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1.
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi ; 29(1): 87-91, 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541029

RESUMO

Idiopathic non-cirrhotic portal hypertension is a rare group of clinical syndromes characterized by clinical manifestations of portal hypertension in the absence of histological manifestations of liver cirrhosis, and with the exclusion of known intrahepatic and extrahepatic causes of portal hypertension. Importantly, its etiology and pathogenesis are unclear, but it has been determined to be related to the development of intrahepatic vascular disease. It is currently believed that possible pathogenic mechanisms include immune disorders, chronic infections, drug-related poisoning or injury, microthrombosis, genetic abnormalities, etc. The most common clinical manifestations are esophagogastric varices and splenomegaly. Ascites and hepatic encephalopathy are the least common. Laboratory test demonstrates anemia, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia due to hypersplenism, and normal or mild liver function abnormality. In addition, in the preclinical stage, despite the presence of abnormal portal vein during liver biopsy, no signs of portal hypertension can be detected in some patients. Therefore, the diagnosis is based on the diagnosis of exclusion and mandatory liver biopsy. The overall prognosis of idiopathic non-cirrhotic portal hypertension is better than that of patients with liver cirrhosis, but symptomatic treatment (controlling gastroesophageal varices bleeding and preventing thrombosis) is still the main treatment.


Assuntos
Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas , Hipertensão Portal , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/diagnóstico , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/etiologia , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/patologia , Humanos , Hipertensão Portal/diagnóstico , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Veia Porta/patologia , Esplenomegalia/patologia
3.
Mymensingh Med J ; 30(1): 115-122, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397861

RESUMO

Non-invasive tools are needed to rule out the presence of esophageal varices (EV) in patients with chronic liver disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate diagnostic accuracy of Liver stiffness-spleen size-to-platelet ratio (LSPS) for EV detection and identification of high risk EV in patients with CLD. A total of 70 patients with CLD irrespective of the etiology attending at OPD and admitted in Department of Gastrointestinal, Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Disorders (GHPD) of BIRDEM General Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh from January 2016 to October 2017 were enrolled in this observational cross-sectional study. All patients underwent routine laboratory tests, liver function tests, ultrasonography, liver stiffness (LS) measurement and esophagogastroduodenoscopy. Clinical value of LSPS was compared with platelet count, spleen size and LS for detection of esophageal varices. Diagnostic accuracy was assessed by the Area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated using ROC curve. LSPS has better diagnostic accuracy for detection of EV in terms of AUROC, showing superiority over each factor alone. LSPS also detect high risk EV but accuracy was lower than detection of EV. The optimal cutoff values of LSPS for EV and high risk EV were 0.879 and 4.132 respectively, at which AUROC, negative predictive value, and accuracy were 0.910 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.832-0.988], 90.9% and 90.0% and 0.695 (95% CI 0.520-0.870), 62.5% and 69.4% respectively. LSPS represents a useful, noninvasive method to detect EV and a high risk EV in patients with CLD. Clinicians should recommend those patients with CLD who show higher values of LSPS to undergo further endoscopic examination.


Assuntos
Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas , Hepatopatias , Bangladesh , Estudos Transversais , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/diagnóstico , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/etiologia , Humanos , Fígado/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Curva ROC , Fatores de Risco , Baço/diagnóstico por imagem
4.
Z Gastroenterol ; 59(1): 24-34, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33429447

