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3.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(8): 104903, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32689580

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Evaluate reversal strategies in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients with warfarin-associated intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) in clinical care. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Observational cohort of AF patients with warfarin-associated ICH at two referral hospitals (2007-2010), with patient features, reversal agents, and outcomes collected from medical records. RESULTS: Among 498 ICH patients 403 received fresh frozen plasma (FFP) without 3-factor prothrombin complex concentrates (PCCs) or recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa), 65 received PCCs or rFVIIa, mostly with FFP, and 30 received no acute reversal agents. Median time from presentation to reversal agent administration was 3.4 h (IQR 2.3-5.3). INR was reversed to ≤1.4 by 6 h post-presentation in 46% of patients receiving PCCs/rFVIIa versus 15% receiving FFP alone (p<0.0001). Among PCCs/rFVIIa recipients, 31% died in-hospital vs. 24% receiving FFP alone (p=0.27). Adjusted OR for death accounting for age and Glasgow Coma Score was 0.78 (0.36-1.69) for PCCs/rFVIIa vs FFP only and 1.16 (0.59-2.27) comparing those reaching vs. not reaching INR ≤ 1.4 at 6 h. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with PCCs/rFVIIa led to faster INR reversal than treatment with FFP alone. Neither treatment with PCCs/rFVIIa nor rapid INR reversal was associated with improved survival. Delays receiving PCCs may largely eliminate the benefit of treatment.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores de Coagulação Sanguínea/uso terapêutico , Coagulação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Coagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fator VIIa/uso terapêutico , Hemorragias Intracranianas/terapia , Plasma , Varfarina/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fatores de Coagulação Sanguínea/efeitos adversos , Boston , Coagulantes/efeitos adversos , Fator VIIa/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Coeficiente Internacional Normatizado , Hemorragias Intracranianas/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragias Intracranianas/diagnóstico , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Am Heart J ; 227: 91-99, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32693197

RESUMO

Vitamin K antagonists are the only approved oral anticoagulants for long-term prophylaxis against valve thrombosis and thromboembolism in patients with a mechanical heart valve. Despite the proven efficacy and safety of anticoagulation with the oral direct factor Xa inhibitor apixaban compared with warfarin in high-risk populations including subjects with atrial fibrillation or with venous thromboembolism, it remains unknown whether patients with a mechanical heart valve can be safely managed with apixaban. The On-X Aortic Heart Valve and On-X Ascending Aortic Prosthesis with the Vascutek Gelweave Valsalva Graft may have lower rates of valve thrombosis and thromboembolism than conventional bileaflet and tilting disc valves due its unique pyrolytic carbon composition and flared inlet design. DESIGN: PROACT Xa is a randomized, multicenter, open-label, active-controlled trial comparing apixaban with warfarin in patients with an On-X Aortic Heart Valve or On-X Ascending Aortic Prosthesis with the Vascutek Gelweave Valsalva Graft. The study will randomize approximately 1,000 patients from approximately 60 sites in North America who underwent aortic valve replacement at least 3 months prior. Patients will be randomized 1:1 to receiving apixaban 5 mg twice daily or warfarin with a target international normalized ratio of 2.0-3.0. The last randomized participant will be followed for at least 2 years. The primary efficacy outcome is the composite of valve thrombosis and valve-related thromboembolism, and the primary safety outcome is major bleeding. Assuming the primary outcome occurs in warfarin-anticoagulated patients at a rate of 1.75%/patient-year, the study has more than 90% power to assess noninferiority of apixaban treatment with an absolute noninferiority margin of 1.75%/patient-year. A second co-primary analysis is to compare the hazard rate for the apixaban arm to twice the objective performance criterion for thromboembolism and valve thrombosis, that is, 3.4%/patient-year. SUMMARY: PROACT Xa will determine whether patients with an On-X Aortic Heart Valve can be anticoagulated with apixaban as an alternative to warfarin.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Piridonas/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Tromboembolia/prevenção & controle , Trombose/prevenção & controle , Varfarina/uso terapêutico , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Desenho de Prótese , Pirazóis/efeitos adversos , Piridonas/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Varfarina/efeitos adversos
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(25): e20724, 2020 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569210

