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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33440746

RESUMO

Affective well-being is positively linked to regular exercise. Therefore, it is important to identify the factors that influence intra-individual variability of affective well-being. This study investigated (1) whether affective responses vary within an individual and (2) how affective responses are associated with a motive-incentive fit and a skill-task fit. A total of 107 adults (66% females, Mage = 41.79 years old, 58% doing no exercise) took part in three exercise sessions in a random order. Each session lasted 30 min with a break of 10 min between. The sessions were similarly structured but covered diverse activity incentives (e.g., figure vs. social contact vs. aesthetic movements). Intraclass correlation coefficients showed a very high within-person variation of affective valence and enjoyment across the exercise sessions. The results of multi-level regression analyses revealed that associations between perceived competence, considered to be an indicator of the skill-task fit, and affective well-being were moderate to high, whereas those between motive-incentive fit and affective well-being were low to moderate.


Assuntos
Variação Biológica Individual , Exercício Físico , Adulto , Afeto , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação , Prazer
2.
Ann Biol Clin (Paris) ; 78(5): 565-573, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026351

RESUMO

The interpretation of the variation between the results of two dosages performed on the same patient is generally quite empirical. It is usually based on the experience of the biologist or physician. Through two examples, total PSA and hemoglobin, we hoped to set up an indicator of the significance variation between results: The Reference change value or RCV to provide assistance to the validator biologist and prescriber based on measured statistical arguments. This article describes the methodology used for the RCV calculation, the formatting on analysis reports and the limitations of the system.


Assuntos
Variação Biológica Individual , Serviços de Laboratório Clínico/normas , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/normas , Hemoglobinas/análise , Antígeno Prostático Específico/análise , Automação Laboratorial/instrumentação , Automação Laboratorial/normas , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/instrumentação , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Ensaio de Proficiência Laboratorial , Masculino , Metanálise como Assunto , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Padrões de Referência , Valores de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
3.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239612, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966341

RESUMO

Diverse psychological mechanisms have been associated with modulations of different EEG frequencies. To the extent of our knowledge, there are few studies of the test-retest reliability of these modulations in the human brain. To assess evoked and induced alpha reliabilities related to cognitive processing, EEG data from twenty subjects were recorded in 58 derivations in two different sessions separated by 49.5 ± 48.9 (mean ± standard deviation) days. A visual oddball was selected as the cognitive task, and three main parameters were analyzed for evoked and induced alpha modulations (latency, amplitude and topography). Latency and amplitude for evoked and induced modulations showed stable behavior between the two sessions. The correlation between sessions for alpha evoked and induced topographies in the grand average (group level) was r = 0.923, p<0.001; r = 0.962, p<0.001, respectively. The within-subject correlation values for evoked modulation ranged from 0.472 to 0.974 (mean: 0.766), whereas induced activity showed a different range, 0.193 to 0.892 (mean: 0.655). Individual analysis of the test-retest reliability showed a higher heterogeneity in the induced modulation, probably due to the heterogeneous phases found in the second case. However, despite this heterogeneity in phase values for induced activity relative to the onset of the stimuli, an excellent correlation score was obtained for group topography, with values that were better than those of the grand average evoked topography. As a main conclusion, induced alpha activity can be observed as a stable and reproducible response in the cognitive processing of the human brain.


Assuntos
Ritmo alfa , Eletroencefalografia/normas , Potenciais Evocados , Adulto , Variação Biológica Individual , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
4.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13440, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32885569

