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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 816, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33167886

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus varies depending on the healthcare facility, region and country. To understand its genetic diversity, transmission, dissemination, epidemiology and evolution in a particular geographical location, it is important to understand the similarities and variations in the population being studied. This can be achieved by using various molecular characterisation techniques. This study aimed to provide detailed molecular characterisation of South African mecA-positive S. aureus blood culture isolates by describing the SCCmec types, spa types and to lesser extent, the sequence types obtained from two consecutive national surveillance studies. METHODS: S. aureus blood culture isolates from a national laboratory-based and enhanced surveillance programme were identified and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using automated systems. A real-time PCR assay confirmed the presence of the methicillin-resistance determinant, mecA. Conventional PCR assays were used to identify the SCCmec type and spa type, which was subsequently analysed using the Ridom StaphType™ software. Multilocus sequence typing was performed on selected isolates using conventional methods. MRSA clones were defined by their sequence type (ST), SCCmec type and spa type. RESULTS: A detailed description of findings is reported in this manuscript. SCCmec type III predominated overall followed by type IV. A total of 71 different spa types and 24 novel spa types were observed. Spa type t037 was the most common and predominated throughout followed by t1257. Isolates were multidrug resistant; isolates belonging to all SCCmec types were resistant to most of the antibiotics with the exception of type I; isolates with spa type t045 showed resistance to all antibiotics except vancomycin. The most diverse SCCmec-spa type complex was composed of the SCCmec type IV element and 53 different spa types. CONCLUSION: Although ST data was limited, thereby limiting the number of clones that could be identified, the circulating clones were relatively diverse.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Variação Genética , Sequências Repetitivas Dispersas/genética , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , Proteínas de Ligação às Penicilinas/genética , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Proteína Estafilocócica A/genética , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Proteínas de Bactérias/sangue , Hemocultura , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Humanos , Meticilina/farmacologia , Meticilina/uso terapêutico , Resistência a Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Proteínas de Ligação às Penicilinas/sangue , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Vancomicina/farmacologia , Vancomicina/uso terapêutico
2.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 40(10): 1380-1389, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33118508

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical value of individualized pharmaceutical services for patients receiving vancomycin for severe infections and establish clinical monitoring procedures during vancomycin treatment. METHODS: Data were collected from patients with severe infections who received vancomycin treatment with individualized pharmacy services (test group, 144 cases) or without such services (control group, 884 cases) between January, 2017 and December, 2018. Using propensity score matching, the patients in the two groups with comparable baseline data were selected for inclusion in the study (62 in each group), and the efficacy, safety and economic indicators were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: The curative effects of the treatment did not differ significantly between the two groups, with the overall response rates of 95.16% in the test group and 91.94% in the control group (P > 0.05). The percentage of neutrophils before vancomycin treatment and calcitonin level after the treatment differed significantly between the two groups (P < 0.05). No significant difference was found in the incidence of adverse events associated with the treatment between the test and control groups (8.06% vs 9.68%, P > 0.05); a significant difference in creatinine level was noted between the two groups after vancomycin treatment (P < 0.05). The number of days of medication, the cost of vancomycin and its proportion in the total expenses differed significantly between the two groups (P < 0.05). Cost-effectiveness analysis showed a better cost-effectiveness in the test group than in the control group (50052.78 vs 57601.23). The intensity of vancomycin use was also lower in the test group than in the control group (0.11 vs 0.36). CONCLUSIONS: The participation of clinical pharmacists during the treatment can improve the clinical benefits of vancomycin in patients with severe infections.