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The use of warfarin in patients undergoing hemodialysis is associated with decreased bone mineral density and an increased incidence of bone fracture. However, no studies to date have directly estimated bone quality with bone histomorphometry in patients with bone abnormalities who are taking warfarin and undergoing hemodialysis. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 47-year-old female with Noonan syndrome presented with progressive bilateral lower extremity pain on walking, and skin sclerosis. She had been undergoing maintenance hemodialysis for 25 years following 2 years of peritoneal dialysis for chronic glomerulonephritis. She had been taking warfarin as an anticoagulant agent for 13 years after she underwent an aortic valve replacement. DIAGNOSIS: Warfarin-induced impairment of bone material quality. INTERVENTIONS AND OUTCOMES: Histomorphometric analysis of the bone biopsy specimens showed impairment in bone calcification processes, a high turnover of bone remodeling, low bone volume, and mild fibrosis. The bone abnormality could not be categorized into any type of representative bone disease classification such as osteitis fibrosa, osteomalacia, adynamic bone disease, uremic osteodystrophy, or hyperparathyroidism, but was consistent with warfarin-induced impairment of bone material quality. CONCLUSION: Warfarin can induce impairment of bone material quality in a patient undergoing hemodialysis.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Distúrbio Mineral e Ósseo na Doença Renal Crônica/terapia , Síndrome de Noonan/complicações , Diálise Renal , Varfarina/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
7.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 95(5): 929-943, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32370854

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To address gaps in the data comparing non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) and warfarin among patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) and diabetes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted on patients with NVAF and diabetes newly initiating apixaban, dabigatran, rivaroxaban, or warfarin from January 1, 2013, through September 30, 2015, with Medicare data from the US Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services and 4 other US commercial claims databases. One-to-one propensity score matching was completed between NOACs and warfarin and between NOACs in each database, and the results were pooled. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the risk of stroke/systemic embolism (SE) and major bleeding (MB). RESULTS: A total of 154,324 patients were included in the 6 matched cohorts, with a mean follow-up time of 6 to 8 months. Compared with warfarin, apixaban (hazard ratio [HR], 0.67; 95% CI, 0.57-0.77) and rivaroxaban (HR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.71-0.89) were associated with a lower risk of stroke/SE; dabigatran (HR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.67-1.07) was associated with a similar risk of stroke/SE. Apixaban (HR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.56-0.65) and dabigatran (HR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.69-0.88) were associated with a lower risk of MB; rivaroxaban (HR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.94-1.10) was associated with a similar risk of MB compared with warfarin. Compared with dabigatran and rivaroxaban, apixaban was associated with a lower risk of MB. Compared with rivaroxaban, dabigatran was associated with a lower risk of MB. CONCLUSION: This study-the largest observational study to date of patients with NVAF and diabetes taking anticoagulants-found that NOACs were associated with variable rates of stroke/SE and MB compared with warfarin. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT03087487.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Complicações do Diabetes/complicações , Embolia/prevenção & controle , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Varfarina/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Embolia/epidemiologia , Embolia/etiologia , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Varfarina/efeitos adversos
8.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 115(9): 1513-1524, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32467502

