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1.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 103(2): e65-e68, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33559545

RESUMO

Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the bile duct is a rare tumour only recently classified as a distinct pathological entity. These neoplasms, rarely encountered in clinical practice in the UK, are now considered to be important precursors for the development of cholangiocarcinoma. We present a histologically confirmed case of intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct in a male patient and discuss the main radiographic manifestations of this rare condition across multiple imaging modalities, with an emphasis on the imaging features of endoscopic ultrasonography and its role in establishing the diagnosis.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso/diagnóstico , Adenocarcinoma Papilar/diagnóstico , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/diagnóstico , Ductos Biliares Intra-Hepáticos/diagnóstico por imagem , Endossonografia , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso/patologia , Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso/cirurgia , Adenocarcinoma Papilar/patologia , Adenocarcinoma Papilar/cirurgia , Idoso , Variação Anatômica , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/patologia , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/cirurgia , Ductos Biliares Intra-Hepáticos/anormalidades , Ductos Biliares Intra-Hepáticos/patologia , Ductos Biliares Intra-Hepáticos/cirurgia , Colangiopancreatografia Retrógrada Endoscópica , Aspiração por Agulha Fina Guiada por Ultrassom Endoscópico , Hepatectomia/métodos , Humanos , Achados Incidentais , Masculino , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 174(1): 49-65, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871028

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The primate foot has been extensively investigated because of its role in weight-bearing; however, the calcaneus has been relatively understudied. Here we examine entire gorilla calcaneal external shape to understand its relationship with locomotor behavior. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Calcanei of Gorilla gorilla gorilla (n = 43), Gorilla beringei graueri (n = 20), and Gorilla beringei beringei (n = 15) were surface or micro-CT scanned. External shape was analyzed through a three-dimensional geometric morphometric sliding semilandmark analysis. Semilandmarks were slid relative to an updated Procrustes average in order to minimize the bending energy of the thin plate spline interpolation function. Shape variation was summarized using principal components analysis of shape coordinates. Procrustes distances between taxa averages were calculated and resampling statistics run to test pairwise differences. Linear measures were collected and regressed against estimated body mass. RESULTS: All three taxa exhibit statistically different morphologies (p < .001 for pairwise comparisons). G. g. gorilla demonstrates an anteroposteriorly elongated calcaneus with a deeper cuboid pivot region and mediolaterally flatter posterior talar facet. G. b. beringei possesses the flattest cuboid and most medially-angled posterior talar facets. G. b. graueri demonstrates intermediate articular facet morphology, a medially-angled tuberosity, and an elongated peroneal trochlea. DISCUSSION: Articular facet differences separate gorillas along a locomotor gradient. G. g. gorilla is adapted for arboreality with greater joint mobility, while G. b. beringei is adapted for more stereotypical loads associated with terrestriality. G. b. graueri's unique posterolateral morphology may be due to a secondary transition to greater arboreality from a more terrestrial ancestor.


Assuntos
Variação Anatômica/fisiologia , Calcâneo/anatomia & histologia , Gorilla gorilla/anatomia & histologia , Gorilla gorilla/fisiologia , Pontos de Referência Anatômicos/anatomia & histologia , Pontos de Referência Anatômicos/diagnóstico por imagem , Animais , Antropologia Física , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Calcâneo/diagnóstico por imagem , Calcâneo/fisiologia , Feminino , Hominidae/anatomia & histologia , Hominidae/fisiologia , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuais
3.
Eur. j. anat ; 24(6): 475-483, nov. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-198388

RESUMO

Efforts by anatomists over the recent past, have converted the cadaver population in a South African institution from a predominantly unclaimed population into one purely derived from donors. Concurrent with this transformation were noticeable changes in cadaver demographics, which raised concerns for aspects of teaching and research. The aim of this study was therefore to explore the effects of donation on the demographics and anatomical integrity of the School's 2017 cadaver population. The provenance, ancestry, sex and age of 74 cadavers were investigated. Dissected cadavers were studied to ascertain the general condition of their anatomy. Variations in tissue integrity, morphology and overt pathologies were surveyed. Cadavers represented only one population group with slightly more females (54%). The majority of the cohort (62%) was aged between 71 and 90 years. With regards to anatomical integrity, 60% of the cadavers presented with adhering fascia, but no significant differences in the quantity of fat were found across the sample. High levels of muscle tearing and atrophy (76%) occurred and variations in visceral anatomy were noted. Various surgical interventions and overt pathologies were also observed. The donated cadaver population differed from previous unclaimed cadaver populations in that they consisted of only White, older individuals. Variations, surgical interventions and pathologies offer staff in anatomy an opportunity to engage with more clinically-oriented teaching, as well as introducing students to the discipline of gerontology


