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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(1): e24230, 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33429821

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although venous thromboembolism (VTE) is relatively rare after unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA), symptomatic pulmonary embolism (PE) can be fatal. Whether routine thromboprophylaxis or thrombolytic treatment is necessary for patients undergoing UKA remains unclear. Here, we present a case of delayed pulmonary embolism after UKA. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 57-year-old women underwent cemented UKA for left localized medial knee pain. There were no risk factors of VTE besides high BMI before surgery. 2 months after surgery, the patient presented with dyspnea and palpitation, and these symptoms could not be alleviated after rest. DIAGNOSIS: An arterial blood gas analysis showed decreased PO2, SO2 and PCO2. Pulmonary CTA showed multiple pulmonary embolism in the trunk of the right lower pulmonary artery and the branch of the left lower pulmonary arteries. The final diagnosis was delayed pulmonary embolism after UKA. INTERVENTIONS: Urokinase thrombolysis was administered intravenously. Low molecular weight heparin and warfarin were prescribed for anticoagulation. OUTCOMES: The patient's symptoms abated, and chest CTA showed that the pulmonary embolism had dissolved. No further thrombosis has been observed for more than 6 years. CONCLUSIONS: We presented an unusual case of delayed pulmonary embolism after UKA. Despite the low incidence, its life-threatening nature makes it imperative for surgeons to be well-informed about thrombosis and pay more attention to its prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Osteoartrite do Joelho/cirurgia , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico por imagem , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Embolia Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Embolia Pulmonar/etiologia , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tipo Uroquinase/administração & dosagem , Varfarina/uso terapêutico
2.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 52(1): 129-133, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33474902

RESUMO

Objective: To study the effect of cytochrome P-4504F2 ( CYP4 F2) gene polymorphism on the initial dose of warfarin in patients after mechanical heart valve replacement. Methods: We collected 350 patients receiving warfarin after mechanical heart valve replacement from January 2013 to December 2015 in our hospital. According to the international standardized ratio (INR) ≥2 at the initial stage after surgery, the patients were divided into two groups: INR≥2 group and INR<2 group. We selected the blood samples of all the 350 patients with testing the CYP4 F2 gene type of each patient, and analyzed the effect of CYP4 F2 gene polymorphism on the initial dose of warfarin after mechanical heart valve replacement (the average daily dose during hospitalization of patients 5-10 days after mechanical heart valve replacement). Results: There was no statistical significance in the initial dose of warfarin among patients with different CYP4 F2 genotypes. However, warfarin dose was higher in CYP4 F2 TT genotype than in CYP4 F2 CC carriers ((3.37±0.68) mg vs. (2.94±0.74) mg, P<0.05) in INR≥2 group; In patients with the same genotype, the initial dose of warfarin in the CYP4 F2 CC ((4.02±0.58) mg vs. (2.94±0.74) mg) and CYP4 F2 CT genotypes ((4.15±0.88) mg vs. (3.18±0.82) mg) of INR<2 group was higher than that in INR≥2 group ( P<0.05). Gender, age, body mass index (BMI), comorbidities (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, atrial fibrillation), cytopigment P-450 2C9 ( CYP2 C9), CYP4 F2 and vitamin K peroxide-reductase complex 1 ( VKORC1) gene polymorphism and INR compliance were included in multiple linear regression analysis. The regression equation was as follows: warfarin initial dose (mg) =-8.634+0.352×BMI (kg/m 2) +1.102× CYP4 F2 genotype (CC or CT values 1, TT values 2) +2.147× VKORC1 (AA or AG values 1, GG values 2) +1.325×INR ( INR≥2 values 0, INR<2 values 1). The coefficient of determination ( R 2) of regression equation was 0.431 ( P<0.05). Conclusion: CYP4 F2 gene polymorphism may affect the initial dose of warfarin in patients after heart valve replacement, and this effect is also affected by body characteristics and other factors.


Assuntos
Hidrocarboneto de Aril Hidroxilases , Varfarina , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Hidrocarboneto de Aril Hidroxilases/genética , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C9/genética , Genótipo , Valvas Cardíacas , Humanos , Coeficiente Internacional Normatizado , Polimorfismo Genético , Vitamina K Epóxido Redutases/genética , Varfarina/uso terapêutico
3.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 12: CD008500, 2020 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33337539

