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1.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 2772-2775, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018581

RESUMO

Usual care regarding vasopressor (VP) initiation is ill-defined. We aimed to further validate a quantitative model for usual care in the Emergency Department (ED) regarding the timing of VP initiation in sepsis. We retrospectively studied a cohort of adult critically-ill ED patients who also received antibiotics in the ED. We applied a multivariable model previously developed from another patient cohort which distinguishes between time points at which patients were or were not subsequently started on a continuous VP infusion. The model has six independently significant predictors (respiratory rate, Glasgow Coma Scale score, systolic blood pressure, SpO2, administered intravenous fluids, and elapsed time). The outcome was initiation of VP infusion, either within the ED or within 6 hours after leaving the ED. We applied the model to all time points, beginning when all model input parameters were first available for a given patient, and ending when either VP were first started, or the patient left the ED. Out of 55,963 adult ED patients during the two-year study interval, we identified 1,629 who met our inclusion criteria. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.81 for all patients, and 0.72 for the subset with at least one hypotensive blood pressure measurement. At a model threshold with sensitivity and specificity 0.74 and 0.74, respectively, the median advance detection time was 170.5 minutes (IQR 53 - 363).


Assuntos
Sepse , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Vasoconstritores/uso terapêutico
2.
Emerg Med Clin North Am ; 38(4): 807-818, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981619

RESUMO

Sepsis care has evolved significantly since the initial early goal-directed therapy (EGDT) trials. Early fluid resuscitation, source control, and antibiotic therapy remain cornerstones of care but overall understanding is more nuanced, particularly regarding fluid selection, vasopressors, and inotropic support. Timely nutrition therapy and ventilatory support tend to receive less attention but also are important. Recent research has explored immunomodulation, ß-blockade, and vitamin supplementation. A renewed emphasis on early, aggressive resuscitation reaffirms the importance of emergency medicine providers knowledgeable and skilled in sepsis management.


Assuntos
Ressuscitação/métodos , Sepse/terapia , Angiotensina II/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Ácido Ascórbico/uso terapêutico , Glicemia/análise , Pressão Sanguínea , Cardiomiopatias/etiologia , Cardiomiopatias/terapia , Cardiotônicos/uso terapêutico , Estado Terminal , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Nutrição Enteral , Hidratação , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Escores de Disfunção Orgânica , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Respiração Artificial , Vasoconstritores/uso terapêutico
3.
Emerg Med Clin North Am ; 38(4): 819-839, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981620

RESUMO

Pediatric cardiac arrest is a relatively rare but devastating presentation in infants and children. In contrast to adult patients, in whom a primary cardiac dysrhythmia is the most likely cause of cardiac arrest, pediatric patients experience cardiovascular collapse most frequently after an initial respiratory arrest. Aggressive treatment in the precardiac arrest state should be initiated to prevent deterioration and should focus on support of oxygenation, ventilation, and hemodynamics, regardless of the presumed cause. Unfortunately, outcomes for pediatric cardiac arrest, whether in hospital or out of hospital, continue to be poor.


Assuntos
Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Ressuscitação/métodos , Manuseio das Vias Aéreas , Glicemia/análise , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/terapia , Cardioversão Elétrica , Eletroencefalografia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Epinefrina/uso terapêutico , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Parada Cardíaca/etiologia , Cardiopatias Congênitas/terapia , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Hipotermia/complicações , Hipotermia/terapia , Hipotermia Induzida , Pneumopatias/terapia , Pais , Exame Físico , Envenenamento/terapia , Avaliação de Processos em Cuidados de Saúde , Valores de Referência , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Taxa Respiratória , Ordens quanto à Conduta (Ética Médica) , Sepse/terapia , Choque/etiologia , Choque/terapia , Vasoconstritores/uso terapêutico , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia
4.
Emerg Med Clin North Am ; 38(4): 841-856, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981621
5.
Emerg Med Clin North Am ; 38(4): 871-889, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981623

RESUMO

Massive gastrointestinal hemorrhage is a life-threatening condition that can result from numerous causes and requires skilled resuscitation to decrease patient morbidity and mortality. Successful resuscitation begins with placement of large-bore intravenous or intraosseous access; early blood product administration; and early consultation with a gastroenterologist, interventional radiologist, and/or surgeon. Activate a massive transfusion protocol when initial red blood cell transfusion does not restore effective perfusion or the patient's shock index is greater than 1.0. Promptly reverse coagulopathies secondary to oral anticoagulant or antiplatelet use. Use thromboelastography or rotational thromboelastometry to guide further transfusions. Secure a definitive airway and minimize aspiration.


