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1.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239039, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915892

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Beta-blockers are often not the preferred treatment for patients with vasospastic angina. However, nebivolol, beta-blocker with nitric oxide-releasing effect, could theoretically improve coronary vasospasm. We compared nebivolol versus diltiazem in improving coronary vasospasm and quality of life in patients with hypertensive vasospastic angina during a 12-week follow-up. METHODS: Fifty-one hypertensive patients with documented coronary vasospasm were randomly allocated into 3 treatment groups: (1) Nebivolol Group (5mg for 2 weeks/10mg for 10 weeks); (2) Diltiazem Group (90mg for 2 weeks/180mg for 10 weeks); (3) Low-dose Combination Group (2.5mg + 45mg for 2 weeks/5mg + 90mg for 10 weeks). The primary endpoint was to compare the percent changes in coronary vasospasm at 12 weeks from baseline among the 3 groups. The secondary endpoints included changes in quality of life based on the Seattle Angina Questionnaire and changes in blood pressure at 12 weeks from baseline. RESULTS: Significant improvements in coronary vasospasm were found in all groups; however, the improvement in percent changes in coronary artery spasm was greatest in the Diltiazem Group (50.4±8.8% vs. 67.8±12.8% vs. 46.8±12.3%, Nebivolol Group vs. Diltiazem Group p = 0.008; Nebivolol Group vs. Low-dose Combination Group p = 0.999; Diltiazem Group vs. Low-dose Combination Group p = 0.017). The overall Seattle Angina Questionnaire scores were significantly elevated at 12 weeks compared to the baseline in entire study population. There were no significant differences between the three groups in the overall Seattle Angina Questionnaire score changes and blood pressure changes. CONCLUSIONS: Both nebivolol and diltiazem showed significant coronary vasospasm reduction effect, but the effect was greater for diltiazem.


Assuntos
Angina Pectoris/tratamento farmacológico , Vasoespasmo Coronário/tratamento farmacológico , Diltiazem/uso terapêutico , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Nebivolol/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Angina Pectoris/complicações , Angina Pectoris/fisiopatologia , Anti-Hipertensivos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/administração & dosagem , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Angiografia Coronária , Vasoespasmo Coronário/etiologia , Vasoespasmo Coronário/fisiopatologia , Citocinas/sangue , Diltiazem/administração & dosagem , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nebivolol/administração & dosagem , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Vasodilatação/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
J Vis Exp ; (161)2020 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804163

RESUMO

Coronary arterial tone along with the opening or closing of the capillaries largely determine the blood flow to cardiomyocytes at constant perfusion pressure. However, it is difficult to monitor the dynamic changes of the coronary arterioles and the capillaries in the whole heart, primarily due to its motion and non-stop beating. Here we describe a method that enables monitoring of arterial perfusion rate, pressure and the diameter changes of the arterioles and capillaries in mouse right ventricular papillary muscles. The mouse septal artery is cannulated and perfused at a constant flow or pressure with the other dynamically measured. After perfusion with a fluorescently labeled lectin (e.g., Alexa Fluor-488 or -633 labeled Wheat-Germ Agglutinin, WGA), the arterioles and capillaries (and other vessels) in right ventricle papillary muscle and septum could be readily imaged. The vessel-diameter changes could then be measured in the presence or absence of heart contractions. When genetically encoded fluorescent proteins were expressed, specific features could be monitored. For examples, pericytes were visualized in mouse hearts that expressed NG2-DsRed. This method has provided a useful platform to study the physiological functions of capillary pericytes in heart. It is also suitable for studying the effect of reagents on the blood flow in heart by measuring the vascular/capillary diameter and the arterial luminal pressure simultaneously. This preparation, combined with a state-of-the-art optic imaging system, allows one to study the blood flow and its control at cellular and molecular level in the heart under near-physiological conditions.


Assuntos
Arteríolas/diagnóstico por imagem , Capilares/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento Tridimensional , Pericitos/fisiologia , Animais , Arteríolas/efeitos dos fármacos , Arteríolas/fisiologia , Capilares/efeitos dos fármacos , Capilares/fisiologia , Cateterismo , Corantes Fluorescentes/metabolismo , Hemodinâmica/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Perfusão , Pericitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Pinacidil/farmacologia , Pressão , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional/fisiologia , Vasoconstrição/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasodilatação/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasodilatação/fisiologia , Aglutininas do Germe de Trigo/metabolismo
3.
Toxicol Lett ; 333: 97-104, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763312

RESUMO

Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have wide pleiotropic action in addition to their therapeutic potential in gastroesophageal reflux diseases. Conversely, recent reports revealed a significant incidence of toxic events of PPIs including nephritis, osteoporosis, and cardiac damage. Thus, the study was designed to reconcile the deceptive contraindications. The present investigation targeted to reveal the toxic impact of sub-acute and sub-chronic administration of pantoprazole (PPZ) with different concentrations (low dose 4 mg/kg, medium-dose 8 mg/kg and high dose 16 mg/kg once a day) on normal vascular endothelium and renal tissue of rats. Vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) was estimated by the contractility of an isolated aortic ring, nitrite/nitrate concentration, oxidative stress, and integrity of the endothelium layer. Moreover, the renal abnormalities were further confirmed by an increased level of serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), the incidence of microproteinuria, and structural alteration. Sub-acute administration of PPZ treatment did not produce any toxicological impact on endothelium and renal tissue. Whereas, sub-chronic administration of PPZ treatment causes moderate VED and renal dysfunction in a dose-dependent manner. Sub-chronic treatment of PPZ also influences the mitigation of NO and elevation of oxidative stress. Collecting all the evidence, it concludes that decreased nitric oxide availability and increased levels of oxidative stress may be a possible underlying mechanism of causing VED and renal abnormalities from high-dose PPZ treatment.