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos , Cadáver , Educação Médica/métodos , Variação Anatômica , Atrofia Muscular/epidemiologia , Distribuição por Sexo , Distribuição por Idade , Causas de Morte
4.
Eur. j. anat ; 24(6): 501-505, nov. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-198391

RESUMO

The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency with which the conus artery originates from an independent ostium in the right aortic sinus. Twenty-five adult hearts (3 females, 5 males and 17 unknown sex), from the body donation program of the University of Girona, were analysed. After intravascular injection of natural coloured latex in the coronary ostia, the origin of the conus artery and its distribution pattern were analysed by microdissection. Three of the 25 hearts analysed (12.0%) displayed the direct emergence of the conus artery from a discrete ostium in the right aortic sinus: in two specimens (8%) showing a single ostium for the independent conus artery, and in one heart (4%) two ostia for two independent conus arteries. In all cases, the independent conus arteries were shorter than the coronary artery and extended up to the anterior wall of the right ventricle, coinciding with the observations of previous authors. The independent conus artery may be an important source of collateral blood flow to the infundibulum. It may be an important source of apex and interventricular septum collateral irrigation. To ascertain the origin of the conus artery and its distribution is clinically important, particularly in obstructions of the anterior interventricular artery. The independent conus artery's collateral perfusion can both obscure the detection of any ischaemic modification in the apex and septum regions, and serve as a therapeutic source. Consequently, interpretations of the coronary occlusion clinical test should take this vascular channel into account


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cadáver , Vasos Coronários/anatomia & histologia , Seio Aórtico/anatomia & histologia , Variação Anatômica , Septo Interventricular/anatomia & histologia , Anomalias dos Vasos Coronários
5.
Eur. j. anat ; 24(6): 513-517, nov. 2020. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-198392

RESUMO

Variations in the major arteries and their branches of the thoracic region have been well described with variations of the aortic arch, pulmonary trunk, common carotid arteries and vertebral arteries being among the most common in the thoracic region. During routine dissection of the thoracic and neck regions, the left vertebral artery in a 58-year-old female cadaver was found to arise from the arch of the aorta between the left common carotid and the left subclavian arteries. The left vertebral artery was traced along its course and was observed to enter the transverse foramen of the fifth cervical vertebral body. With such variation, the findings can influence predisposition to diseases, symptomatology, clinical examination, investigation and patient management, including operative surgery


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Artéria Vertebral/anatomia & histologia , Aorta Torácica/anatomia & histologia , Cadáver , Variação Anatômica , Dissecação/métodos , Vértebras Cervicais/anatomia & histologia
6.
Eur. j. anat ; 24(6): 523-526, nov. 2020. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-198394

RESUMO

The sesamoid bones are round or oval bones that are located within tendons, and most theories consider that sesamoid bones in humans develop in response to local mechanical stress on a joint. Although their function is not well understood, it is known that they act as a pulley modifying the angle of movement and their insertion. They are mostly inconsistent, which is why they tend to be supernumerary and are located in different parts of the body at the level of the extremities, with the patella being the largest, most constant and best known. The prevalence and distribution of sesamoids in the hand varies between different populations and sex. They are rarely reported since they are only considered anatomical variants, but clinically there are several pathologies related to the sesamoid bones in the hand such as: trauma, degenerative disorders, giant cell tumors, osteochondroma, avascular necrosis, tendon ruptures, genetic disorders and attention should be paid in patients with acromegaly where their length is increased. In this article, we report a total of 16 sesamoid bones, symmetrically distributed 8 ineach hand of a healthy individual treated in the Plastic Surgery Department of the "Dr. Rubén Leñero" Hospital in Mexico City. In the literature reviewed, we did not find a report with the presence of so many sesamoid bones in both hands, which motivated us to report it