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The risk of liver injury in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) using nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) has not been previously examined using liver function tests as the primary outcome in the real-world setting. This study assessed the association between NOACs (dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban) and warfarin and the risk of liver injury, as defined by laboratory tests. METHODS: Patients newly diagnosed with AF and prescribed NOACs or warfarin between 2010 and 2016, identified using the Hong Kong Clinical Database and Reporting System, were matched on age, sex, health status scores, comorbidities, and medications by propensity score on a 1:1 ratio. Risk of liver injury, defined as laboratory test values >3 times the upper limit of normal of alanine aminotransferase or aspartate aminotransferase and >2 times the upper limit of normal of total bilirubin, was compared between NOAC and warfarin users using Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: After propensity score matching, 13,698 patients were included, of which 141 (2.1%) NOAC users and 232 (3.4%) warfarin users developed liver injury. The hazard ratio (HR) for NOAC vs warfarin users was 0.71 (95% confidence interval: 0.58-0.89). When comparing individual NOACs, only dabigatran (hazard ratio: 0.63; 95% confidence interval: 0.48-0.82) was associated with a lower risk of liver injury. DISCUSSION: Among patients with AF, NOACs as a group, and dabigatran alone were associated with a significantly lower risk of laboratory-based liver injury when compared with warfarin. However, liver injury occurs more frequently in real-world practice than in NOAC randomized controlled trials.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Dabigatrana/efeitos adversos , Pirazóis/efeitos adversos , Piridonas/efeitos adversos , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Varfarina/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Dabigatrana/uso terapêutico , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pontuação de Propensão , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Piridonas/uso terapêutico , Risco , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico , Varfarina/uso terapêutico
9.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(7): 104888, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32414583

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Understanding factors associated with ischemic stroke despite therapeutic anticoagulation is an important goal to improve stroke prevention strategies in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). We aim to determine factors associated with therapeutic or supratherapeutic anticoagulation status at the time of ischemic stroke in patients with AF. METHODS: The Initiation of Anticoagulation after Cardioembolic stroke (IAC) study is a multicenter study pooling data from stroke registries of eight comprehensive stroke centers across the United States. Consecutive patients hospitalized with acute ischemic stroke in the setting of AF were included in the IAC cohort. For this study, we only included patients who reported taking warfarin at the time of the ischemic stroke. Patients not on anticoagulation and patients who reported use of a direct oral anticoagulant were excluded. Analyses were stratified based on therapeutic (INR ≥2) versus subtherapeutic (INR <2) anticoagulation status. We used binary logistic regression models to determine factors independently associated with anticoagulation status after adjustment for pertinent confounders. In particular, we sought to determine whether atherosclerosis with 50% or more luminal narrowing in an artery supplying the infarct (a marker for a competing atherosclerotic mechanism) and small stroke size (≤ 10 mL; implying a competing small vessel disease mechanism) related to anticoagulant status. RESULTS: Of the 2084 patients enrolled in the IAC study, 382 patients met the inclusion criteria. The mean age was 77.4 ± 10.9 years and 52.4% (200/382) were women. A total of 222 (58.1%) subjects presented with subtherapeutic INR. In adjusted models, small stroke size (OR 1.74 95% CI 1.10-2.76, p = 0.019) and atherosclerosis with 50% or more narrowing in an artery supplying the infarct (OR 1.96 95% CI 1.06-3.63, p = 0.031) were independently associated with INR ≥2 at the time of their index stroke. CONCLUSION: Small stroke size (≤ 10 ml) and ipsilateral atherosclerosis with 50% or more narrowing may indicate a competing stroke mechanism. There may be important opportunities to improve stroke prevention strategies for patients with AF by targeting additional ischemic stroke mechanisms to improve patient outcomes.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Coagulação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Isquemia Encefálica/prevenção & controle , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Varfarina/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Monitoramento de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Coeficiente Internacional Normatizado , Arteriosclerose Intracraniana/epidemiologia , Masculino , Recidiva , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Varfarina/efeitos adversos
10.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 140(5): 723-728, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32378676