Assuntos
Aorta Torácica/efeitos dos fármacos , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Pantoprazol/toxicidade , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/toxicidade , Administração Oral , Animais , Aorta Torácica/imunologia , Aorta Torácica/metabolismo , Aorta Torácica/patologia , Citocinas/sangue , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Endotélio Vascular/imunologia , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/patologia , Feminino , Rim/imunologia , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Nitratos/metabolismo , Nitritos/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Vasodilatação/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
J Pharmacol Sci ; 144(3): 165-171, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32811745

RESUMO

Eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) kinase (eEF2K) suppresses protein translation. We previously reported eEF2K expression was upregulated in mesenteric arteries (MA) from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). We have recently revealed A484954, an eEF2K inhibitor, acutely suppressed vasopressor agonists-induced increase of blood pressure (BP) in normal Wistar rats. In this study, we examined the acute effects of A484954 on BP in SHR and explored underlying mechanisms. BP was measured by a carotid cannulation method in SHR. Isometric contraction in MA from SHR was measured. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) dimerization was measured by low-temperature sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blotting. A484954 lowered BP in 15-week-old SHR. A484954 induced relaxation in MA from both 4- and 7-9-week-old SHR. In MA from 4-week-old SHR, A484954-induced relaxation was inhibited almost completely by a NOS inhibitor, NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) and significantly by a ß blocker, propranolol. In MA from 7-9-week-old SHR, on the other hand, A484954-induced relaxation was inhibited partly either by l-NAME, indomethacin, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, or l-NAME + indomethacin. A484954 promoted the dimerization of eNOS in human endothelial cells. In summary, we have revealed A484954 lowers BP in SHR perhaps through the vasorelaxation via the production of endothelium-derived relaxing factors.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Quinase do Fator 2 de Elongação/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Piridinas/farmacologia , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Vasodilatação/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Humanos , Contração Isométrica/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Artérias Mesentéricas/efeitos dos fármacos , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR
5.
Nitric Oxide ; 103: 29-30, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32712272

RESUMO

Most outcomes of COVID-19 are associated with dysfunction of the vascular system, particularly in the lung. Inhalation of nitric oxide (NO) gas is currently being investigated as a treatment for patients with moderate to severe COVID-19. In addition to the expected vasodilation effect, it has been also suggested that NO potentially prevents infection by SARS-CoV-2. Since NO is an unstable radical molecule that is easily oxidized by multiple mechanisms in the human body, it is practically difficult to control its concentration at lesions that need NO. Inorganic nitrate and/or nitrite are known as precursors of NO that can be produced through chemical as well enzymatic reduction. It appears that this NO synthase (NOS)-independent mechanism has been overlooked in the current developing of clinical treatments. Here, I suggest the missing link between nitrate and COVID-19 in terms of hypoxic NO generation.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Nitratos/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Nitritos/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Antivirais/metabolismo , Ácido Ascórbico/química , Ácido Ascórbico/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Fatores Relaxantes Dependentes do Endotélio/metabolismo , Humanos , Nitratos/sangue , Nitritos/sangue , Nitritos/química , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Vasodilatação/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235635, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614897

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Normothermic ex vivo liver perfusion (NEVLP) is a promising strategy to increase the donor pool in liver transplantation. Small animal models are essential to further investigate questions regarding organ preservation and reconditioning by NEVLP. A dual vessel small animal NEVLP (dNEVLP) model was developed using metamizole as a vasodilator and compared to conventional portovenous single vessel NEVLP (sNEVLP). METHODS: Livers of male Wistar rats were perfused with erythrocyte-supplemented culture medium for six hours by either dNEVLP via hepatic artery and portal vein or portovenous sNEVLP. dNEVLP was performed either with or without metamizole treatment. Perfusion pressure and flow rates were constantly monitored. Transaminase levels were determined in the perfusate at the start and after three and six hours of perfusion. Bile secretion was monitored and bile LDH and GGT levels were measured hourly. Histopathological analysis was performed using liver and bile duct tissue samples after perfusion. RESULTS: Hepatic artery pressure was significantly lower in dNEVLP with metamizole administration. Compared to sNEVLP, dNEVLP with metamizole treatment showed higher bile production, lower levels of transaminases during and after perfusion as well as significantly lower necrosis in liver and bile duct tissue. Biochemical markers of bile duct injury showed the same trend. CONCLUSION: Our miniaturized dNEVLP system enables normothermic dual vessel rat liver perfusion. The administration of metamizole effectively ameliorates arterial vasospasm allowing for six hours of dNEVLP, with superior outcome compared to sNEVLP.