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) often complicates the clinical course of cancer. The risk is further increased by chemotherapy, but the trade-off between safety and efficacy of primary thromboprophylaxis in cancer patients treated with chemotherapy is uncertain. This is the third update of a review first published in February 2012. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of primary thromboprophylaxis for VTE in ambulatory cancer patients receiving chemotherapy compared with placebo or no thromboprophylaxis, or an active control intervention. SEARCH METHODS: For this update, the Cochrane Vascular Information Specialist searched the Cochrane Vascular, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase and CINAHL databases and World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and ClinicalTrials.gov trials registers to 3 August 2020. We also searched the reference lists of identified studies and contacted content experts and trialists for relevant references. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials comparing any oral or parenteral anticoagulant or mechanical intervention to no thromboprophylaxis or placebo, or comparing two different anticoagulants. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We extracted data on risk of bias, participant characteristics, interventions, and outcomes including symptomatic VTE and major bleeding as the primary effectiveness and safety outcomes, respectively. We applied GRADE to assess the certainty of evidence. MAIN RESULTS: We identified six additional randomised controlled trials (3326 participants) for this update, bringing the included study total to 32 (15,678 participants), all evaluating pharmacological interventions and performed mainly in people with locally advanced or metastatic cancer. The certainty of the evidence ranged from high to very low across the different outcomes and comparisons. The main limiting factors were imprecision and risk of bias. Thromboprophylaxis with direct oral anticoagulants (direct factor Xa inhibitors apixaban and rivaroxaban) may decrease the incidence of symptomatic VTE (risk ratio (RR) 0.43, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.18 to 1.06; 3 studies, 1526 participants; low-certainty evidence); and probably increases the risk of major bleeding compared with placebo (RR 1.74, 95% CI 0.82 to 3.68; 3 studies, 1494 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). When compared with no thromboprophylaxis, low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) reduced the incidence of symptomatic VTE (RR 0.62, 95% CI 0.46 to 0.83; 11 studies, 3931 participants; high-certainty evidence); and probably increased the risk of major bleeding events (RR 1.63, 95% CI 1.12 to 2.35; 15 studies, 7282 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). In participants with multiple myeloma, LMWH resulted in lower symptomatic VTE compared with the vitamin K antagonist warfarin (RR 0.33, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.83; 1 study, 439 participants; high-certainty evidence), while LMWH probably lowers symptomatic VTE more than aspirin (RR 0.51, 95% CI 0.22 to 1.17; 2 studies, 781 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). Major bleeding was observed in none of the participants with multiple myeloma treated with LMWH or warfarin and in less than 1% of those treated with aspirin. Only one study evaluated unfractionated heparin against no thromboprophylaxis, but did not report on VTE or major bleeding. When compared with placebo or no thromboprophylaxis, warfarin may importantly reduce symptomatic VTE (RR 0.15, 95% CI 0.02 to 1.20; 1 study, 311 participants; low-certainty evidence) and may result in a large increase in major bleeding (RR 3.82, 95% CI 0.97 to 15.04; 4 studies, 994 participants; low-certainty evidence). One study evaluated antithrombin versus no antithrombin in children. This study did not report on symptomatic VTE but did report any VTE (symptomatic and incidental VTE). The effect of antithrombin on any VTE and major bleeding is uncertain (any VTE: RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.41 to 1.73; major bleeding: RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.03 to 18.57; 1 study, 85 participants; very low-certainty evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: In ambulatory cancer patients, primary thromboprophylaxis with direct factor Xa inhibitors may reduce the incidence of symptomatic VTE (low-certainty evidence) and probably increases the risk of major bleeding (moderate-certainty evidence) when compared with placebo. LMWH decreases the incidence of symptomatic VTE (high-certainty evidence), but increases the risk of major bleeding (moderate-certainty evidence) when compared with placebo or no thromboprophylaxis. Evidence for the use of thromboprophylaxis with anticoagulants other than direct factor Xa inhibitors and LMWH is limited. More studies are warranted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of primary prophylaxis in specific types of chemotherapeutic agents and types of cancer, such as gastrointestinal or genitourinary cancer.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antitrombinas/uso terapêutico , Viés , Criança , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Heparina/efeitos adversos , Heparina/uso terapêutico , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/efeitos adversos , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Neoplasias/complicações , Embolia Pulmonar/etiologia , Embolia Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Varfarina/efeitos adversos , Varfarina/uso terapêutico
4.
JAMA ; 324(17): 1765-1776, 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33141212

RESUMO

Importance: Incidence rates for lower extremity deep vein thrombosis (DVT) range from 88 to 112 per 100 000 person-years and increase with age. Rates of recurrent VTE range from 20% to 36% during the 10 years after an initial event. Observations: PubMed and Cochrane databases were searched for English-language studies published from January 2015 through June 2020 for randomized clinical trials, meta-analyses, systematic reviews, and observational studies. Risk factors for venous thromboembolism (VTE), such as older age, malignancy (cumulative incidence of 7.4% after a median of 19 months), inflammatory disorders (VTE risk is 4.7% in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and 2.5% in those without), and inherited thrombophilia (factor V Leiden carriers with a 10-year cumulative incidence of 10.9%), are associated with higher risk of VTE. Patients with signs or symptoms of lower extremity DVT, such as swelling (71%) or a cramping or pulling discomfort in the thigh or calf (53%), should undergo assessment of pretest probability followed by D-dimer testing and imaging with venous ultrasonography. A normal D-dimer level (ie, D-dimer <500 ng/mL) excludes acute VTE when combined with a low pretest probability (ie, Wells DVT score ≤1). In patients with a high pretest probability, the negative predictive value of a D-dimer less than 500 ng/mL is 92%. Consequently, D-dimer cannot be used to exclude DVT without an assessment of pretest probability. Postthrombotic syndrome, defined as persistent symptoms, signs of chronic venous insufficiency, or both, occurs in 25% to 50% of patients 3 to 6 months after DVT diagnosis. Catheter-directed fibrinolysis with or without mechanical thrombectomy is appropriate in those with iliofemoral obstruction, severe symptoms, and a low risk of bleeding. The efficacy of direct oral anticoagulants-rivaroxaban, apixaban, dabigatran, and edoxaban-is noninferior to warfarin (absolute rate of recurrent VTE or VTE-related death, 2.0% vs 2.2%). Major bleeding occurs in 1.1% of patients treated with direct oral anticoagulants vs 1.8% treated with warfarin. Conclusions and Relevance: Greater recognition of VTE risk factors and advances in anticoagulation have facilitated the clinical evaluation and treatment of patients with DVT. Direct oral anticoagulants are noninferior to warfarin with regard to efficacy and are associated with lower rates of bleeding, but costs limit use for some patients.