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In the management of patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) insertion is well-established but common recommendations in the follow up management are inconsistent. Doppler sonography is commonly used for detection for TIPS dysfunction whilst data on the impact of elective invasive examinations are scarce. AIM: The aim of this retrospective analysis is to evaluate potential benefits of elective invasive examinations in the follow up management of patients after TIPS insertion METHODS: Data of all patients receiving TIPS at the university hospitals of Muenster and Bonn between 2013 and 2018 (n = 534) were collected. The impact of performance of elective invasive examinations at 12 months after TIPS insertion on the occurrence of liver related events (LREs) and frequency of TIPS revisions within 24 months after TIPS insertion was analyzed. RESULTS: No significant differences were found concerning occurrence of liver related events after 24 months depending on whether an elective invasive examination was performed. Occurrence of hepatic encephalopathy, relapse of initial indication for TIPS, as well as death or liver transplantation all did not differ. These findings were verified by a subgroup analysis including only patients who did not experience a LRE or TIPS revision within the first 12 months after TIPS procedure. CONCLUSION: The analyzed data suggest no evidence for a beneficial impact due to implementation of an elective invasive examination program after TIPS insertion. Invasive examinations should remain reserved to patients with suspected TIPS dysfunction.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/efeitos adversos , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/cirurgia , Hipertensão Portal/cirurgia , Derivação Portossistêmica Transjugular Intra-Hepática/efeitos adversos , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/etiologia , Seguimentos , Encefalopatia Hepática , Humanos , Hipertensão Portal/complicações , Derivação Portossistêmica Transjugular Intra-Hepática/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
J Vasc Interv Radiol ; 32(2): 282-291.e1, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33485506

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the safety and clinical outcomes of combined transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) plus variceal obliteration to those of TIPS alone for the treatment of gastric varices (GVs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A single-center, retrospective study of 40 patients with bleeding or high-risk GVs between 2008 and 2019 was performed. The patients were treated with combined therapy (n = 18) or TIPS alone (n = 22). There were no significant differences in age, sex, model for end-stage liver disease score, or GV type between the groups. The primary outcomes were the rates of GV eradication and rebleeding. The secondary outcomes included portal hypertensive complications and hepatic encephalopathy. RESULTS: The mean follow-up period was 15.4 months for the combined therapy group and 22.9 months for the TIPS group (P = .32). After combined therapy, there was a higher rate of GV eradication (92% vs 47%, P = .01) and a trend toward a lower rate of GV rebleeding (0% vs 23%, P = .056). The estimated rebleeding rates were 0% versus 5% at 3 months, 0% versus 11% at 6 months, 0% versus 18% at 1 year, and 0% versus 38% at 2 years after combined therapy and TIPS, respectively (P = .077). There was no difference in ascites (13% vs 11%, P = .63), hepatic encephalopathy (47% vs 55%, P = .44), or esophageal variceal bleeding (0% vs 0%, P > .999) after the procedure between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: The GV eradication rate is significantly higher after combined therapy, with no associated increase in portal hypertensive complications. This translates to a clinically meaningful trend toward a reduction in GV rebleeding. The value of a combined treatment strategy should be prospectively studied in a larger cohort to determine the optimal management of GVs.


Assuntos
Embolização Terapêutica , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/terapia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/terapia , Derivação Portossistêmica Transjugular Intra-Hepática , Escleroterapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Terapia Combinada , Embolização Terapêutica/efeitos adversos , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/diagnóstico por imagem , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/etiologia , Feminino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Derivação Portossistêmica Transjugular Intra-Hepática/efeitos adversos , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Escleroterapia/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(12)2020 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370938

RESUMO

A 31-year-old woman with hepatocellular carcinoma suffered from recurrent oesophageal variceal bleeding due to portal hypertension, which was caused by severe compression of the portal vein by metastatic lymph nodes. Endoscopic band ligation and pharmacological treatment did not suffice to prevent recurrence of variceal bleeding. Eventually, after the fifth variceal bleeding within 6 months, the patient was admitted to the intensive care unit in a haemodynamic shock. A Sengstaken-Blakemore tube was inserted and all treatment options were discussed, but only percutaneous transhepatic recanalisation of the portal vein with stent placement to reduce portal vein pressure was thought to be feasible with any chance to relieve portal vein pressure. After successful portal vein stenting, our patient did not have any recurrent bleeding in the remaining year of her life. We suggest that percutaneous transhepatic portal vein stenting may be a feasible and adequate last line treatment for complications of portal hypertension.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/complicações , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/cirurgia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/cirurgia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/complicações , Prevenção Secundária/métodos , Choque Hemorrágico/cirurgia , Adulto , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/diagnóstico , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/etiologia , Esofagoscopia , Esôfago/irrigação sanguínea , Esôfago/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/diagnóstico , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/etiologia , Humanos , Veia Porta/cirurgia , Recidiva , Prevenção Secundária/instrumentação , Choque Hemorrágico/etiologia , Stents , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Intern Med ; 59(17): 2089-2094, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879200

