), and acute renal failure was less common (2.1% vs. 11.9%; aOR 0.22; 95%CI 0.10-0.48). There were no significant differences with respect to rates of stroke, myocardial infarction or repeat MV surgery. The 7-year survival rate was significantly better after MIS (88.5%) than CS (74.8%; aHR 0.44, 95%CI 0.31-0.64). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that good results for MV surgery can be obtained with MIS, achieving a high MV repair rate, low peri-procedural morbidity and mortality, and improved long-term survival.


Assuntos
Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos , Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Esternotomia , Idoso , Feminino , Alemanha , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/mortalidade , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/mortalidade , Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/terapia , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Esternotomia/efeitos adversos , Esternotomia/mortalidade , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Anim Genet ; 52(4): 409-421, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34028063

RESUMO

Myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) is the most common heart disease and cause of cardiac death in domestic dogs. MMVD is characterised by slow progressive myxomatous degeneration from the tips of the mitral valves onwards with subsequent mitral valve regurgitation, and left atrial and ventricular dilatation. Although the disease usually has a long asymptomatic period, in dogs with severe disease, mortality is typically secondary to left-sided congestive heart failure. Although it is not uncommon for dogs to survive long enough in the asymptomatic period to die from unrelated causes; a proportion of dogs rapidly advance into congestive heart failure. Heightened prevalence in certain breeds, such as the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel, has indicated that MMVD is under a genetic influence. The genetic characterisation of the factors that underlie the difference in progression of disease is of strong interest to those concerned with dog longevity and welfare. Advanced genomic technologies have the potential to provide information that may impact treatment, prevalence, or severity of MMVD through the elucidation of pathogenic mechanisms and the detection of predisposing genetic loci of major effect. Here we describe briefly the clinical nature of the disorder and consider the physiological mechanisms that might impact its occurrence in the domestic dog. Using results from comparative genomics we suggest possible genetic approaches for identifying genetic risk factors within breeds. The Cavalier King Charles Spaniel breed represents a robust resource for uncovering the genetic basis of MMVD.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/genética , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/veterinária , Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Animais , Doenças do Cão/fisiopatologia , Cães , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/genética , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/fisiopatologia
11.
Prog Cardiovasc Dis ; 67: 98-104, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33812859

RESUMO

Valvular heart disease is common and increasingly prevalent among the elderly. The end result of valvular pathologies is cardiac failure and can lead to sudden death; thus, diagnosis and interventions are very important in the early stages of these diseases. The usual treatment methods of mitral regurgitation include percutaneous mitral valve repair, mitral valve replacement and minimally invasive surgery, whereas the treatment methods of mitral stenosis include percutaneous transluminal mitral commissurotomy and mitral commissurotomy as well as open surgical repair. Nonetheless, ongoing clinical trials are a clear indicator that the management of valve diseases is ever evolving. The focus of this paper is on the various pathologies of the mitral valve, their etiology and clinical management, offering a comprehensive view of mitral valve diseases.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Cardíaco , Endocardite/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Anuloplastia da Valva Mitral , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Estenose da Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Cateterismo Cardíaco/efeitos adversos , Cateterismo Cardíaco/instrumentação , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Endocardite/diagnóstico por imagem , Endocardite/fisiopatologia , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/instrumentação , Humanos , Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Anuloplastia da Valva Mitral/efeitos adversos , Anuloplastia da Valva Mitral/instrumentação , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Estenose da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Seleção de Pacientes , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Esternotomia , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 21(1): 199, 2021 04 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33882853

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Functional tricuspid regurgitation (FTR) is common in left-sided heart pathology involving the mitral valve. The incidence, clinical impact, risk factors, and natural history of FTR in the setting of ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) are less known. METHOD: We conducted a cohort study based on data collected from January 2012 to December 2014. Patients diagnosed with IMR were eligible for the study. The median follow-up was 5 years. The primary outcome is defined as FTR developing at any stage. RESULTS: Among the 134 IMR patients eligible for the study, FTR was detected in 29.9% (N = 40, 20.0% mild, 62.5% moderate, and 17.5% severe). In the FTR group, the average age was 60.7 ± 9.2 years (25% females), the mean LV ejection fraction (LVEF) was 37.3 ± 6.45 [%], LA area 46.4 ± 8.06 (mm2), LV internal diastolic diameter (LVIDD) 59.6 ± 3.94 (mm), RV fractional area change 22.3 ± 4.36 (%), systolic pulmonary artery pressure (SPAP) 48.4 ± 9.45 (mmHg). Independent variables associated with FTR development were age ≥ 65y [OR 1.2], failed revascularization, LA area ≥ 42.5 (mm2) [OR 17.1], LVEF ≤ 24% [OR 32.5], MR of moderate and severe grade [OR 419.4], moderate RV dysfunction [OR 91.6] and pulmonary artery pressure of a moderate or severe grade [OR 33.6]. During follow-up, FTR progressed in 39 (97.5%) patients. Covariates independently associated with FTR progression were lower LVEF, RV dysfunction, and PHT of moderate severity. LA area and LVIDD were at the margin of statistical significance (p = 0.06 and p = 0.05, respectively). CONCLUSION: In our cohort study, FTR development and progression due to IMR was a common finding. Elderly patients with ischemic MR following unsuccessful PCI are at higher risk. FTR development and severity are directly proportional to LV ejection fraction, to the extent of mitral regurgitation, and SPAP. FTR tends to deteriorate in the majority of patients over a mean of 5-y follow-up.