Assuntos
Extremidade Inferior/irrigação sanguínea , Tromboembolia Venosa/diagnóstico , Tromboembolia Venosa/terapia , Fatores Etários , Biomarcadores/sangue , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/análise , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Ilustração Médica , Síndrome Pós-Trombótica/etiologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Avaliação de Sintomas , Trombectomia/métodos , Trombofilia/complicações , Trombofilia/genética , Ultrassonografia , Filtros de Veia Cava , Tromboembolia Venosa/sangue , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Varfarina/uso terapêutico
5.
Kardiologiia ; 60(8): 124-129, 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33155968

RESUMO

This review analyzes results of a large prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 that compared efficacy and safety of warfarin, a vitamin K antagonist, and edoxaban, an oral inhibitor of activated coagulation factor X. The review addresses important practical aspects of using edoxaban in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Administração Oral , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Método Duplo-Cego , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Piridinas , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Tiazóis , Resultado do Tratamento , Varfarina/uso terapêutico
6.
Kardiologiia ; 60(7): 108-114, 2020 Aug 11.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33155949

RESUMO

Atrial fibrillation is one of the most common concomitant diseases in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Meta-analyses of multiple studies have shown that the risk of AF is higher for diabetic patients with impaired glucose homeostasis than for patients without DM. Patients with AF and DM were younger, more frequently had arterial hypertension, chronic kidney disease, heart failure, and ischemic heart disease, and stroke and were characterized with a more severe course of AF. The article discusses possible mechanisms of the mutually aggravating effects of DM and AF, scales for evaluating the risk of bleeding (CHADS2, CHA2DS2­VASc, HAS-BLED), and the role of anticoagulants. A meta-analysis of 16 randomized clinical studies, including 9 874 patients, has demonstrated the efficacy of oral anticoagulants in prevention of stroke with an overall decrease in the relative risk by 62 % compared to placebo (95% confidence interval, from 48 to 72 ). For prevention of complications in patients with AF and DM, current antithrombotic therapies can be used, specifically the oral factor Xa inhibitor, rivaroxaban, which is the best studied in patients with AF and DM and represents a possible alternative to warfarin in such patients.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Diabetes Mellitus , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Administração Oral , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Varfarina/uso terapêutico
7.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 10: CD012169, 2020 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045766

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by arterial or venous thrombosis (or both), and/or pregnancy morbidity in association with the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies. The prevalence of APS is estimated at 40 to 50 cases per 100,000 people. The most common sites of thrombosis are cerebral arteries and deep veins of the lower limbs. People with a definite APS diagnosis have an increased lifetime risk of recurrent thrombotic events. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of antiplatelet (AP) or anticoagulant agents, or both, for the secondary prevention of recurrent thrombosis, particularly ischemic stroke, in people with APS. SEARCH METHODS: We last searched the MEDLINE, Embase, CENTRAL, Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register, and ongoing trials registers on 22 November 2019. We checked reference lists of included studies, systematic reviews, and practice guidelines. We also contacted experts in the field. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated any anticoagulant or AP agent, or both, in the secondary prevention of thrombosis in people with APS, according to the criteria valid when the study took place. We did not include studies specifically addressing women with obstetrical APS. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Pairs of review authors independently worked on each step of the review, following Cochrane methods. We summarized the evidence using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: We identified eight studies including 811 participants that compared different AP or anticoagulant agents. NOAC (non-VKA oral anticoagulant: rivaroxaban 15 or 20 mg/d) versus standard-dose VKA (vitamin K antagonist: warfarin at moderate International Normalized Ratio [INR] - 2.5) or adjusted [INR 2.0-3.0] dose): In three studies there were no differences in any thromboembolic event (including death) and major bleeding (moderate-certainty evidence), but an increased risk of stroke (risk ratio [RR] 14.13, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.87 to 106.8; moderate-certainty evidence). One of the studies reported a small benefit of rivaroxaban in terms of quality of life at 180 days measured as health state on Visual Analogue Scale (mean difference [MD] 7 mm, 95% CI 2.01 to 11.99; low-certainty evidence), but not measured as health utility on a scale from 0 to 1 (MD 0.04, 95% CI -0.02 to 0.10; low-certainty evidence). High-dose VKA (warfarin with a target INR of 3.1 to 4.0 [mean 3.3] or 3.5 [mean 3.2]) versus standard-dose VKA (warfarin with a target INR of 2.0 to 3.0 [mean 2.3] or 2.5 [mean 2.5]): In two studies there were no differences in the rates of thrombotic events and major bleeding (RR 2.22, 95% CI 0.79 to 6.23, low-certainty evidence), but an increased risk of minor bleeding in one study during a mean of 3.4 years (standard deviation [SD] 1.2) of follow-up (RR 2.55, 95% CI 1.07 to 6.07). In both trials there was evidence of a higher risk of any bleeding (hazard ratio [HR] 2.03 95% CI 1.12 to 3.68; low-certainty evidence) in the high-dose VKA group, and for this outcome (any bleeding) the incidence is not different, only the time to event is showing an effect. Standard-dose VKA plus a single AP agent (warfarin at a target INR of 2.0 to 3.0 plus aspirin 100 mg/d) versus standard-dose VKA (warfarin at a target INR of 2.0 to 3.0): One high-risk-of-bias study showed an increased risk of any thromboembolic event with combined treatment (RR 2.14, 95% CI 1.04 to 4.43; low-certainty evidence) and reported on major bleeding with five cases in the combined treatment group and one case in the standard-dose VKA treatment group, resulting in RR 7.42 (95% CI 0.91 to 60.7; low-certainty evidence) and no differences for secondary outcomes (very low- to low-certainty evidence). Single/dual AP agent and standard-dose VKA (pooled results): Two high-risk-of-bias studies compared a combination of AP and VKA (aspirin 100 mg/d plus warfarin or unspecified VKA at a target INR of 2.0 to 3.0 or 2.0 to 2.5) with a single AP agent (aspirin 100 mg/d), but did not provide any conclusive evidence regarding the effects of those drugs in people with APS (very low-certainty evidence). One of the above-mentioned studies was a three-armed study that compared a combination of AP and VKA (aspirin 100 mg/d plus warfarin at a target INR of 2.0 to 2.5) with dual AP therapy (aspirin 100 mg/d plus cilostazol 200 mg/d) and dual AP therapy (aspirin 100 mg/d plus cilostazol 200 mg/d) versus a single AP treatment (aspirin 100 mg/d). This study reported on stroke (very low-certainty evidence) but did not report on any thromboembolic events, major bleeding, or any secondary outcomes. We identified two ongoing studies and three studies are awaiting classification. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The evidence identified indicates that NOACs compared with standard-dose VKAs may increase the risk of stroke and do not appear to alter the risk of other outcomes (moderate-certainty evidence). Using high-dose VKA versus standard-dose VKA did not alter the risk of any thromboembolic event or major bleeding but may increase the risk of any form of bleeding (low-certainty evidence). Standard-dose VKA combined with an AP agent compared with standard-dose VKA alone may increase the risk of any thromboembolic event and does not appear to alter the risk of major bleeding or other outcomes (low-certainty evidence). The evidence is very uncertain about the benefit or harm of using standard-dose VKA plus AP agents versus single or dual AP therapy, or dual versus single AP therapy, for the secondary prevention of recurrent thrombosis in people with APS (very low-certainty evidence).


