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1.
Am J Forensic Med Pathol ; 41(1): 1-4, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977349

RESUMO

The popularity of e-cigarettes (vaping) has been on the rise in recent years, but the adverse effects of vaping have been greatly unknown. In 2019, the use of vaping products has been linked to an outbreak of severe lung disease, some cases of which have progressed to death. One death attributed to vaping is presented with emphasis on the gross and histopathological findings from the autopsy. These findings were correlated with the patient's clinical course and medicolegal investigation to determine the cause of death. To our knowledge, this is the first confirmed death in the United States that was directly attributed to the use of vaping.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/patologia , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Pulmão/patologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/patologia , Vaping/efeitos adversos , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/etiologia , Adulto , Canabinoides , Proliferação de Células , Pneumonia em Organização Criptogênica/diagnóstico , Feminino , Fibroblastos/patologia , Patologia Legal , Hemorragia/patologia , Humanos , Hipertensão , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/patologia , Macrófagos/patologia , Miocárdio/patologia , Obesidade Mórbida , Tamanho do Órgão , Óleos Vegetais , Alvéolos Pulmonares/patologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/etiologia , Estados Unidos , Remodelação Vascular
2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(2): 44-49, 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945038

RESUMO

CDC, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), state and local health departments, and public health and clinical stakeholders continue to investigate a nationwide outbreak of e-cigarette, or vaping, product use-associated lung injury (EVALI) (1). EVALI patients in Illinois, Utah, and Wisconsin acquired tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-containing products primarily from informal sources (2,3). This report updates demographic characteristics and self-reported sources of THC- and nicotine-containing e-cigarette, or vaping, products derived from EVALI patient data reported to CDC by state health departments. As of January 7, 2020, among 1,979 (76%) patients with available data on substance use, a total of 1,620 (82%) reported using any THC-containing products, including 665 (34%) who reported exclusive THC-containing product use. Use of any nicotine-containing products was reported by 1,128 (57%) patients, including 264 (13%) who reported exclusive nicotine-containing product use. Among 809 (50%) patients reporting data on the source of THC-containing products, 131 (16%) reported acquiring their products from only commercial sources (i.e., recreational dispensaries, medical dispensaries, or both; vape or smoke shops; stores; and pop-up shops), 627 (78%) from only informal sources (i.e., friends, family, in-person or online dealers, or other sources), and 51 (6%) from both types of sources. Among 613 (54%) EVALI patients reporting nicotine-containing product use with available data on product source, 421 (69%) reported acquiring their products from only commercial sources, 103 (17%) from only informal sources, and 89 (15%) from both types of sources. Adolescents aged 13-17 years were more likely to acquire both THC- and nicotine-containing products from informal sources than were persons in older age groups. The high prevalence of acquisition of THC-containing products from informal sources by EVALI patients reinforces CDC's recommendation to not use e-cigarette, or vaping, products that contain THC, especially those acquired from informal sources. Although acquisition of nicotine-containing products through informal sources was not common overall, it was common among persons aged <18 years. While the investigation continues, CDC recommends that the best way for persons to ensure that they are not at risk is to consider refraining from the use of all e-cigarette, or vaping, products.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Lesão Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Vaping/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Dronabinol/efeitos adversos , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Feminino , Humanos , Lesão Pulmonar/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(3): 84-89, 2020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31971930

RESUMO

In 2019, the United States experienced an outbreak of e-cigarette, or vaping, product use-associated lung injury (EVALI) (1). Most EVALI patients have reported using tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-containing e-cigarette, or vaping, products obtained from informal sources (2,3), and vitamin E acetate in these products has been closely linked with EVALI (4,5). However, some EVALI patients report using only nicotine-containing products. This study compared demographic, product use, and clinical characteristics of EVALI patients in Illinois who reported using only nicotine-containing e-cigarette, or vaping, products with those of patients who reported using any THC-containing products. Among 121 interviewed Illinois EVALI patients, 17 (14%) reported using only nicotine-containing products, including nine (7%) patients who had no indication of any THC use, based on self-report or toxicology testing. Compared with patients who used any THC-containing products, these nine patients were significantly more likely to be older and female and were less likely to experience constitutional symptoms or to have leukocytosis on initial evaluation. Although vitamin E acetate has been strongly linked with EVALI, evidence is not sufficient to rule out the contribution of other chemicals of concern, including chemicals in either THC- or non-THC-containing products, in some reported EVALI cases. The contributing cause or causes of EVALI for patients reporting use of only nicotine-containing products warrants further investigation.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Lesão Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Nicotina/administração & dosagem , Nicotina/toxicidade , Vaping/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Illinois/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(3): 90-94, 2020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31971931