Assuntos
Hemodinâmica , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/epidemiologia , Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência da Valva Tricúspide/epidemiologia , Valva Tricúspide/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Ecocardiografia Doppler , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/diagnóstico por imagem , Isquemia Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Volume Sistólico , Fatores de Tempo , Valva Tricúspide/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Tricúspide/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Tricúspide/fisiopatologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda
16.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 320(5): H1774-H1785, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33666507

RESUMO

Intense exercise exposes the heart to significant hemodynamic demands, resulting in adaptive changes in cardiac morphology and function. Nevertheless, the athletic adaptation of the atrioventricular valves remains to be elucidated. Our study aimed to characterize the geometry of mitral (MA) and tricuspid (TA) annuli in elite athletes using 3-D echocardiography. Thirty-four athletes presented with functional mitral regurgitation (FMR) were retrospectively identified and compared with 34 athletes without mitral regurgitation (MR) and 34 healthy, sedentary volunteers. 3-D echocardiographic datasets were used to quantify MA and TA geometry and leaflet tenting by dedicated softwares. MA and TA areas, as well as tenting volumes, were higher in athletes compared with controls. MA area was significantly higher in athletes with MR compared with those without (8.2 ± 1.0 vs. 7.2 ± 1.0 cm2/m2, P < 0.05). Interestingly, athletes with MR also presented with a significantly higher TA area (7.2 ± 1.1 vs. 6.5 ± 1.1 cm2/m2, P < 0.05). Nonplanar angle describing the MA's saddle shape was less obtuse in athletes without MR, whereas the values of athletes with MR were comparable with controls. The exercise-induced relative increases in left ventricular (35 ± 25%) and left atrial (40 ± 29%) volumes were similar; however, the increment in the MA area was disproportionately higher (63 ± 23%, overall P < 0.001). The relative increase in TA area (40 ± 23%) was also higher compared with the increment in right ventricular volume (34 ± 25%, P < 0.05). Atrioventricular annuli undergo a disproportionate remodeling in response to regular exercise. Athletic adaptation is characterized by both annular enlargement and increased leaflet tenting of both valves. There are differences in MA geometry in athletes presented with versus without FMR.NEW & NOTEWORTHY We have characterized the annular geometry of mitral and tricuspid valves in elite athletes using 3-D echocardiography. We have found that exercise-induced remodeling of the atrioventricular annuli comprises a disproportionate dilation of annular dimensions and increased leaflet tenting of both valves. Moreover, we have demonstrated a more pronounced saddle shape of the mitral annulus in athletes without mitral regurgitation, which was not present in those who had mild regurgitation.


Assuntos
Atletas , Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Humano/fisiologia , Valva Tricúspide/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Coração/fisiopatologia , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Valva Tricúspide/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247921, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33662019

RESUMO

Valvular heart diseases are a prevalent cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality worldwide, affecting a wide spectrum of the population. In-silico modeling of the cardiovascular system has recently gained recognition as a useful tool in cardiovascular research and clinical applications. Here, we present an in-silico cardiac computational model to analyze the effect and severity of valvular disease on general hemodynamic parameters. We propose a multimodal and multiscale cardiovascular model to simulate and understand the progression of valvular disease associated with the mitral valve. The developed model integrates cardiac electrophysiology with hemodynamic modeling, thus giving a broader and holistic understanding of the effect of disease progression on various parameters like ejection fraction, cardiac output, blood pressure, etc., to assess the severity of mitral valve disorders, naming Mitral Stenosis and Mitral Regurgitation. The model mimics an adult cardiovascular system, comprising a four-chambered heart with systemic, pulmonic circulation. The simulation of the model output comprises regulated pressure, volume, and flow for each heart chamber, valve dynamics, and Photoplethysmogram signal for normal physiological as well as pathological conditions due to mitral valve disorders. The generated physiological parameters are in agreement with published data. Additionally, we have related the simulated left atrium and ventricle dimensions, with the enlargement and hypertrophy in the cardiac chambers of patients with mitral valve disorders, using their Electrocardiogram available in Physionet PTBI dataset. The model also helps to create 'what if' scenarios and relevant analysis to study the effect in different hemodynamic parameters for stress or exercise like conditions.