Assuntos
Dipirona/farmacologia , Transplante de Fígado , Preservação de Órgãos/métodos , Vasodilatação/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Pressão Arterial/efeitos dos fármacos , Bile/metabolismo , Ductos Biliares/patologia , Artéria Hepática/patologia , Fígado/irrigação sanguínea , Fígado/patologia , Testes de Função Hepática , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
7.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 319(2): H341-H348, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32618512

RESUMO

Progesterone exerts antihypertensive actions partially by modulating endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity. Here, we aimed to investigate the effects and mechanisms of progesterone on eNOS expression. First, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were exposed to progesterone and then the eNOS transcription factor specificity protein-1 (SP-1) and progesterone receptor (PRA/B) expression were assessed by Western blotting and qRT-PCR. The interaction between SP-1 and PRA/B was next determined through coimmunoprecipitation assay. The chromatin immunoprecipitation assay and luciferase assay were used to investigate the relationship of PRA/B, SP-1, and eNOS promoter. At last, rats were intraperitoneally injected with progesterone receptor antagonist RU-486, and then the expression of eNOS and vasodilation function in thoracic aorta and mesenteric artery were measured. The results showed that progesterone could increase eNOS expression in HUVECs. Further study showed that progesterone increased PRA-SP-1 complex formation and facilitated PRA/B and SP-1 binding to eNOS promoter. Mutating SP-1 or PR-binding motif on eNOS promoter abolished the effect of progesterone on eNOS gene transcription. We also observed that progesterone receptor antagonist RU-486 reduced eNOS expression and impaired vasodilation in rats. Those results suggest that progesterone modulates eNOS expression through promoting PRA-SP-1 complex formation, and progesterone antagonist attenuates eNOS expression, leading to the loss of vascular relaxation.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Progesterone directly upregulated endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression in human endothelial cells. Progesterone augmented eNOS promoter activity through a progesterone receptor A- and specificity protein-1-dependent manner. Antagonism of the progesterone receptor reduced eNOS expression and impaired vasodilation in rats.


Assuntos
Núcleo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/biossíntese , Progesterona/farmacologia , Receptores de Progesterona/agonistas , Fator de Transcrição Sp1/metabolismo , Animais , Aorta Torácica/efeitos dos fármacos , Aorta Torácica/enzimologia , Sítios de Ligação , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Indução Enzimática , Feminino , Antagonistas de Hormônios/farmacologia , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/enzimologia , Humanos , Artérias Mesentéricas/efeitos dos fármacos , Artérias Mesentéricas/enzimologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores de Progesterona/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Vasodilatação/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(9): 2143-2158, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640903

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: ERα (estrogen receptor alpha) exerts nuclear genomic actions and also rapid membrane-initiated steroid signaling. The mutation of the cysteine 451 into alanine in vivo has recently revealed the key role of this ERα palmitoylation site on some vasculoprotective actions of 17ß-estradiol (E2) and fertility. Here, we studied the in vivo role of the arginine 260 of ERα which has also been described to be involved in its E2-induced rapid signaling with PI-3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) as well as G protein in cultured cell lines. Approach and Results: We generated a mouse model harboring a point mutation of the murine counterpart of this arginine into alanine (R264A-ERα). In contrast to the C451A-ERα, the R264A-ERα females are fertile with standard hormonal serum levels and normal control of hypothalamus-pituitary ovarian axis. Although R264A-ERα protein abundance was normal, the well-described membrane ERα-dependent actions of estradiol, such as the rapid dilation of mesenteric arteries and the acceleration of endothelial repair of carotid, were abrogated in R264A-ERα mice. In striking contrast, E2-regulated gene expression was highly preserved in the uterus and the aorta, revealing intact nuclear/genomic actions in response to E2. Consistently, 2 recognized nuclear ERα-dependent actions of E2, namely atheroma prevention and flow-mediated arterial remodeling were totally preserved. CONCLUSIONS: These data underline the exquisite role of arginine 264 of ERα for endothelial membrane-initiated steroid signaling effects of E2 but not for nuclear/genomic actions. This provides the first model of fertile mouse with no overt endocrine abnormalities with specific loss-of-function of rapid ERα signaling in vascular functions.


Assuntos
Lesões das Artérias Carótidas/tratamento farmacológico , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Estradiol/farmacologia , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/agonistas , Terapia de Reposição de Estrogênios , Estrogênios/farmacologia , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Artérias Mesentéricas/efeitos dos fármacos , Mutação Puntual , Animais , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/patologia , Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Lesões das Artérias Carótidas/metabolismo , Lesões das Artérias Carótidas/patologia , Lesões das Artérias Carótidas/fisiopatologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Endotélio Vascular/lesões , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Ativação Enzimática , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/genética , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Ciclo Estral/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Masculino , Artérias Mesentéricas/metabolismo , Artérias Mesentéricas/fisiopatologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo , Ovariectomia , Reepitelização/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais , Fatores de Tempo , Útero/efeitos dos fármacos , Útero/metabolismo , Remodelação Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasodilatação/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Am J Med Sci ; 360(4): 329-337, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32631574