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Ossos Sesamoides/anatomia & histologia , Ossos Sesamoides/diagnóstico por imagem , Variação Anatômica , Ossos do Metatarso/anatomia & histologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Mãos/anatomia & histologia , Mãos/diagnóstico por imagem
8.
Indian J Dent Res ; 31(4): 647-651, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107472

RESUMO

Headache is a common clinical problem, and appropriate diagnosis and management are a challenge for oral physician. Any minor anatomical variation within the nasal cavity may lead to mucosal contact point, which may be an etiological factor for causing headache and often left behind by clinician during preliminary evaluation of patients with headache or facial pain, resulting in misdiagnosis and inappropriate treatment. This article is an attempt to present a case of rhinogenic contact point headache which may be mistaken for a toothache initially leading to incorrect diagnosis and irrelevant treatment. A thorough, accurate and comprehensive history taking and a complete clinical and general physical examination result in appropriate diagnosis of the clinical situation.


Assuntos
Dor Facial , Cefaleia , Variação Anatômica , Dor Facial/diagnóstico , Dor Facial/etiologia , Cefaleia/diagnóstico , Cefaleia/etiologia , Humanos , Cavidade Nasal , Odontalgia
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(33): e21761, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872071

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Three root canals (mesiobuccal, distobuccal and palatal) are rarely found (frequency <1%) in the maxillary central incisor even though root canal morphology in maxillary premolars is highly variable. Therefore, research papers showed that dentists can easily miss the root canals in diagnosis and inflammatory diffusion; which could cause unsuccessful root canal treatment leading to various possible infections and no change in original inflammations. In this report, the diagnose and clinical management of an unusual case of a maxillary center incisor with three independent roots and three root canals is presented, along with a demonstration of using CBCT (Cone Beam Computed Tomography) and collaborate with other departments to successfully accomplish an accurate diagnosis of the morphology and quantity of the root canal system. PATIENT CONCERNS: The patient was referred to clinic for his repeatedly abscessed in the gums of the left upper central incisor. DIAGNOSES: Based on clinical and radiographic evidences, the patient was tentatively diagnosed with a chronic periapical periodontitis for #21 tooth. INTERVENTIONS: The patient was performed with the conventional root canal treatment and then clinical observed. OUTCOMES: At the second visit after 7 days, the patient was not sensitive to percussion. After operation for 3 months, and found that the sinus opening had not healed. Then, the patient was undergone with the periodontal flap surgery to remove root infection for 2 weeks. LESSONS: From this clinical case, the lesson learned is that the previous clinical experiences cannot be used to make judgments or decisions; it requires specific analysis from the information gathered through CBCT(Cone Beam Computed Tomography)and the cooperation between different departments to come up with a responsible decision. In any stomatological hospitals, due to the large number of departments and the strong specialized focuses for each department; it is very important to encourage and support the cooperation between the departments, to limit any judgment bias due to lack of knowledge and maximize each department's strengths.


Assuntos
Incisivo/anormalidades , Tratamento do Canal Radicular , Variação Anatômica , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico , Humanos , Incisivo/diagnóstico por imagem , Incisivo/cirurgia , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
10.
Eur. j. anat ; 24(5): 371-379, sept. 2020. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-195274