Assuntos
Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Estenose da Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Valva Mitral/fisiologia , Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Simulação por Computador , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Modelos Cardiovasculares
18.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 23(1): 31, 2021 03 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33745455

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Objective assessment of prosthetic paravalvular leak (PVL) is complex and challenging even in transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). Our aim was to assess the value of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in quantifying PVL in aortic (AVR) or mitral valve (MVR) replacement. METHODS: Thirty-one patients (62 ± 15.1 years, 63% males) with a preliminary diagnosis of significant PVL (AVR, n-23; MVR, n = 8) were recruited. The TEE PVL grading was based on the semi-quantitative (SQ) TEE according to the VARC II PVL classification (%PVL: mild < 10%; moderate 10%-30%; severe > 30%). Non-contrast CMR studies were acquired at 1.5 T with a quantitative approach (phase-contrast velocity encoded imaging). The CMR PVL severity was classified according to regurgitant fraction (RF: (1) mild ≤ 20%, (2) moderate 21%-39%, or (3) severe ≥ 40%). RESULTS: All patients revealed symptoms of heart failure (71%: New York Heart Association [NYHA] II; 91%: N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide [NT-proBNP] > 150 pg/ml) and typical cardiovascular disease risk factors. The SQ-TEE results revealed several categories: (1) mild (n = 5; 16%), (2) moderate (n = 21; 67%), and (3) severe (n = 5; 16%) PVL. However, CMR PVL RF reclassified the severity of PVL: (1) mild to moderate (in 80%), (2) moderate to severe (in 47%), and (3) severe to moderate (in 40%). The receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that SQ-TEE and CMR PVL-vol and -RF predicted the upper tertile of NT-proBNP (> 2000 pg/ml) with the best sensitivity for CMR parameters. CONCLUSION: The SQ-TEE showed moderate agreement with CMR and underestimated a considerable number of AVR or MVR-PVL.


Assuntos
Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Idoso , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/etiologia , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/instrumentação , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/etiologia , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
19.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 23(1): 11, 2021 02 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33618720

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aortic stiffness has been shown to be abnormal in patients with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV), and is considered a component of the aortopathy associated with this condition. Progressive aortic stiffening associated with aging has been previously described in normal adults. However, it is not known if aging related aortic stiffening occurs at the same rate in BAV patients. We determined the longitudinal rate of decline in segmental distensibility in BAV patients using serial cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) studies, and compared to previously published results from a group of patients with connective tissue disorders (CTD). METHODS: A retrospective review of CMR and clinical data on children and adults with BAV (n = 49, 73% male; 23 ± 11 years) with at least two CMRs (total 98 examinations) over a median follow-up of 4.1 years (range 1-9 years) was performed to measure aortic distensibility at the ascending (AAo) and descending aorta (DAo). Longitudinal changes in aortic stiffness were assessed using linear mixed-effects modeling. The comparison group of CTD patients had a similar age and gender profile (n = 50, 64% male; 20.6 ± 12 years). RESULTS: Compared to CTD patients, BAV patients had a more distensible AAo early in life but showed a steeper decline in distensibility on serial examinations [mean 10-year decline in AAo distensibility (× 10-3 mmHg-1) 2.4 in BAV vs 1.3 in CTD, p = 0.005]. In contrast, the DAo was more distensible in BAV patients throughout the age spectrum, and DAo distensibility declined with aging at a rate similar to CTD patients [mean 10 year decline in DAo distensibility (× 10-3 mmHg-1) 0.3 in BAV vs 0.4 in CTD, p = 0.58]. CONCLUSIONS: On serial CMR measurements, AAo distensibility declined at significantly steeper rate in BAV patients compared to a comparison group with CTDs, while DAo distensibility declined at similar rates in both groups. These findings offer new mechanistic insights into the differing pathogenesis of the aortopathy seen in BAV and CTD patients.


Assuntos
Aorta/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo/diagnóstico por imagem , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética , Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Rigidez Vascular , Adolescente , Adulto , Aorta/fisiopatologia , Criança , Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
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