RESUMO

Cytogenetic tests are used to assess the influence of physical and chemical factors with potential mutagenic and genotoxic properties on the animal organism. The test results make it possible to eliminate mutagens, as well as helping predict possible genetic consequences in animal cells and assess animal resistance. The aim of this study was to examine, using cytogenetic tests, the spontaneous chromosome and DNA damage in coypu lymphocytes. Four tests: fragile site (FS), bleomycin (BLM), micronucleus, (MN) and comet were used for the first time in coypu cells. The averages with standard deviations obtained in the research were as follows: 3.30 ± 0.80 fragile sites/cell; 0.63 ± 0.80 BLM damage/cell; 6.10 ± 0.53% binucleated cells with MN; and 3.24 ± 0.63% DNA in tail. The present analysis showed high interindividual variation in spontaneous chromosomal and DNA damage levels. In the case of micronucleus, fragile sites, and comet assays, the differences between animals were statistically significant. The data suggest that these assays are sensitive enough to detect some effects on an individual animal and can be proposed as tools for coypu biomonitoring.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Biológico/métodos , Variação Biológica Individual , Análise Citogenética/métodos , Análise Citogenética/veterinária , Roedores/genética , Animais , Bleomicina , Aberrações Cromossômicas/veterinária , Sítios Frágeis do Cromossomo , Ensaio Cometa/veterinária , Dano ao DNA , Feminino , Linfócitos , Micronúcleos com Defeito Cromossômico
5.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236254, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687520

RESUMO

Muscle activity changes quantitatively and temporally during the motor learning process. However, the association between variability in muscle electrical activity and the learning and performance of dexterous hand movements is not well understood. Therefore, we undertook this study to investigate the relationships between temporal and quantitative variabilities in muscle activity and the learning of motor skills. Thirty-eight healthy participants performed 30 trials of a task that measured the time taken to rotate two cork balls 20 times using their non-dominant hand. The electromyographic (EMG) activities of the abductor pollicis brevis (APB), first dorsal interosseous, and extensor digitorum (ED) muscles were recorded. Temporal and quantitative variabilities in the EMG activity were evaluated by calculating the coefficient of variation of the duration and area of EMG activation. As motor learning proceeded, the task was completed more quickly and the EMG variability decreased. For all three muscles, significant correlations were observed between individual participants' ball rotation time and EMG variability. Furthermore, significant positive correlations were observed between improvement in ball rotation time and reduction in EMG variability for the APB and ED muscles. These novel findings provide important insights regarding the relationships between temporal and quantitative variabilities in muscle activity and the learning of fine motor skills.


Assuntos
Variação Biológica Individual , Mãos/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Eletromiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Movimento/fisiologia , Contração Muscular/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
6.
Gerontology ; 66(4): 332-339, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32526756

RESUMO

Intensive longitudinal designs (e.g., experience sampling methods, daily diary studies, or ambulatory assessments) continue to gain importance in psychological aging research. Empirical research using these designs has greatly facilitated our understanding of short-term within-person processes and has started to approach the question how these processes shape long-term development across the life span. The aim of this viewpoint article is to point out four key issues in intensive longitudinal designs that in our opinion require more attention than they are currently given: (a) improvement in measurement reliability, (b) the necessity to investigate inter-individual differences in short-term dynamics, (c) considerations of the time scale across which dynamic effects unfold, and (d) targeting causality by incorporating experimental methods in intensive longitudinal designs. We illustrate these four key issues by referring to a prominent example of within-person dynamics in prior empirical research: the within-person coupling of stressor occurrence and well-being (stress reactivity).


Assuntos
Variação Biológica Individual , Individualidade , Projetos de Pesquisa , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
7.
Cell Host Microbe ; 27(6): 879-882.e2, 2020 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359396

RESUMO

The inflammatory response to SARS-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is thought to underpin COVID-19 pathogenesis. We conducted daily transcriptomic profiling of three COVID-19 cases and found that the early immune response in COVID-19 patients is highly dynamic. Patient throat swabs were tested daily for SARS-CoV-2, with the virus persisting for 3 to 4 weeks in all three patients. Cytokine analyses of whole blood revealed increased cytokine expression in the single most severe case. However, most inflammatory gene expression peaked after respiratory function nadir, except expression in the IL1 pathway. Parallel analyses of CD4 and CD8 expression suggested that the pro-inflammatory response may be intertwined with T cell activation that could exacerbate disease or prolong the infection. Collectively, these findings hint at the possibility that IL1 and related pro-inflammatory pathways may be prognostic and serve as therapeutic targets for COVID-19. This work may also guide future studies to illuminate COVID-19 pathogenesis and develop host-directed therapies.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/genética , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Variação Biológica Individual , Análise por Conglomerados , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Citocinas/sangue , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Transcriptoma , Regulação para Cima
8.
Clin Chem ; 66(5): 727-736, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353129

