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1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1141: 293-340, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571168

RESUMO

Hepatic drug transporters are mainly distributed in parenchymal liver cells (hepatocytes), contributing to drug's liver disposition and elimination. According to their functions, hepatic transporters can be roughly divided into influx and efflux transporters, translocating specific molecules from blood into hepatic cytosol and mediating the excretion of drugs and metabolites from hepatic cytosol to blood or bile, respectively. The function of hepatic transport systems can be affected by interspecies differences and inter-individual variability (polymorphism). In addition, some drugs and disease can redistribute transporters from the cell surface to the intracellular compartments, leading to the changes in the expression and function of transporters. Hepatic drug transporters have been associated with the hepatic toxicity of drugs. Gene polymorphism of transporters and altered transporter expressions and functions due to diseases are found to be susceptible factors for drug-induced liver injury (DILI). In this chapter, the localization of hepatic drug transporters, their regulatory factors, physiological roles, and their roles in drug's liver disposition and DILI are reviewed.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Transporte Biológico , Variação Genética , Hepatócitos , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Preparações Farmacêuticas/metabolismo
2.
Anticancer Res ; 39(10): 5353-5359, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570429

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identification of genetic prognostic biomarkers, such as germline variants, are urgently needed to choose optimal treatment for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: The prognostic value of anoctamin 7 (ANO7) rs77559646 on docetaxel response was tested in a prospective PROSTY randomized trial and a retrospective Auria Biobank set. The variant rs77559646 was genotyped and its association with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) was tested. RESULTS: In comparison with the non-carriers, the variant carriers had longer PFS (p=0.005) and OS (p=0.003) in the PROSTY cohort. In the retrospective cohort, there was a borderline association with PFS (p=0.09), but not in OS (p=0.9). In both cohorts, Cox regression multivariate models revealed that rs77559646 was an independent prognostic factor for favourable PFS. CONCLUSION: The rs77559646 was shown to be a prognostic germline biomarker for better response to docetaxel treatments. To our knowledge, this is the first time that a non-coding germline variant has been associated with chemotherapy of mCRPC.


Assuntos
Anoctaminas/genética , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Docetaxel/uso terapêutico , Variação Genética/genética , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/genética , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
3.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e190149, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576902

RESUMO

Human polycystic echinococcosis is a parasitic infection caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus vogeli, which occurs in rural areas of Central and South America. Until now, little information on the genetic variability of E. vogeli is available. Here, 32 samples from human-excised E. vogeli cysts had a 396-bp sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene sequenced and compared to another 17 COI sequences representing nine Echinococcus species. A Bayesian COI tree revealed that all E. vogeli sequences formed a monophyletic and well-supported clade with an E. vogeli reference sequence. The occurrence of geographically restricted E. vogeli COI haplotypes suggests retention of ancestral polymorphisms with little migration in Acre, Brazil.


Assuntos
Echinococcus/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Brasil , Equinococose/parasitologia , Echinococcus/isolamento & purificação , Haplótipos , Humanos
4.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e190184, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576903

RESUMO

American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) has two main scenarios of transmission as follows: scattered cases in rural areas and urban outbreaks. Urban AVL is in active dispersion from the northeastern border of Argentina-Paraguay-Brazil to the South. The presence of Lutzomyia longipalpis was initially reported in urban environments in the northwestern border of the country. The presence of Lu. longipalpis, environmental variables associated with its distribution, and its genetic diversity were assessed in Salvador Mazza, Argentina, on the border with Bolivia. The genetic analysis showed high haplotype diversity, low nucleotide diversity, and low nucleotide polymorphism index. We discuss the hypothesis of an expanding urban population with introgressive hybridisation of older haplogroups found in their path in natural forest or rural environments, acquiring a new adaptability to urban environments, and the possibility of changes in vector capacity.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Variação Genética/genética , Insetos Vetores/genética , Psychodidae/genética , Animais , Argentina , Bolívia , Brasil , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Genes de Insetos/genética , Haplótipos , Insetos Vetores/classificação , Leishmaniose Cutânea/transmissão , Masculino , Filogeografia , Psychodidae/classificação
5.
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi ; 57(9): 674-679, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530352