RESUMO

Since August 2019, CDC, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), state and local health departments, and public health and clinical stakeholders have been investigating a nationwide outbreak of e-cigarette, or vaping, product use-associated lung injury (EVALI) (1). This report updates patient demographic characteristics, self-reported substance use, and hospitalization dates for EVALI patients reported to CDC by states, as well as the distribution of emergency department (ED) visits related to e-cigarette, or vaping, products analyzed through the National Syndromic Surveillance Program (NSSP). As of January 14, 2020, a total of 2,668 hospitalized EVALI cases had been reported to CDC. Median patient age was 24 years, and 66% were male. Overall, 82% of EVALI patients reported using any tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-containing e-cigarette, or vaping, product (including 33% with exclusive THC-containing product use), and 57% of EVALI patients reported using any nicotine-containing product (including 14% with exclusive nicotine-containing product use). Syndromic surveillance indicates that ED visits related to e-cigarette, or vaping, products continue to decline after sharply increasing in August 2019 and peaking in September 2019. Clinicians and public health practitioners should remain vigilant for new EVALI cases. CDC recommends that persons not use THC-containing e-cigarette, or vaping, products, especially those acquired from informal sources such as friends, family members, or from in-person or online dealers. Vitamin E acetate is strongly linked to the EVALI outbreak and should not be added to any e-cigarette, or vaping, products (2). However, evidence is not sufficient to rule out the contribution of other chemicals of concern, including chemicals in either THC- or non-THC-containing products, in some reported EVALI cases.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Lesão Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Vaping/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Dronabinol/toxicidade , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lesão Pulmonar/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Vitamina E/toxicidade , Adulto Jovem
10.
S D Med ; 72(10): 446-449, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816204

RESUMO

Vaping has recently gained popularity among teenagers and young adults, well beyond its scope as an alterna- tive to cigarette smoking. A perceived favorable safety profile may have stemmed from the fact that vaping is being evaluated as a smoking cessation tool. We present a case of a young adult non-smoker who was exposed to commercially available vaping, and socially available cannabinoid by vaporizer, one to two weeks prior to developing respiratory and constitutional symptoms. His work-up confirmed a case of vaping induced lung injury.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Lesão Pulmonar , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Vaping , Adolescente , Humanos , Lesão Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Lesão Pulmonar/etiologia , Nebulizadores e Vaporizadores , Vaping/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
11.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(49): 1139-1141, 2019 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31830007

RESUMO

As of December 4, 2019, a total of 2,291 cases of hospitalized e-cigarette, or vaping, product use-associated lung injury (EVALI) have been reported from 50 states, the District of Columbia, and two U.S. territories (Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands) (1). State health departments, including the Indiana State Department of Health (ISDH), are working with their local health departments and with CDC, the Food and Drug Administration, and other clinical and public health partners in investigating this outbreak of EVALI. On August 7, 2019, ISDH issued an advisory regarding patients hospitalized in Wisconsin with severe acute lung injury who reported the use of e-cigarette, or vaping, products (2); health care providers were requested to notify ISDH of similar cases. On August 8, 2019, ISDH received reports of five similar cases among Indiana residents. Suspected cases EVALI reported to ISDH were investigated further only among patients who required hospitalization. Established case definitions were used to classify cases.* Medical record abstractions and patient interviews were completed using nationally standardized forms to ascertain patient characteristics, medical care received, and product-use behaviors.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Vaping/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Dronabinol/toxicidade , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Indiana/epidemiologia , Lesão Pulmonar/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
13.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(47): 1096-1100, 2019 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31774740