RESUMO

Methylene blue (MB) is considered to be the first synthetic medication ever used in humans. There are many indications for MB, including vasoplegic shock. Nitric oxide (NO), the central mediator of sepsis, promotes vasoplegia by enhancing the guanylate cyclase cyclic guanosine monophosphate second messenger system, the effect of which is attenuated by MB. Therefore, the use of MB represents a unique pharmacologic approach towards treating the underlying pathophysiology of vasoplegia in sepsis. There are numerous reports of the successful use of MB in refractory shock in the literature. This manuscript describes the historical aspects of the identification of NO as the endothelial derived relaxation factor and its role in the pathogenesis of vasoplegia in septic shock. An analysis of the existing evidence for the use of MB as an inhibitor of NO in vasodilatory shock is provided. The adverse effects associated with the use of MB and an approach to optimal dosing in septic shock are also addressed.


Assuntos
Azul de Metileno/uso terapêutico , Óxido Nítrico/antagonistas & inibidores , Choque Séptico/tratamento farmacológico , Vasoplegia/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Azul de Metileno/administração & dosagem , Azul de Metileno/efeitos adversos , Choque Séptico/complicações , Choque Séptico/metabolismo , Vasodilatação/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasoplegia/etiologia , Vasoplegia/metabolismo
10.
Chem Biol Interact ; 327: 109182, 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32554038

RESUMO

Nothofagin is a natural 3'-C-ß-D-glucoside of the polyphenol phloretin that is mainly found in Aspalathus linearis, Nothofagus fusca, and Leandra dasytricha. In recent years, nothofagin has been described as a potential therapeutic agent for renal disorders, but the mechanisms that are involved in its renoprotective effects remain unclear. In the present study, perfused rat kidneys were used to test the hypothesis that nothofagin causes the direct relaxation of renal arteries. The molecular mechanisms that underlie these vascular effects were also investigated. The left kidney from Wistar rats was coupled in a perfusion system and continuously perfused with physiological saline solution (PSS). Initially, preparations with and without the endothelium were contracted with phenylephrine and received injections of 1-300 nmol nothofagin. The preparations were then perfused with PSS that contained phenylephrine plus KCl, indomethacin, l-NAME, tetraethylammonium, glibenclamide, 4-aminopyridine, iberiotoxin, charybdotoxin, and apamin. After 15 min under perfusion, nothofagin was injected again. In preparations with an intact endothelium, nothofagin dose-dependently reduced perfusion pressure. Endothelium removal or the inhibition of nitric oxide synthase by l-NAME prevented the vasodilatory effect of nothofagin at all doses tested. Perfusion with PSS that contained KCl or tetraethylammonium chloride also abolished the vasodilatory effect of nothofagin. Treatment with glibenclamide, 4-aminopyridine, and apamin did not affect the vasodilatory effect of nothofagin. Iberiotoxin (selective Ca2+-activated high-conductance K+ channel [KCa1.1] blocker) and charybdotoxin (selective KCa1.1 and Ca2+-activated intermediate-conductance K+ channel [KCa3.1] blocker) application blocked the vasodilatory effect of nothofagin at all doses tested, pointing to a predominant role for KCa1.1 in the action of nothofagin. However, these data cannot exclude a potential contribution of endothelial KCa3.1 channel in the nothofagin-induced vasodilation. Overall, our findings indicate that nothofagin induces vasodilation in renal arteries, an effect that is mediated by Ca2+ -activated high-conductance K+ channels opening and endothelial nitric oxide production.


Assuntos
Chalconas/farmacologia , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Canais de Potássio Ativados por Cálcio de Condutância Alta/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Vasodilatação/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasodilatadores/farmacologia , Animais , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Perfusão , Ratos Wistar , Artéria Renal/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233619, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492025

RESUMO

A moderate alcohol consumption is demonstrated to exert a protective action in terms of cardiovascular risk. Although this property seems not to be beverage-specific, the various composition of alcoholic compounds could mediate peculiar effects in vivo. The aim of this study was to evaluate potential beer-mediated effects on the cardiovascular health in humans, using a meta-analytic approach (trial registration number: CRD42018118387). The literature search, comprising all English articles published until November, 30th 2019 in EMBASE, PubMed and Cochrane database included all controlled clinical trials evaluating the cardiovascular effects of beer assumption compared to alcohol-free beer, water, abstinence or placebo. Both sexes and all beer preparations were considered eligible. Outcome parameters were those entering in the cardiovascular risk charts and those related to endothelial dysfunction. Twenty-six trials were included in the analysis. Total cholesterol was significantly higher in beer drinkers compared to controls (14 studies, 3.52 mg/dL, 1.71-5.32 mg/dL). Similar increased levels were observed in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (18 studies, 3.63 mg/dL, 2.00-5.26 mg/dL) and in apolipoprotein A1 (5 studies, 0.16 mg/dL, 0.11-0.21 mg/dL), while no differences were detected in low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (12 studies, -2.85 mg/dL, -5.96-0.26 mg/dL) and triglycerides (14 studies, 0.40 mg/dL, -5.00-5.80 mg/dL) levels. Flow mediated dilation (FMD) resulted significantly higher in beer-consumers compared to controls (4 studies, 0.65%, 0.07-1.23%), while blood pressure and other biochemical markers of inflammation did not differ. In conclusion, the specific beer effect on human cardiovascular health was meta-analysed for the first time, highlighting an improvement of the vascular elasticity, detected by the increase of FMD (after acute intake), and of the lipid profile with a significant increase of HDL and apolipoprotein A1 serum levels. Although the long-term effects of beer consumption are not still understood, a beneficial effect of beer on endothelial function should be supposed.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Cerveja , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Sistema Cardiovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Etanol/farmacologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Apolipoproteína A-I/sangue , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasos Sanguíneos/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Elasticidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Vasodilatação/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Diab Vasc Dis Res ; 17(5): 1479164120930589, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32589047