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/complicações , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Prevenção Secundária , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Tromboembolia/prevenção & controle , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Causas de Morte , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Tromboembolia/mortalidade , Varfarina/uso terapêutico
8.
Eur Heart J ; 41(41): 4037-4046, 2020 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32984892

RESUMO

AIMS: The global COVID-19 pandemic is caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus entering human cells using angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as a cell surface receptor. ACE2 is shed to the circulation, and a higher plasma level of soluble ACE2 (sACE2) might reflect a higher cellular expression of ACE2. The present study explored the associations between sACE2 and clinical factors, cardiovascular biomarkers, and genetic variability. METHODS AND RESULTS: Plasma and DNA samples were obtained from two international cohorts of elderly patients with atrial fibrillation (n = 3999 and n = 1088). The sACE2 protein level was measured by the Olink Proteomics® Multiplex CVD II96 × 96 panel. Levels of the biomarkers high-sensitive cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT), N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15), C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, D-dimer, and cystatin-C were determined by immunoassays. Genome-wide association studies were performed by Illumina chips. Higher levels of sACE2 were statistically significantly associated with male sex, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and older age. The sACE2 level was most strongly associated with the levels of GDF-15, NT-proBNP, and hs-cTnT. When adjusting for these biomarkers, only male sex remained associated with sACE2. We found no statistically significant genetic regulation of the sACE2 level. CONCLUSIONS: Male sex and clinical or biomarker indicators of biological ageing, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes are associated with higher sACE2 levels. The levels of GDF-15 and NT-proBNP, which are associated both with the sACE2 level and a higher risk for mortality and cardiovascular disease, might contribute to better identification of risk for severe COVID-19 infection.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/sangue , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Idoso , Antitrombinas/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Dabigatrana/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Piridonas/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Varfarina/uso terapêutico
9.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238456, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941455