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With increased interest in lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]) concentration as a target for risk reduction and growing clinical evidence of its impact on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, rigorous analytical performance specifications (APS) and accuracy targets for Lp(a) are required. We investigated the biological variation (BV) of Lp(a), and 2 other major biomarkers of CVD, apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB), in the European Biological Variation Study population. METHOD: Serum samples were drawn from 91 healthy individuals for 10 consecutive weeks at 6 European laboratories and analyzed in duplicate on a Roche Cobas 8000 c702. Outlier, homogeneity, and trend analysis were performed, followed by CV-ANOVA to determine BV estimates and their 95% CIs. These estimates were used to calculate APS and reference change values. For Lp(a), BV estimates were determined on normalized concentration quintiles. RESULTS: Within-subject BV estimates were significantly different between sexes for Lp(a) and between women aged <50 and >50 years for apoA-I and apoB. Lp(a) APS was constant across concentration quintiles and, overall, lower than APS based on currently published data, whereas results were similar for apoA-I and apoB. CONCLUSION: Using a fully Biological Variation Data Critical Appraisal Checklist (BIVAC)-compliant protocol, our study data confirm BV estimates of Lp(a) listed in the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine database and reinforce concerns expressed in recent articles regarding the suitability of older APS recommendations for Lp(a) measurements. Given the heterogeneity of Lp(a), more BIVAC-compliant studies on large numbers of individuals of different ethnic groups would be desirable.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteína A-I/sangue , Apolipoproteína B-100/sangue , Variação Biológica Individual , Lipoproteína(a)/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Apolipoproteína A-I/normas , Apolipoproteína B-100/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Lipoproteína(a)/normas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valores de Referência , Adulto Jovem
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(20): 11048-11058, 2020 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32366665

RESUMO

Personalized medicine requires that treatments adapt to not only the patient but also changing factors within each individual. Although epilepsy is a dynamic disorder characterized by pathological fluctuations in brain state, surprisingly little is known about whether and how seizures vary in the same patient. We quantitatively compared within-patient seizure network evolutions using intracranial electroencephalographic (iEEG) recordings of over 500 seizures from 31 patients with focal epilepsy (mean 16.5 seizures per patient). In all patients, we found variability in seizure paths through the space of possible network dynamics. Seizures with similar pathways tended to occur closer together in time, and a simple model suggested that seizure pathways change on circadian and/or slower timescales in the majority of patients. These temporal relationships occurred independent of whether the patient underwent antiepileptic medication reduction. Our results suggest that various modulatory processes, operating at different timescales, shape within-patient seizure evolutions, leading to variable seizure pathways that may require tailored treatment approaches.


Assuntos
Epilepsias Parciais/metabolismo , Convulsões/metabolismo , Variação Biológica Individual , Eletrocorticografia/métodos , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos
10.
Am J Primatol ; 82(6): e23134, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298003

RESUMO

As social animals, many primates use acoustic communication to maintain relationships. Vocal individuality has been documented in a diverse range of primate species and call types, many of which have presumably different functions. Auditory recognition of one's neighbors may confer a selective advantage if identifying conspecifics decreases the need to participate in costly territorial behaviors. Alternatively, vocal individuality may be nonadaptive and the result of a unique combination of genetics and environment. Pair-bonded primates, in particular, often participate in coordinated vocal duets that can be heard over long distances by neighboring conspecifics. In contrast to adult calls, infant vocalizations are short-range and used for intragroup communication. Here, we provide two separate but complementary analyses of vocal individuality in distinct call types of coppery titi monkeys (Plecturocebus cupreus) to test whether individuality occurs in call types from animals of different age classes with presumably different functions. We analyzed 600 trill vocalizations from 30 infants and 169 pulse-chirp duet vocalizations from 30 adult titi monkeys. We predicted that duet contributions would exhibit a higher degree of individuality than infant trills, given their assumed function for long-distance, intergroup communication. We estimated 7 features from infant trills and 16 features from spectrograms of adult pulse-chirps, then used discriminant function analysis with leave-one-out cross-validation to classify individuals. We correctly classified infants with 48% accuracy and adults with 83% accuracy. To further investigate variance in call features, we used a multivariate variance components model to estimate variance partitioning in features across two levels: within- and between-individuals. Between-individual variance was the most important source of variance for all features in adults, and three of four features in infants. We show that pulse-chirps of adult titi monkey duets are individually distinct, and infant trills are less individually distinct, which may be due to the different functions of the vocalizations.