RESUMO

The widespread use of health foods, including supplements, is now common among patients. This is because many health foods are being claimed to be beneficial. If patients use medicines and health foods concurrently, the interaction between the two might lead to adverse events. Additionally, it is reported that pharmacists do not generally care about health food use in their patients, because they also lack sufficient knowledge about health foods. On the contrary, there are some licenses to be a health food advisor in Japan, and the generic name of these licenses is "advisory staff". Pharmacists who have this license are specialists in both medicines and health foods, and thus, they might pay more attention to the concurrent use of medicines and health foods compared to those who do not have the advisory staff license. To address this issue, we conducted a study with an online questionnaire about health food consultation, and 87 pharmacists with advisory staff license participated. Only 36.8% of participants were found to always ask their patients about health food use. However, 92.0% of them had experience of consultation about the simultaneous use of medicines and health foods, and 17.2% of them recognized adverse events by knowing about the concurrent use. Patients who experienced adverse events have used either eicosapentaenoic acid/docosahexaenoic acid supplement with epadel or Ginkgo biloba extract with warfarin. Therefore, an active interview with pharmacists is important to avoid such adverse events in patients.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Interações Medicamentosas , Interações Alimento-Droga , Alimentos Especializados , Alimento Funcional , Licenciamento , Farmacêuticos , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/efeitos adversos , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/efeitos adversos , Alimentos Especializados/efeitos adversos , Alimento Funcional/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Japão , Conhecimento , Extratos Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Varfarina/efeitos adversos
11.
Cardiovasc Drugs Ther ; 34(3): 371-381, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32232617

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The safety and efficacy of uninterrupted, minimally interrupted (one dose skipped) or completely interrupted (24 h skipped) oral anticoagulant therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation are poorly defined. We conducted a network meta-analysis to explore the effect of interrupted or uninterrupted oral anticoagulants in patients with AF undergoing ablation. METHODS: The Cochrane Library, PubMed and Embase databases were systematically searched for studies comparing uninterrupted, minimally interrupted or completely interrupted non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) with continuous or interrupted warfarin in patients undergoing AF ablation. RESULTS: Twelve randomized clinical trials (RCTs) with a total of 5597 patients with AF undergoing catheter ablation were included. For thromboembolism, minimally interrupted NOACs (OR 0.03, 95% CI 0.01-0.35), uninterrupted NOACs (OR 0.04, 95% CI 0.01-0.23) and continuous VKAs (OR 0.05, 95% CI 0.01-0.21) were better than interrupted warfarin. The risk of total bleeding appeared higher in the completely interrupted NOAC group compared with the minimally interrupted NOACs (OR 2.74, 95% CI 1.18-6.37), uninterrupted NOACs (OR 2.15, 95% CI 1.05-4.38) and uninterrupted warfarin (OR 2.04, 95% CI 1.02-4.08). To reduce the risk of total bleeding, minimally interrupted NOACs (OR 0.15, 95% CI 0.08-0.27), uninterrupted NOACs (OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.14-0.42) and uninterrupted warfarin (OR 0.24, 95% CI 0.15-0.39) were better than interrupted warfarin. In the event of major bleeding, there was no significant difference in the interrupted NOAC, uninterrupted NOAC, interrupted VKA and uninterrupted VKA groups. CONCLUSIONS: These three NOAC strategies may have similar safety and efficacy in terms of thromboembolism and major bleeding complications. The total bleeding risk of completely interrupted oral anticoagulants is higher than that of uninterrupted and minimally interrupted NOACs. For thromboembolism, minimally interrupted NOACs, uninterrupted NOACs and continuous VKAs were better than interrupted warfarin.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Ablação , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Fibrilação Atrial/terapia , Frequência Cardíaca , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Varfarina/administração & dosagem , Técnicas de Ablação/efeitos adversos , Administração Oral , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Varfarina/efeitos adversos
12.
Am J Hematol ; 95(7): 817-823, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32267011