RESUMO

Objective The relationship between gut microbiota and portal hypertension remains unclear. We investigated the characteristics of the gut microbiota in portal hypertension patients with esophago-gastric varices and liver cirrhosis. Methods Thirty-six patients (12 patients with portal hypertension, 12 healthy controls, and 12 non-cirrhosis patients) were enrolled in this university hospital study. Intestinal bacteria and statistical analyses were performed up to the genus level using the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism method targeting 16S ribosomal RNA genes, with diversified regions characterizing each bacterium. Results Levels of Lactobacillales were significantly higher (p=0.045) and those of Clostridium cluster IV significantly lower (p=0.014) in patients with portal hypertension than in other patients. This Clostridium cluster contains many butanoic acid-producing strains, including Ruminococcace and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. Clostridium cluster IX levels were also significantly lower (p=0.045) in portal hypertension patients than in other patients. There are many strains of Clostridium that produce propionic acid, and the effects on the host and the function of these bacterial species in the human intestine remain unknown. Regarding the Bifidobacterium genus, which is supposed to decrease as a result of cirrhosis, no significant decrease was observed in this study. Conclusion In the present study, we provided information on the characteristics of the gut microbiota of portal hypertension patients with esophago-gastric varices due to liver cirrhosis. In the future, we aim to develop probiotic treatments following further analyses that include the species level, such as the intestinal flora analysis method and next-generation sequencers.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hipertensão Portal/microbiologia , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Adulto , Bactérias/genética , Bifidobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Clostridium/isolamento & purificação , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Portal/etiologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , RNA Bacteriano/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise , Streptococcus/isolamento & purificação
9.
Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 58(10): 808-812, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993269

RESUMO

Esophagogastric variceal bleeding (EVB) is the most dangerous complication of cirrhotic portal hypertension.With the continuous emergence of research findings on EVB, multiple disciplinary team, including internal medicine department, surgery department, intervention therapy department, radiology department, has become a new mode for the prevention and treatment of EVB. This article first reviewed the classification of esophageal varices and gastric varices, and then reviewed the recent research findings of EVB from three aspects: primary prophylaxis, active variceal bleeding treatment, and secondary prophylaxis.The aim was to provide new ideas for the individualized prevention and treatment of EVB.


Assuntos
Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/terapia , Hipertensão Portal , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/classificação , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/etiologia , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/terapia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/etiologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Hipertensão Portal/etiologia , Hipertensão Portal/terapia
10.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(4): 405-408, 2020 Jun 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935518