Assuntos
Infecções , Assistência Farmacêutica , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Infecções/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vancomicina/uso terapêutico
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 687, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948147

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vogesella species are common aquatic, Gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria, originally described in 1997. Vogesella perlucida was first isolated from spring water in 2008. Furthermore, bacterial pathogenicity of Vogesella perlucida has never been reported. Here, we report the first case of rare Vogesella perlucida-induced bacteremia in an advanced-age patient with many basic diseases and history of dexamethasone abuse. CASE PRESENTATION: A 71-year-old female was admitted with inflamed upper and lower limbs, rubefaction, pain and fever (about 40 °C). She had been injured in a fall at a vegetable market and then touched river snails with her injury hands. A few days later, soft tissue infection of the patient developed and worsened. Non-pigmented colonies were isolated from blood cultures of the patient. Initially, Vogesella perlucida was wrongly identified as Sphingomonas paucimobilis by Vitek-2 system with GN card. Besides, we failed to obtain an acceptable identification by the MALDI-TOF analysis. Finally, the isolated strain was identified as Vogesella perlucida by 16S rRNA gene sequences. In addition, the patient recovered well after a continuous treatment of levofloxacin for 12 days. CONCLUSION: Traditional microbiological testing system may be inadequate in the diagnosis of rare pathogenic bacteria. Applications of molecular diagnostics techniques have great advantages in clinical microbiology laboratory. By using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, we report the the first case of rare Vogesella perlucida-induced bacteremia.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Betaproteobacteria/patogenicidade , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles/microbiologia , Idoso , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bacteriemia/tratamento farmacológico , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Betaproteobacteria/classificação , Betaproteobacteria/genética , Betaproteobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Humanos , Levofloxacino/uso terapêutico , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles/tratamento farmacológico , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Vancomicina/uso terapêutico
4.
Braz J Infect Dis ; 24(4): 356-359, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763234

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare pharmacokinetic characteristics between intermittent infusion and continuous infusion of vancomycin for critically ill patients admitted to intensive care units. METHODS: Intermittent therapy was administered for 60minutes and prescribed as a loading dose of 30mg/kg and continued with 15mg/kg q12h. Continuous infusion was prescribed as a loading dose of 30mg/kg followed by 30mg/kg on constant infusion pump. Blood samples from vancomycin intermittent infusion group were collected 1h before third dose, 1h, 8h and 24h after third dose infusion. Blood samples from vancomycin continuous infusion group were collected 1h after loading dose, 12h, 24h, 36h, and 48h after continuous infusion initiation. RESULTS: Median serum concentration of continuous infusion group at 24-hour was 23.59µg/mL [14.52-28.97], while of intermittent infusion group at 23-hour was 12.30µg/mL [7.27-18.12] and on 25-hour was 17.58µg/mL [12.5-22.5]. Medians AUC24-48h were 357.2mg.h/L and 530.2mg.h/L for intermittent infusion and continuous infusion groups, respectively (p=0.559). CONCLUSION: Vancomycin CI reached steady state earlier, which guaranteed therapeutic levels from the first day and made it possible to manage therapeutic drug monitoring faster.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Vancomicina/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Estado Terminal , Monitoramento de Medicamentos , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Vancomicina/uso terapêutico
5.
Pediatrics ; 146(3)2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32759380

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus is a common cause of community and health care-associated bacteremia, with authors of recent studies estimating the incidence of S aureus bacteremia (SAB) in high-income countries between 8 and 26 per 100 000 children per year. Despite this, <300 children worldwide have ever been randomly assigned into clinical trials to assess the efficacy of treatment of SAB. A panel of infectious diseases physicians with clinical and research interests in pediatric SAB identified 7 key clinical questions. The available literature is systematically appraised, summarizing SAB management in children in relation to these priority clinical questions. The management of neonates, children, and adolescents with SAB is predominantly based on clinical experience and trial data extrapolated from adult studies, with limited high-quality evidence available to guide management. The optimal, comprehensive management strategies for SAB in children will remain unknown until the questions outlined are answered through prospective observational cohorts and inclusion of children with SAB in clinical trials.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bacteriemia/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Staphylococcus aureus , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Algoritmos , Bacteriemia/diagnóstico , Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/etiologia , Cefalosporinas/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Técnica Delfos , Esquema de Medicação , Ecocardiografia , Endocardite Bacteriana/diagnóstico por imagem , Endocardite Bacteriana/tratamento farmacológico , Glicopeptídeos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Injeções Intravenosas , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Penicilinas/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Infecções Estafilocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Vancomicina/uso terapêutico , beta-Lactamas/uso terapêutico
6.
Z Gastroenterol ; 58(8): 778-784, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785914