RESUMO

During August 9-October 31, 2019, 96 patients were classified as having e-cigarette, or vaping, product use-associated lung injury (EVALI) by the Minnesota Department of Health (MDH); other patients are being investigated for case classification and exposures. Among 58 patients interviewed, 53 (91%) reported obtaining tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-containing products from informal sources such as friends, family members, or in-person or online dealers. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS), the MDH Public Health Laboratory (PHL) analyzed 46 THC-containing e-cigarette, or vaping, products obtained from 12 EVALI patients for various potential toxicants, including vitamin E acetate, which has recently been detected in some THC-containing products and in samples of lung fluid from EVALI patients (1-4). To explore whether vitamin E acetate is a recently added component in THC-containing products, MDH tested ten products seized by law enforcement in 2018, before the EVALI outbreak, and 20 products seized in 2019, during the outbreak. Twenty-four products obtained from 11 EVALI patients from 2019 contained vitamin E acetate. Among the seized products tested by MDH, none seized in 2018 contained vitamin E acetate, although all tested THC-containing products seized in 2019 tested positive for vitamin E acetate. These chemical analyses of products obtained from EVALI patients and of products intended for the illicit market both before and during the outbreak support a potential role for vitamin E acetate in the EVALI outbreak; however, the number of products tested was small, and further research is needed to establish a causal link between exposure to inhaled vitamin E acetate and EVALI. Collaboration between public health jurisdictions and law enforcement to characterize THC-containing products circulating before the recognition of the EVALI outbreak and during the outbreak might provide valuable information about a dynamic market. These Minnesota findings highlight concerns about e-cigarette, or vaping, products that contain THC acquired from informal sources. Because local supply chains and policy environments vary, CDC continues to recommend not using e-cigarette, or vaping, products that contain THC or any e-cigarette, or vaping, products obtained from informal sources. E-cigarette, or vaping, products should never be used by youths, young adults, or pregnant women.* Until the relationship between inhaled vitamin E acetate and lung health is better characterized, vitamin E acetate should not be added to e-cigarette, or vaping, products.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Legislação de Medicamentos , Lesão Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Vaping/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Dronabinol/efeitos adversos , Dronabinol/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Aplicação da Lei , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Minnesota/epidemiologia , Vitamina E/efeitos adversos , Vitamina E/análise , Adulto Jovem
14.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 94(12): 2534-2545, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767123

RESUMO

The use of electronic cigarettes, known as vaping, has become increasingly popular over the past decade, particularly in the adolescent and young adult population, often exposing users to harmful chemicals. Vaping has been associated with a heterogeneous group of pulmonary disease. Recently, a multistate epidemic has emerged surrounding vaping-related acute lung injury, prompting the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to list an official health advisory. In this review, we describe the current literature on the epidemiology, clinical significance, as well as recommended evaluation and treatment of vaping-related lung injury.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/epidemiologia , Vaping/efeitos adversos , Vaping/epidemiologia , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Humanos
15.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(46): 1081-1086, 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31751322

RESUMO

CDC, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), state and local health departments, and public health and clinical stakeholders are investigating a nationwide outbreak of e-cigarette, or vaping, product use-associated lung injury (EVALI) (1). CDC has published recommendations for health care providers regarding EVALI (2-4). Recently, researchers from Utah and New York published proposed diagnosis and treatment algorithms for EVALI (5,6). EVALI remains a diagnosis of exclusion because, at present, no specific test or marker exists for its diagnosis, and evaluation should be guided by clinical judgment. Because patients with EVALI can experience symptoms similar to those associated with influenza or other respiratory infections (e.g., fever, cough, headache, myalgias, or fatigue), it might be difficult to differentiate EVALI from influenza or community-acquired pneumonia on initial assessment; EVALI might also co-occur with respiratory infections. This report summarizes recommendations for health care providers managing patients with suspected or known EVALI when respiratory infections such as influenza are more prevalent in the community than they have been in recent months (7). Recommendations include 1) asking patients with respiratory, gastrointestinal, or constitutional symptoms about the use of e-cigarette, or vaping, products; 2) evaluating those suspected to have EVALI with pulse oximetry and obtaining chest imaging, as clinically indicated; 3) considering outpatient management for clinically stable EVALI patients who meet certain criteria; 4) testing patients for influenza, particularly during influenza season, and administering antimicrobials, including antivirals, in accordance with established guidelines; 5) using caution when considering prescribing corticosteroids for outpatients, because this treatment modality has not been well studied among outpatients, and corticosteroids could worsen respiratory infections; 6) recommending evidence-based treatment strategies, including behavioral counseling, to help patients discontinue using e-cigarette, or vaping, products; and 7) emphasizing the importance of annual influenza vaccination for all persons aged ≥6 months, including patients who use e-cigarette, or vaping products.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Lesão Pulmonar/terapia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Vaping/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Lesão Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(46): 1076-1080, 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31751326