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the value of shear-wave elastography (SWE) of the liver and spleen for predicting the risk of esophageal-gastric varices (EGV) and the bleeding from EGV (EGVB) in patients with advanced schistosomiasis. METHODS: The medical records of 90 patients with definitive diagnosis of advanced schistosomiasis in Wuxi People's Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University from January 2017 through January 2020 were retrospectively reviewed. The severity of EGV was graded in the 90 patients with advanced schistosomiasis using gastroscopic findings as a golden standard. Then, the subjects were assigned to the non-EGV and EGV groups, and the low- and high-risk EGVB groups according to the grading. The SWE elastic moduli of the liver and spleen were measured and compared between groups. In addition, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was plotted, and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was estimated to evaluate the diagnostic efficiency of the SWE elastic moduli of the liver and spleen for predicting the high risk of EGV and EGVB. RESULTS: The 90 patients with advanced schistosomiasis included 61 men and 29 women, and had a mean age of (74.3 ± 8.6) years (range, 62 to 83 years). If gastroscopic findings were employed as a golden standard, there were 32 cases with grade 0 (35.5%), 17 cases with grade 1 (18.9%), 15 cases with grade 2 (16.7%) and 26 cases with grade 3 EGV (28.9%). There were 32 cases in the non-EGV group (35.6%) and 58 cases in the EGV group (64.4%), and 41 cases in the high-risk EGV group (45.6%) and 49 cases in the low-risk EGV group (54.4%), respectively. The SWE elastic moduli of the liver and spleen were both significantly greater in the EGV group than in the non-EGV group (t = 5.73 and 7.26, both P values < 0.05). The SWE elastic moduli of the liver and spleen had AUCs of 0.70 and 0.75, optimal cut-off of 16.1 kPa and 22.6 kPa, sensitivities of 80.6% and 83.9% and specificities of 71.4% and 78.6% for the prediction of EGV, respectively. In addition, the SWE elastic moduli of the liver and spleen were significantly greater in the high-risk EGVB groups than in the low-risk EGVB group (t = 7.35 and 9.61, both P values < 0.05), and the SWE elastic moduli of the liver and spleen had AUCs of 0.68 and 0.71, optimal cut-off of 22.7 kPa and 33.8 kPa, sensitivities of 70.4% and 73.6% and specificities of 89.3% and 93.1% for the prediction of high-risk EGV, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: SWE is useful to predict the risk of EGV and EGVB in patients with advanced schistosomiasis.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas , Hemorragia , Esquistossomose , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade/normas , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/diagnóstico por imagem , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/etiologia , Feminino , Hemorragia/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemorragia/etiologia , Humanos , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Esquistossomose/complicações , Esquistossomose/diagnóstico por imagem , Baço/diagnóstico por imagem
11.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 68(10): 24-28, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978921

RESUMO

Objectives: A patient with liver stiffness by Vibration controlled Transient elastography(TE) <20 kPa and a platelet count >150,000/mm3 does not require screening endoscopy according to Baveno VI consensus. The Baveno consensus statement on esophageal varices screening has not been validated in the South Asian population. TE may not be widely available in resource limited areas. We tried to see whether easily available parameters could be used to predict high risk varices(HRV). Method: A cross-sectional study evaluating patients with liver stiffness >10 kPa who had endoscopy within 6 months of TE evaluation. Results: 375 patients who underwent TE and upper GI endoscopy over one year were included. Commonest etiology was HBV(42 %) followed by Hepatitis C(39%), NAFLD(9.1%) and alcohol(9%). 262 of the 266 patients satisfying Baveno VI consensus criteria for avoiding screening endoscopy did not have HRV. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value(PPV) and negative predictive value(NPV) was 96 %, 90 %, 74% and 99 % respectively and (AUC = 0.91). By using MELD 6 or MELD < 8 and platelet >150000/mm3 criteria, 67% endoscopies could have been circumvented. Using Baveno VI criteria, 70% endoscopies could have been circumvented. Conclusion: This study validates the Baveno VI consensus statement on esophageal variceal screening in cirrhosis, in a South Asian population. It also describes a new strategy using MELD 6 or MELD < 8 and platelet > 150000/mm3 in areas with limited resources where TE is not widely available.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/diagnóstico , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/etiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Contagem de Plaquetas
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(37): e22051, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925738