RESUMO

Objective: To examine genetic variants of familial hematuria (FH) associated genes in 3 families with hematuria with probands initially diagnosed with IgA nephropathy (IgAN). Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on the clinical data, laboratory tests and genetic test results of three children with hematuria and the probands in three families with hematuria. The families were ascertained at the Department of Pediatrics, Fuzhou General Hospital of Nanjing Military Command from August 2014 to May 2018. Results: The proband of Family One, an 8-year-old boy, manifested gross hematuria. His renal biopsy pathology revealed IgAN. His father also manifested hematuria. Genetic testing showed that the proband and his father carried a heterozygous variant of the CFHR5 gene,533A>G (Asn178Ser). The child of Family Two, a 4-year-old girl, manifested hematuria. Her father, the proband of the family, was 36 years old, and manifested hematuria, proteinuria, high-frequency sensorineural deafness and renal insufficiency. He was diagnosed as IgAN according to clinical manifestations, renal pathology and routine immunohistochemistry without renal biopsy electron microscopy, renal tissue type Ⅳ collagen α3, α4, α5 chains immunofluorescence and skin type Ⅳ collagen α5 chain immunofluorescence. Genetic testing showed that the girl carried a heterozygous variant of the COL4A5 gene,566G>T (Gly189Val), and her father carried the hemizygous variant. The child of Family Three, a 7-year-old girl, manifested hematuria and proteinuria. Her mother, the proband of the family, was 34 years old, and manifested hematuria and proteinuria as well. The proband was diagnosed as IgAN by the same method used for Family Two. The girl's grandfather died of uremia at the age of 44. Genetic testing showed that the girl and her mother carried a heterozygous variant 539G>A (Gly180Glu)in COL4A5 gene. Conclusions: The variant of the CFHR5 gene identified in Family One is of uncertain signifance, and the two variants of the COL4A5 gene identified in Families Two and Three are pathogenic. The probands of Families Two and Three are diagnosed as Alport syndrome. The study suggests that clinicians should examine genetic variants of FH associated genes in families with hematuria when the probands were diagnosed as IgAN by their clinical manifestations, renal pathology and routine immunohistochemistry.


Assuntos
Variação Genética/genética , Hematúria/diagnóstico , Nefrite Hereditária/diagnóstico , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Glomerulonefrite por IGA/diagnóstico , Glomerulonefrite por IGA/patologia , Hematúria/genética , Humanos , Rim , Masculino , Nefrite Hereditária/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
6.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(8): 992-996, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484267

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the genetic diversity of Aedes albopictus populations in the coastal areas of southern China by using the microsatellite markers to provide a basis for the control of vectors. Methods: Genetic diversity and clustering analysis of Aedes albopictus populations were studied in the 7 microsatellite loci, in Hangzhou, Ningbo and Yiwu of Zhejiang province, Longyan of Fujian province, Guangzhou of Guangdong province, Nanning of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region and Haikou of Hainan province. Results: Numbers of different alleles (5.429-7.571), effective alleles (2.897-3.632), allele richness (5.236-7.170) and expected heterozygosity (0.538- 0.637) were detected from each of the Aedes albopictus population by using 7 microsatellite markers. The inbreeding coefficients appeared as 0.008-0.332, with heterozygote deficiency, in these populations. Fixation index of the whole populations was 0.058, suggesting that the genetic variation among the 7 populations was 5.8%. Data from the Neighbor-Joining clustering analysis showed that populations from Hangzhou and Yiwu belonged to one branch while Longyan and Guangzhou populations constituted another branch. Aedes albopictus populations of Nanning and Haikou showed great genetic variation but formed a single branch. Bayesian analysis on Aedes albopictus populations showed that the possible number of clusters was 3. Conclusions: Based on 7 microsatellite loci, relatively high genetic diversity and medium level of genetic differentiation that increasing with the geographical distances, were found in these Aedes albopictus populations, from the coastal areas in southern China.


