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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(44): e22918, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126352

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is a common treatment method for coronary artery disease (CAD). PCI can cause myocardial ischemia or injury, and lead to major adverse cardiac events (MACEs). Trimetazidine has significant cardioprotective effects and improves endothelial dysfunction and myocardial injury. We will conduct a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate effect of trimetazidine on incidence of MACE in CAD patients undergoing PCI. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, the China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, and China Science and Technology Journal Database will be searched to collect randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of trimetazidine for CAD patients undergoing PCI. The range of publication time will be from the inception of the database to October 2020 without language limitation. Two reviewers will independently conduct study selection, data extraction and management, and assessment of risk of bias. Any disagreement will be resolved by discussion with the third reviewer. Review Manager Software 5.3 will be used for meta-analysis. The Cochrane risk of bias tool will be used to assess the risk of bias. RESULTS: This study will provide a systematic synthesis of current published data to summarize the effect of trimetazidine on incidence of MACE such as stent restenosis, stent thrombosis, new significant coronary stenosis, myocardial infarction, heart failure, and cardiac arrest in CAD patients undergoing PCI. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis will provide evidence as to whether trimetazidine can reduce incidence of MACE in CAD patients undergoing PCI. STUDY REGISTRATION NUMBER: INPLASY202090083.


Assuntos
Cardiotônicos/farmacologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Trimetazidina/farmacologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/tratamento farmacológico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento , Vasodilatadores/farmacologia
2.
Anticancer Res ; 40(9): 5171-5180, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878805

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: In this study, the liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs)-protective effects of beraprost sodium (BPS) were investigated using mice with monocrotaline (MCT)-induced sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The mice were divided into BPS, placebo and control groups. They were killed 48 h after MCT administration, and blood samples and liver tissues were evaluated. Immunostaining was performed using anti-SE-1 and anti-CD42b antibodies, whereas plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) levels were evaluated using western blot or real-time RT-PCR. RESULTS: On pathological examination, SOS-related findings were observed in zone 3 in the placebo group; however, these were significantly suppressed in the BPS group. SE-1 staining showed a consistent number of LSECs in the BPS group compared with that in the placebo group, while CD42b staining showed a significant decrease in the number of extravasated platelet aggregation (EPA) in the BPS group. PAI-1 expression was significantly lower in the BPS group than in the placebo group; however, eNOS expression was significantly higher in the BPS group than in the placebo group. CONCLUSION: Prophylactic administration of BPS is useful for suppressing the development of SOS through the protective effects of LSEC.


Assuntos
Epoprostenol/análogos & derivados , Hepatopatia Veno-Oclusiva/tratamento farmacológico , Vasodilatadores/farmacologia , Animais , Biomarcadores , Biópsia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Epoprostenol/farmacologia , Feminino , Hepatopatia Veno-Oclusiva/diagnóstico , Hepatopatia Veno-Oclusiva/etiologia , Hepatopatia Veno-Oclusiva/metabolismo , Imuno-Histoquímica , Transplante de Fígado , Camundongos , Avaliação de Sintomas
3.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 17(8): 918-921, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735170

RESUMO

Amid efforts to care for the large number of patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19), there has been considerable speculation about whether the lung injury seen in these patients is different than acute respiratory distress syndrome from other causes. One idea that has garnered considerable attention, particularly on social media and in free open-access medicine, is the notion that lung injury due to COVID-19 is more similar to high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE). Drawing on this concept, it has also been proposed that treatments typically employed in the management of HAPE and other forms of acute altitude illness-pulmonary vasodilators and acetazolamide-should be considered for COVID-19. Despite some similarities in clinical features between the two entities, such as hypoxemia, radiographic opacities, and altered lung compliance, the pathophysiological mechanisms of HAPE and lung injury due to COVID-19 are fundamentally different, and the entities cannot be viewed as equivalent. Although of high utility in the management of HAPE and acute mountain sickness, systemically delivered pulmonary vasodilators and acetazolamide should not be used in the treatment of COVID-19, as they carry the risk of multiple adverse consequences, including worsened ventilation-perfusion matching, impaired carbon dioxide transport, systemic hypotension, and increased work of breathing.