RESUMO

Addressing pancreaticobiliary disorders concomitant with gastroesophageal varices remains challenging. The goal of this study was to evaluate and compare the efficacy and safety of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in cirrhotic and noncirrhotic patients with gastroesophageal varices.We retrospectively analyzed the data of consecutive patients with gastroesophageal varices who underwent ERCP.Two hundred seventy ERCP procedures were performed on 208 patients. The overall technical success rate was 98.5%, and no difference was found between cirrhotic and noncirrhotic patients (98.7% vs 97.7%, P = .511); of these, endoscopic retrograde biliary drainage, endoscopic metal biliary endoprosthesis placement, endoscopic retrograde pancreatic drainage, and stone extraction were conducted in 173/270 (64.1%), 27/270 (10.0%), 26/270 (9.6%), and 116/270 (43.0%) cases, respectively. Endoscopic retrograde biliary drainage and stone extraction were more frequently performed in cirrhotic cases (67.7% versus 45.5%, P = .005; 46.5% versus 25.0%, P = .009, respectively), while the noncirrhotic group had significantly higher rates of endoscopic metal biliary endoprosthesis placement (31.8% versus 5.8%, P = .000) and endoscopic retrograde pancreatic drainage (18.2% versus 8.0%, P = .036) than the cirrhotic group. The overall rate of adverse events was 21.1%, including fever (6.7%), post-ERCP pancreatitis ( 3.0%), hyperamylasemia (6.3%), duodenal papilla bleeding (3.3%), cardiac mucosal laceration (1.1%), and perforation (0.4%). No differences in any of the adverse events were found between the 2 groups. Additionally, gastroesophageal variceal bleeding occurred in 1 patient with grade III varices 7 days after ERCP.ERCP may be effective and safe for patients with gastroesophageal varices, irrespective of the etiologies caused by liver cirrhosis.


Assuntos
Colangiopancreatografia Retrógrada Endoscópica/efeitos adversos , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/cirurgia , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Portal/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 215(3): 617-623, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32755158

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE. The Baveno VI consensus established guidelines to reduce unnecessary screening esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) for esophageal varices (EVs). We assessed whether EVs that would require intervention at EGD can be identified on CT and evaluated if recommending EGD on the basis of CT findings would result in unnecessary EGD according to the Baveno VI consensus guidelines. MATERIALS AND METHODS. This single-institution retrospective study identified 97 contrast-enhanced CT examinations within 3 months of EGD in 93 patients with cirrhosis from 2008 to 2018. Demographic information, EGD findings, interventions, and laboratory data were reviewed. CT scans were reviewed for EVs and compared with EGD findings. Var-ices that were 4 mm or larger were considered large, and those requiring intervention were considered high risk. RESULTS. The presence of large EVs on CT was 80% sensitive and 87% specific for high-risk varices at EGD. Large EVs on CT were associated with bleeding as the indication for EGD (p = 0.03) and the presence of high-risk varices at EGD (p < 0.001). The positive predictive value that a large EV on CT corresponded to a high-risk EV at EGD was 90.4% (95% CI, 0.78-0.96). Patients with large EVs on CT were 9.4 times more likely to have a grade III or grade IV EV at EGD. CONCLUSION. Large EVs on CT correlated with high-risk varices at EGD and may be a useful indicator that EGD should be considered for confirmatory diagnosis and treatment. Recommending EGD for patients with EVs of 4 mm or larger did not result in EGD that would be deemed unnecessary according to the Baveno VI consensus guidelines.


Assuntos
Meios de Contraste , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/diagnóstico por imagem , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/etiologia , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Med Clin North Am ; 104(4): 647-662, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505258

RESUMO

Hospitalists often care for patients with liver disease, including those with acute liver injury and failure and patients with complications of decompensated cirrhosis. Acute liver failure is a true emergency, requiring intensive care and oftentimes transfer of the patient to a liver transplant center. Patients with decompensated cirrhosis have complications of portal hypertension, including variceal hemorrhage, ascites, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, and hepatic encephalopathy. These complications increase the risk of mortality among patients with decompensated cirrhosis. Comanagement by the hospitalist with gastroenterology/hepatology can optimize care, especially for patients being considered for liver transplant evaluation.