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) marker for cerebral small vessel disease. Existing CMBs and those that newly develop are associated with the risks of stroke incidence and recurrence. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the association of oral anticoagulant (OAC) use and the development of new CMBs in cardioembolic stroke patients with atrial fibrillation. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We prospectively followed cardioembolic stroke patients with atrial fibrillation who had been hospitalized in the stroke center of our hospital, had been prescribed anticoagulants at discharge, and underwent repeated brain MRI with an interval of at least one year from the baseline MRI. Assessing the presence, number and location of CMBs using T2*-weighted gradient-recalled echo MRI, we used logistic regression models to investigate the associations between OAC use and the incidence of new CMBs. We also examined associations of subsequent stroke with OACs and CMBs during the follow-up. RESULTS: A total of 81 patients, consisting of 45 patients receiving direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) and 36 patients receiving warfarin (WF), were analyzed in the present study. Baseline CMBs were observed in 19/81 patients (23.5%) and new CMBs in 18/81 patients (22.2%) on follow-up MRI (median interval, 34 months). Of the 31 new CMBs, 25 (80.6%) developed in the lobar location and 6 (19.4%) in the deep or infratentorial location. New CMBs occurred in 4 patients (10.0%) taking DOACs alone, in 10 patients (35.7%) taking WF alone, in 3 patients (37.5%) taking WF plus antiplatelet agents and in 1 patient (20.0%) taking DOAC plus antiplatelet agent. Regarding location, the new CMBs were the lobar type in 7 of the 10 patients taking WF alone, as well as in 3 of the 4 patients taking DOACs alone. In multivariate analysis, the presence of CMBs at baseline and WF use (vs. DOAC use) were associated with new CMBs (CMB presence at baseline: OR 4.16, 95% CI 1.19-14.44; WF use: OR 3.38, 95% CI 1.02-11.42). The presence of ≥ 2 CMBs at baseline was related to a higher risk of subsequent stroke (OR 7.25, 95% CI 1.01-52.35, P = 0.048). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that DOAC compared with WF use at discharge is associated with a lower incidence of new CMBs in cardioembolic stroke patients with atrial fibrillation. Further prospective studies in the clinical setting are needed to confirm our exploratory data.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Hemorragia Cerebral/etiologia , Administração Oral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças de Pequenos Vasos Cerebrais/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças de Pequenos Vasos Cerebrais/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Recidiva , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Varfarina/uso terapêutico
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(36): e22054, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899067

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anticoagulant therapy is used for stroke prevention and proved to be effective and safe in the long term. The study aims to analyse the cost-effectiveness relationship of using of direct-acting oral anticoagulants vs vitamin K antagonists to prevent ischaemic stroke in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation, including all the active ingredients marketed in Spain, prescribed for 2 years in the Primary Care service of the Institut Català de la Salut. METHODS: Population-based cohort study, in which the cost of the 2 treatment groups will be evaluated. Direct costs (pharmacy, primary care, emergency and hospitalization) and indirect costs (lost productivity) will be included from a social perspective. Effectiveness (assessed as the occurrence of a health event, the 1 of primary interest being stroke) will be determined, with a 2-year time horizon and a 3% discount rate. The average cost of the 2 groups of drugs will be compared using a regression model to determine the factors with the greatest influence on determining costs. We will carry out a univariate ('one-way') deterministic sensitivity analysis. DISCUSSION: We hope to provide relevant information about direct and indirect costs of oral anticoagulants, which, together with aspects of effectiveness and safety, could help shape the consensual decision-making of evaluating bodies.


Assuntos
Acenocumarol/economia , Anticoagulantes/economia , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Isquemia Encefálica/patologia , Ensaios Clínicos Pragmáticos como Assunto/métodos , Varfarina/economia , Acenocumarol/administração & dosagem , Acenocumarol/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/prevenção & controle , Análise Custo-Benefício , Inibidores do Fator Xa , Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Segurança , Espanha/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Resultado do Tratamento , Vitamina K/antagonistas & inibidores , Varfarina/administração & dosagem , Varfarina/uso terapêutico
11.
Yonsei Med J ; 61(9): 741-749, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882758

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are widely used in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) because of their effectiveness in preventing stroke and their better safety, compared with warfarin. However, there are concerns for an increased risk of bleeding associated with concomitant use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) with NOACs. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the risk of bleeding events in individuals taking concomitant NSAIDs or SSRIs with NOACs after being diagnosed with AF. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A nested case-control analysis to assess the safety of NSAIDs and SSRIs among NOAC users with AF was performed using data from Korean National Health Insurance Service from January 2012 to December 2017. Among patients who were newly prescribed NOACs, 1233 cases hospitalized for bleeding events were selected, and 24660 controls were determined. RESULTS: The risk of bleeding events was higher in patients receiving concomitant NSAIDs [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.41; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.24-1.61] or SSRIs (aOR 1.92; 95% CI 1.52-2.42) with NOACs, compared to no use of either drug, respectively. The risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding was higher in patients receiving concomitant NSAIDs or SSRIs without proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) (NSAIDs: aOR 2.47; 95% CI 1.26-4.83, SSRI: aOR 10.8; 95% CI 2.41-2.48) compared to no use. CONCLUSION: When NSAIDs or SSRIs are required for NOAC users with AF, physicians need to monitor bleeding events and consider the use of PPIs, especially for combined use of both drugs or when initiating NOACs treatment.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/prevenção & controle , Hemorragia/prevenção & controle , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/uso terapêutico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Varfarina/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Idoso , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/complicações , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/efeitos adversos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia
13.
Ann Afr Med ; 19(3): 153-163, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32820726

RESUMO

It is now known that thrombotic disorders such as venous thromboembolism, ischemic stroke, and myocardial infarction contribute significantly to global morbidity and mortality. Anticoagulation service must respond to this new development. Warfarin has continued to provide the backbone for anticoagulation service for decades but with considerable drawbacks. The introduction of nonVitamin K oral anticoagulants (NOACs) has created new challenges. This article seeks to discuss how the establishment of appropriate models of anticoagulation could contain the draw backs of the old anticoagulants and improve on the compliance, availability, affordability, and accessibility of newer anticoagulants. Successful anticoagulation has always been defined by a scientific balancing of the risk of thrombosis and the complication of hemorrhage. To be able to maintain such optimal anticoagulation requires rational drug prescription (physician factor), institutelization of monitoring of therapy (anticoagulation clinic factor) as well as active participation of patients receiving therapy (patient factor). New models of service can be created out of this triad in a bid to replace the old routine medical care model. New models of anticoagulation service should include appropriately trained professionals such as Physicians, Pharmacists, Clinical Pharmacologists, Nurses, and Laboratory Scientists who are knowledgeable in diagnostic, management, and monitoring of anticoagulation. The different models of anticoagulation service discussed in this article clearly demonstrate the need for restructuring of this life saving service particularly in the era of NOAC. Newer models of care that should provide safe, efficacious, and cost-effective services are needed.