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In many cases, Ilomedin® infusions are applied as part of a perioperative measure in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease because it makes a relevant vasodilatatory effect in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and with/without peripheral neuropathy. AIMS: A prospective case-control study was performed to investigate the effect of prostanoids on peripheral resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and patients without type 2 diabetes mellitus, as well as the role of peripheral neuropathy in patients undergoing arterial reconstruction. METHODS: Sixty patients undergoing arterial reconstruction were enrolled. Sufficient data were collected on 38 patients. Prior to surgery, peripheral nerve conduction velocity was measured. Blood flow volume at the common femoral artery was assessed intraoperatively using a Doppler flowmeter at four time points: at baseline before arterial reconstruction (T0), after reconstruction (T1), after 5 (T2) and 10 min (T3) after intra-arterial application of 3000 ng of Ilomedin. Peripheral resistance units were calculated as a function of mean arterial pressure and flow volume using the following formula: peripheral resistance unit = mean arterial pressure (mm Hg) / flow volume (mL/min). RESULTS: Ilomedin produced an immediate and significant drop of peripheral resistance in patients without type 2 diabetes mellitus as well as in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Patients with peripheral neuropathy showed a less pronounced effect to Ilomedin compared to individuals with normal nerve conduction velocity.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Iloprosta/administração & dosagem , Doença Arterial Periférica/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Arterial Periférica/cirurgia , Resistência Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares , Vasodilatação/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Iloprosta/efeitos adversos , Infusões Intra-Arteriais , Cuidados Intraoperatórios , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico , Doença Arterial Periférica/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/efeitos adversos , Vasodilatadores/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Diab Vasc Dis Res ; 17(3): 1479164120928303, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32538145

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between skin microvascular reactivity and clinical microangiopathy in patients with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: We included 61 patients with type 1 diabetes, that is, 31 patients with and 30 without clinical microangiopathy, and 31 healthy controls. A microangiopathy scoring system was introduced for comparison of data between patients with microangiopathy. Responses to iontophoresis of acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside were assessed by laser Doppler imaging. RESULTS: Patients with microangiopathy had reduced acetylcholine- and sodium nitroprusside-mediated flux in forearm skin microcirculation compared to healthy controls (p = 0.03 and p < 0.001, respectively, repeated measures analysis of variance), whereas no significant differences were found between patients without microangiopathy and controls. Skin reactivity was reduced in patients with microangiopathy compared to patients without microangiopathy: 1.43 ± 0.38 versus 1.59 ± 0.39 arbitrary units for acetylcholine-mediated peak flux and 1.44 ± 0.46 versus 1.74 ± 0.34 arbitrary units for sodium nitroprusside-mediated peak flux (p < 0.05 for both). A tendency of gradual decrease in acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside responses was found in patients with increasing microangiopathy scores. CONCLUSION: We conclude that skin microvascular reactivity is associated with clinical microangiopathy in patients with type 1 diabetes. Impaired skin microvascular function in type 1 diabetes seems to be multifactorial and involves both endothelial-dependent and endothelial-independent pathways. We introduce a novel microangiopathy score that could easily be used in a clinical setting for comparison of patients with various degrees of microangiopathy.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Angiopatias Diabéticas/etiologia , Microcirculação , Pele/irrigação sanguínea , Vasodilatação , Administração Cutânea , Adulto , Idoso , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/fisiopatologia , Angiopatias Diabéticas/diagnóstico , Angiopatias Diabéticas/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Antebraço , Humanos , Iontoforese , Fluxometria por Laser-Doppler , Masculino , Microcirculação/efeitos dos fármacos , Angioscopia Microscópica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Vasodilatação/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasodilatadores/administração & dosagem
14.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 319(2): H271-H281, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559139