Assuntos
Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/etiologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/etiologia , Cirrose Hepática/terapia , Falência Hepática Aguda/etiologia , Ascite/epidemiologia , Ascite/etiologia , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/epidemiologia , Encefalopatia Hepática/epidemiologia , Encefalopatia Hepática/etiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão Portal/epidemiologia , Hipertensão Portal/etiologia , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/fisiopatologia , Falência Hepática Aguda/epidemiologia , Transplante de Fígado , Peritonite/epidemiologia , Peritonite/etiologia
15.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 115(10): 1650-1656, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516202

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Both transient elastography (TE)-based and non-TE-based criteria exist for detection of varices needing treatment (VNT) in patients with asymptomatic advanced chronic liver disease (CLD). However, their performance in clinical settings at different risk thresholds of detection of VNT and in regions where elastography is not widely available is unknown. We aimed to validate existing noninvasive criteria in our patients with CLD and identify best TE- and non-TE-based criteria for VNT screening at usual risk thresholds. METHODS: Patients with compensated advanced CLD (cACLD) who underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy and TE within 3 months were included. Diagnostic performance of Baveno VI, expanded Baveno VI, platelet-model for end-stage liver disease, and platelet-albumin (Rete Sicilia Selezione Terapia-hepatitis C virus) criteria were estimated. Decision curve analysis was conducted for different predictors across range of threshold probabilities. A repeat analysis including all patients with compensated CLD (cACLD and non-cACLD) was performed to simulate absence of TE. RESULTS: A total of 1,657 patients (cACLD, 895; non-cACLD, 762) related to hepatitis B virus (38.2%), hepatitis C virus (33.4%), nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (14.7%), and alcohol (11.8%) were included. Baveno VI identified maximum VNT (97.3%) and had best negative predictive value (96.9%), followed by platelet-albumin criteria. Expanded Baveno VI and platelet-model for end-stage liver disease had intermediate performance. At threshold probability of 5%, Baveno VI criteria showed maximum net benefit, and platelet-albumin criteria was next best, with need for 95 additional elastographies to detect 1 additional VNT. Similar results were obtained on including all patients with compensated CLD irrespective of TE. DISCUSSION: Baveno VI criteria maximizes VNT yield at 5% threshold probability. An acceptable alternative is the platelet-albumin criteria in resource-limited settings.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/diagnóstico , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Doença Hepática Terminal , Endoscopia do Sistema Digestório , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/etiologia , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/terapia , Feminino , Hepatite B Crônica/complicações , Hepatite C Crônica/complicações , Humanos , Índia , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Cirrose Hepática/sangue , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática Alcoólica/sangue , Cirrose Hepática Alcoólica/complicações , Cirrose Hepática Alcoólica/diagnóstico por imagem , Cirrose Hepática Alcoólica/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/complicações , Contagem de Plaquetas , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Albumina Sérica/metabolismo , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
16.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 115(10): 1624-1633, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32453061