RESUMO

The Anterior Choroidal Artery (AChA), the Lateral Posterior Choroidal (LPChA) and the Medial Posterior Choroidal Arteries (MPChA) provide blood supply to the choroid plexus of the lateral ventricle and third ventricle. The objective of this study was to evaluate the morphology of the choroidal arteries in 74 unclaimed male cadavers, who under-went necropsy at the Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences of Bucaramanga, Colombia. The AChA originated from the Internal Carotid Artery (ICA) in 96.6% of the cases, with a length of 10.1 ± 1.5 mm and 15.2 ± 1.7 mm for its pre-optic and post-optic segments respectively and had a diameter of 0.6 ± 0.16mm. The AChA originated branches to the optic tract (5.2), the anterior and posterior segment of the uncus of the hippocampus (3.4 and 2.4) and cerebral peduncles (2.6), before penetrating through the choroidal fissure. The MPChA originated from the pre-communicating segment of the posterior cerebral artery (ACP) in 97 cases (70.3%), its length was 38.1 ± 5.85 mm and its diameter 0.4 ± 0.14 mm; in three cases (2.2%) it was doubled. 46.3% of the MPChA presented proximal bifurcation at 8.7 ± 5.47 mm of their ACP origin, but in 17 cases (26.6%) an early bifurcation was found (less than 5 mm). The LPChA originated in the post-communicating segment (94.2%), without significant differences in presentation side (p = 0.189). Its length was 37.6 ± 7 mm and its diameter 0.5 ± 0.16 mm. The findings related to the site of origin, global dimensions and branches of the choroidal arteries observed in the present study are consistent with those reported in other population groups. This study, carried out in cadaveric material, provides relevant qualitative and morphometric information of the choroidal arteries, useful for diagnosis and clinical management, as well as for surgical approaches that may compromise this structure


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Artéria Cerebral Anterior/anatomia & histologia , Corioide/anatomia & histologia , Plexo Corióideo/anatomia & histologia , Cadáver , Variação Anatômica , Artérias Cerebrais/anatomia & histologia
11.
Eur. j. anat ; 24(5): 381-389, sept. 2020. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-195275

RESUMO

Mercuric chloride (MC) is a chemical compound made from a combination of mercury and chlorine causing intracellular oxidative stress generation. Allium jesdianum (AJ), as a member of the Liliaceae family, has various pharmacological and strong antioxidant properties. This study aimed to evaluate the probable therapeutic effects of AJ against hepatocytes degeneration, inflammation, apoptotic changes and oxidative injuries induced by MC ad-ministration. Sixty-four rats were randomly divided in eight groups (n = 8) including groups of control, MC (50 mg/kg), AJ (500, 1000, 2000 Mug/ml), and MC+AJ. They were intraperitoneally and orally administrated for one week. Nitrite oxide, lipid peroxidation (LP) levels, and Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP) assays were conducted to evaluate the intracellular antioxidant index


No disponible


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Fígado/anatomia & histologia , Dissecação/veterinária , Allium , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloreto de Mercúrio/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/patologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Extratos Vegetais , Variação Anatômica , Análise de Variância
12.
Eur. j. anat ; 24(5): 415-428, sept. 2020. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-195279

RESUMO

In order to explain the evolutionary process of ancient human populations that inhabited a specific geographical region from quantitative skull traits, it is advisable to know the evolutionary potential of metric characters. For this reason, the proportion of the maximum genetic variance or maximum heritability (h2m) of the variables studied was estimated. In addition, it was evaluated whether h2m changes between regions of the skull (face, base and vault) and the degree of association between the phenotypic variance and the maximum genetic variance. Twenty-one symmetrical variables on the left and right sides of the skull were measured in 245 skulls from five prehistoric samples from northwestern Argentina. The upper limit of heritability was estimated using the repeated measurement method. To test whether there are differences between the h2m of each group, the Kruskal-Wallis test was used. The maximum genetic values of each variable were obtained through a regression analysis (right measure on left measure). The relationship between phenotypic and maxi-mum genetic values was evaluated by correlation analysis. Significant bilateral difference is demon-strated in six of 21 characters. The average h2m is 0.77 and ranges between 0.58 and 0.93. The aver-age correlation between phenotypic values and maximum genotypic values was 0.8 (R2=0.65), suggesting that it is possible to make inferences of the genetic structure of the population from phenotypic information. The high proportion of maximum observed genetic variance indicates an important evolutionary potential of the craniofacial complex in ancient populations of northwestern Argentina


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , História Medieval , História do Século XV , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Cefalometria , Variação Anatômica , Variação Genética , Fenótipo , Argentina , Antropologia/métodos , Variação Biológica da População/genética
14.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(4): 853-856, Aug. 2020. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124865