RESUMO

Clostridioides difficile infections (CDI) are typical antibiotic therapy associated complications. Notwithstanding the fact that the clinical picture of CDI may extend to the development of a toxic megacolon with potentially life-threatening sequelae, mild infectious forms associated with uncomplicated diarrhoea are by far the most prevalent and should also be treated according to clear clinical practice guidelines. However, there are currently conflicting international guidelines governing metronidazole-based treatment of mild infections. In light of this shortcoming, we performed a selective literature search of guidelines and clinical studies relating to the use of metronidazole for mild CDIs. The evaluation of randomised controlled trials demonstrates that, in statistical terms, vancomycin is significantly superior to metronidazole (NNT 16). When large cohort studies are included, this difference in effectiveness is reduced to 2,5 % (NNT 40). Inconsistent criteria for defining a mild CDI, different doses, applications and time intervals (e. g. additional IV administration of metronidazole) and the retrospective nature of some studies make it difficult to identify the influence of possible interference variables in this evaluation. Nevertheless, a mild CDI can be successfully treated with metronidazole; other recommendations, particularly those of American associations, should be evaluated critically. It is important to note that this therapy recommendation does not apply to patients with chronic inflammatory bowel diseases or other patients with pertinent comorbidities.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Metronidazol/uso terapêutico , Clostridium difficile/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Vancomicina/uso terapêutico
7.
J Urol ; 204(6): 1249-1255, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32602771

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We evaluate the prevalent microorganisms, antibiotic sensitivity patterns and associated outcomes in patients with Fournier's gangrene. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients with Fournier's gangrene was conducted between October 2011 and April 2018 at our institution. Univariate analysis was performed using the independent t-test or Kruskal-Wallis H test for continuous variables and exact test for categorical variables. RESULTS: Of the 143 patients included in this study, wound culture was available in 131 (92%) patients with a median number of 3 microorganisms per wound. The most commonly grown pathogens were Staphylococcus species (66, 46%), Streptococcus species (53, 37%), Bacteroides species (34, 24%), Candida species (31, 22%), Escherichia coli (28, 20%) and Prevotella species (26, 18%). Most bacteria were sensitive to ampicillin-sulbactam, ceftriaxone, piperacillin-tazobactam, amikacin and cefepime, and resistant to ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, levofloxacin and clindamycin. Enterococcus faecalis and Streptococcus anginosus were resistant to vancomycin. The overall Fournier's gangrene mortality count was 14 (10%) patients. No association was noted between the type of infection and Fournier's gangrene severity index, length of hospital stay or mortality. CONCLUSIONS: At our institution Candida is a prevalent pathogen in the wound culture of patients with Fournier's gangrene. The resistance patterns for clindamycin and vancomycin are concerning. Addition of an antifungal agent to the empiric treatment should be considered based on clinical presentation.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Gangrena de Fournier/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Clindamicina/farmacologia , Clindamicina/uso terapêutico , Desbridamento , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Farmacorresistência Fúngica , Feminino , Gangrena de Fournier/diagnóstico , Gangrena de Fournier/mortalidade , Gangrena de Fournier/terapia , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Períneo/microbiologia , Períneo/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos , Vancomicina/farmacologia , Vancomicina/uso terapêutico
8.
Brasília; s.n; 17 jul. 2020.
Não convencional em Português | LILACS, BRISA/RedTESA, PIE | ID: biblio-1117678