RESUMO

Randomized controlled trials leading to the approval of apixaban and rivaroxaban for venous thromboembolism (VTE) did not include patients with upper extremity deep vein thrombosis (UE-DVT). We sought to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of rivaroxaban and apixaban for the treatment of acute UE-DVT. Consecutive patients with VTE enrolled into the Mayo Clinic VTE Registry, between March 1, 2013 and December 31, 2019, were followed prospectively. Clinical, demographic and imaging data were collected at the time of study recruitment. Patients with a diagnosis of acute UE-DVT who received rivaroxaban, apixaban, LMWH or warfarin were included. Recurrent VTE, major bleeding, clinical-relevant non-major bleeding (CRNMB), and death were assessed at 3-month intervals. During the study period, 210 patients with acute UE-DVT were included; 63 were treated with apixaban, 39 with rivaroxaban, and 108 with LWMH and/or warfarin. Overall 51% had catheter-associated UE-DVT, 60% had a diagnosis of malignancy, and 14% had concurrent pulmonary embolism. Malignancy was more common in patients treated with LMWH/warfarin (67% vs 52%, P = .03). At 3 months of follow up, one (0.9%) recurrent VTE occurred in a patient treated with LMWH/warfarin and one (1.0%) patient treated with apixaban or rivaroxaban (P = .97). Major bleeding occurred in three patients treated with LMWH/warfarin, and in none of those treated with apixaban or rivaroxaban (P = .09). Clinical-relevant non-major bleeding occurred in one patient (0.9%) treated with LWMH/warfarin and two patients (2.0%) treated with apixaban or rivaroxaban (P = .53). Treatment of UE-DVT with apixaban or rivaroxaban appears to be as safe and effective as LMWH/warfarin.


Assuntos
Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Piridonas/administração & dosagem , Sistema de Registros , Rivaroxabana/administração & dosagem , Extremidade Superior/irrigação sanguínea , Trombose Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/administração & dosagem , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pirazóis/efeitos adversos , Piridonas/efeitos adversos , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Trombose Venosa/epidemiologia , Varfarina/administração & dosagem , Varfarina/efeitos adversos
13.
Open Heart ; 7(1): e001232, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32341789

RESUMO

Objective: To assess the safety (ie, risk of bleeding) and effectiveness (ie, risk of stroke/systemic embolism (SE)) separately for four non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants (NOACs; apixaban, dabigatran, edoxaban and rivaroxaban) versus warfarin in Japanese patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF), including those at high risk of bleeding and treated with reduced doses of NOACs. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of electronic health records and claims data from 372 acute care hospitals in Japan for patients with NVAF newly initiated on NOACs or warfarin. Baseline characteristics were balanced using inverse probability of treatment weighting with stabilised weights (s-IPTW). Bleeding risk and stroke/SE risk were expressed as HRs with 95% CIs. Two sensitivity analyses were conducted. Results: A total of 73 989 patients were eligible for analysis. Notably, 52.8%-81.9% of patients received reduced doses of NOACs. After applying s-IPTW, patient characteristics were well balanced across warfarin/NOAC cohorts. The mean within-cohort age, CHADS2 score and CHA2DS2-VASc score were 76 years, 2.2-2.3 and 3.8, respectively. In all age categories, the majority of the HRs for major bleeding, any bleeding and stroke/SE were equal to or below 1 for all NOACs versus warfarin. Apixaban was the only NOAC associated with a significantly lower risk of any bleeding. There was a trend towards increased risk reduction with NOACs versus warfarin in patients with body weight ≥60 kg. In patients with renal disease, the HRs for apixaban versus warfarin were below 1 for major bleeding, any bleeding and stroke/SE, with statistical significance observed for the risk reduction in stroke/SE versus warfarin. In the sensitivity analysis, there were no large differences in HRs between the two observational periods. Conclusions: In patients with NVAF primarily treated with reduced-dose NOACs, the risks of stroke/SE and major bleeding were significantly lower with NOACs versus warfarin.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Antitrombinas/administração & dosagem , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Varfarina/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Demandas Administrativas em Assistência à Saúde , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Antitrombinas/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Dabigatrana/administração & dosagem , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Segurança do Paciente , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Piridonas/administração & dosagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Rivaroxabana/administração & dosagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Tiazóis/administração & dosagem , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Vitamina K/antagonistas & inibidores , Varfarina/efeitos adversos
14.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 68(3): 85-86, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32138495