Assuntos
Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/terapia , Manuseio das Vias Aéreas , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Antifibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Oclusão com Balão , Fatores de Coagulação Sanguínea/administração & dosagem , Transfusão de Sangue/métodos , Cateteres , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/diagnóstico , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/etiologia , Humanos , Infusões Intraósseas , Infusões Intravenosas , Anamnese , Exame Físico , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Recombinantes/administração & dosagem , Ressuscitação , Tromboelastografia , Vasoconstritores/uso terapêutico
6.
Emerg Med Clin North Am ; 38(4): 931-944, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981627

RESUMO

Emergency physicians must be prepared to rapidly diagnose and resuscitate patients with pulmonary embolism (PE). Certain aspects of PE resuscitation run counter to typical approaches. A specific understanding of the pathophysiology of PE is required to avoid cardiovascular collapse potentially associated with excessive intravenous fluids and positive pressure ventilation. Once PE is diagnosed, rapid risk stratification should be performed and treatment guided by patient risk class. Although anticoagulation remains the mainstay of PE treatment, emergency physicians also must understand the indications and contraindications for thrombolysis and should be aware of new therapies and models of care that may improve outcomes.


Assuntos
Embolia Pulmonar/terapia , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Estado Terminal , Ecocardiografia , Eletrocardiografia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Hidratação , Humanos , Intubação Intratraqueal , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Trombólise Mecânica , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Óxido Nítrico/uso terapêutico , Oxigenoterapia , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Respiração com Pressão Positiva , Embolia Pulmonar/classificação , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Embolia Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Ressuscitação/métodos , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Terapia Trombolítica , Troponina/sangue , Vasoconstritores/uso terapêutico
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(37): e22074, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925745

RESUMO

Hematological abnormalities at admission are common after traumatic brain injuries and are associated with poor outcomes. The objective of this study was to identify the predictive factors of mortality among patients who underwent emergency surgery for the evacuation of epidural hematoma (EDH) or subdural hematoma (SDH).This was a single-center retrospective cohort study of 200 patients who underwent emergency surgical evacuation of EDH or SDH between September 2010 and December 2018. Data on hematological parameters and clinical and intraoperative features were collected. The primary end-point was 1-year mortality after surgery. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed, and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were assessed.Of the 200 patients included in this study, 102 (51%) patients died within 1 year of emergency surgery. Lymphocyte count at admission, creatinine levels, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), age, intraoperative epinephrine use, and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score were significantly associated with mortality in the multivariate analysis. The areas under the ROC curve for the GCS score, aPTT, and lymphocyte counts were 0.677 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.602-0.753), 0.644 (95% CI 0.567-0.721), and 0.576 (95% CI 0.496-0.656), respectively.Patients with elevated lymphocyte counts on admission showed a higher rate of 1-year mortality following emergency craniectomy for EDH or SDH. In addition, prolonged aPTT and a lower GCS score were also related to poor survival.


Assuntos
Hematoma Epidural Craniano/sangue , Hematoma Epidural Craniano/cirurgia , Hematoma Subdural Intracraniano/sangue , Hematoma Subdural Intracraniano/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Craniotomia , Creatinina/sangue , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Epinefrina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Hematoma Epidural Craniano/mortalidade , Hematoma Subdural Intracraniano/mortalidade , Humanos , Período Intraoperatório , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tempo de Tromboplastina Parcial , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vasoconstritores/uso terapêutico
8.
A A Pract ; 14(6): e01221, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32784326

RESUMO

The rapid spread of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has sparked a search for effective therapies. The discovery that the virus binds the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor has led to investigation of the renin-angiotensin system for possible therapeutic targets. We present a case of an elderly woman with multiple comorbidities who developed severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), a cardiomyopathy, and vasodilatory shock secondary to COVID-19 and was treated with exogenous angiotensin II. She rapidly demonstrated significant hemodynamic improvement without noted adverse effects. Thus, we propose further investigation into possible benefits of angiotensin II in shock secondary to COVID-19.