Assuntos
Doença da Altitude , Infecções por Coronavirus , Hipertensão Pulmonar , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto , Acetazolamida/farmacologia , Doença da Altitude/fisiopatologia , Doença da Altitude/terapia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/farmacologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/terapia , Lesão Pulmonar/etiologia , Lesão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Lesão Pulmonar/terapia , Nifedipino/farmacologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/etiologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/fisiopatologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/terapia , Vasodilatadores/farmacologia
4.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther ; 374(3): 469-478, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32631869

RESUMO

The complex pathophysiology of sickle cell anemia (SCA) involves intravascular hemolytic processes and recurrent vaso-occlusion, driven by chronic vascular inflammation, which result in the disease's severe clinical complications, including recurrent painful vaso-occlusive episodes. Hydroxyurea, the only drug frequently used for SCA therapy, is a cytostatic agent, although it appears to exert nitric oxide/soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) modulating activity. As new drugs that can complement or replace the use of hydroxyurea are sought to further reduce vaso-occlusive episode frequency in SCA, we investigated the effects of the sGC agonists BAY 60-2770 (sGC activator) and BAY 41-2272 (sGC stimulator) in the presence or absence of hydroxyurea on SCA vaso-occlusive mechanisms and cell recruitment both ex vivo and in vivo. These agents significantly reduced stimulated human SCA neutrophil adhesive properties ex vivo in association with the inhibition of surface ß2-integrin activation. A single administration of BAY 60-2770 or BAY 41-2272 decreased tumor necrosis factor cytokine-induced leukocyte recruitment in a mouse model of SCA vaso-occlusion. Importantly, the in vivo actions of both agonists were significantly potentiated by the coadministration of hydroxyurea. Erythroid cell fetal hemoglobin (HbF) elevation is also a major goal for SCA therapy. BAY 41-2272 but not BAY 60-2770 at the concentrations employed significantly induced γ-globin gene transcription in association with HbF production in cultured erythroleukemic cells. In conclusion, sGC agonist drugs could represent a promising approach as therapy for SCA, for use either as stand-alone treatments or in combination with hydroxyurea. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: This preclinical study demonstrates that stimulators and activators of sGC are potent inhibitors of the adhesion and recruitment of leukocytes from humans and in mice with sickle cell anemia (SCA) and may represent a promising approach for diminishing vaso-occlusive episode frequency in SCA. Hydroxyurea, a drug already frequently used for treating SCA, was found to potentiate the beneficial effects of sGC agonists in in vivo studies, implying that these classes of compounds could be used alone or in combination therapy.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/tratamento farmacológico , Anemia Falciforme/metabolismo , Hidroxiureia/farmacocinética , Guanilil Ciclase Solúvel/metabolismo , Animais , Benzoatos/farmacologia , Compostos de Bifenilo/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Eritroides/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Eritroides/metabolismo , Hemoglobina Fetal/metabolismo , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Fluorados/farmacologia , Células K562 , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Piridinas/farmacologia , Doenças Vasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Vasculares/metabolismo , Vasodilatadores/farmacologia
6.
Turk Kardiyol Dern Ars ; 48(4): 410-424, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-595169

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of plants used in the formulations of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), which were also used in clinical trials to treat patients with the novel coronavirus COVID-19, and to assess their effects on the cardiovascular system. METHODS: A literature review of PubMed, ResearchGate, ScienceDirect, the Cochrane Library, and TCM monographs was conducted and the effects of the plants on the cardiovascular system and the mechanisms of action in COVID-19 treatment were evaluated. RESULTS: The mechanism of action, cardiovascular effects, and possible toxicity of 10 plants frequently found in TCM formulations that were used in the clinical treatment of COVID-19 were examined. CONCLUSION: TCM formulations that had been originally developed for earlier viral diseases have been used in COVID-19 treatment. Despite the effectiveness seen in laboratory and animal studies with the most commonly used plants in these formulations, the clinical studies are currently insufficient according to standard operating procedures. More clinical studies are needed to understand the safe clinical use of traditional plants.