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of race and subclinical elevations in blood pressure (i.e., prehypertension) on cutaneous sensory nerve-mediated and nitric oxide (NO)-dependent vasodilation. We recruited participants who self-identified as either non-Hispanic black (n = 16) or non-Hispanic white (n = 16). Within each group, participants were subdivided as either normotensive (n = 8 per group) or prehypertensive (n = 8 per group). Each participant was instrumented with four intradermal microdialysis fibers: 1) control (lactated Ringer's), 2) 5% lidocaine (sensory nerve inhibition), 3) 20 mM Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) (NO synthase inhibition), and 4) lidocaine + l-NAME. Skin blood flow was assessed via laser-Doppler flowmetry, and each site underwent local heating from 33°C to 39°C. At the plateau, 20 mM l-NAME were infused at control and lidocaine sites to quantify NO-dependent vasodilation. Maximal vasodilation was induced via 54 mM sodium nitroprusside and local heating to 43°C. Data are means ± SD. Sensory nerve-mediated cutaneous vasodilation was reduced in prehypertensive non-Hispanic white (34 ± 7%) and both non-Hispanic black groups (normotensive, 20 ± 9%, prehypertensive, 24 ± 15%) relative to normotensive non-Hispanic whites (54 ± 12%). NO-dependent vasodilation was also reduced in prehypertensive non-Hispanic white (41 ± 7%) and both non-Hispanic black groups (normotensive, 44 ± 7%, prehypertensive, 19 ± 7%) relative to normotensive non-Hispanic whites (60 ± 11%). The decrease in NO-dependent vasodilation in prehypertensive non-Hispanic blacks was further reduced relative to all other groups. These data suggest subclinical increases in blood pressure adversely affect sensory-mediated and NO-dependent vasodilation in both non-Hispanic blacks and whites.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Overt hypertension is known to reduce cutaneous sensory nerve-mediated and nitric oxide (NO)-dependent vasodilation, but the effect of subclinical increases in blood pressure (i.e., prehypertension) is unknown. The combined effect of race and prehypertension is also unknown. In this study, we found that prehypertension reduces cutaneous sensory nerve-mediated and NO-dependent vasodilation in both non-Hispanic white and black populations, with the greatest reductions observed in prehypertensive non-Hispanic blacks.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Vasos Sanguíneos/inervação , Vasos Sanguíneos/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Pré-Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Células Receptoras Sensoriais , Pele/irrigação sanguínea , Vasodilatação , Administração Cutânea , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Vasos Sanguíneos/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/administração & dosagem , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Georgia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Microdiálise , Óxido Nítrico Sintase/antagonistas & inibidores , Óxido Nítrico Sintase/metabolismo , Pré-Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Pré-Hipertensão/etnologia , Pré-Hipertensão/metabolismo , Fatores Raciais , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasodilatação/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
15.
Wilderness Environ Med ; 31(3): 312-316, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32482519

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cold-induced vasodilation (CIVD) is seen in the extremities during exposure to cold. A strong vasodilation response has been associated with a decreased risk of cold injury. Increasing CIVD might further decrease this risk. The calcium-channel blocker nifedipine causes vasodilation and is used to treat Raynaud's syndrome and chilblains. Nifedipine is also used for high altitude pulmonary edema and could potentially serve a dual purpose in preventing frostbite. The effects of nifedipine on CIVD have not been studied. METHODS: A double-blind crossover study comparing nifedipine (30 mg SR (sustained release) orally twice daily) to placebo was designed using 2 sessions of 4 finger immersion in 5°C water, with 24 h of medication pretreatment before each session. Finger temperatures were measured via nailbed thermocouples. The primary outcome was mean finger temperature; secondary outcomes were mean apex and nadir temperatures, first apex and nadir temperatures, subjective pain ranking, and time of vasodilation onset (all presented as mean±SD). RESULTS: Twelve volunteers (age 29±3 [24-34] y) completed the study. No significant difference in finger temperature (9.2±1.1°C nifedipine vs 9.0±0.7°C placebo, P=0.38) or any secondary outcome was found. Pain levels were similar (2.8±1.6 nifedipine vs 3.0±1.5 placebo, P=0.32). The most common adverse event was headache (32% of nifedipine trials vs 8% placebo). CONCLUSIONS: Pretreatment with 30 mg of oral nifedipine twice daily does not affect the CIVD response in healthy individuals under cold stress.


Assuntos
Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/farmacologia , Temperatura Baixa/efeitos adversos , Dedos/fisiologia , Nifedipino/farmacologia , Vasodilatação/fisiologia , Vasodilatadores/farmacologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Utah , Vasodilatação/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Res Vet Sci ; 131: 206-214, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32408231

RESUMO

Flavonoids have shown beneficial effects in various disease conditions as reported by various previous studies. Biochanin-A is a flavonoid present in various plants in nature. Present investigation was done to assess the vasorelaxant potential of biochanin-A on isolated coronary artery of goat and its possible mechanism of action. Vascular reactivity experiments were done on circumflex coronary artery of goats using the tension experiments. Goat coronary arterial rings were relaxed with biochanin-A in concentration (0.1-100 µM)-dependent manner. Endothelium had no effect on biochanin-A-induced relaxation. Maximum relaxation induced by biochanin-A was 116.54 ± 12.21% in endothelium-intact artery and it was not significantly different with maximal relaxation (108.22 ± 1.88%) of endothelium-denuded vessel. L-NAME (100 µM) did not show any effect on biochanin-A-induced relaxation. TEA (BKCa channel blocker), and BaCl2 (KIR blocker) had no effect on biochanin-A-induced relaxation. However, biochanin-A-induced maximal relaxation (71.72 ± 4.50%) was reduced significantly (P < .001) in the presence of 4-aminopyridine (KV channel blocker, 3 mM) in comparison with control (114.07 ± 4.33%). Glibenclaminde (KATP channel blocker), H89 (PKA inhibitor), ICI182780 (estrogen receptor antagonist) showed partial attenuation in the biochanin-A-induced relaxation. ODQ (sGC blocker) and HC067047 (TRPV4 channel blocker) had no effect on biochanin-A-induced relaxation. In K+-depolarized endothelium-denuded arterial rings, biochanin-A (30 µM) significantly (P < .05; P < .001) decreased CaCl2-induced contractions (0.02 ± 0.01 g vs. control 0.73 ± 0.30 g). Biochanin-A did not influence the fasudil (rho kinase inhibitor) and SNP (NO-donor)-induced relaxation in this vessel. Biochanin-A showed relaxation in goat coronary artery in endothelium-independent pathways and showed the partial involvement of KATP, protein kinase A and estrogen receptors and full involvement of Cav1.2 channels.