RESUMO

O Informe Diário de Evidências é uma produção do Ministério da Saúde que tem como objetivo acompanhar diariamente as publicações científicas sobre tratamento farmacológico e vacinas para a COVID-19. Dessa forma, são realizadas buscas estruturadas em bases de dados biomédicas, referentes ao dia anterior desse informe. Não são incluídos estudos pré-clínicos (in vitro, in vivo, in silico). A frequência dos estudos é demonstrada de acordo com a sua classificação metodológica (revisões sistemáticas, ensaios clínicos randomizados, coortes, entre outros). Para cada estudo é apresentado um resumo com avaliação da qualidade metodológica. Essa avaliação tem por finalidade identificar o grau de certeza/confiança ou o risco de viés de cada estudo. Para tal, são utilizadas ferramentas já validadas e consagradas na literatura científica, na área de saúde baseada em evidências. Cabe ressaltar que o documento tem caráter informativo e não representa uma recomendação oficial do Ministério da Saúde sobre a temática. Foram encontrados 14 artigos e 13 protocolos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Ribavirina/uso terapêutico , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Vancomicina/uso terapêutico , Ganciclovir/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico , Oseltamivir/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 1/uso terapêutico , Lopinavir/uso terapêutico , Linezolida/uso terapêutico , Darunavir/uso terapêutico , Cobicistat/uso terapêutico , Interferon beta-1a/uso terapêutico , Adalimumab/uso terapêutico , Abatacepte/uso terapêutico , Etanercepte/uso terapêutico , Cefepima/uso terapêutico , Meropeném/uso terapêutico , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico
11.
Pediatrics ; 146(2)2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32611807

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Vancomycin remains one of the most commonly prescribed antibiotics in NICUs despite recommendations to limit its use for known resistant infections. Baseline data revealing substantially higher vancomycin use in our NICU compared to peer institutions informed our quality improvement initiative. Our aim was to reduce the vancomycin prescribing rate in neonates hospitalized in our NICU by 50% within 1 year and sustain for 1 year. METHODS: In the 60-bed level IV NICU of an academic referral center, we used a quality improvement framework to develop key drivers and interventions including (1) physician education with benchmarking antibiotic prescribing rates; (2) pharmacy-initiated 48-hour antibiotic time-outs on rounds; (3) development of clinical pathways to standardize empirical antibiotic choices for early-onset sepsis, late-onset sepsis, and necrotizing enterocolitis; coupled with (4) daily prospective audit with feedback from the antimicrobial stewardship program. RESULTS: We used statistical process u-charts to show vancomycin use declined from 112 to 38 days of therapy per 1000 patient-days. After education, pharmacy-initiated 48-hour time-outs, and development of clinical pathways, vancomycin use declined by 29%, and by an additional 52% after implementation of prospective audit with feedback. Vancomycin-associated acute kidney injury also declined from 1.4 to 0.1 events per 1000 patient-days. CONCLUSIONS: Through a sequential implementation approach of education, standardization of care with clinical pathways, pharmacist-initiated 48-hour time-outs, and prospective audit with feedback, vancomycin days of therapy declined by 66% over a 1-year period and has been sustained for 1 year.


Assuntos
Gestão de Antimicrobianos/estatística & dados numéricos , Prescrição Inadequada/prevenção & controle , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/estatística & dados numéricos , Vancomicina/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Gestão de Antimicrobianos/organização & administração , Brasil , Procedimentos Clínicos , Enterocolite Necrosante/tratamento farmacológico , Hospitais Pediátricos/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Urbanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Prescrição Inadequada/estatística & dados numéricos , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/tratamento farmacológico , Serviço de Farmácia Hospitalar/organização & administração , Estudos Prospectivos , Melhoria de Qualidade , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico
12.
Ann Intern Med ; 172(12): JC67, 2020 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32539506

RESUMO

SOURCE CITATION: Tong SY, Lye DC, Yahav D, et al. Effect of vancomycin or daptomycin with vs without an antistaphylococcal ß-lactam on mortality, bacteremia, relapse, or treatment failure in patients with MRSA bacteremia: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2020;323:527-37. 32044943.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia , Daptomicina , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Infecções Estafilocócicas , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bacteriemia/tratamento farmacológico , Daptomicina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Recidiva , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Falha de Tratamento , Resultado do Tratamento , Vancomicina/uso terapêutico , beta-Lactamas/uso terapêutico
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 389, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32487026

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intracranial infections with Corynebacterium striatum (C. striatum) have been described sporadically in the literature over the last two decades. However, C. striatum meningitis combined with multiple abscesses has not been published before. CASE PRESENTATION: In this report, we describe the clinical and imaging findings in a 54-year-old woman with meningitis caused by C. striatum and combined with suspected brain and lung abscesses. This patient who underwent multiple fractures and a recent cut presented with headache and paraphasia. C. striatum was isolated in cerebrospinal fluid and supposedly transmitted from the skin purulent wound through blood. The patient was treated with intravenous vancomycin and had a transient improvement, but died finally. Multiple abscesses, especially in the brain, could be a reason to explain her conditions were deteriorating rapidly. CONCLUSIONS: Note that C. striatum can cause life-threatening infections. Early identification and diagnosis, early administration of antibiotics to which the bacterium is susceptible, and treatment of complications will be beneficial in patients with C. striatum-related infection.