Assuntos
Sistema Cardiovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Animais , Antiarrítmicos/farmacologia , Antiarrítmicos/uso terapêutico , Antiarrítmicos/toxicidade , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/toxicidade , Anticolesterolemiantes/farmacologia , Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , Anticolesterolemiantes/toxicidade , Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Hipertensivos/toxicidade , Antivirais/farmacologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/toxicidade , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/farmacologia , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/toxicidade , Interações Medicamentosas , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/toxicidade , Humanos , Pandemias , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/farmacologia , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/toxicidade , Vasodilatadores/farmacologia , Vasodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Vasodilatadores/toxicidade
7.
J Interv Cardiol ; 2020: 4829647, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32508541

RESUMO

Background: The index of microcirculatory resistance is an invasive measure of coronary microvascular function that has to be calculated during maximal hyperemia, classically achieved with intravenous adenosine (IV). The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of intracoronary (IC) adenosine for the calculation of IMR. Methods and Results: 31 patients with stable coronary artery disease were included in the study. Coronary pressure and thermodilution measurements were obtained at rest and during maximal hyperemia using a pressure-temperature sensor-tipped coronary guidewire. Duplicate measurements were performed using first IC and then IV adenosine. Dispersion of transit times was comparable for IC and IV adenosine. IMR values based on IC vs IV adenosine showed a high level of agreement and an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.90. Applying an upper normal limit of 25, misclassification of IMR using IC adenosine was seen in just one patient in whom IC adenosine resulted in a lower value. A simplified procedure based on a single bolus dose of saline did not change the level of agreement or the rate of misclassification. Conclusions: We found an excellent agreement between IMR values measured during hyperemia induced by IC as compared to IV adenosine. The use of IC adenosine may facilitate invasive assessment of microvascular function and is potentially time- and cost-saving with less patient discomfort as compared to IV infusion. The trail is registered with NCT03369184.


Assuntos
Adenosina/farmacologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Circulação Coronária , Injeções Intra-Arteriais/métodos , Microcirculação , Resistência Vascular , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperemia/induzido quimicamente , Hiperemia/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Vasodilatadores/farmacologia
8.
Wilderness Environ Med ; 31(3): 312-316, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32482519

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cold-induced vasodilation (CIVD) is seen in the extremities during exposure to cold. A strong vasodilation response has been associated with a decreased risk of cold injury. Increasing CIVD might further decrease this risk. The calcium-channel blocker nifedipine causes vasodilation and is used to treat Raynaud's syndrome and chilblains. Nifedipine is also used for high altitude pulmonary edema and could potentially serve a dual purpose in preventing frostbite. The effects of nifedipine on CIVD have not been studied. METHODS: A double-blind crossover study comparing nifedipine (30 mg SR (sustained release) orally twice daily) to placebo was designed using 2 sessions of 4 finger immersion in 5°C water, with 24 h of medication pretreatment before each session. Finger temperatures were measured via nailbed thermocouples. The primary outcome was mean finger temperature; secondary outcomes were mean apex and nadir temperatures, first apex and nadir temperatures, subjective pain ranking, and time of vasodilation onset (all presented as mean±SD). RESULTS: Twelve volunteers (age 29±3 [24-34] y) completed the study. No significant difference in finger temperature (9.2±1.1°C nifedipine vs 9.0±0.7°C placebo, P=0.38) or any secondary outcome was found. Pain levels were similar (2.8±1.6 nifedipine vs 3.0±1.5 placebo, P=0.32). The most common adverse event was headache (32% of nifedipine trials vs 8% placebo). CONCLUSIONS: Pretreatment with 30 mg of oral nifedipine twice daily does not affect the CIVD response in healthy individuals under cold stress.