RESUMO

La arteria recurrente radial nace en el extremo proximal de la arteria radial y desde ahí asciende oblicuamente para anastomosarse con la arteria colateral radial, entregando en ese trayecto una serie de ramas para los músculos cercanos. Dicha arteria junto con sus ramas fueron descritas (por su importancia en abordajes quirúrgicos) por Arnold K. Henry como "the radial leash". Actualmente en clínica se utiliza el nombre "leash of Henry" para referirse a una o más ramas musculares de la arteria recurrente radial, sobretodo cuando cuando se encuentran en relación con el ramo profundo del nervio radial, pudiendo llegar a causar compresiones de dicho nervio en algunos casos. Se realizó una descripción de caso de una leash of Henry atípica, encontrada en una muestra cadavérica del laboratorio de anatomía de la Universidad Católica del Maule, de sexo masculino y nacionalidad chilena. La arteria encontrada corresponde a la rama de mayor calibre de la arteria recurrente radial, que se dirige directamente al músculo extensor de los dedos, dibujando un trayecto horizontal y cruzando por anterior al ramo profundo del nervio radial. Esta hallazgo difere a lo descrito por Henry y otros autores más recientes, y por lo tanto aporta información potencialmente útil a la hora de realizar procedimientos quirúrgicos que requieran un abordaje posterior o lateral de la cabeza del radio, como también descompresiones del nervio radial en esta zona.


The radial recurrent artery originates at the proximal end of the radial artery and from there ascends obliquely to anastomosing with the radial collateral artery. It gives off several branches for nearby muscles on its path. This artery along with its branches were described (due to its importance in surgical approaches) by Arnold K. Henry as "the radial leash". Currently, in clinical terms, the name "Leash of Henry" is used to refer to one or more muscular branches of the radial recurrent artery, especially when they are in relation to the deep branch of the radial nerve, and may cause compression of the nerve in some cases. A case description of an atypical Leash of Henry was found, found in a Chilean, male cadaveric sample of the anatomy laboratory, Universidad Católica del Maule. The artery corresponds to the branch of greater caliber of the recurrent radial artery, which goes directly to the extensor digitorum muscle. It draws a horizontal path and crosses the deep branch of the radial nerve anteriorly. This finding differs from what was described by Henry and other more recent authors. Therefore, this is potentially useful information when performing surgical procedures that require a posterior or lateral approach to the radius head, as well as radial nerve decompressions in this area.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nervo Radial/anatomia & histologia , Artéria Radial/anatomia & histologia , Cotovelo/anatomia & histologia , Cadáver , Cotovelo/inervação , Cotovelo/irrigação sanguínea , Variação Anatômica
15.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(4): 845-852, Aug. 2020. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124864

RESUMO

Anatomical variations of the scalene muscles are frequent, as are those of the brachial plexus and its terminal nerves. Nonetheless, these variations are reported separately in the literature. The aim of this work is to present a variation of scalene muscles, concomitant with an abnormal path of the musculocutaneous nerve. During a routine dissection of the cervical region, axilla and right anterior brachial region in an adult male cadaver, a supernumerary muscle fascicle was located in the anterior scalene muscle, altering the anatomical relations of C5 and C6 ventral branches of the brachial plexus. This variation was related to an anomalous path of the musculocutaneous nerve that did not cross the coracobrachialis muscle. It passed through the brachial canal along with the median nerve. It then sent off muscular branches to the anterior brachial region and likewise, communicating branches to the median nerve. The concomitant variations of the brachial plexus and scalene muscles they are not described frequently. Knowledge of these variations improves diagnosis, enhancing therapeutic and surgical approaches by reducing the possibility of iatrogenesis during cervical, axillary and brachial region interventions.


Las variaciones anatómicas de los músculos escalenos son frecuentes, así como también las del plexo braquial y sus nervios terminales. Sin embargo la literatura científica las presenta por separado. El propósito de este trabajo es presentar una variación de los músculos escalenos concomitante con un trayecto anómalo del nervio musculocutáneo. Disección de rutina de región cervical, axila y región braquial anterior derechas realizada en un cadáver adulto de sexo masculino. Se encontró un fascículo muscular supernumerario para el músculo escaleno anterior que alteraba las relaciones anatómicas de los ramos ventrales C5 y C6 del plexo braquial. Esta variación estaba acompañada por un trayecto anómalo del nervio musculocutáneo, el cual no atravesaba al músculo coracobraquial y transitaba por el conducto braquial acompañando al nervio mediano. Desde allí enviaba a la región braquial anterior ramos musculares y al nervio mediano ramos comunicantes. Las variaciones conjuntas del plexo braquial y los músculos escalenos no se presentan con frecuencia. Conocerlas enriquece la capacidad diagnóstica, terapéutica y quirúrgica. Reduciendo la posibilidad de iatrogenia al intervenir en las regiones cervical, axilar y braquial.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Plexo Braquial/anatomia & histologia , Nervo Musculocutâneo/anatomia & histologia , Músculos do Pescoço/anatomia & histologia , Plexo Braquial/anormalidades , Cadáver , Dissecação , Variação Anatômica , Nervo Musculocutâneo/anormalidades , Músculos do Pescoço/anormalidades
16.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(4): 963-969, Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124883