RESUMO

Warfarin is known to interact with many drugs and can lead to serious consequences. We report a case of 52 years old female patient from Himachal Pradesh. During hospital stay patient developed coagulopathy in form of INR above 10 and bradycardia with ventricular rate on ECG with digoxin level of 3.76 ng/ml. In this way digoxin toxicity was confirmed and it was considered as cause of coagulopathy after ruling out interactions of warfarin.


Assuntos
Digoxina/efeitos adversos , Varfarina/efeitos adversos , Bradicardia , Interações Medicamentosas , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 13(3): e005894, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32160790

RESUMO

Background Since the direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) were introduced, oral anticoagulant (OAC) prescription patterns have rapidly changed in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). We aimed to evaluate the evolving trends of OAC use in a large nationwide cohort and specifically examine the changes in patient profiles treated with warfarin or DOAC and whether the time trends in OAC use affected clinical outcomes. Methods and Results Using the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment database, we divided OAC naive patients with AF into 3 groups according to the enrollment period between January 2015 and December 2017 (n=35 353 in cohort 1, n=36 631 in cohort 2, and n=44 819 in cohort 3). DOAC use increased from 59% to 89%, whereas warfarin use has decreased from 41% to 11% during the study period. Patients treated with warfarin were increasingly younger from cohort 1 to cohort 3 (mean age 68-65 years, P<0.001) with lower mean CHA2DS2-VASc scores (3.3-2.9, P<0.001), whereas those with DOAC did not show a significant difference in clinical characteristics over the study period. Warfarin group had improved clinical outcomes over time, reflecting dynamic changes in patient characteristics. Compared with warfarin group, unadjusted hazard ratios of composite outcome for DOAC group have changed over time (hazard ratio 0.77 [95% CI, 0.69-0.85] in cohort 1, hazard ratio 0.84 [95% CI, 0.73-0.97] in cohort 2, and hazard ratio 1.00 [95% CI, 0.78-1.25] in cohort 3). After propensity score weighting between warfarin and DOAC groups in each cohort, DOAC showed consistently lower risks of the composite outcome by approximately 23% to 25% compared with warfarin across 3 different periods. Conclusions In contemporary clinical practice, OAC prescription patterns and characteristics of patients treated warfarin or DOAC have dynamically changed. Despite these changes, DOAC showed a consistent better net clinical benefit compared with warfarin across different periods.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Varfarina/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Prescrições de Medicamentos , Uso de Medicamentos/tendências , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Segurança do Paciente , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Varfarina/efeitos adversos
16.
Cardiovasc Drugs Ther ; 34(3): 391-399, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32206988

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The efficacy and safety of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) compared with warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and peripheral artery disease (PAD) remain largely unknown. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to explore the effects of NOACs versus warfarin in this population. METHODS: We systematically searched the PubMed and Embase databases, with no linguistic restrictions, until December 2019 for relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies. A random-effects model using an inverse variance method was selected to pool the risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: A total of six studies (three post hoc analyses of RCTs and three cohort studies) were included in this meta-analysis. Among AF patients treated with NOACs and warfarin, individuals with PAD had increased rates of all-cause death (RR = 1.26, 95% CI 1.07-1.48) and cardiovascular death (RR = 1.32, 95% CI 1.06-1.64) compared with those without PAD. In AF patients with PAD, we observed a similar risk of thromboembolic events, bleeding, and death with NOACs as with warfarin. In addition, there were no interactions between PAD and non-PAD subgroups regarding any of the reported outcomes of NOACs versus warfarin in AF patients (all Pinteraction > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Based on current evidence, AF patients with PAD are at a higher risk of death than those without PAD. Efficacy and safety outcomes with NOACs are comparable to those with warfarin, suggesting that the use of NOACs has effects similar to warfarin in AF patients with concomitant PAD.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Doença Arterial Periférica/terapia , Varfarina/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/mortalidade , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico , Doença Arterial Periférica/mortalidade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Vitamina K/antagonistas & inibidores , Varfarina/efeitos adversos
17.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 19(1): 30, 2020 03 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32156277