Assuntos
Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/farmacologia , Temperatura Baixa/efeitos adversos , Dedos/fisiologia , Nifedipino/farmacologia , Vasodilatação/fisiologia , Vasodilatadores/farmacologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Utah , Vasodilatação/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem
9.
Acta Cir Bras ; 35(4): e202000402, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32578722

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of bradykinin on reperfusion injury in an experimental intestinal ischemia reperfusion model. METHODS: We used 32 Wistar-Albino rats. We composed 4 groups each containing 8 rats. Rats in sham group were sacrified at 100 minutes observation after laparotomy. Thirty minutes reperfusion was performed following 50 minutes ischaemia in control group after observing 20 minutes. Ischaemic preconditioning was performed in one group of the study. We performed the other study group pharmacologic preconditioning by infusional administration of 10 µg/kg/minute bradykinin intravenously. We sacrified all of the rats by taking blood samples to evaluate the lactate and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) after resection of jejunum for detecting tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. RESULTS: Lactate and LDH levels were significantly higher in control and study groups than the sham group (P<0.001). There is no difference between the study groups statistically. (P>0.05). The results were the same for MPO levels. Although definitive cell damage was determinated in the control group by hystopatological evaluation, the damage in the study groups observed was lower in different levels. However, there was no significant difference between the study groups statistically (P>0.05). CONCLUSION: Either ischeamic preconditioning or pharmacologic preconditioning made by bradykinin reduced the ischemia reperfusion injury at jejunum.


Assuntos
Bradicinina/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Intestino Delgado/irrigação sanguínea , Precondicionamento Isquêmico/métodos , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/prevenção & controle , Vasodilatadores/farmacologia , Animais , Feminino , Laparotomia , Peroxidase/análise , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos Wistar , Valores de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Chem Biol Interact ; 327: 109182, 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32554038

RESUMO

Nothofagin is a natural 3'-C-ß-D-glucoside of the polyphenol phloretin that is mainly found in Aspalathus linearis, Nothofagus fusca, and Leandra dasytricha. In recent years, nothofagin has been described as a potential therapeutic agent for renal disorders, but the mechanisms that are involved in its renoprotective effects remain unclear. In the present study, perfused rat kidneys were used to test the hypothesis that nothofagin causes the direct relaxation of renal arteries. The molecular mechanisms that underlie these vascular effects were also investigated. The left kidney from Wistar rats was coupled in a perfusion system and continuously perfused with physiological saline solution (PSS). Initially, preparations with and without the endothelium were contracted with phenylephrine and received injections of 1-300 nmol nothofagin. The preparations were then perfused with PSS that contained phenylephrine plus KCl, indomethacin, l-NAME, tetraethylammonium, glibenclamide, 4-aminopyridine, iberiotoxin, charybdotoxin, and apamin. After 15 min under perfusion, nothofagin was injected again. In preparations with an intact endothelium, nothofagin dose-dependently reduced perfusion pressure. Endothelium removal or the inhibition of nitric oxide synthase by l-NAME prevented the vasodilatory effect of nothofagin at all doses tested. Perfusion with PSS that contained KCl or tetraethylammonium chloride also abolished the vasodilatory effect of nothofagin. Treatment with glibenclamide, 4-aminopyridine, and apamin did not affect the vasodilatory effect of nothofagin. Iberiotoxin (selective Ca2+-activated high-conductance K+ channel [KCa1.1] blocker) and charybdotoxin (selective KCa1.1 and Ca2+-activated intermediate-conductance K+ channel [KCa3.1] blocker) application blocked the vasodilatory effect of nothofagin at all doses tested, pointing to a predominant role for KCa1.1 in the action of nothofagin. However, these data cannot exclude a potential contribution of endothelial KCa3.1 channel in the nothofagin-induced vasodilation. Overall, our findings indicate that nothofagin induces vasodilation in renal arteries, an effect that is mediated by Ca2+ -activated high-conductance K+ channels opening and endothelial nitric oxide production.