Assuntos
Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial/organização & administração , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Prescrições de Medicamentos , Tromboembolia/prevenção & controle , Varfarina/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Tromboembolia/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Stroke ; 51(9): 2724-2732, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32757753

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In patients with acute ischemic stroke and atrial fibrillation, treatment with low molecular weight heparin increases early hemorrhagic risk without reducing early recurrence, and there is limited data comparing warfarin to direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC) therapy. We aim to compare the effects of the treatments above on the risk of 90-day recurrent ischemic events and delayed symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage. METHODS: We included consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke and atrial fibrillation from the IAC (Initiation of Anticoagulation after Cardioembolic) stroke study pooling data from stroke registries of 8 comprehensive stroke centers across the United States. We compared recurrent ischemic events and delayed symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage between each of the following groups in separate Cox-regression analyses: (1) DOAC versus warfarin and (2) bridging with heparin/low molecular weight heparin versus no bridging, adjusting for pertinent confounders to test these associations. RESULTS: We identified 1289 patients who met the bridging versus no bridging analysis inclusion criteria and 1251 patients who met the DOAC versus warfarin analysis inclusion criteria. In adjusted Cox-regression models, bridging (versus no bridging) treatment was associated with a high risk of delayed symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (hazard ratio, 2.74 [95% CI, 1.01-7.42]) but a similar rate of recurrent ischemic events (hazard ratio, 1.23 [95% CI, 0.63-2.40]). Furthermore, DOAC (versus warfarin) treatment was associated with a lower risk of recurrent ischemic events (hazard ratio, 0.51 [95% CI, 0.29-0.87]) but not delayed symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (hazard ratio, 0.57 [95% CI, 0.22-1.48]). CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that patients with ischemic stroke and atrial fibrillation would benefit from the initiation of a DOAC without bridging therapy. Due to our study limitations, these findings should be interpreted with caution pending confirmation from large prospective studies.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Isquemia Encefálica/etiologia , Embolia/complicações , Embolia/tratamento farmacológico , Cardiopatias/complicações , Cardiopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Embolia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Cardiopatias/epidemiologia , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Incidência , Hemorragias Intracranianas/epidemiologia , Hemorragias Intracranianas/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuroimagem , Recidiva , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Varfarina/uso terapêutico
16.
Am J Cardiol ; 132: 66-71, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32826041

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to quantify time in therapeutic range (TTR) before and after a temporary interruption of warfarin due to an intervention in the Outcomes Registry for Better Informed Treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF). AF patients on warfarin who had a temporary interruption followed by resumption were identified. A nonparametric method for estimating survival functions for interval censored data was used to examine the first therapeutic International Normalized Ratio (INR) after interruption. TTR was compared using Wilcoxon signed rank test. Cox proportional hazards model was used to investigate the association between TTR in the first 3 months after interruption and subsequent outcomes at 3 to 9 months. Of 9,749 AF patients, 71% were on warfarin. Over a median (IQR) follow-up of 2.6 (1.8 to 3.1) y, 33% of patients had a total of 3,022 temporary interruptions. The first therapeutic INR was recorded within 1 week in 35.0% (95% confidence interval 32.6% to 37.4%), 2 weeks in 54.6% (52.2% to 57.0%), 30 days in 70.0% (67.9% to 72.1%) and 90 days in 91.3% (90.0% to 92.5%) of patients. Compared with pre-interruption, TTR 3 months after interruption was significantly lower (61.1% [36.6% to 85.0%] vs 67.6% [50.0% to 81.3%], p <0.0001). A 10 unit increment in the TTR in the first 3 months after interruption was associated with a lower risk of major bleeding [Hazard ratio 0.91 (0.85 to 0.97), p = 0.005]. This association was noted in patients who received bridging anticoagulation, but not in those who did not. In conclusion, temporary interruption of warfarin is common, and nearly half of these patients had subtherapeutic INR after 2 weeks. Lower TTR in the first 3 months after interruption was associated with higher incidence of major bleeding in patients who received bridging anticoagulation.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Varfarina/uso terapêutico
18.
Québec; INESSS; 20 juil. 2020.
Não convencional em Francês | BRISA/RedTESA | ID: biblio-1103660