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies specifically examining the association between glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels and ischemic stroke/systemic thromboembolism (IS/SE) risk in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients are limited. Here, we investigated the association between HbA1c levels and the risk of IS/SE, as well as major bleeding, among AF patients with or without oral anticoagulants (OACs). We also compared the effectiveness and safety of warfarin and direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) in different HbA1c categories. METHODS: We utilized medical data from a multi-center healthcare provider in Taiwan, which included 34,036 AF patients with serum HbA1c data available within 3 months after AF being diagnosed. Patients were divided into seven study groups according to their HbA1c levels: < 5.4%, 5.4%-5.6%, 5.7%-5.9%, 6.0%-6.4%, 6.5%-6.9%, 7.0%-7.9%, and ≥ 8.0%. The risks of IS/SE and major bleeding were compared among the groups after adjusting for baseline stroke and bleeding risk factors. RESULTS: Compared with the patients with HbA1c level < 5.4%, IS/SE risk significantly increased at HbA1c levels higher than 6.5% [adjusted hazard ratio (HR): 1.20, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00-1.43 for HbA1c level 6.5%-6.9%; 1.32, (95% CI 1.11-1.57) for HbA1c level 7.0%-7.9%; and 1.48 (95% CI 1.25-1.76) for HbA1c level ≥ 8.0%]. These results were generally consistent in AF patients without OACs (n = 24,931). However, among 9105 patients receiving OACs, IS/SE risk was not higher for patients having higher HbA1c levels. The risk of major bleeding was comparable across all HbA1c categories. Compared with warfarin, DOACs were associated with lower risks of IS/SE (adjusted HR: 0.61, 95% CI 0.49-0.75) and major bleeding (adjusted HR: 0.30, 95% CI 0.21-0.42) without interactions across different HbA1c categories (all P interactions > 0.05). CONCLUSION: For AF patients, IS/SE risk significantly increased once HbA1c levels exceeded 6.5%, and OACs may attenuate these associations. Compared with warfarin, DOACs were more effective and safer across broad HbA1c categories. Therefore, in addition to prescribing DOACs when indicated, more aggressive glycemic control to achieve an HbA1c level < 6.5% may be considered for eligible AF patients and should be tested in further prospective studies.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Tromboembolia/prevenção & controle , Varfarina/efeitos adversos , Administração Oral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Fibrilação Atrial/sangue , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Bases de Dados Factuais , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/sangue , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia/sangue , Tromboembolia/diagnóstico , Tromboembolia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Varfarina/administração & dosagem
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(10): e19358, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150076

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Intravenous thrombolysis is not suitable for patients undergoing oral anticoagulants therapy, with INR > 1.7 or PT > 15 s. We described a case of intravenous thrombolysis in a patient with INR 1.9. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 66-year-old female patient was diagnosed with acute appendicitis complicated with atrial fibrillation. Seven days after admission, the patient suffered mixed aphasia with right limb asthenia. The NIHSS score was 11 points. and early infarction and hemorrhagic manifestations were not found in the emergency head CT. Thirty minutes after the onset of symptoms, NIHSS of patient increased from 11 to 14, but the INR was 1.92. DIAGNOSIS: Acute ischemic stroke. INTERVENTIONS: The IT therapy was recommended and all the therapy related risks were explained to the patient's parents. Briefly, the patient was given rTPA 38.5 mg. In addition to intravenous thrombolysis, VitK1 40 mg was simultaneously administered. OUTCOME: The patient's symptoms of drowsiness were improved. After 24 hours, all symptoms were stabilized with NIHSS of 2 points, there was a slight language obstruction, and no hemorrhagic transformation in head CT. Three months later, the review showed MRS score of 0, and the patient could take care of herself in daily life. CONCLUSION: The clinical guidelines are still the main reference for guiding clinical practice, and the main thrombolytic standards and contraindications for treatment still need to be conformed. On this basis, for individualized patients, clinicians must accurately judge the cause of acute stroke, to make optimal choice, reduce disability and mortality, and improve quality of life of patients.