Assuntos
Abscesso Encefálico/microbiologia , Infecções por Corynebacterium/complicações , Abscesso Pulmonar/microbiologia , Meningites Bacterianas/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Abscesso Encefálico/diagnóstico por imagem , Abscesso Encefálico/tratamento farmacológico , Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/microbiologia , Corynebacterium/isolamento & purificação , Corynebacterium/patogenicidade , Infecções por Corynebacterium/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Traumatismos da Perna/microbiologia , Abscesso Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Abscesso Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Meningites Bacterianas/complicações , Meningites Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vancomicina/uso terapêutico
15.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(2): 672-674, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32431277

RESUMO

We report a patient with risk factors for both microbial keratitis and endophthalmitis, which were initially challenging to distinguish. Cultures of corneal scrapings yielded several organisms, including an uncultivable Gram-negative rod, eventually identified as Kingella negevensis. Kingella negevensis is so named because most strains have been isolated in the Negev, a desert region of southern Israel. The epidemiology of K. negevensis remains incompletely understood. We found no other reports in the literature of this organism causing microbial keratitis.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/complicações , Cocaína/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Captação de Dopamina/administração & dosagem , Endoftalmite/complicações , Ceratite/complicações , Infecções por Neisseriaceae/complicações , Infecções Estreptocócicas/complicações , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/complicações , Administração Oftálmica , Adulto , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Ácido Ascórbico/uso terapêutico , Ceftazidima/uso terapêutico , Coinfecção/complicações , Coinfecção/diagnóstico , Coinfecção/tratamento farmacológico , Doxiciclina/uso terapêutico , Endoftalmite/diagnóstico , Endoftalmite/tratamento farmacológico , Endoftalmite/microbiologia , Feminino , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/complicações , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/diagnóstico , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/microbiologia , Humanos , Ceratite/diagnóstico , Ceratite/tratamento farmacológico , Ceratite/microbiologia , Kingella/genética , Kingella/isolamento & purificação , Linezolida/uso terapêutico , Moxifloxacina/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Neisseriaceae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Neisseriaceae/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Neisseriaceae/microbiologia , Soluções Oftálmicas , Prednisona/uso terapêutico , Propionibacterium acnes/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Estreptocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecções Estreptocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estreptocócicas/microbiologia , Streptococcus/isolamento & purificação , Tobramicina/uso terapêutico , Vancomicina/uso terapêutico , Voriconazol/uso terapêutico
16.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 5: CD009880, 2020 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407558