RESUMO

CONTEXTE: Le présent document ainsi que les constats qu'il énonce ont été rédigés en réponse à une interpellation du ministère de la Santé et des Services sociaux. L'annonce d'un arrêt de commercialisation de toutes les teneurs de ce produit utilisé par quelque 100000 patients au Québec en période de confinement a suscité des questions quant à la sécurité de la substitution pouvant être validée par des tests de laboratoire, notamment la nécessité de faire un suivi plus étroit du ratio normalisé international (RNI). L'objectif était de réaliser une recension sommaire des données publiées et de mobiliser les savoirs clés afin d'informer les décideurs publics et les professionnels de la santé et des services sociaux. Vu la nature rapide de cette réponse, les constats qui en découlent ne reposent pas sur un repérage exhaustif des données publiées, une évaluation de la qualité méthodologique des études avec une méthode systématique ou sur un processus de consultation élaboré. PRÉSENTATION DE LA DEMANDE: BRISTOL-MYERS SQUIBB CANADA cessera, dans les prochains mois, la vente de CoumadinMD au Canada en raison de problèmes de fabrication. Au Québec, une grande proportion des personnes qui utilisent de la warfarine reçoivent actuellement ce produit novateur. Ces personnes devront donc éventuellement recevoir une version générique de la warfarine pour la poursuite de leur traitement anticoagulant. Il a été demandé à l'INESSS, le 23 avril dernier, d'évaluer les enjeux associés à cette situation, notamment l'impact sur le suivi du RNI. MÉTHODOLOGIE: Revue de littérature Questions d'évaluation : Chez les personnes anticoagulées par la warfarine, est-ce que la substitution du CoumadinMD pour une version générique de la warfarine doit être accompagnée de précautions particulières? Critères de sélection : Aucune limite temporelle ni limitation sur le type de publication n'ont été imposées dans le cadre de cette recension sommaire. Méthodes de recension : La recherche documentaire a été effectuée dans Pubmed avec les mots-clés switch, warfarin et generic. Une recherche manuelle de la littérature a également été effectuée en consultant les sites Internet d'organismes gouvernementaux canadiens et le moteur de recherche Google. Les guides de pratique clinique (GPC) recensés par l'INESSS en 2019 pour l'élaboration d'un guide d'usage optimal (GUO) sur la fibrillation auriculaire chez l'adulte et d'un GUO sur la thrombose veineuse profonde et l'embolie pulmonaire chez l'adulte ont été consultés afin de savoir s'ils contenaient de l'information sur le passage du produit de marque à une version générique de la warfarine. Les monographies des versions génériques de la warfarine ont aussi été consultées, tout comme les différentes lois en vigueur. SOMMAIRE DES RÉSULTATS: État des connaissances scientifiques, expérience d'autres juridictions et contexte législatif: Les auteurs de deux revues systématiques, l'une publiée en 2011 et l'autre en 2008, ont conclu que les versions génériques de la warfarine sont aussi sécuritaires et efficaces que le produit de marque et que le passage du produit de marque à une version générique (jugée bioéquivalente par les autorités) est sécuritaire. Les auteurs précisent toutefois que le passage doit être accompagné d'un suivi étroit du ratio normalisé international (RNI), particulièrement chez les patients à risque [Dentali et al., 2011; Kesselheim et al., 2008]. Dans une étude québécoise publiée en 2019, les auteurs ont rapporté qu'entre le 2 janvier 1996 et le 2 janvier 2016, le taux moyen de visites à l'hôpital (consultation à l'urgence ou admission à l'hôpital, toutes causes confondues) était de 113 pour 100 utilisateurs de warfarine (produit de marque ou version générique) par période de 6 mois et que ce taux moyen était similaire avant et après l'arrivée des génériques de la warfarine sur le marché (le 2 janvier 2001) [Leclerc et al., 2019]. Les GPC recensés dans le cadre de l'élaboration des deux GUO de l'INESSS ne contenaient pas d'information sur le passage du produit de marque à une version générique de la warfarine. Dans les monographies des produits Apo-warfarinMC et Taro-warfarinMC, il est mentionné que pour garantir une maîtrise satisfaisante, il est recommandé d'effectuer des tests de mesure du temps de prothrombine lorsque la warfarine sodique en comprimé est remplacée par d'autres produits à base de warfarine et lorsqu'un traitement par un autre médicament est instauré, interrompu ou administré de façon irrégulière. Il est également mentionné que lorsqu'on passe d'un produit à base de warfarine à un autre, on doit mettre l'accent principalement sur la maîtrise du RNI. Du point de vue légal, au Québec, selon l'article 21 de la Loi sur la pharmacie (Loi sur la pharmacie, article 21. L.R.Q, Chapitre P-10), un pharmacien doit exécuter une ordonnance suivant sa teneur intégrale. Il peut toutefois, pourvu qu'il en avise le client et qu'il l'inscrive à son dossier, substituer au médicament prescrit un médicament dont la dénomination commune est la même, à moins d'indication contraire formulée par l'auteur de l'ordonnance lorsque la situation de la personne le requiert. L'expérience de l'Ontario et la Colombie-Britannique : Les autorités de l'Ontario et de la Colombie-Britannique n'ont pas identifié d'enjeu particulier lorsqu'une majeure partie des personnes traitées avec la warfarine dans leur province respective sont passées du produit de marque à une version générique de la warfarine il y a de cela plusieurs années. D'ailleurs, l'expérience ontarienne a fait l'objet d'une publication scientifique en 2006. Dans cette publication, il est mentionné que le régime provincial d'assurance-médicaments ontarien a instauré le 7 juin 2001 une politique demandant aux pharmaciens d'effectuer la substitution, chez les patients traités par la warfarine, du produit de marque par une version générique. Les médecins étaient informés de ce changement une semaine à l'avance. Les patients pouvaient continuer de recevoir le CoumadinMD en payant la différence de prix. Pour savoir si ce passage a eu des répercussions sur la santé ou les coûts, Paterson et ses collègues ont étudié toutes les prescriptions de warfarine au cours des 40 mois précédant l'adoption de la politique, au cours du mois pendant lequel la politique est entrée en vigueur et au cours des neuf mois suivants. Trois mois après l'entrée en vigueur de la politique, 87% des ordonnances de warfarine impliquaient une formulation générique. Entre les périodes précédant et suivant l'entrée en vigueur de la politique, il n'y a eu aucun changement dans les taux de mesures de RNI et d'hospitalisation pour hémorragie majeure ou thromboembolie cérébrale.