Assuntos
Aedes/genética , Variação Genética , Repetições de Microssatélites , Aedes/classificação , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , China , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Mosquitos Vetores , Filogenia
7.
Cancer Treat Rev ; 79: 101888, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491663

RESUMO

Metaplastic breast carcinomas (MPBC) are rare, aggressive and relatively chemorefractory tumors with a high unmet need. While most are "triple negative" and lack expression of estrogen, progesterone and HER2 receptors, MPBC are associated with worse outcomes compared to conventional triple negative invasive tumors. MPBCs are genetically heterogeneous and harbor somatic mutations, most frequently in TP53, PIK3CA and PTEN, with emerging studies suggesting a role for novel targeted therapies. These tumors have also been associated with overexpression of PD-L1 and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes suggesting an endogenous immune response and therefore a rationale for treatment with immunotherapies. Here, we focus on therapeutic options for this difficult to treat breast cancer subtype and encourage physicians to consider targeted therapies/immunotherapies as part of ongoing clinical trials.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Animais , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Gerenciamento Clínico , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Feminino , Variação Genética , Humanos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(3): e20180036, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553363

RESUMO

This work aimed to determine variance components and genetic parameters, as well as phenotypic, genetic and environmental correlations among black oat (Avena strigosa) families grown in different crop season. Seventy-six black oat families and three controls (BRS Madrugada, BRS Centauro, BRS 139 Neblina) were evaluated in two crop seasons (2016 and 2017), using families with intercalary controls experimental design. The results reveled high potential of black oat families to compose a breeding program, due to families and controls variance were similar, variance components expressed greater genetic variance origin for crop season. Panicle weight and panicle grain weight presented high heritability and, these are correlated with panicle length. Thus, these traits can be used to select superior genotypes. Divergent meteorological conditions between crop seasons expressed few variations among phenotypic, genetic and environmental correlations, and it did not alter magnitude and sense of phenotypic and genetic correlations.


Assuntos
Avena/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Avena/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Fenótipo , Estações do Ano
9.
Anticancer Res ; 39(9): 4933-4940, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519598

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interleukin 2 (IL2) is a significant factor activating T-cell-mediated immune response by stimulation of natural killer cells, T-cells and in development of regulatory T (Treg) cells. Recent studies have that IL2 participates in cancer development by modifying the local immune response. Based on the suggested role of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs2069762, rs6822844 and rs11938795 of IL2 in the pathogenesis of certain diseases, the relationship of these SNPs with clinicopathological variables and their possible implication for prognosis and disease outcome were evaluated in a cohort of Swedish patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: TaqMan SNP genotype assays based on polymerase chain reaction were used for analysis of the IL2 SNPs in 467 patients with CRC and 467 healthy controls. Expression analysis of IL2 in plasma and CRC tissue was also performed. RESULTS: The allelic variants T in rs11938795 and G in rs6822844 were significantly associated with a higher risk of CRC. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that cancer-specific survival was worse for individuals with C allele for rs2069762 with stage II CRC and with T allele for rs6822844 with stage III CRC. CONCLUSION: SNPs rs2069762, rs6822844 and rs11938795 of the IL2 gene may be helpful as prognostic biomarkers in the follow-up and management of the patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Variação Genética , Interleucina-2/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Alelos , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/imunologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Imunomodulação , Interleucina-2/sangue , Interleucina-2/metabolismo , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco
10.
Genet Sel Evol ; 51(1): 45, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426753