RESUMO

CDC, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), state and local health departments, and public health and clinical stakeholders are investigating a nationwide outbreak of e-cigarette, or vaping, product use-associated lung injury (EVALI) (1). As of November 13, 2019, 49 states, the District of Columbia, and two U.S. territories (Puerto Rico and U.S. Virgin Islands) have reported 2,172 EVALI cases to CDC, including 42 (1.9%) EVALI-associated deaths. To inform EVALI surveillance, including during the 2019-20 influenza season, case report information supplied by states for hospitalized and nonhospitalized patients with EVALI were analyzed using data collected as of November 5, 2019. Among 2,016 EVALI patients with available data on hospitalization status, 1,906 (95%) were hospitalized, and 110 (5%) were not hospitalized. Demographic characteristics of hospitalized and nonhospitalized patients were similar; most were male (68% of hospitalized versus 65% of nonhospitalized patients), and most were aged <35 years (78% of hospitalized versus 74% of nonhospitalized patients). These patients also reported similar use of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-containing products (83% of hospitalized versus 84% of nonhospitalized patients). Given the similarity between hospitalized and nonhospitalized EVALI patients, the potential for large numbers of respiratory infections during the emerging 2019-20 influenza season, and the potential difficulty in distinguishing EVALI from respiratory infections, CDC will no longer collect national data on nonhospitalized EVALI patients. Further collection of data on nonhospitalized patients will be at the discretion of individual state, local, and territorial health departments. Candidates for outpatient management of EVALI should have normal oxygen saturation (≥95% while breathing room air), no respiratory distress, no comorbidities that might compromise pulmonary reserve, reliable access to care, strong social support systems, and should be able to ensure follow-up within 24-48 hours of initial evaluation and to seek medical care promptly if respiratory symptoms worsen. Health care providers should emphasize the importance of annual influenza vaccination for all persons aged ≥6 months, including persons who use e-cigarette, or vaping, products (2,3).


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Lesão Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Vaping/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Lesão Pulmonar/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(43): 985-989, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671085

RESUMO

CDC, the Food and Drug Administration, state and local health departments, and other public health and clinical stakeholders are investigating a national outbreak of electronic-cigarette (e-cigarette), or vaping, product use-associated lung injury (EVALI) (1). As of October 22, 2019, 49 states, the District of Columbia (DC), and the U.S. Virgin Islands have reported 1,604 cases of EVALI to CDC, including 34 (2.1%) EVALI-associated deaths in 24 states. Based on data collected as of October 15, 2019, this report updates data on patient characteristics and substances used in e-cigarette, or vaping, products (2) and describes characteristics of EVALI-associated deaths. The median age of EVALI patients who survived was 23 years, and the median age of EVALI patients who died was 45 years. Among 867 (54%) EVALI patients with available data on use of specific e-cigarette, or vaping, products in the 3 months preceding symptom onset, 86% reported any use of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-containing products, 64% reported any use of nicotine-containing products, and 52% reported use of both. Exclusive use of THC-containing products was reported by 34% of patients and exclusive use of nicotine-containing products by 11%, and for 2% of patients, no use of either THC- or nicotine-containing products was reported. Among 19 EVALI patients who died and for whom substance use data were available, 84% reported any use of THC-containing products, including 63% who reported exclusive use of THC-containing products; 37% reported any use of nicotine-containing products, including 16% who reported exclusive use of nicotine-containing products. To date, no single compound or ingredient used in e-cigarette, or vaping, products has emerged as the cause of EVALI, and there might be more than one cause. Because most patients reported using THC-containing products before symptom onset, CDC recommends that persons should not use e-cigarette, or vaping, products that contain THC. In addition, because the specific compound or ingredient causing lung injury is not yet known, and while the investigation continues, persons should consider refraining from the use of all e-cigarette, or vaping, products.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Lesão Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Vaping/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Dronabinol/toxicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Lesão Pulmonar/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Lancet ; 394(10214): 2073-2083, 2019 12 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711629