Assuntos
Angiotensina II/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Choque/tratamento farmacológico , Choque/etiologia , Vasoconstritores/uso terapêutico , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Pandemias
9.
Anaesth Crit Care Pain Med ; 39(5): 563-569, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781167

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To survey haemodynamic monitoring and management practices in intensive care patients with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: A questionnaire was shared on social networks or via email by the authors and by Anaesthesia and/or Critical Care societies from France, Switzerland, Belgium, Brazil, and Portugal. Intensivists and anaesthetists involved in COVID-19 ICU care were invited to answer 14 questions about haemodynamic monitoring and management. RESULTS: Globally, 1000 questionnaires were available for analysis. Responses came mainly from Europe (n = 460) and America (n = 434). According to a majority of respondents, COVID-19 ICU patients frequently or very frequently received continuous vasopressor support (56%) and had an echocardiography performed (54%). Echocardiography revealed a normal cardiac function, a hyperdynamic state (43%), hypovolaemia (22%), a left ventricular dysfunction (21%) and a right ventricular dilation (20%). Fluid responsiveness was frequently assessed (84%), mainly using echo (62%), and cardiac output was measured in 69%, mostly with echo as well (53%). Venous oxygen saturation was frequently measured (79%), mostly from a CVC blood sample (94%). Tissue perfusion was assessed biologically (93%) and clinically (63%). Pulmonary oedema was detected and quantified mainly using echo (67%) and chest X-ray (61%). CONCLUSION: Our survey confirms that vasopressor support is not uncommon in COVID-19 ICU patients and suggests that different haemodynamic phenotypes may be observed. Ultrasounds were used by many respondents, to assess cardiac function but also to predict fluid responsiveness and quantify pulmonary oedema. Although we observed regional differences, current international guidelines were followed by most respondents.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Monitorização Hemodinâmica , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , África/epidemiologia , América/epidemiologia , Ásia/epidemiologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Cardiotônicos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Ecocardiografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Hidratação , Hemodinâmica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Oxigênio/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Utilização de Procedimentos e Técnicas , Edema Pulmonar/etiologia , Edema Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Choque/etiologia , Choque/fisiopatologia , Vasoconstritores/uso terapêutico
10.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236339, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32697796

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Indigenous Australians suffer a disproportionate burden of sepsis, however, the performance of scoring systems that predict mortality in Indigenous patients with critical illness is incompletely defined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was performed at an Australian tertiary-referral hospital between January 2014 and June 2017, and enrolled consecutive Indigenous and non-Indigenous adults admitted to ICU with sepsis. The ability of the ANZROD, APACHE-II, APACHE-III, SAPS-II, SOFA and qSOFA scores to predict death before ICU discharge in the two populations was compared. RESULTS: There were 442 individuals enrolled in the study, 145 (33%) identified as Indigenous. Indigenous patients were younger than non-Indigenous patients (median (interquartile range (IQR) 53 (43-60) versus 65 (52-73) years, p = 0.0001) and comorbidity was more common (118/145 (81%) versus 204/297 (69%), p = 0.005). Comorbidities that were more common in the Indigenous patients included diabetes mellitus (84/145 (58%) versus 67/297 (23%), p<0.0001), renal disease (56/145 (39%) versus 29/297 (10%), p<0.0001) and cardiovascular disease (58/145 (40%) versus 83/297 (28%), p = 0.01). The use of supportive care (including vasopressors, mechanical ventilation and renal replacement therapy) was similar in Indigenous and non-Indigenous patients, and the two populations had an overall case-fatality rate that was comparable (17/145 (12%) and 38/297 (13%) (p = 0.75)), although Indigenous patients died at a younger age (median (IQR): 54 (50-60) versus 70 (61-76) years, p = 0.0001). There was no significant difference in the ability of any the scores to predict mortality in the two populations. CONCLUSIONS: Although the crude case-fatality rates of Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians admitted to ICU with sepsis is comparable, Indigenous patients die at a much younger age. Despite this, the ability of commonly used scoring systems to predict outcome in Indigenous Australians is similar to that of non-Indigenous Australians, supporting their use in ICUs with a significant Indigenous patient population and in clinical trials that enrol Indigenous Australians.