Assuntos
Variação Biológica Individual , Pitheciidae/psicologia , Vocalização Animal , Fatores Etários , Animais , Animais de Zoológico/psicologia , California , Feminino , Masculino
11.
Cytotherapy ; 22(4): 227-238, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32113873

RESUMO

Manufacturing processes for autologous cell therapy need to reproducibly generate in specification (quality and quantity) clinical product. However, patient variability prevents the level of control of cell input material that could be achieved in a cell line or allogeneic-based process. We have applied literature data on bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells variability to estimate probability distributions for stem cell yields given underlying truncated normal distributions in total nucleated cell concentration, stem cell percentage and plausible aspirate volumes. Monte Carlo simulation identified potential variability in harvested stem cell number in excess of an order of magnitude. The source material variability was used to identify the proportion of donor manufacturing runs that would achieve a target yield specification of 2E7 cells in a fixed time window with given proliferative rates and different aspirate volumes. A rapid, screening, development approach was undertaken to assess culture materials and process parameters (T-flask surface, medium, feed schedule) to specify a protocol with identified proliferative rate and a consequent model-based target aspirate volume. Finally, four engineering runs of the candidate process were conducted and a range of relevant quality parameters measured including expression of markers CD105, CD73, CD44, CD45, CD34, CD11b, CD19, HLA-DR, CD146 (melanoma cell adhesion molecule), CD106 (vascular cell adhesion molecule) and SSEA-4, specific metabolic activity and vascular endothelial growth factor secretion, and osteogenic differentiation potential. Our approach of using estimated distributions from publicly available information provides a route for data-poor earl- stage developers to plan manufacture with defined risk based on rational assumptions; furthermore, the models produced by such assumptions can be used to evaluate candidate processes, and can be incrementally improved with accumulating distribution understanding or subdivision by new process variables.


Assuntos
Variação Biológica Individual , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos/métodos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/métodos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Método de Monte Carlo , Antígenos de Superfície/análise , Contagem de Células , Diferenciação Celular , Sobrevivência Celular , Células Cultivadas , Meios de Cultura , Humanos , Osteogênese , Transplante Autólogo , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular
12.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0222822, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32097432

RESUMO

Clinical assessment of spinal motion in horses is part of many routine clinical exams but remains highly subjective. A prerequisite for the quantification of spinal motion is the assessment of the expected normal range of motion and variability of back kinematics. The aim of this study was to objectively quantify spinal kinematics and between -measurement, -surface and -day variation in owner-sound horses. In an observational study, twelve owner-sound horses were trotted 12 times on four different paths (hard/soft straight line, soft lunge left and right). Measurements were divided over three days, with five repetitions on day one and two, and two repetitions on day three (recheck) which occurred 28-55 days later. Optical motion capture was used to collect kinematic data. Elements of the outcome were: 1) Ranges of Motion (ROM) with confidence intervals per path and surface, 2) a variability model to calculate between-measurement variation and test the effect of time, surface and path, 3) intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) to determine repeatability. ROM was lowest on the hard straight line. Cervical lateral bending was doubled on the left compared to the right lunge. Mean variation for the flexion-extension and lateral bending of the whole back were 0.8 and 1 degrees. Pelvic motion showed a variation of 1.0 (pitch), 0.7 (yaw) and 1.3 (roll) degrees. For these five parameters, a tendency for more variation on the hard surface and reduced variation with increased repetitions was observed. More variation was seen on the recheck (p<0.001). ICC values for pelvic rotations were between 0.76 and 0.93, for the whole back flexion-extension and lateral bending between 0.51 and 0.91. Between-horse variation was substantially higher than within-horse variation. In conclusion, ROM and variation in spinal biomechanics are horse-specific and small, necessitating individual analysis and making subjective and objective clinical assessment of spinal kinematics challenging.