Assuntos
Vasos Coronários/efeitos dos fármacos , Genisteína/farmacologia , Cabras , Vasodilatação/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasodilatadores/farmacologia , Animais , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino
17.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol ; 319(1): R33-R42, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401627

RESUMO

Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is commonly inferred from blood velocity measurements in the middle cerebral artery (MCA), using nonimaging, transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD). However, both blood velocity and vessel diameter are critical components required to accurately determine blood flow, and there is mounting evidence that the MCA is vasoactive. Therefore, the aim of this study was to employ imaging TCD (ITCD), utilizing color flow images and pulse wave velocity, as a novel approach to measure both MCA diameter and blood velocity to accurately quantify changes in MCA blood flow. ITCD was performed at rest in 13 healthy participants (7 men/6 women; 28 ± 5 yr) with pharmaceutically induced vasodilation [nitroglycerin (NTG), 0.8 mg] and without (CON). Measurements were taken for 2 min before and for 5 min following NTG or sham delivery (CON). There was more than a fivefold, significant, fall in MCA blood velocity in response to NTG (∆-4.95 ± 4.6 cm/s) compared to negligible fluctuation in CON (∆-0.88 ± 4.7 cm/s) (P < 0.001). MCA diameter increased significantly in response to NTG (∆0.09 ± 0.04 cm) compared with the basal variation in CON (∆0.00 ± 0.04 cm) (P = 0.018). Interestingly, the product of the NTG-induced fall in MCA blood velocity and increase in diameter was a significant increase in MCA blood flow following NTG (∆144 ± 159 ml/min) compared with CON (∆-5 ± 130 ml/min) (P = 0.005). These juxtaposed findings highlight the importance of measuring both MCA blood velocity and diameter when assessing CBF and document ITCD as a novel approach to achieve this goal.


Assuntos
Circulação Cerebrovascular/fisiologia , Artéria Cerebral Média/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Cerebral Média/fisiologia , Ultrassonografia Doppler Transcraniana/métodos , Adulto , Circulação Cerebrovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Artéria Cerebral Média/efeitos dos fármacos , Nitroglicerina/farmacologia , Análise de Onda de Pulso , Ultrassonografia Doppler em Cores , Vasodilatação/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasodilatação/fisiologia , Vasodilatadores/farmacologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol ; 319(1): R11-R18, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401628

RESUMO

Consumption of a single, sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) impairs vascular endothelial function. Regular aerobic exercise improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation; however, it is unknown whether these beneficial effects persist with frequent SSB consumption. Therefore, the purpose of this study was twofold; we studied the effects of repetitive SSB consumption (75 g d-glucose, 3 times/day) for 1 wk (Glu, n = 13, 23 ± 4 yr, 23.5 ± 3.4 kg/m2) on endothelium-dependent vasodilation (FMD). Then, in a separate cohort, we investigated whether 45 min of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise on five separate days offset the hypothesized decrease in FMD during the Glu protocol (Glu+Ex, n = 11, 21 ± 3 yr, 23.8 ± 2.4 kg/m2). Baseline, fasting [glucose] (P = 0.15), [insulin] (P = 0.25), %FMD (P = 0.48), absolute FMD (P = 0.66), and shear rate area under the curve (SRAUC; P = 0.82) were similar between groups. Following the interventions, fasting [glucose] (Glu: 94 ± 6 to 92 ± 6 mg/dL, Glu+Ex: 89 ± 8 to 87 ± 6 mg/dL, P = 0.74) and [insulin] (Glu: 11.3 ± 6.2 to 11.8 ± 8.9 µU/mL, Glu+Ex: 8.7 ± 2.9 to 9.4 ± 3.2 µU/mL, P = 0.89) were unchanged. %FMD was reduced in Glu (6.1 ± 2.2 to 5.1 ± 1.3%) and increased in Glu+Ex (6.6 ± 2.2 to 7.8 ± 2.4%, P < 0.05 for both). SRAUC increased similarly in both Glu [17,715 ± 8,275 to 22,922 ± 4,808 arbitrary units (A.U.)] and Glu+Ex (18,216 ± 4,516 to 21,666 ± 5,392 A.U., main effect of time P < 0.05). When %FMD was adjusted for SRAUC, attenuation was observed in Glu (0.41 ± 0.18 to 0.23 ± 0.08%/s × 103, P < 0.05) but not Glu+Ex (0.38 ± 0.14 to 0.38 ± 0.13%/s × 103, P = 0.88). Despite unchanged fasting [glucose] and [insulin], repeated consumption of SSBs impaired conduit artery vascular endothelial function. Additionally, subjects who engaged in regular moderate-intensity aerobic exercise did not demonstrate the same SSB-induced endothelial dysfunction. Collectively, these data suggest aerobic exercise may offset the deleterious effects of repetitive SSB consumption.