RESUMO

During routine undergraduate dissections of the upper limb, variations on the usual arterial and muscular patterns were observed in a 68 year-old male cadaver. The arterial and muscular pattern found in our specimen is similar to that of some primates in the following terms. 1) Brachial artery duplicity, on the right side, with a superficial brachio-ulnoradial artery. 2) In the right upper limb, the biceps brachii muscle continued with the superficial muscles of the forearm. 3) The brachial artery on the left side, cross over in front of the median nerve, as the only artery of the arm with a network axillary pattern. 4) On both sides, the ulnar artery was superficial and originated at the elbow from superficial brachial arteries. 5) The right anterior interosseous artery intervened in the vascularization of the hand. These results suggest that this may be a case of early detention of human embryonic development and/or the persistence of phylogenetic older patterns. In the literature, we have found no reference to the presence of all these variations in the same individual. The objective of our study was to analyze these variations from an embryological and phylogenetic perspective.


Durante las disecciones de pregrado de rutina del miembro superior, se observaron variaciones en los patrones arteriales y musculares habituales en un cadáver macho de 68 años. El patrón arterial y muscular que se encuentra en nuestro espécimen es similar al de algunos primates en los siguientes términos. 1) Duplicidad de la arteria braquial, en el lado derecho, con una arteria braquioulnoradial superficial. 2) En el miembro superior derecho, el músculo bíceps braquial continuó con los músculos superficiales del antebrazo. 3) La arteria braquial en el lado izquierdo, se cruza frente al nervio mediano, como la única arteria del brazo con un patrón axilar en red. 4) En ambos lados, la arteria ulnar era superficial y se originó en el codo de las arterias braquiales superficiales. 5) La arteria interósea anterior derecha intervino en la vascularización de la mano. Estos resultados sugieren que este puede ser un caso de detención temprana del desarrollo embrionario humano y/o la persistencia de patrones filogenéticos más antiguos. En la literatura, no hemos encontrado ninguna referencia a la presencia de todas estas variaciones en el mismo individuo. El objetivo de nuestro estudio fue analizar estas variaciones desde una perspectiva embriológica y filogenética.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Idoso , Artérias/anatomia & histologia , Extremidade Superior/irrigação sanguínea , Variação Anatômica , Artérias/embriologia , Cadáver , Extremidade Superior/embriologia
17.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(4): 899-902, Aug. 2020. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124873

RESUMO

La correcta identificación del canal mandibular es esencial cuando se pretende realizar procedimientos quirúrgicos del sector posterior o incluso odontología clínica. La tomografía computarizada de haz cónico (CBCT) utiliza diferentes planos para la evaluación de este. Para conocer las variaciones anatómicas del canal mandibular se lleva a cabo un estudio en 100 adultos mayores de 30 años, donde la ubicación, la forma y la orientación se estudia mediante la tomografía computarizada de haz cónico. Así, el principal objetivo de nuestro estudio es conocer la variabilidad y tipo de presentación del canal bífido en el Canal mandibular en pacientes dentados o parcialmente edéntulos adultos mayores de 30 años.