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) of ≥10 mm Hg predicts clinical decompensation (CD) in compensated cirrhosis. A proportion of cirrhotic patients at presentation have high HVPG (≥20 mm Hg) and are compensated. The natural history, spectrum of CD, and mortality in this group is largely unknown. METHODS: Consecutive compensated cirrhotic patients with HVPG ≥6 mm Hg (n = 741) were followed up for 3-6 months for the development of any CD. Patients were classified based on the baseline HVPG (6 to <12 mm Hg [low HVPG, Gr.A, n = 163], 12 to <20 mm Hg [intermediate HVPG, Gr.B, n = 437] and ≥20 mm Hg [high HVPG, Gr.C, n = 141]). We analyzed the predictors of first CD, HVPG response to carvedilol, and mortality in these groups. RESULTS: CD developed in 217 (29.3%) patients during a mean follow-up of 1.6 ± 0.4 years, and those who developed CD had higher baseline HVPG (17.02 ± 4.79 vs 14.28 ± 4.86; P < 0.001). First CD was seen earlier (1.3 ± 0.7 years vs 1.5 ± 0.6 years and 1.6 ± 0.5 years, P = 0.02) and more frequently (44.7% vs 11% and 31.1%, P < 0.01) in high HVPG groups compared with low and intermediate HVPG groups, with higher mortality rates. Patients in the high HVPG group compared with the low HVPG group more often had NASH-cirrhosis (35.5% vs 19.6%; P 0.001), higher liver stiffness values (45.06 ± 20.46 vs 20.09 ± 5.47 kPa, P < 0.001), and lower platelet counts (113.37 ± 72.57 vs 151.7 ± 87.30/cmm, P < 0.001). Patients with HVPG ≥12 mm Hg received carvedilol, and a repeat HVPG performed in a proportion after 9.3 ± 2.4 months showed response (≥20% reduction in HVPG or <12 mm Hg) in 31.6% patients (Gr. B, 44.9% > Gr. C, 22.2%, P < 0.05). Baseline HVPG (HVPG ≥12 to <20 mm Hg [Hazard ratio: 2.73] and HVPG ≥20 mm Hg [Hazard ratio: 4.48], P < 0.001) independently predicted CD. DISCUSSION: HVPG ≥20 mm Hg in patients with compensated cirrhosis independently predicts early and more frequent CD and poor outcomes. These patients should be labeled as "high-risk compensated cirrhosis," and early and effective interventions to reduce portal pressure should be initiated to improve long-term outcomes.


Assuntos
Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/epidemiologia , Encefalopatia Hepática/epidemiologia , Veias Hepáticas , Hipertensão Portal/fisiopatologia , Icterícia/epidemiologia , Cirrose Hepática/fisiopatologia , Pressão Venosa , Adulto , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/etiologia , Cateterismo Periférico , Doença Hepática Terminal , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/etiologia , Feminino , Encefalopatia Hepática/etiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão Portal/complicações , Icterícia/etiologia , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
17.
Orv Hetil ; 161(15): 583-587, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32323522

RESUMO

Introduction: Variceal bleeding is a life-threatening complication of portal hypertension with a six-week mortality rate of approximately 20%. Aim: To analyse whether the changes introduced in the treatment of variceal gastrointestinal haemorrhage in our department affected the mortality rate of these patients. Method: A retrospective method was used to compare the data of patients treated with variceal bleeding in 2014 and 2015. In 2015, two changes were made in the treatment of patients with variceal bleeding: all patients were treated in the subintensive care unit and terlipressin was administered to all patients susceptible to variceal haemorrhage. Bleeding was mitigated by means of sclerotherapy and/or ligation. Significance was calculated using Student's t-test, then we performed logistic regression to find out what treatment factors affect mortality rate. Patients: 2014 vs. 2015 figures ­ number of patients: 24 vs. 30, average age: 59.8 vs. 57.6 years, male (%): 70.8 vs. 66.7. There were no significant differences between the Child­Pugh stages of the two years, p = 0.53. For the analysis we also grouped patients based on whether irrespective of the year of treatment they were administered terlipressin or not. Number of patients: 22 vs. 32, average age: 60.4 vs. 57.4, male (%): 63.6 vs. 70.6. Results: Mortality in 2015 and 2014: 23% and 33%, respectively. Mortality of patients treated with terlipressin: 18.2 vs. 34.4, p = 0.09. Child­Pugh stages had the strongest influence on mortality (stage A vs. B p = 0.05, stage A vs. C p = 0.02). Terlipressin administered in Child­Pugh stage C reduced mortality at a rate bordering on significance (p = 0.055). Conclusion: Despite the comparatively small number of cases, the changes introduced in our department in 2015 in the treatment of variceal gastrointestinal haemorrhages resulted in a significant reduction of hospital mortality rates. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(15): 583­587.