Assuntos
Povos Indígenas/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Sepse/mortalidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Austrália/epidemiologia , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia de Substituição Renal/estatística & dados numéricos , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sepse/diagnóstico , Sepse/terapia , Vasoconstritores/uso terapêutico
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(29): e20998, 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702840

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Kawasaki disease (KD) is a systemic inflammatory disease. Standard imaging features of KD include interstitial and lobular inflammatory lesions in the lungs, while KD shock syndrome (KDSS), complicated with substantial consolidation and atelectasis in the lung, is rarely reported. PATIENTS CONCERNS: Herein, we report a single case of a 5-year-old female patient who manifested KDSS on the seventh day of the course of KD. Chest enhanced computed tomography indicated large-area consolidation in the lower lobes of the bilateral lungs. DIAGNOSIS: The patient was diagnosed with KDSS complicated with non-infective lung consolidation. INTERVENTIONS: The patient received human intravenous immunoglobulin (2 g/kg) and aspirin (30-50 mg/kgd), methylprednisolone, a vasoactive agent, and albumin. Infective factors were excluded. OUTCOMES: The consolidation in the lower lobe of the bilateral lungs was completely recovered after 3 days of treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Children with KDSS may present with pulmonary lesions such as substantial consolidation and atelectasis; thus, infective factors should be excluded. If there is no etiological evidence, antibiotics should be used with caution.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/complicações , Atelectasia Pulmonar/etiologia , Choque/etiologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/uso terapêutico , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Metilprednisolona/uso terapêutico , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/terapia , Norepinefrina/uso terapêutico , Atelectasia Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Atelectasia Pulmonar/terapia , Choque/terapia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Vasoconstritores/uso terapêutico
12.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD002251, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619039

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal hypotension is the most frequent complication of spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section. It can be associated with nausea or vomiting and may pose serious risks to the mother (unconsciousness, pulmonary aspiration) and baby (hypoxia, acidosis, neurological injury). OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of prophylactic interventions for hypotension following spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section. SEARCH METHODS: We searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register (9 August 2016) and reference lists of retrieved studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials, including full texts and abstracts, comparing interventions to prevent hypotension with placebo or alternative treatment in women having spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section. We excluded studies if hypotension was not an outcome measure. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed study quality and extracted data from eligible studies. We report 'Summary of findings' tables using GRADE. MAIN RESULTS: We included 125 studies involving 9469 women. Interventions were to prevent maternal hypotension following spinal anaesthesia only, and we excluded any interventions considered active treatment. All the included studies reported the review's primary outcome. Across 49 comparisons, we identified three intervention groups: intravenous fluids, pharmacological interventions, and physical interventions. Authors reported no serious adverse effects with any of the interventions investigated. Most trials reported hypotension requiring intervention and Apgar score of less than 8 at five minutes as the only outcomes. None of the trials included in the comparisons we describe reported admission to neonatal intensive care unit. Crystalloid versus control (no fluids) Fewer women experienced hypotension in the crystalloid group compared with no fluids (average risk ratio (RR) 0.84, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.72 to 0.98; 370 women; 5 studies; low-quality evidence). There was no clear difference between groups in numbers of women with nausea and vomiting (average RR 0.19, 95% CI 0.01 to 3.91; 1 study; 69 women; very low-quality evidence). No baby had an Apgar score of less than 8 at five minutes in either group (60 babies, low-quality evidence). Colloid versus crystalloid Fewer women experienced hypotension in the colloid group compared with the crystalloid group (average RR 0.69, 95% CI 0.58 to 0.81; 2009 women; 27 studies; very low-quality evidence). There were no clear differences between groups for maternal hypertension requiring intervention (average RR 0.64, 95% CI 0.09 to 4.46, 3 studies, 327 women; very low-quality evidence), maternal bradycardia requiring intervention (average RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.54 to 1.78, 5 studies, 413 women; very low-quality evidence), nausea and/or vomiting (average RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.66 to 1.19, 14 studies, 1058 women, I² = 29%; very low-quality evidence), neonatal acidosis (average RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.15 to 4.52, 6 studies, 678 babies; very low-quality evidence), or Apgar score of less than 8 at five minutes (average RR 0.24, 95% CI 0.03 to 2.05, 10 studies, 730 babies; very low-quality evidence). Ephedrine versus phenylephrine There were no clear differences between ephedrine and phenylephrine groups for preventing maternal hypotension (average RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.71 to 1.18; 401 women; 8 studies; very low-quality evidence) or hypertension (average RR 1.72, 95% CI 0.71 to 4.16, 2 studies, 118 women, low-quality evidence). Rates of bradycardia were lower in the ephedrine group (average RR 0.37, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.64, 5 studies, 304 women, low-quality evidence). There was no clear difference in the number of women with nausea and/or vomiting (average RR 0.76, 95% CI 0.39 to 1.49, 4 studies, 204 women, I² = 37%, very low-quality evidence), or babies with neonatal acidosis (average RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.07 to 12.00, 3 studies, 175 babies, low-quality evidence). No baby had an Apgar score of less than 8 at five minutes in either group (321 babies; low-quality evidence). Ondansetron versus control Ondansetron administration was more effective than control (placebo saline) for preventing hypotension requiring treatment (average RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.54 to 0.83; 740 women, 8 studies, low-quality evidence), bradycardia requiring treatment (average RR 0.49, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.87; 740 women, 8 studies, low-quality evidence), and nausea and/or vomiting (average RR 0.35, 95% CI 0.24 to 0.51; 653 women, 7 studies, low-quality evidence). There was no clear difference between the groups in rates of neonatal acidosis (average RR 0.48, 95% CI 0.05 to 5.09; 134 babies; 2 studies, low-quality evidence) or Apgar scores of less than 8 at five minutes (284 babies, low-quality evidence). Lower limb compression versus control Lower limb compression was more effective than control for preventing hypotension (average RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.47 to 0.78, 11 studies, 705 women, I² = 65%, very low-quality evidence). There was no clear difference between the groups in rates of bradycardia (RR 0.63, 95% CI 0.11 to 3.56, 1 study, 74 women, very low-quality evidence) or nausea and/or vomiting (average RR 0.42, 95% CI 0.14 to 1.27, 4 studies, 276 women, I² = 32%, very-low quality evidence). No baby had an Apgar score of less than 8 at five minutes in either group (130 babies, very low-quality evidence). Walking versus lying There was no clear difference between the groups for women with hypotension requiring treatment (RR 0.71, 95% CI 0.41 to 1.21, 1 study, 37 women, very low-quality evidence). Many included studies reported little to no information that would allow an assessment of their risk of bias, limiting our ability to draw meaningful conclusions. GRADE assessments of the quality of evidence ranged from very low to low. We downgraded evidence for limitations in study design, imprecision, and indirectness; most studies assessed only women scheduled for elective caesarean sections. External validity also needs consideration. Readers should question the use of colloids in this context given the serious potential side effects such as allergy and renal failure associated with their administration. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: While interventions such as crystalloids, colloids, ephedrine, phenylephrine, ondansetron, or lower leg compression can reduce the incidence of hypotension, none have been shown to eliminate the need to treat maternal hypotension in some women. We cannot draw any conclusions regarding rare adverse effects associated with use of the interventions (for example colloids) due to the relatively small numbers of women studied.