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infective endocarditis is a microbial infection of the endocardial surface of the heart. Antibiotics are the cornerstone of treatment, but due to the differences in presentation, populations affected, and the wide variety of micro-organisms that can be responsible, their use is not standardised. This is an update of a review previously published in 2016. OBJECTIVES: To assess the existing evidence about the clinical benefits and harms of different antibiotics regimens used to treat people with infective endocarditis. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase Classic and Embase, LILACS, CINAHL, and the Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Science on 6 January 2020. We also searched three trials registers and handsearched the reference lists of included papers. We applied no language restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effects of antibiotic regimens for treating definitive infective endocarditis diagnosed according to modified Duke's criteria. We considered all-cause mortality, cure rates, and adverse events as the primary outcomes. We excluded people with possible infective endocarditis and pregnant women. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently performed study selection, 'Risk of bias' assessment, and data extraction in duplicate. We constructed 'Summary of findings' tables and used GRADE methodology to assess the quality of the evidence. We described the included studies narratively. MAIN RESULTS: Six small RCTs involving 1143 allocated/632 analysed participants met the inclusion criteria of this first update. The included trials had a high risk of bias. Three trials were sponsored by drug companies. Due to heterogeneity in outcome definitions and different antibiotics used data could not be pooled. The included trials compared miscellaneous antibiotic schedules having uncertain effects for all of the prespecified outcomes in this review. Evidence was either low or very low quality due to high risk of bias and very low number of events and small sample size. The results for all-cause mortality were as follows: one trial compared quinolone (levofloxacin) plus standard treatment (antistaphylococcal penicillin (cloxacillin or dicloxacillin), aminoglycoside (tobramycin or netilmicin), and rifampicin) versus standard treatment alone and reported 8/31 (26%) with levofloxacin plus standard treatment versus 9/39 (23%) with standard treatment alone; risk ratio (RR) 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.49 to 2.56. One trial compared fosfomycin plus imipenem 3/4 (75%) versus vancomycin 0/4 (0%) (RR 7.00, 95% CI 0.47 to 103.27), and one trial compared partial oral treatment 7/201 (3.5%) versus conventional intravenous treatment 13/199 (6.53%) (RR 0.53, 95% CI 0.22 to 1.31). The results for rates of cure with or without surgery were as follows: one trial compared daptomycin versus low-dose gentamicin plus an antistaphylococcal penicillin (nafcillin, oxacillin, or flucloxacillin) or vancomycin and reported 9/28 (32.1%) with daptomycin versus 9/25 (36%) with low-dose gentamicin plus antistaphylococcal penicillin or vancomycin; RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.42 to 1.89. One trial compared glycopeptide (vancomycin or teicoplanin) plus gentamicin with cloxacillin plus gentamicin (13/23 (56%) versus 11/11 (100%); RR 0.59, 95% CI 0.40 to 0.85). One trial compared ceftriaxone plus gentamicin versus ceftriaxone alone (15/34 (44%) versus 21/33 (64%); RR 0.69, 95% CI 0.44 to 1.10), and one trial compared fosfomycin plus imipenem versus vancomycin (1/4 (25%) versus 2/4 (50%); RR 0.50, 95% CI 0.07 to 3.55). The included trials reported adverse events, the need for cardiac surgical interventions, and rates of uncontrolled infection, congestive heart failure, relapse of endocarditis, and septic emboli, and found no conclusive differences between groups (very low-quality evidence). No trials assessed quality of life. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: This first update confirms the findings of the original version of the review. Limited and low to very low-quality evidence suggests that the comparative effects of different antibiotic regimens in terms of cure rates or other relevant clinical outcomes are uncertain. The conclusions of this updated Cochrane Review were based on few RCTs with a high risk of bias. Accordingly, current evidence does not support or reject any regimen of antibiotic therapy for the treatment of infective endocarditis.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Endocardite Bacteriana/tratamento farmacológico , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Endocardite Bacteriana/microbiologia , Endocardite Bacteriana/mortalidade , Feminino , Fosfomicina/efeitos adversos , Fosfomicina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Imipenem/efeitos adversos , Imipenem/uso terapêutico , Levofloxacino/efeitos adversos , Levofloxacino/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Penicilinas/efeitos adversos , Penicilinas/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Vancomicina/efeitos adversos , Vancomicina/uso terapêutico
17.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233284, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469943