Assuntos
Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/terapia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/terapia , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Terlipressina/uso terapêutico , Vasoconstritores/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Terlipressina/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Varizes/fisiopatologia , Vasoconstritores/efeitos adversos
18.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 115(4): 625-628, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32141918

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We performed a study to assess the effects of a quality improvement (QI) initiative on the rates of postvariceal bleeding surveillance upper endoscopy (EGD). METHODS: We identified patients with cirrhosis hospitalized with variceal bleeding and assessed the rates of timely (≤4 weeks) EGD before and after a QI initiative. RESULTS: Preintervention: 16% (5 of 32) of patients underwent timely surveillance EGD. We developed a standardized ordering template for gastroenterology fellows and reserved postvariceal EGD scheduling slots. Postintervention: 43% (12 of 28) of patients underwent timely surveillance EGD. DISCUSSION: A QI intervention was associated with a 27% absolute increase in timely surveillance EGDs.


Assuntos
Endoscopia do Sistema Digestório/métodos , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/diagnóstico , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/etiologia , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Melhoria de Qualidade , Humanos , North Carolina , Vigilância da População
19.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230263, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32163489

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The prognostic role of gender in patients with liver cirrhosis is not fully understood. Our primary aim was to assess how gender affects cumulative incidence and risk of death without liver transplantation (LT) in cirrhotic patients with gastroesophageal varices. Secondary aims were to assess the relationship between gender and cause specific death, risk of variceal bleeding and incidence rates of gastroesophageal varices in patients with cirrhosis. METHODS: All new patients with gastroesophageal varices due to liver cirrhosis at Oslo University Hospital between 2006 and May 2016 were identified. Clinical data were retrieved retrospectively from hospital files. Causes of death were classified according to a specified protocol in cases of in-hospital-death, otherwise by data from the Norwegian Death Registry. Competing risk analyses were used to calculate cumulative incidences and risks of i) all-cause death, ii) cause-specific death and iii) variceal bleeding or re-bleeding. RESULTS: Cumulative one- and five years incidence of death without LT in 266 included patients were 28% and 51%, respectively. In univariate analysis, risk of death was positively associated with age, Child Pugh class, alcoholic liver disease and presentation with variceal bleeding, and negatively associated with female sex. In a multivariate model, risk of death without LT was associated with female sex (SHR 0.59 [0.40-0.86]), age (SHR 1.05 [1.04-1.07] per year), Child Pugh class B (SHR 1.54 [1.03-2.32]) and Child Pugh class C (SHR 4.29 [2.57-7.17]). Variceal bleeding caused 27% of deaths. Adjusting for age and Child Pugh score, a trend towards reduced risk of death due to variceal bleeding was seen in women (SHR 0.53; [0.26-1.06]). High alcohol consumption was associated with increased risk of first variceal bleeding, both at univariate analysis (SHR 7.73 [1.71-34.9]) and multivariate analysis (SHR 13.9 [2.51-77.0]). CONCLUSIONS: Reduced mortality due to variceal bleeding may contribute to improved survival without LT in cirrhotic women with gastroesophageal varices.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/etiologia , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Cirrose Hepática/terapia , Transplante de Fígado , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais
20.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(3): 429-433, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32134046

RESUMO

Bleeding oesophageal varices is a rare condition in children and most of them are usually of extrahepatic causes. Neonatal umbilical catheterization even though safe has been identified as a cause of portal vein thrombosis and oesophaeal varices. We report a 9-year old Nigerian girl who had massive upper gastrointestinal bleeding from oesophageal varices secondary to pulmonary vein stenosis. She had umbilical catheterization for exchange blood transfusion as a neonate. She was sequentially managed with endoscopic sclerotherapy and band ligation We seek to highlight the need for a high index of suspicion of oesophageal varices in children with upper gastrointestinal bleeding who had neonatal umbilical catheterization.">.


Assuntos
Cateterismo/efeitos adversos , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal , Veias Umbilicais/cirurgia , Transfusão de Sangue , Criança , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/etiologia , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/cirurgia , Feminino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/etiologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/cirurgia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Nigéria
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