Assuntos
Varfarina/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Substituição de Medicamentos , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica , Avaliação em Saúde
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(27): e21025, 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629725

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Given the huge burden of atrial fibrillation (AF) and AF-related stroke in Asia, stroke prevention represents an urgent issue in this region. We herein performed a network meta-analysis to examine the role of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) in Asian patients with AF. METHODS: A systematic search of the publications was conducted in PubMed and Embase databases for eligible studies until July 2019. The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were regarded as the effect estimates. The surface under the cumulative ranking area (SUCRA) for the ranking probabilities was calculated. RESULTS: A total of 17 studies were included. For comparisons of NOACs vs warfarin, dabigatran (OR = 0.77, 95% CI 0.68-0.86), rivaroxaban (OR = 0.72, 95% CI 0.65-0.81), apixaban (OR = 0.56, 95% CI 0.49-0.65), but not edoxaban reduced the risk of stroke or systemic embolism, wheres dabigatran (OR = 0.56, 95% CI 0.41-0.76), rivaroxaban (OR = 0.66, 95% CI 0.50-0.86), apixaban (OR = 0.49, 95% CI 0.36-0.66), and edoxaban (OR = 0.34, 95% CI 0.24-0.49) decreased the risk of major bleeding. In reducing the risk of stroke or systemic embolism, apixaban and rivaroxaban ranked the best and second best (SUCRA 0.2% and 31.4%, respectively), followed by dabigatran (50.2%), edoxaban (75.2%), and warfarin (93.0%). In reducing the risk of major bleeding, edoxaban, and apixaban ranked the best and second best (1.5% and 30.8%, respectively), followed by dabigatran (48.4%), rivaroxaban (69.2%), and warfarin (100%). CONCLUSION: NOACs were at least as effective as warfarin, but more safer in Asians with AF. Apixaban was superior to other NOACs for reducing stroke or systemic embolism, while edoxaban showed a better safety profile than other NOACs.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Varfarina/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Idoso , Antitrombinas/uso terapêutico , Ásia/epidemiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/etnologia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Dabigatrana/uso terapêutico , Embolia/prevenção & controle , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Hemorragia/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Metanálise em Rede , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Piridonas/uso terapêutico , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico , Segurança , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Tiazóis/uso terapêutico
20.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 18(1): 215, 2020 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32631346

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term anticoagulation therapy, particularly with warfarin, is usually associated with poor adherence and low patient satisfaction. However, previous studies have highlighted the possibility that individual perceptions of warfarin differ according to cultural practices. This study validated the psychometric properties of the translated Arabic version of the Anti-Clot Treatment Scale (ACTS) for patients on warfarin therapy in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: A cross-sectional multicenter study was conducted at the three main medical centers in Riyadh. Stratified sampling was employed to recruit Arabic-speaking patients who had been taking warfarin for a minimum of 3 months for any indication. The patients completed the specific ACTS along with the generic Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication (TSQM 1.4) at two clinic visits. The psychometric performance of the ACTS was evaluated using well-established criteria: feasibility, reliability, and validity. RESULTS: One hundred thirty-six patients participated in the study (mean age: 50.68 ± 14.6 years; range: 19-97). Overall, the patients reported moderate Burdens and Benefits scores (44 ± 9.9 and 11.92 ± 2.4, respectively) compared to the reference range for each subscale (12-60 and 3-15, respectively); however, they reported lower Burdens scores than other populations. Consistent with the original ACTS validation study, the criteria for acceptability (data targeting, floor/ceiling effects, and skewness) were satisfied; in fact, the Arabic version exhibited better item- and scale-level distributions of data than versions in other languages. The ACTS subscales also demonstrated satisfactory test-retest reliability with significant intraclass correlation coefficients ((ICC ≥ 0.5); p < 0.001) and good internal consistency (all Cronbach's alpha values exceeded 0.7). Exploratory factor analysis supported the 2-factor loading model. Interestingly, the Arabic version exhibited greater convergent validity with the TSQM subdomains (r = 0.61). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides convincing evidence that the Arabic versions of both the ACTS Burdens and ACTS Benefits scales are equivalent to other versions in terms of psychometric performance, as measured using reliability and validity criteria. These properties support the great potential of the Arabic ACTS to accurately reflect patient satisfaction, identify aspects of treatment that need improvement in clinical practice, and compare treatment satisfaction across different anticoagulant therapies or cultures in research.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Trombose/tratamento farmacológico , Varfarina/sangue , Varfarina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Psicometria/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Arábia Saudita , Inquéritos e Questionários , Traduções , Adulto Jovem
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