RESUMO

Human milk provides complete nutrition for infants and at the same time promotes the growth of specific bacteria in the infant gastrointestinal tract. Breastfeeding can often be discontinued due to mastitis which is an inflammation of the breast tissue. We isolated 18 Staphylococcus aureus strains from milk donated by healthy (n = 6), subclinical (n = 6), and mastitic (n = 6) mothers, two strains of which were VISA (Vancomycin Intermediate S. aureus). All tested strains (n = 12) were able to form biofilms. We then examined the impact of nisin A and vancomycin alone and in combination on biofilm formation and eradication of selected strains (n = 8). We observed strain-specific responses, with the combinatorial treatment at 1/4X MIC (for both singularly) significantly inhibiting biofilm formation for seven out of eight strains when compared with nisin A or vancomycin alone. None of the selected treatments were able to eradicate pre-formed biofilms. Finally, we selected two strains, namely a VISA (APC3814H) and a strong biofilm former (APC3912CM) and used confocal microscopy to evaluate the effects of the antimicrobial agents at 1X MIC on biofilm inhibition and eradication. All treatments inhibited biofilm formation of APC3814H but were ineffective in eradicating a pre-formed biofilm. Single treatments at 1X MIC against APC3912CM cells did not prevent biofilm formation whereas combination treatment caused increased death of APC3912CM cells. Finally, the combination treatment reduced the thickness of the pre-formed APC3912CM biofilm as compared with the single treatments.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Mastite/tratamento farmacológico , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Leite Humano/efeitos dos fármacos , Nisina/uso terapêutico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Vancomicina/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Mastite/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Leite Humano/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia
18.
Neurocirugía (Soc. Luso-Esp. Neurocir.) ; 31(2): 64-75, mar.-abr. 2020. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-190374

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Evaluar la efectividad y seguridad del polvo de vancomicina tópico como profilaxis de infección de herida quirúrgica (IHQ) en cirugía de columna electiva por abordaje posterior. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio unicéntrico cuasiexperimental de comparación pre- y postintervención. El grupo postintervención recibió profilaxis antibiótica estándar preoperatoria junto a 1g de polvo de vancomicina en el lecho quirúrgico antes del cierre de la herida. El grupo preintervención solo recibió la profilaxis intravenosa. RESULTADOS: Participaron 150 pacientes en cada grupo. Ocurrieron 12 infecciones (7 superficiales, 5 profundas) en el grupo postintervención y 16 infecciones (7 superficiales, 9 profundas) en el grupo preintervención. El riesgo de IHQ profunda se redujo del 6% al 3,3% (OR 0,54; IC 95% 0,17-1,65; p = 0,411) con el tratamiento. El porcentaje de IHQ profunda por gramnegativos-positivos fue del 80-20% en el grupo tratado con vancomicina y del 33-67% en los no tratados (p = 0,265). No se produjeron efectos adversos locales ni sistémicos por el tratamiento. CONCLUSIÓN: La profilaxis con polvo de vancomicina en cirugía electiva de columna por abordaje posterior no redujo de forma significativa la incidencia de IHQ superficial o profunda. Se constató una tendencia al aumento de IHQ profunda por microorganismos gramnegativos en los tratados con vancomicina


OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness and safety of vancomycin powder as surgical site infection (SSI) prophylaxis in posterior bilateral elective spinal surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Single-center quasi-experimental pre and postintervention comparative cohort study. The post-intervention group received standard intravenous antibiotic prophylaxis plus 1g of vancomycin powder into the surgical field before wound closure, and the pre-intervention group only the intravenous prophylaxis. RESULTS: 150 patients were included in each group. Twelve SSI (7 superficial and 5 deep) occurred in the post-intervention group and 16 SSI (7 superficial and 9 deep) in the pre-intervention group. The risk of deep SSI decreased from 6.0% to 3.3% (OR 0,54, 95%CI 0.17-1.65, p = 0.411) with vancomycin powder. The percentage of deep SSI due to gram negative-positive germs were 80%-20% and 33%-67% for the post- and pre-intervention groups, respectively (p = 0.265). No local or systemic adverse effects occurred attributable to vancomycin powder. CONCLUSIÓN: In posterior elective spinal surgery, prophylaxis with vancomycin powder did not result in a significantly reduced incidence of superficial and deep SSI. There was a trend towards a higher incidence of deep SSI caused by gram negative microorganisms among those treated with vancomycin


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antibioticoprofilaxia/métodos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Vancomicina/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Coluna Vertebral/cirurgia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Tópica , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sucção/métodos , Laminectomia/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Vancomicina/efeitos adversos
19.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 32(2): 140-144, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32274995