Assuntos
Segurança do Paciente/normas , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Trombolítica/normas , Varfarina/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Apendicite/complicações , Apendicite/cirurgia , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/normas , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Coeficiente Internacional Normatizado/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/tratamento farmacológico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Terapia Trombolítica/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Varfarina/uso terapêutico
19.
Aust Dent J ; 65(2): 118-130, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32064612

RESUMO

The risk of postoperative bleeding is a daily concern for many general dental practitioners. A thorough medical and medication history must be taken to consider all risk factors, particularly drugs, that contribute to bleeding risk. While the risk from drugs such as aspirin, warfarin and clopidogrel are well known, the extent to which new antiplatelet agents and direct oral anticoagulants affect bleeding risk is less well understood. In addition, there are drugs other than antithrombotics, such as antidepressants and complementary medicines that also impair haemostasis. The aim of this paper is to provide dentists with an updated overview of the drugs commonly encountered in general dental practice that can contribute to a patient's postoperative bleeding risk.


Assuntos
Odontólogos , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Papel Profissional , Varfarina/efeitos adversos
20.
Am J Med ; 133(8): 969-975.e2, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007455

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hip fracture is common in the elderly, many of whom are on anticoagulation. However, data are limited on outcomes with anticoagulation reversal in patients undergoing hip fracture surgery. METHODS: Adults ≥60 years old on oral anticoagulation who underwent hip fracture surgery at 21 hospitals in Northern California from 2006 to 2016 were identified through electronic databases. Outcomes were compared among patients treated and untreated with anticoagulation reversal preoperatively. RESULTS: Of 1984 patients on oral anticoagulation who underwent hip fracture surgery, 1943 (97.9%) were on warfarin and 41 (2.1%) were on direct oral anticoagulants. Reversal agents were administered to 1635 (82.4%). Compared to a watch-and-wait strategy, patients receiving reversal agents were more likely to be white, male, comorbid, and with higher admission and preoperative international normalized ratios (P <0.001 for all comparisons). No difference for 30-day mortality was detected between reversal vs non-reversal (7.8% vs 6.0%, respectively; hazard ratio [HR], 1.30 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.82-2.07]). For secondary outcomes, reversal was associated with higher risk of delirium (8.6% vs 4.9%, risk ratio [RR], 1.77 [95% CI, 1.08-2.89]) and increased mean length of stay (6.4 vs 5.8 days, P <0.05). After adjustment, associations were no longer significant for delirium (RR 1.60, 95% CI, 0.97-2.65) or length of stay (mean difference 0.08, 95% CI, -0.55-0.71). No associations were detected between reversal and other secondary outcomes. CONCLUSION: No significant associations were found between reversal agents and 30-day mortality or other outcomes in patients on oral anticoagulation who underwent hip fracture surgery. Further investigation is needed.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Antifibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Coagulação Sanguínea/uso terapêutico , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Fraturas do Quadril/cirurgia , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Afro-Americanos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Artroplastia de Quadril , Americanos Asiáticos , Transfusão de Sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Delírio/epidemiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Fixação Interna de Fraturas , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Coeficiente Internacional Normatizado , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Mortalidade , Procedimentos Ortopédicos , Plasma , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/induzido quimicamente , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Vitamina K/uso terapêutico , Varfarina/efeitos adversos
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