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Crossbreeding is widely used in pig production because of the benefits of heterosis effects and breed complementarity. Commonly, sire lines are bred for traits such as feed efficiency, growth and meat content, whereas maternal lines are also bred for reproduction and longevity traits, and the resulting three-way crossbred pigs are used for production of meat. The most important genetic basis for heterosis is dominance effects, e.g. removal of inbreeding depression. The aims of this study were to (1) present a modification of a previously developed model with additive, dominance and inbreeding depression genetic effects for analysis of data from a purebred sire line and three-way crossbred pigs; (2) based on this model, present equations for additive genetic variances, additive genetic covariance, and estimated breeding values (EBV) with associated accuracies for purebred and crossbred performances; (3) use the model to analyse four production traits, i.e. ultra-sound recorded backfat thickness (BF), conformation score (CONF), average daily gain (ADG), and feed conversion ratio (FCR), recorded on Danbred Duroc and Danbred Duroc-Landrace-Yorkshire crossbred pigs reared in the same environment; and (4) obtain estimates of genetic parameters, additive genetic correlations between purebred and crossbred performances, and EBV with associated accuracies for purebred and crossbred performances for this data set. RESULTS: Additive genetic correlations (with associated standard errors) between purebred and crossbred performances were equal to 0.96 (0.07), 0.83 (0.16), 0.75 (0.17), and 0.87 (0.18) for BF, CONF, ADG, and FCR, respectively. For BF, ADG, and FCR, the additive genetic variance was smaller for purebred performance than for crossbred performance, but for CONF the reverse was observed. EBV on Duroc boars were more accurate for purebred performance than for crossbred performance for BF, CONF and FCR, but not for ADG. CONCLUSIONS: Methodological developments led to equations for genetic (co)variances and EBV with associated accuracies for purebred and crossbred performances in a three-way crossbreeding system. As illustrated by the data analysis, these equations may be useful for implementation of genomic selection in this system.


Assuntos
Cruzamento , Depressão por Endogamia , Modelos Genéticos , Modelos Estatísticos , Suínos/genética , Animais , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Feminino , Variação Genética , Hibridização Genética , Masculino
11.
Science ; 365(6454): 640-641, 2019 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416949
12.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(9): 134, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432266

RESUMO

Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are zoonotic pathogens and may induce severe diarrheagenic diseases in humans and other animals. Non-O157 STEC have been emerging as important pathogens causing outbreaks worldwide. Bacterial resistance to antimicrobials has become a global public health problem, which involves different ecological spheres, including animals. This study aimed to characterize the resistance to antimicrobials, plasmids and virulence, as well as the serotypes and phylogenetic groups in E. coli isolated from sheep in Brazil. A total of 57 isolates were obtained and showed different antimicrobial resistance profiles. Nineteen isolates presented acquired antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) (blaCTX-M-Gp9, qnrB, qnrS, oqxB, oqxA, tetA, tetB, tetC, sul1 and sul2) and plasmid families (F, FIA, FIB, I1, K, HI1 and ColE-like). The stx1, stx2 and ehxA virulence genes were detected by PCR, being 50 isolates (87.7%) classified as STEC. A great diversity of serotypes was detected, being O176:HNM the most predominant. Phylogenetic group E was the most prevalent, followed by B1, A and B2. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report in the world of blaCTX-M-Gp9 (O75, O114, O100, O128ac and O176 serogroups), qnrB and oqxB genes in non-O157 STEC in healthy sheep. The results obtained in the present study call attention to the monitoring of antimicrobial-resistant non-O157 STEC harboring acquired ARGs worldwide and indicate a zoonotic risk due to the profile of virulence, resistance and serotype found.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Fezes/microbiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Brasil , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Genes Bacterianos , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Filogenia , Plasmídeos/análise , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Sorogrupo , Ovinos , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica/genética , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica/patogenicidade , Fatores de Virulência/genética
13.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(3): e20180387, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432899

RESUMO

This study aimed to estimate genetic parameters and correlations between morphological, agronomic and root quality traits of cassava plants, as well as to study cause and effect relationships through path analysis. A total of 814 genotypes were evaluated from 2011 to 2015. The joint analysis of the data was performed by the mixed models approach. The predicted genetic values of the genotypes were used to estimate the genetic correlations among as well the path analysis. The estimates of heritability of the genotype means ranged from 0.31 (commercial fresh root yield - CRY) to 0.62 (plant height - PLH). The highest genetic correlation coefficient estimates were observed for starch yield (STY) × total fresh root yield (FRY) (0.97). The results of the path analysis showed that FRY had the highest direct effect on STY, but the indirect selection based on FRY was not efficient to improve the gain of STY.