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the changing characteristics of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) parameters of vancomycin in critical patients under different drug regimens and to further explore the influencing factors. METHODS: The clinical data of patients who treated with vancomycin and recorded by steady-state through concentration (Cmin) admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) of Ruijin Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine from January 2011 to December 2018 were analyzed retrospectively. The patients were divided into three groups according to the dosing interval (groups of q12 h, q8 h and q6 h respectively) and Cmin was collected. The serum concentration of vancomycin before (0 hour) and 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12 and 24 hours after administration were estimated by JPKD Ver 3.1. Area under the curve (AUC0-24 h) was estimated by trapezoidal area method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of pathogenic microorganisms in the same period was retrieved, thus AUC0-24 h/MIC was calculated. RESULTS: 285 patients with 529 records of Cmin were enrolled in the study, including 375 data in q12 h group, 121 data in q8 h group and 33 data in q6 h group. After unifying daily dose by JPKD Ver 3.1, the Cmin (10-20 mg/L) reaching rate of q12 h group, q8 h group, q6 h group were 35.7%, 43.8% and 60.6%, respectively, while only q12 h group was statistically significant compared with q6 h group (P < 0.01). q6 h group and q8 h group showed higher Cmin than q12 h group (mg/L: 13.8±5.2, 13.5±7.3 vs. 11.4±7.9, both P < 0.05) and lower peak concentration (Cmax) than q12 h group (mg/L: 19.4±5.3, 21.5±7.3 vs. 23.9±8.1, both P < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference in terms of percentage of PD target (AUC0-24 h/MIC ≥ 400) among the three groups (q12 h group, q8 h group, q6 h group were 38.1%, 41.3%, 45.5%, P > 0.05). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that creatinine clearance (CCr) and vancomycin clearance (CLvancomycin) were the main influencing factors of vancomycin PD parameters such as Cmin and AUC0-24 h/MIC (r values of CCr were -0.391, -0.424, and rvalues of CLvancomycin were -0.673, -0.663, all P < 0.01), and were negatively correlated with age (r values were -0.432 and -0.488, respectively, both P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: At the same daily dose, Cmin can be increased and Cmax can be decreased by increasing the frequency of vancomycin administration, thus minimize the fluctuation of vancomycin serum concentration, but AUC0-24 h/MIC is not affected. Vancomycin administration regimen in severe patients should be optimized according to CCr, CLvancomycin and age.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Vancomicina/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Área Sob a Curva , China , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vancomicina/uso terapêutico
20.
J Infect Chemother ; 26(8): 795-801, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32284181

RESUMO

Surgical antibiotic prophylaxis (SAP) is recommended for the prevention of surgical site infections. However, there is a concern about adverse effects of SAP, such as antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD). To prevent AAD, administration of probiotics has been investigated. Although recent advances in next-generation sequencing makes it possible to analyze the gut microbiome, the effect of probiotics on the gut microbiome in the patients with SAP remains unknown. To test a hypothesis that SAP influences the gut microbiome and probiotics prevent the influence, a randomized controlled study was conducted with patients who underwent spinal surgery at Nagasaki University Hospital. After obtaining informed consent, the patients were automatically classified into the non-probiotics group and the probiotics group. In the probiotics group, the patients took 1 g of Enterococcus faecium 129 BIO 3B-R, 3 times a day on postoperative days (PODs) 1-5. The feces of all patients were sampled before administration of SAP and on PODs 5 and 10. We compared alpha and beta diversity and differential abundance analysis of the gut microbiome before and after SAP. During the study period, a total of 33 patients were evaluated, comprising 17 patients in the non-probiotics group and 16 in the probiotics group. There was no significant difference between the groups regarding patient characteristics. In alpha and beta diversity, there were no significant differences among all combinations. In differential abundance analysis at operational taxonomic unit level, Streptococcus gallolyticus and Roseburia were significantly increased in the non-probiotics group and significantly decreased in the probiotics group.


Assuntos
Antibioticoprofilaxia/efeitos adversos , Cefazolina/efeitos adversos , Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Coluna Vertebral/cirurgia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Cefazolina/uso terapêutico , Diarreia/induzido quimicamente , Quimioterapia Combinada , Enterococcus faecium/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Vancomicina/efeitos adversos , Vancomicina/uso terapêutico
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