The correct identification of the mandibular canal is essential when trying to perform surgical procedures in the posterior sector or even clinical dentistry. Computed tomography (CBCT) uses different planes for the evaluation of this. In order to know the anatomical variations of the mandibular canal, a study is carried out in 100 adults over 30 years of age, where the location, shape and orientation is studied by cone beam computed tomography. The main objective of our study is to know the variability and type of presentation of the bifid canal in the mandibular duct in dentate or partially edentulous adult patients over 30 years.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mandíbula/anatomia & histologia , Mandíbula/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Etários , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico , Variação Anatômica
18.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(4): 1136-1141, Aug. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124906

RESUMO

Desde la aprobación de la Nomina Anatomica de Basilea (BNA, 1895), Nomina Anatomica de Jena (JNA, 1933) y Nomina Anatomica de Paris (PNA, 1955) y sus posteriores ediciones, siempre fueron incorporados términos de variaciones anatómicas. En las dos primeras ediciones de Terminologia Anatomica (TA) (1998 y 2019), es posible encontrar numerosos términos anatómicos, colocados entre paréntesis, que indican que ellos, de acuerdo a su definición anatómica, no constituyen una normalidad. Cabe preguntarse ¿cuáles fueron los criterios para incorporar estos términos? Conocedores de la enseñanza anatómica, sabemos que normal es un concepto con un fuerte componente estadístico. Siempre se ha señalado que en la normalidad anatómica el criterio más importante es el estadístico, es decir, que la estructura anatómica se encuentre en el mayor porcentaje de la población, en general, sobre el 50 % de los casos. En consecuencia, aquellas estructuras que en número están bajo del promedio estadístico, no deben considerarse normales desde el punto de vista anatómico. El concepto de normalidad en anatomía humana es diferente al concepto de normalidad en un paciente, ya que en este caso normal se considera cuando la persona no está incubando o padeciendo una enfermedad. En este artículo presentamos una serie de términos incorporados a TA y que, desde nuestro punto de vista, no debiesen constar en ella. Por otra parte, indicamos algunos que, con mayor porcentaje estadístico, producto de resultados de exhaustivos trabajos de investigación, no fueron incorporados en dicha Terminología.


Traditionally since their approval, the terms of anatomical variations have been incorporated in the Basle Nomina Anatomica (BNA, 1895), Jena Nomina Anatomica (JNA, 1933) and Paris Nomina Anatomica (PNA, 1955). In the first two editions of Terminologia Anatomica (TA) (1998 and 2019), numerous anatomical terms, can be found in parenthesis, which according to their anatomical definition, are indicative that they do not constitute normal standards. Therefore, it is worthwhile inquiring what criteria was used at the time these terms were incorporated. Experience and knowledge in the anatomical teaching field, has asserted that 'normal' is a concept with a strong statistical component. In anatomical normal standards, it has been noted that the statistical criterion is most important. That is to say that the anatomical structure is found in the highest percentage of the population, generally in over 50% of cases. Consequently, structures found below the statistical average in number should not be considered anatomically normal. The concept of normality in human anatomy is different from that in a patient, given that normal in that case is considered when the person is not incubating or suffering from a disease. In this article we present a series of terms incorporated into TA which, considering our point of view, should not be part of the TA. Nevertheless, as a result of exhaustive research, certain terms with higher statistical percentages are emphasized which were not incorporated in the Terminology.


Assuntos
Humanos , Variação Anatômica , Anatomia , Terminologia como Assunto
19.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(4): 1096-1105, Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124901

RESUMO

Los músculos lumbricales (ML) de la mano humana son claves en la propiocepción de la flexoextensión de los dedos. La descripción de su inervación indica que el nervio mediano (NM) inerva los dos ML laterales (L1 y L2) y el nervio ulnar (NU) los ML mediales (L3 y L4). Diversos autores han reportado una gran variabilidad de esta inervación, tanto en los nervios que entregan ramos para estos músculos, como también en la distribución de sus ramos y la presencia de troncos comunes. Por otra parte, el número de ramos que recibe cada ML y los puntos motores (Pm) de los mismos ha sido escasamente reportado. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar número, ubicación y Pm de los ramos destinados a los ML de la mano humana. Así mismo se estableció el patrón de inervación más frecuente. Para ello se utilizaron 24 manos formalizadas, pertenecientes al laboratorio de Anatomía, de la Universidad Andrés Bello, sede Viña del Mar, Chile. Se realizó una disección convencional por planos de profundidad. En todos los casos, el ramo del músculo L1 se originó del nervio digital palmar propio lateral del dedo índice, de la misma forma, en el 100 % el L2 fue inervado por un ramo del nervio digital palmar común del segundo espacio interóseo. En relación a los ML mediales en un 100 % ambos músculos fueron inervados por ramos del ramo profundo del NU (RPNM). En el caso del L3 en un 92 % se presentó un tronco común con el segundo músculo interóseo palmar, asimismo para L4 existió un tronco común con el tercer músculo interóseo palmar en un 79 %. En el 29 %, el L3 presentó una inervación dual. Considerando como referencia la línea biestiloidea, los Pm de los ramos del NM fue de 63,96 mm para L1; 67,91 mm para L2 y 68,69 mm para L3. Para los ramos provenientes del RPNU fue de 69,87 mm para L3 y 69, 21 mm para L4. Los resultados obtenidos aportan al conocimiento anatómico de la inervación de los músculos lumbricales y es de utilidad en procedimientos de neurocirugía que busquen la restauración de la funcionalidad de la mano.