Assuntos
Anestesia Obstétrica/efeitos adversos , Raquianestesia/efeitos adversos , Cesárea , Hipotensão/prevenção & controle , Complicações Intraoperatórias/prevenção & controle , Antieméticos/uso terapêutico , Coloides/uso terapêutico , Soluções Cristaloides/uso terapêutico , Efedrina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Hipotensão/induzido quimicamente , Soluções Isotônicas/uso terapêutico , Ondansetron/uso terapêutico , Fenilefrina/uso terapêutico , Náusea e Vômito Pós-Operatórios/tratamento farmacológico , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Vasoconstritores/uso terapêutico , Caminhada
13.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235084, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614837

RESUMO

Hemorrhagic shock is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in pediatric trauma. Current treatment based on volume resuscitation is associated to adverse effects, and it has been proposed that vasopressors may be used in the pharmacological management of trauma. Terlipressin has demonstrated its usefulness in other pediatric critical care scenarios and its long half-life allows its use as a bolus in an outpatient critical settings. The aim of this study was to analyze whether the addition of a dose of terlipressin to the initial volume expansion produces an improvement in hemodynamic and cerebral perfusion at early stages of hemorrhagic shock in an infant animal model. We conducted an experimental randomized animal study with 1-month old pigs. After 30 minutes of hypotension (mean arterial blood pressure [MAP]<45 mmHg) induced by the withdrawal of blood over 30 min, animals were randomized to receive either normal saline (NS) 30 mL/kg (n = 8) or a bolus of 20 mcg/kg of terlipressin plus 30 mL/kg of normal saline (TP) (n = 8). Global hemodynamic and cerebral monitoring parameters, brain damage markers and histology samples were compared. After controlled bleeding, significant decreases were observed in MAP, cardiac index (CI), central venous pressure, global end-diastolic volume index (GEDI), left cardiac output index, SvO2, intracranial pressure, carotid blood flow, bispectral index (BIS), cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) and increases in systemic vascular resistance index, heart rate and lactate. After treatment, MAP, GEDI, CI, CPP and BIS remained significantly higher in the TP group. The addition of a dose of terlipressin to initial fluid resuscitation was associated with hemodynamic improvement, intracranial pressure maintenance and better cerebral perfusion, which would mean protection from ischemic injury. Brain monitoring through BIS was able to detect changes caused by hemorrhagic shock and treatment.