Assuntos
Variação Genética/genética , Manihot/genética , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Seleção Genética/genética , Genótipo
14.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(9): 138, 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451937

RESUMO

Monascus azaphilone pigments, including red, orange, and yellow, are world-famous food colorants. However, the pigments produced by different Monascus species vary in yields and compositions. The underlying mechanism is unclear. In this study, four wild-type Monascus strains, namely M. anka M7, M. purpureus M9, M. ruber C100, and M. aurantiacus M15, were selected as research objects according to the diversification of their pigments fermented in the same mediums and conditions. Twenty-three 3 kbp segments (300 bp overlap with adjacent segments) of the pigment gene cluster were amplified, sequenced, and assembled into the DNA sequences of the clusters. The DNA sequences of pigment biosynthetic gene clusters of the four strains showed 99.94% similarity according to the results of multiple alignment. The expression levels of 17 pigment biosynthetic genes of four strains were determined by using real-time quantitative PCR. The transcriptional regulation contributed more than the DNA sequence variation in Monascus pigments metabolism. Our result gives insight into the study of Monascus pigment biosynthesis.


Assuntos
Monascus/genética , Monascus/metabolismo , Pigmentos Biológicos/biossíntese , Transcrição Genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Bases , Cor , DNA Fúngico/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Variação Genética , Monascus/química , Monascus/classificação , Família Multigênica , Filogenia , Pigmentos Biológicos/química
15.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 346, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391002

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The safety assessment and control of stacked transgenic crops is increasingly important due to continuous crop development and is urgently needed in China. The genetic stability of foreign genes and unintended effects are the primary problems encountered in safety assessment. Omics techniques are useful for addressing these problems. The stacked transgenic maize variety 12-5 × IE034, which has insect-resistant and glyphosate-tolerant traits, was developed via a breeding stack using 12-5 and IE034 as parents. Using 12-5 × IE034, its parents (12-5 and IE034), and different maize varieties as materials, we performed proteomic profiling, molecular characterization and a genetic stability analysis. RESULTS: Our results showed that the copy number of foreign genes in 12-5 × IE034 is identical to that of its parents 12-5 and IE034. Foreign genes can be stably inherited over different generations. Proteomic profiling analysis found no newly expressed proteins in 12-5 × IE034, and the differences in protein expression between 12 and 5 × IE034 and its parents were within the range of variation of conventional maize varieties. The expression levels of key enzymes participating in the shikimic acid pathway which is related to glyphosate tolerance of 12-5 × IE034 were not significantly different from those of its parents or five conventional maize varieties, which indicated that without selective pressure by glyphosate, the introduced EPSPS synthase is not has a pronounced impact on the synthesis of aromatic amino acids in maize. CONCLUSIONS: Stacked-trait development via conventional breeding did not have an impact on the genetic stability of T-DNA, and the impact of stacked breeding on the maize proteome was less significant than that of genotypic differences. The results of this study provide a theoretical basis for the development of a safety assessment approach for stacked-trait transgenic crops in China.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Zea mays/genética , China , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Dosagem de Genes , Instabilidade Genômica , Análise de Perigos e Pontos Críticos de Controle , Proteômica
16.
Vet Parasitol ; 273: 45-51, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442892