The lumbrical muscles (LM) of the human hand are key in proprioception of flexion and finger extension. The description of its innervation indicates that the median nerve (MN) innervates the two lateral LMs (L1 and L2) and the ulnar nerve (UN) the medial LMs (L3 and L4). Various authors have reported a great variability of this innervation, both in which nerve delivers branches for these muscles, as well as in the distribution of their branches and the presence of common trunks. On the other hand, the number of branches that each LM receives and the motor points (Mp) of these have been scarcely reported. The aim of this study was to determine the number, location and Mp of the branches destined for the LM of the human hand. Likewise, the most frequent innervation pattern was established. For this, 24 formalized hands, belonging to the anatomy laboratory, of the Universidad Andrés Bello, Viña del Mar, Chile, were used. Conventional depth plane dissection was performed. In all cases, the branch of the L1 muscle originated from the palmar digital nerve proper to the index finger, in the same way, in 100 % the L2 was supplied with a branch of the common palmar digital nerve from the second interosseous space. In relation to the LM, in 100 % both muscles were innervated by branches of the deep branch of the UN (DBUN). In the case of L3, 92 % presented a common trunk with the second palmar interosseous muscle. Likewise, in 79 % of the cases, there was a common trunk between the L4 and the third palmar interosseous muscle. In 29 %, the L3 presented a dual innervation. The distance between of the Mp-BEstL was 63.96 mm for L1, 67.91 mm for L2 and 68.69 mm for L3. This distance was 69.87 mm for L3 and 69, 21 mm for L4. The results obtained contribute to the anatomical knowledge of the innervation of the lumbrical muscles and is useful in neurosurgery procedures that seek to restore the functionality of the hand.


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Nervo Ulnar/anatomia & histologia , Músculo Esquelético/inervação , Mãos/inervação , Nervo Mediano/anatomia & histologia , Cadáver , Variação Anatômica
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(27): e21129, 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629747

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The left internal jugular vein has a higher possibility of anatomical variation than the right side. Therefore, the complication risk during cannulation is expected to be higher. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 74-year-old woman was scheduled for elective surgery for left upper lobe wedge resection. We observed an anatomical abnormality at the location of the common carotid artery (CCA) and left internal jugular vein (IJV). DIAGNOSIS: During the ultrasound, the left IJV was detected at the medial side of the CCA, and this anatomical variation was confirmed by color Doppler ultrasonography. Enhanced chest computed tomography showed that the left CCA ran across the left IJV from medial to lateral at the level of the clavicle. INTERVENTION: A triple-lumen central venous catheter was inserted at the right IJV to avoid complications caused by the anatomical variation. OUTCOMES: There were no intraoperative or postoperative complications. LESSONS: Anesthesiologists should consider anatomical variation during central venous cannulation, especially with the left IJV approach. Because of anatomical variation, ultrasound-guided intervention is highly recommended to prevent procedure-related complications.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Venoso Central/métodos , Veias Jugulares/diagnóstico por imagem , Aspergilose Pulmonar/cirurgia , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/métodos , Idoso , Variação Anatômica , Artéria Carótida Primitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Veias Jugulares/anatomia & histologia , Aspergilose Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Aspergilose Pulmonar/patologia , Tórax/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Ultrassonografia Doppler em Cores/métodos
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