Assuntos
Dorso/fisiologia , Variação Biológica Individual , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Marcha , Cavalos , Locomoção , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
13.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 13(2): e005948, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32063049

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is missed more frequently in young women than men, which may be related to the cognitive psychology of the diagnostic process. Physicians start the diagnostic process by intuitively recognizing familiar symptom phenotypes, but little is known about how symptoms combine in individuals as unique symptom phenotypes. We examined how symptoms of AMI combine as unique symptom phenotypes in individual patients to compare the distribution of symptom phenotypes in women versus men. METHODS AND RESULTS: The VIRGO study (Variation in Recovery: Role of Gender on Outcomes of Young AMI Patients) was a multicenter, observational cohort study of 3501 young adults hospitalized with AMI. Data were collected on presenting symptoms with standardized interviews and from medical record abstraction. The number and distribution of unique symptom phenotypes were compared between women and men. Because of the 2:1 female-to-male enrollment ratio, women and men were compared with permutation testing and repeated subsampling. There were 426 interview-symptom phenotypes in women and 280 in men. The observed difference between women and men of 146 phenotypes was significant, even allowing for the greater enrollment of women (permutation P=0.004, median difference 110 under the null hypothesis of no association between sex and phenotype). The repeated subsample analysis also showed significantly more interview-symptom phenotypes in women than men (206.8±7.3 versus 188.6±6.0, P<0.001). Women were more broadly distributed among symptom phenotype subgroups than men (P<0.001). Similar findings were observed in the analysis of symptoms abstracted from the medical record. CONCLUSIONS: Women exhibited substantially more variation in unique symptom phenotypes than men, regardless of whether the symptoms were derived from structured interviews or abstracted from the medical record. These findings may provide an explanation for the higher missed diagnosis rate in young women with AMI and may have important implications for teaching and improving clinicians' ability to recognize the diagnosis of AMI in women.


Assuntos
Variação Biológica Individual , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Avaliação de Sintomas , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Admissão do Paciente , Fenótipo , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Espanha/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 2469, 2020 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051420

RESUMO

Variation of the magnitude of posterior alpha rhythm (8-12 Hz) has functional and behavioural effects in sensory processing and cognitive performances. Electrical brain activity, as revealed by electroencephalography (EEG), can be represented by a sequence of microstates of about 40-120 ms duration, in which distributed neural pools are synchronously active and generate stable spatial potential topographies on the scalp. Microstate dynamics may reflect transitions between global states characterized by selective inhibition of specific intra-cortical regions, mediated by alpha activity. We investigated the intra-subject and inter-subject relationship between microstate features and alpha band. High-density EEG signals were acquired in 29 healthy subjects during ten minutes of eyes closed rest. Individual EEG signal epochs were classified into four groups depending on the amount of occipital alpha power, and microstate metrics (duration, coverage and frequency of occurrence) were calculated and compared across groups. Correlations between alpha power and microstate metrics between individuals were also performed. To assess if microstate parameter variations are specific for the alpha band, the same analysis was also performed for theta and beta bands, as well as for global field power. We observed an increase in the metrics of microstate, previously associated to the visual system, with the level of intra-subject amplitude alpha oscillations, together with lower coverage of microstate associated with executive attention network and a higher frequency of microstate associated with task negative network. Other modulation effects of broad-band EEG power level on microstate metrics were observed. These effects are not specific for the alpha band, since they can equally be attributed to fluctuations in other frequency bands. We can interpret our results as a regulation mechanism mediated by posterior alpha level, dynamically interacting with other frequency bands, responsible for the switching between active areas.