RESUMO

Fasciola gigantica and hybrid Fasciola are distributed throughout Asia. Herein, we investigated the species of the Fasciola fluke distributed in three hotspots of fascioliasis in Cambodia. A total of 92 flukes collected from 21 slaughtered cattle from Kandal (44), Battambang (41), and Kratie (7) Provinces were identified as F. gigantica using multiplex PCR for a nuclear phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) gene. The overall prevalence of F. gigantica infestation was 7.14% (21/294). Phylogenetic as well as population genetics analyses were performed using the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1). The 19 ND1 haplotypes were identified from Cambodian F. gigantica (haplotype diversity, 0.83). All of the haplotypes were classified into F. gigantica haplogroup C, which includes ND1 haplotypes detected from Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia, Myanmar, and China. Among haplogroup C, novel and unique haplotypes of Cambodia were found in the Battambang and Kandal Provinces, and the nucleotide diversity of the Cambodian population (0.00532) was the highest. Pairwise fixation indices among the F. gigantica populations from these countries indicated that the Cambodian and Thailand populations were related to each other. The highest genetic diversity in the Cambodian population suggests that F. gigantica in Cambodia may be the ancestor of the populations in Southeast Asian countries. Most likely, livestock movement, including Zebu cattle, played an important role in the transmission of F. gigantica. In this study, the hybrid Fasciola flukes that are commonly found in neighboring countries, were not found in Cambodia. Further comprehensive investigations of Fasciola prevalence should be conducted by analyzing a wider range of hosts throughout Cambodia to reach a more solid conclusion about the absence of hybrid flukes.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Fasciola/classificação , Fasciola/genética , Fasciolíase/veterinária , Variação Genética , Animais , Ásia Sudeste/epidemiologia , Camboja , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Fasciolíase/epidemiologia , Fasciolíase/parasitologia , Haplótipos , NADH Desidrogenase/genética , Fosfotransferases/genética , Prevalência
17.
Plant Dis ; 103(10): 2559-2568, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432752

RESUMO

Olive (Olea europaea L.) is one of the most important fruit crops in the Mediterranean Basin, because it occupies significant acreage in these countries and often has important cultural heritage and landscape value. This crop can be infected by several Meloidogyne species (M. javanica, M. arenaria, and M. incognita, among others), and only a few cultivars with some level of resistance to these nematodes have been found. Innovations in intensive olive growing using high planting densities, irrigation, and substantial amounts of fertilizers could increase the nematode population to further damaging levels. To further understand the interactions involved between olive and pathogenic nematodes and in the hope of finding solutions to the agricultural risks, this research aimed to determine the reaction of important olive cultivars in Spain and wild olives to M. javanica infection, including genotypes of the same and other O. europaea subspecies. All olive cultivars tested were good hosts for M. javanica, but high levels of nematode reproduction found in three cultivars (Gordal Sevillana, Hojiblanca, and Manzanilla de Sevilla) were substantially different. In the wild accessions, O. europaea subsp. cerasiformis (genotype W147) and O. europaea subsp. europaea var. sylvestris (genotype W224) were resistant to M. javanica at different levels, with strong resistance in W147 (reproduction factor [Rf] = 0.0003) and moderate resistance in W224 (Rf = 0.79). The defense reaction of W147 to M. javanica showed a strong increase of phenolic compounds but no hypersensitive reaction.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença , Olea , Patologia Vegetal , Tylenchoidea , Animais , Resistência à Doença/genética , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Olea/parasitologia , Espanha , Tylenchoidea/fisiologia
18.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(37): 10380-10391, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464444

RESUMO

The timing of spring bud flush (TBF) is of economic importance for tea plant (Camellia sinensis) breeding. We employed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify favorable single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) allelic variations as well as candidate genes that control TBF of C. sinensis using specific-locus-amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) in a diversity panel comprising 151 tea plant germplasm resources. GWAS analysis revealed 26 SNPs associated with TBF in three years, and we eventually identified a final significant SNP for TBF. To identify candidate genes possibly related to TBF, we screened seven candidate genes within 100 kb regions surrounding the trait-related SNP loci. Furthermore, the favorable allelic variation, the "TT" genotype in the SNP loci, was discovered, and a derived cleaved amplified polymorphism (dCAPS) marker was designed that cosegregated with TBF, which could be used for marker-assisted selection (MAS) breeding in C. sinensis. The results obtained from this study can provide a theoretical and applied basis for the MAS of early breeding in tea plants in the future.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Alelos , Cruzamento , Camellia sinensis/classificação , Camellia sinensis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Variação Genética , Genoma de Planta , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Locos de Características Quantitativas
19.
Vet Parasitol ; 272: 23-30, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395201