Assuntos
Hemodinâmica/efeitos dos fármacos , Solução Salina/uso terapêutico , Choque Hemorrágico/terapia , Terlipressina/uso terapêutico , Vasoconstritores/uso terapêutico , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Circulação Cerebrovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hidratação , Masculino , Ressuscitação , Choque Hemorrágico/sangue , Choque Hemorrágico/fisiopatologia , Suínos
14.
Anesthesiology ; 133(2): 304-317, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32482999

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies in anesthetized patients suggest that phenylephrine reduces regional cerebral oxygen saturation compared with ephedrine. The present study aimed to quantify the effects of phenylephrine and ephedrine on cerebral blood flow and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen in brain tumor patients. The authors hypothesized that phenylephrine reduces cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen in selected brain regions compared with ephedrine. METHODS: In this double-blinded, randomized clinical trial, 24 anesthetized patients with brain tumors were randomly assigned to ephedrine or phenylephrine treatment. Positron emission tomography measurements of cerebral blood flow and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen in peritumoral and normal contralateral regions were performed before and during vasopressor infusion. The primary endpoint was between-group difference in cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen. Secondary endpoints included changes in cerebral blood flow, oxygen extraction fraction, and regional cerebral oxygen saturation. RESULTS: Peritumoral mean ± SD cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen values before and after vasopressor (ephedrine, 67.0 ± 11.3 and 67.8 ± 25.7 µmol · 100 g · min; phenylephrine, 68.2 ± 15.2 and 67.6 ± 18.0 µmol · 100 g · min) showed no intergroup difference (difference [95% CI], 1.5 [-13.3 to 16.3] µmol · 100 g · min [P = 0.839]). Corresponding contralateral hemisphere cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen values (ephedrine, 90.8 ± 15.9 and 94.6 ± 16.9 µmol · 100 g · min; phenylephrine, 100.8 ± 20.7 and 96.4 ± 17.7 µmol · 100 g · min) showed no intergroup difference (difference [95% CI], 8.2 [-2.0 to 18.5] µmol · 100 g · min [P = 0.118]). Ephedrine significantly increased cerebral blood flow (difference [95% CI], 3.9 [0.7 to 7.0] ml · 100 g · min [P = 0.019]) and regional cerebral oxygen saturation (difference [95% CI], 4 [1 to 8]% [P = 0.024]) in the contralateral hemisphere compared to phenylephrine. The change in oxygen extraction fraction in both regions (peritumoral difference [95% CI], -0.6 [-14.7 to 13.6]% [P = 0.934]; contralateral hemisphere difference [95% CI], -0.1 [- 12.1 to 12.0]% [P = 0.989]) were comparable between groups. CONCLUSIONS: The cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen changes in peritumoral and normal contralateral regions were similar between ephedrine- and phenylephrine-treated patients. In the normal contralateral region, ephedrine was associated with an increase in cerebral blood flow and regional cerebral oxygen saturation compared with phenylephrine.


Assuntos
Anestesia/tendências , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Circulação Cerebrovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Efedrina/uso terapêutico , Consumo de Oxigênio/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenilefrina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Encefálicas/cirurgia , Circulação Cerebrovascular/fisiologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Efedrina/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Fenilefrina/farmacologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Vasoconstritores/farmacologia , Vasoconstritores/uso terapêutico
15.
Pediatr Cardiol ; 41(7): 1391-1401, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32529358