Assuntos
Ritmo alfa , Variação Biológica Individual , Variação Biológica da População , Adulto , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia/normas , Eletroencefalografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
15.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 2476, 2020 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051479

RESUMO

PEGylated recombinant human granulocyte colony stimulating factor (pegfilgrastim) is used clinically to accelerate immune reconstitution following chemotherapy and is being pursued for biosimilar development. One challenge to overcome in pegfilgrastim biosimilar development is establishing pharmacokinetic (PK) similarity, which is partly due to the degree of PK variability. We herein report that commercially available G-CSF and PEG ELISA detection kits have different capacities to detect pegfilgrastim aggregates that rapidly form in vitro in physiological conditions. These aggregates can be observed using SDS-PAGE, size-exclusion chromatography, dynamic light scattering, and real-time NMR analysis and are associated with decreased bioactivity as reflected by reduced drug-induced cellular proliferation and STAT3 phosphorylation. Furthermore, individual variability in the stability and detectability of pegfilgrastim in human sera is also observed. Pegfilgrastim levels display marked subject variability in sera from healthy donors incubated at 37 °C. The stability patterns of pegfilgrastim closely match the stability patterns of filgrastim, consistent with a key role for pegfilgrastim's G-CSF moiety in driving formation of inactive aggregates. Taken together, our results indicate that individual variability and ELISA specificity for inactive aggregates are key factors to consider when designing and interpreting studies involving the measurement of serum pegfilgrastim concentrations.


Assuntos
Variação Biológica Individual , Filgrastim/farmacocinética , Polietilenoglicóis/farmacocinética , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/normas , Humanos , Camundongos , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo
16.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228539, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053614

RESUMO

Functional traits have emerged as a key to understand species responses to environmental conditions. The concerted expression of multiple traits gives rise to the phenotype of each individual, which is the one interacting with the environment and evolving. However, patterns of trait covariation and how they vary in response to environmental conditions remain poorly understood, particularly at the intraspecific scale. Here, we have measured traits at different scales and in different organs, and analysed their covariation in a large number of conspecifics distributed in two contrasting environments. We expected significant correlations among traits, not only within clusters of traits as found in global, multispecies studies, but also among clusters, with more relationships within clusters, due to genetic constraints, and among clusters due to more coordinated phenotypes than community level, multispecies studies. We surveyed 100 Pinus sylvestris trees in a Mediterranean mountainous area distributed in two contrasting elevations. We measured 13 functional traits, in three clusters (leaf, stem and whole-plant traits), and analysed their variation and coordination. We found significant coordination among traits belonging to different clusters that reveals coordinated phenotypes. However, we found fewer correlations within trait clusters than initially expected. Trait correlation structures (number, intensity and type of correlations among traits) differed among individuals at different elevations. We observed more correlations within trait clusters at low elevation compared to those at high elevation. Moreover, the higher number of correlations among different trait clusters and the lower trait variation at the higher elevation suggests that variability decreases under more stressful conditions. Altogether, our results reveal that traits at intraspecific scale are coordinated in a broad network and not only within clusters of traits but also that this trait covariation is significantly affected by environmental conditions.


Assuntos
Altitude , Ecossistema , Pinus sylvestris/anatomia & histologia , Pinus sylvestris/química , Pinus sylvestris/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Variação Biológica Individual , Tamanho do Órgão , Fenótipo , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caules de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Caules de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Espanha , Árvores/anatomia & histologia , Árvores/química , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento
17.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 1703, 2020 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32015477

RESUMO

The nuclear hormone receptor Dax1 functions during development as a testes-determining gene. However, the phenotype of male mice lacking Dax1 is strain-dependent due to the background-specific abundance of male-determining Sry gene-transcripts. We hypothesised that inter-individual variation in Sry mRNA-abundance would result in a spectrum of phenotypes even within-strain. We found that while all XY C57BL/6J mice lacking Dax1 presented as phenotypic females, there was a marked inter-individual variability in measures of fertility. Indeed, we report rare occasions where sex-reversed mice had measures of fertility comparable to those in control females. On two occasions, these sex-reversed XY mice were able to give birth to live offspring following mating to stud-males. As such, this work documents within-strain variability in phenotypes of XY mice lacking Dax1, and reports for the first time a complete sex-reversal capable of achieving live birth in these mice.