Assuntos
Endotélio Vascular/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Glicemia/análise , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hiperglicemia/fisiopatologia , Hiperinsulinismo/induzido quimicamente , Hiperinsulinismo/fisiopatologia , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Vasodilatação/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol ; 318(6): F1409-F1417, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32390511

RESUMO

Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone known to stimulate postprandial insulin release. However, GLP-1 also exerts extrapancreatic effects, including renal effects. Some of these renal effects are attenuated in hypertensive rats, where renal expression of GLP-1 receptors is reduced. Here, we assessed the expression and vascular function of GLP-1 receptors in kidneys from young prehypertensive rats. We also examined GLP-1-induced vasodilation in the renal vasculature in wild-type (WT) and GLP-1 receptor knockout mice using wire and pressure myography and the isolated perfused juxtamedullary nephron preparation. We investigated whether GLP-1 and the metabolite GLP-1(9-36)amide had renal vascular effects independent of the known GLP-1 receptor. We hypothesized that hypertension decreased expression of renal GLP-1 receptors. We also hypothesized that GLP-1-induced renal vasodilatation depended on expression of the known GLP-1 receptor. In contrast to normotensive rats, no immunohistochemical staining or vasodilatory function of GLP-1 receptors was found in kidneys from prehypertensive rats. In WT mice, GLP-1 induced renal vasodilation and reduced the renal autoregulatory response. The GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin 9-39 inhibited relaxation, and GLP-1(9-36)amide had no vasodilatory effect. In GLP-1 receptor knockout mice, no relaxation induced by GLP-1 or GLP-1(9-36)amide was found, the autoregulatory response in afferent arterioles was normal, and no GLP-1-induced reduction of autoregulation was found. We conclude that in prehypertensive kidneys, expression and function of GLP-1 receptors is lost. The renal vasodilatory effect of GLP-1 is mediated exclusively by the known GLP-1 receptor. GLP-1(9-36)amide has no renal vasodilatory effect. GLP-1 attenuates renal autoregulation by reducing the myogenic response.


Assuntos
Arteríolas/efeitos dos fármacos , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/farmacologia , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/agonistas , Rim/irrigação sanguínea , Pré-Hipertensão/metabolismo , Artéria Renal/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasodilatação/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasodilatadores/farmacologia , Animais , Arteríolas/metabolismo , Arteríolas/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/análogos & derivados , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/genética , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Pré-Hipertensão/genética , Pré-Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR , Artéria Renal/metabolismo , Artéria Renal/fisiopatologia
20.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(7): 1695-1704, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32404008

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In mice fed a high-fat diet, impairment of insulin signaling in endothelium is an early phenomenon that precedes decreased insulin sensitivity of skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, and liver. We assessed in humans whether short-term overfeeding affects insulin-induced microvascular recruitment in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue before changes occur in glucose uptake and lipolysis. Approach and Results: Fifteen healthy males underwent a hypercaloric and subsequent hypocaloric diet intervention. Before, during, and after the hypercaloric diet, and upon return to baseline weight, all participants underwent (1) a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp to determine insulin-induced glucose uptake and suppression of lipolysis (2) contrast-enhanced ultrasonography to measure insulin-induced microvascular recruitment in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. In addition, we assessed insulin-induced vasodilation of isolated skeletal muscle resistance arteries by pressure myography after the hypercaloric diet in study participants and controls (n=5). The hypercaloric diet increased body weight (3.5 kg; P<0.001) and fat percentage (3.5%; P<0.001) but did not affect glucose uptake nor lipolysis. The hypercaloric diet increased adipose tissue microvascular recruitment (P=0.041) and decreased the ratio between skeletal muscle and adipose tissue microvascular blood volume during hyperinsulinemia (P=0.019). Insulin-induced vasodilation of isolated skeletal muscle arterioles was significantly lower in participants compared with controls (P<0.001). The hypocaloric diet reversed all of these changes, except the increase in adipose tissue microvascular recruitment. CONCLUSIONS: In lean men, short-term overfeeding reduces insulin-induced vasodilation of skeletal muscle resistance arteries and shifts the distribution of tissue perfusion during hyperinsulinemia from skeletal muscle to adipose tissue without affecting glucose uptake and lipolysis. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02628301.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/irrigação sanguínea , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Arteríolas/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Restrição Calórica , Ingestão de Energia , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Lipólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Microcirculação/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/irrigação sanguínea , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Adiposidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Arteríolas/fisiologia , Glicemia/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo , Vasodilatação/efeitos dos fármacos , Ganho de Peso , Perda de Peso , Adulto Jovem
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