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An ongoing outbreak of lung injury associated with e-cigarettes or vaping (also known as E-VALI or VALI) started in March, 2019, in the USA. The cause, diagnosis, treatment, and course of this disease remains unknown. METHODS: In this multicentre, prospective, observational, cohort study, we collected data on all patients with lung injury associated with e-cigarettes or vaping seen in Intermountain Healthcare, an integrated health system based in Utah, USA, between June 27 and Oct 4, 2019. Telecritical care, based in Salt Lake City, UT, USA, was used as the central repository for case validation, public reporting, and system-wide dissemination of expertise, which included a proposed diagnosis and treatment guideline for lung injury associated with e-cigarettes or vaping. We extracted data on patient presentation, treatment, and short-term follow-up (2 weeks after discharge) from chart review and interviews with patients undertaken by the Utah Department of Health (Salt Lake City, UT, USA). FINDINGS: 60 patients presented with lung injury associated with e-cigarettes or vaping at 13 hospitals or outpatient clinics in the integrated health system. 33 (55%) of 60 were admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU). 53 (88%) of 60 patients presented with constitutional symptoms, 59 (98%) with respiratory symptoms, and 54 (90%) with gastrointestinal symptoms. 54 (90%) of 60 were given antibiotics and 57 (95%) were given steroids. Six (10%) of 60 patients were readmitted to an ICU or hospital within 2 weeks, three (50%) of whom had relapsed with vaping or e-cigarette use. Of 26 patients who were followed up within 2 weeks, despite clinical and radiographic improvement in all, many had residual abnormalities on chest radiographs (ten [67%] of 15) and pulmonary function tests (six [67%] of nine). Two patients died and lung injury associated with e-cigarettes or vaping was thought to be a contributing factor, but not the cause of death, for both. INTERPRETATION: Lung injury associated with e-cigarettes or vaping is an emerging illness associated with severe lung injury and constitutional and gastrointestinal symptoms. Increased awareness has led to identification of a broad spectrum of severity of illness in patients who were treated with antibiotics and steroids. Despite improvement, at short-term follow-up many patients had residual abnormalities. Lung injury associated with e-cigarettes or vaping remains a clinical diagnosis with symptoms that overlap infectious and other lung diseases. Maintaining a high index of suspicion for this disease is important as work continues in understanding the cause or causes, optimal therapy, and long-term outcomes of these patients. FUNDING: Intermountain Healthcare.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/etiologia , Vaping/efeitos adversos , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/diagnóstico por imagem , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/epidemiologia , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/terapia , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Broncoscopia , Canabidiol/administração & dosagem , Estudos de Coortes , Surtos de Doenças , Dronabinol/administração & dosagem , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Nicotina/administração & dosagem , Ventilação não Invasiva , Oxigenoterapia , Estudos Prospectivos , Respiração Artificial , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Utah/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(45): 1040-1041, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725707

RESUMO

CDC, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), state and local health departments, and multiple public health and clinical partners are investigating a national outbreak of e-cigarette, or vaping, product use-associated lung injury (EVALI). Based on data collected as of October 15, 2019, 86% of 867 EVALI patients reported using tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-containing products in the 3 months preceding symptom onset (1). Analyses of THC-containing product samples by FDA and state public health laboratories have identified potentially harmful constituents in these products, such as vitamin E acetate, medium chain triglyceride oil (MCT oil), and other lipids (2,3) (personal communication, D.T. Heitkemper, FDA Forensic Chemistry Center, November 2019). Vitamin E acetate, in particular, might be used as an additive in the production of e-cigarette, or vaping, products; it also can be used as a thickening agent in THC products (4). Inhalation of vitamin E acetate might impair lung function (5-7).


Assuntos
Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Surtos de Doenças , Lesão Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Vaping/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(45): 1034-1039, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725708

RESUMO

The United States is experiencing an unprecedented outbreak of e-cigarette, or vaping, product use-associated lung injury (EVALI) (1). All EVALI patients have used e-cigarette, or vaping, products, and most (≥85%) have reported using products containing tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) (2,3), the principal psychoactive component of cannabis. To examine whether e-cigarette, or vaping, product use behaviors differed between adult EVALI patients and adults who use these products but have not developed lung injury, the Illinois Department of Public Health (IDPH) conducted an online public survey during September-October 2019 targeting e-cigarette, or vaping, product users in Illinois. Among 4,631 survey respondents, 94% reported using any nicotine-containing e-cigarette, or vaping, products in the past 3 months; 21% used any THC-containing products; and 11% used both THC-containing products and nicotine-containing products. Prevalence of THC-containing product use was highest among survey respondents aged 18-24 years (36%) and decreased with increasing age. E-cigarette, or vaping, product use behaviors of 66 EVALI patients aged 18-44 years who were interviewed as part of the ongoing outbreak investigation were compared with a subset of 519 survey respondents aged 18-44 years who reported use of THC-containing e-cigarette, or vaping, products. Compared with these survey respondents, EVALI patients had higher odds of reporting exclusive use of THC-containing products (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1-3.6); frequent use (more than five times per day) of these products (aOR = 3.1, 95% CI = 1.6-6.0), and obtaining these products from informal sources, such as a dealer, off the street, or from a friend (aOR = 9.2, 95% CI = 2.2-39.4). The odds of using Dank Vapes, a class of largely counterfeit THC-containing products, was also higher among EVALI patients (aOR = 8.5, 95% CI = 3.8-19.0). These findings reinforce current recommendations not to use e-cigarette, or vaping, products that contain THC and not to use any e-cigarette, or vaping, products obtained from informal sources. In addition, because the specific compound or ingredient causing lung injury is not yet known, CDC continues to recommend that persons consider refraining from use of all e-cigarette, or vaping, products while the outbreak investigation continues (1).


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Vaping/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Dronabinol/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Illinois/epidemiologia , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
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