Assuntos
Receptor Nuclear Órfão DAX-1/genética , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento Sexual/genética , Processos de Determinação Sexual/fisiologia , Proteína da Região Y Determinante do Sexo/genética , Testículo/fisiologia , Animais , Variação Biológica Individual , Feminino , Fertilidade , Patrimônio Genético , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Parto , Fenótipo
18.
J Electromyogr Kinesiol ; 51: 102401, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32087511

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The reliability of lower extremity muscle activation patterns has not been clearly studied in a dual-belt instrumented treadmill environment. The primary study objective was to quantify the day-to-day reliability of quadriceps, hamstrings, gastrocnemius and gluteus medius activation patterns in healthy young adult gait. Secondarily, the reliability of spatiotemporal, and knee/hip motion and moment-based gait outcomes was assessed. SCOPE: 20 young adults were recruited and tested on two separate days. Using standardized procedures, participants were prepared for surface electromyography and lower extremity motion capture. All individuals walked on a dual-belt instrumented treadmill while muscle activation, segment motions and ground reaction forces were recorded. Sagittal plane motion and net external sagittal and frontal plane moments were calculated. Discrete biomechanical and muscle activation measures were calculated, and non-negative matrix factorization extracted amplitude and temporal muscle activation features. Intraclass Correlation Coefficients, Standard Error of Measurement and Minimum Detectable Change were calculated. CONCLUSIONS: High to excellent Intraclass correlation coefficients were found between visits for most primary and secondary outcomes. The absolute and relative reliability, including Minimum Detectable Change values, provided in this study support the use of dual-belt instrumented treadmill walking as an acceptable medium to collect biomechanical and lower extremity EMG outcomes for future studies.


Assuntos
Variação Biológica Individual , Teste de Esforço/normas , Marcha , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho/fisiologia , Perna (Membro)/fisiologia , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
19.
Neuropsychologia ; 138: 107352, 2020 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31958409

RESUMO

The ability to identify facial expressions rapidly and accurately is central to human evolution. Previous studies have demonstrated that this ability relies to a large extent on the magnocellular, rather than parvocellular, visual pathway, which is biased toward processing low spatial frequencies. Despite the generally consistent finding, no study to date has investigated the reliability of this effect over time. In the present study, 40 participants completed a facial emotion identification task (fearful, happy, or neutral faces) using facial images presented at three different spatial frequencies (low, high, or broad spatial frequency), at two time points separated by one year. Bayesian statistics revealed an advantage for the magnocellular pathway in processing facial expressions; however, no effect for time was found. Furthermore, participants' RT patterns of results were highly stable over time. Our replication, together with the consistency of our measurements within subjects, underscores the robustness of this effect. This capacity, therefore, may be considered in a trait-like manner, suggesting that individuals may possess various ability levels for processing facial expressions that can be captured in behavioral measurements.


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Expressão Facial , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Corpos Geniculados/fisiologia , Vias Visuais/fisiologia , Adulto , Variação Biológica Individual , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Individualidade , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
20.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 1164, 2020 01 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31980718

RESUMO

In humans, aging and neurodegenerative diseases have been found to be associated with impairment in both mathematical abilities and estimation of continuous quantities such as size, weight or distance. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is rapidly becoming a model for human aging and brain disorders but we currently lack any instrument for rapid assessment of quantity estimation abilities in this species. Here we developed a simple method based on spontaneous preference of zebrafish for using the larger available hole to pass an obstacle. We collected a large amount of data from small groups of zebrafish moving between compartments of their tank and we used these normative data to compare the performance of individually tested fish. Zebrafish significantly discriminated size ratios from 0.60 to 0.91 with their performance decreasing while increasing the size ratio between the smaller and the larger hole presented. On average, individually tested fish showed the same performance, but a large inter-individual variability was observed. Test-retest analyses revealed a good reliability of this test, with 0.60 and 0.75 ratios being the most informative. Experience did not affect individual performance, suggesting the suitability of this test to measure the longitudinal changes and the effects of pharmacological treatments on cognitive abilities.


Assuntos
Percepção de Tamanho/fisiologia , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Animais , Variação Biológica Individual , Feminino , Valores de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Peixe-Zebra/crescimento & desenvolvimento
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