RESUMO

Nematodes belonging to the Trichuris genus are prevalent soil-transmitted helminths with a worldwide distribution in mammals, while humans are mainly affected in areas with insufficient sanitation such as in Africa, Asia and South America. Traditionally, whipworms infecting primates are referred to Trichuris trichiura, but recent molecular and morphological evidence suggests that more than one species may be able to infect humans and non-human primates. Here, we analyzed the genetic diversity and phylogeny of Trichuris infecting five different non-human primate species kept in captivity using sequencing of three mitochondrial genes (cox1, rrnL and cob). Phylogenetic analyses of both single and concatenated datasets suggested the presence of two main evolutionary lineages and several highly supported clades likely existing as separate taxa. The first lineage included Trichuris infecting the mantled guereza (Colobus guereza kikuyensis), the chacma baboon (Papio ursinus) and the green monkeys (Chlorocebus spp.), clustering together with Trichuris suis; the second lineage included Trichuris infecting the Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) and the hamadryas baboon (Papio hamadryas), clustering together with Trichuris spp. infecting humans. These results were supported by the genetic distance between samples, which suggested that at least two taxa are able to infect macaques, baboons and humans. The present study improves our understanding of the taxonomy and evolutionary relationships among Trichuris spp. infecting primates. It moreover suggests that multiple Trichuris spp. may circulate among host species and that Trichuris in non human primates (NHPs) may be zoonotic. Further studies are important to better understand the epidemiology of Trichuris in primates and for implementing appropriate control and/or conservation measures.


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Filogenia , Doenças dos Primatas/parasitologia , Tricuríase/veterinária , Trichuris/classificação , Trichuris/genética , Animais , Variação Genética , Primatas , Tricuríase/parasitologia
20.
Arch Virol ; 164(11): 2715-2724, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31456086

RESUMO

Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is a recognized cause of severe neonatal calf diarrhea, with a negative impact on animal welfare, leading to economic losses to the livestock industry. Cattle production is one of the most important economic sectors in Uruguay. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of BCoV infections and their genetic diversity in Uruguayan calves and to describe the evolutionary history of the virus in South America. The overall detection rate of BCoV in Uruguay was 7.8% (64/824): 7.7% (60/782) in dairy cattle and 9.5% (4/42) in beef cattle. The detection rate of BCoV in samples from deceased and live calves was 10.0% (6/60) and 7.6% (58/763), respectively. Interestingly, there was a lower frequency of BCoV detection in calves born to vaccinated dams (3.3%, 8/240) than in calves born to unvaccinated dams (12.2%, 32/263) (OR: 4.02, 95%CI: 1.81-8.90; p = 0.00026). The frequency of BCoV detection was higher in colder months (11.8%, 44/373) than in warmer months (1.5%, 3/206) (OR: 9.05, 95%CI: 2.77-29.53, p = 0.000013). Uruguayan strains grouped together in two different lineages: one with Argentinean strains and the other with Brazilian strains. Both BCoV lineages were estimated to have entered Uruguay in 2013: one of them from Brazil (95%HPD interval: 2011-2014) and the other from Argentina (95%HPD interval: 2010-2014). The lineages differed by four amino acid changes, and both were divergent from the Mebus reference strain. Surveillance should be maintained to detect possible emerging strains that can clearly diverge at the antigenic level from vaccine strains.


Assuntos
Antígenos Virais/genética , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Coronavirus Bovino/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Argentina/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Coronavirus Bovino/genética , DNA Viral/genética , Disenteria/epidemiologia , Disenteria/veterinária , Disenteria/virologia , Variação Genética/genética , Uruguai/epidemiologia , Vacinação
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