RESUMO

Children were relatively spared during COVID-19 pandemic. However, the recently reported hyperinflammatory syndrome with overlapping features of Kawasaki disease and toxic shock syndrome-"Paediatric Inflammatory Multisystem Syndrome-temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2" (PIMS-TS) has caused concern. We describe cardiac findings and short-term outcomes in children with PIMS-TS at a tertiary children's hospital. Single-center observational study of children with PIMS-TS from 10th April to 9th May 2020. Data on ECG and echocardiogram were retrospectively analyzed along with demographics, clinical features and blood parameters. Fifteen children with median age of 8.8 (IQR 6.4-11.2) years were included, all were from African/Afro-Caribbean, South Asian, Mixed or other minority ethnic groups. All showed raised inflammatory/cardiac markers (CRP, ferritin, Troponin I, CK and pro-BNP). Transient valve regurgitation was present in 10 patients (67%). Left Ventricular ejection fraction was reduced in 12 (80%), fractional shortening in 8 (53%) with resolution in all but 2. Fourteen (93%) had coronary artery abnormalities, with normalization in 6. ECG abnormalities were present in 9 (60%) which normalized in 6 by discharge. Ten (67%) needed inotropes and/or vasopressors. None needed extracorporeal life support. Improvement in cardiac biochemical markers was closely followed by improvement in ECG/echocardiogram. All patients were discharged alive and twelve (80%) have been reviewed since. Our entire cohort with PIMS-TS had cardiac involvement and this degree of involvement is significantly more than other published series and emphasizes the need for specialist cardiac review. We believe that our multi-disciplinary team approach was crucial for the good short-term outcomes.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Cardiopatias/complicações , Hospitais Pediátricos , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/terapia , Betacoronavirus , Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiopatias/terapia , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/complicações , Pandemias , Alta do Paciente , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Estudos Retrospectivos , Volume Sistólico , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/complicações , Resultado do Tratamento , Reino Unido , Vasoconstritores/uso terapêutico , Função Ventricular Esquerda
16.
Med Clin North Am ; 104(4): 573-585, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505253

RESUMO

Sepsis and septic shock are major causes of mortality among hospitalized patients. The sepsis state is due to dysregulated host response to infection, leading to inflammatory damage to nearly every organ system. Early recognition of sepsis and appropriate treatment with antibiotics, fluids, and vasopressors is essential to reducing organ system injury and mortality. This review summarizes the current understanding of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of sepsis and septic shock.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Escores de Disfunção Orgânica , Sepse/diagnóstico , Choque Séptico/diagnóstico , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Taxa Respiratória , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Sepse/fisiopatologia , Sepse/terapia , Choque Séptico/fisiopatologia , Choque Séptico/terapia , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/diagnóstico , Terminologia como Assunto , Vasoconstritores/uso terapêutico
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(20): e20235, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443357

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The evaluation of the functional status of blood vessels, especially the arterial system, plays a very important role in the judgment of the condition of septic shock patients and the guidance of resuscitation programs and the judgment of the therapeutic effect. We aimed to design an observational study protocol to explore the correlation of peripheral arterial pulse/resistance index, organ function and inflammation in patients with septic shock. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A total of 60 patients with septic shock in the Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University from June 2020 to September 2020 and 20 healthy volunteers will be enrolled. Total of 60 patients with septic shock will be randomly divided into 20 groups by lot method. Group 1: fluid resuscitation; Group 2: fluid resuscitation + norepinephrine; Group 3: fluid resuscitation + norepinephrine + ulinastatin; Group 4: healthy control group. Fluid resuscitation is an early goal-directed fluid resuscitation in which norepinephrine is adjusted by a senior intensive care unit specialist for clinical presentation and ulinastatin is pumped at 20,000 U/h. Index including vascular ultrasound, inflammatory factors, organ function will be collected and analyzed. DISCUSSION: Existing studies on septic shock focus on hemodynamics of the heart, brain, and kidney, while the differences in blood flow between peripheral blood vessels and protective renal vessels may be consistent, and imaging analysis is still lacking. This study protocol aims to explore the correlation of peripheral arterial pulsation index/resistance index, organ function, and inflammation in patients with septic shock. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical trial registry: ChiCTR2000031565.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Imunidade Inata/fisiologia , Choque Séptico/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Correlação de Dados , Feminino , Hidratação/métodos , Hidratação/normas , Hidratação/estatística & dados numéricos , Glicoproteínas/uso terapêutico , Voluntários Saudáveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Inflamação/complicações , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Norepinefrina/uso terapêutico , Escores de Disfunção Orgânica , Estudos Prospectivos , Choque Séptico/classificação , Choque Séptico/complicações , Resultado do Tratamento , Inibidores da Tripsina/uso terapêutico , Vasoconstritores/uso terapêutico
20.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 201(12): 1560-1564, 2020 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-155108
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