Assuntos
Chalconas/farmacologia , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Canais de Potássio Ativados por Cálcio de Condutância Alta/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Vasodilatação/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasodilatadores/farmacologia , Animais , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Perfusão , Ratos Wistar , Artéria Renal/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Turk Kardiyol Dern Ars ; 48(4): 410-424, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32519978

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of plants used in the formulations of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), which were also used in clinical trials to treat patients with the novel coronavirus COVID-19, and to assess their effects on the cardiovascular system. METHODS: A literature review of PubMed, ResearchGate, ScienceDirect, the Cochrane Library, and TCM monographs was conducted and the effects of the plants on the cardiovascular system and the mechanisms of action in COVID-19 treatment were evaluated. RESULTS: The mechanism of action, cardiovascular effects, and possible toxicity of 10 plants frequently found in TCM formulations that were used in the clinical treatment of COVID-19 were examined. CONCLUSION: TCM formulations that had been originally developed for earlier viral diseases have been used in COVID-19 treatment. Despite the effectiveness seen in laboratory and animal studies with the most commonly used plants in these formulations, the clinical studies are currently insufficient according to standard operating procedures. More clinical studies are needed to understand the safe clinical use of traditional plants.


Assuntos
Sistema Cardiovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Animais , Antiarrítmicos/farmacologia , Antiarrítmicos/uso terapêutico , Antiarrítmicos/toxicidade , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/toxicidade , Anticolesterolemiantes/farmacologia , Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , Anticolesterolemiantes/toxicidade , Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Hipertensivos/toxicidade , Antivirais/farmacologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/toxicidade , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/farmacologia , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/toxicidade , Interações Medicamentosas , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/toxicidade , Humanos , Pandemias , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/farmacologia , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/toxicidade , Vasodilatadores/farmacologia , Vasodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Vasodilatadores/toxicidade
12.
Life Sci ; 256: 117986, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32585245

RESUMO

AIMS: HSP70, a molecular chaperone, helps to maintain proteostasis. In muscle biology, however, evidence suggests HSP70 to have a more versatile range of functions, as genetic deletion of its inducible genes impairs Ca2+ handling, and consequently, cardiac and skeletal muscle contractility. Still, it is unknown whether HSP70 is involved in vascular reactivity, an intrinsic physiological mechanism of blood vessels. Therefore, we designed this study to test the hypothesis that proper vascular reactivity requires the assistance of HSP70. MAIN METHODS: We performed functional studies in a wire-myograph using thoracic aorta isolated from male Sprague Dawley rats. Experiments were conducted with and without an HSP70 inhibitor as well as in heat-stressed vessels. The expression levels of HSP70 were evaluated with Western blotting. NO and ROS levels were assessed with fluorescence microscopy. KEY FINDINGS: We report that blockade of HSP70 weakens contraction in response to phenylephrine (dose-response) in the aorta. Additionally, we demonstrated that inhibition of HSP70 affects the amplitude of the fast and of the slow components of the time-force curve. Corroborating these findings, we found that inhibition of HSP70, in vessels over-expressing this protein, partly rescues the contractile phenotype of aortic rings. Furthermore, we show that blockade of HSP70 facilitates relaxation in response to acetylcholine and clonidine without affecting the basal levels of NO and ROS. SIGNIFICANCE: Our work introduces an additional physiological role for HSP70, the assistance of vascular reactivity, which highlights this protein as a new player in vascular physiology, and therefore, uncovers a promising research avenue for vascular diseases.


Assuntos
Aorta Torácica/fisiologia , Endotélio Vascular/fisiologia , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/fisiologia , Músculo Liso Vascular/fisiologia , Acetilcolina/farmacologia , Animais , Aorta Torácica/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/agonistas , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/antagonistas & inibidores , Masculino , Músculo Liso Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos , Fenilefrina/farmacologia , Nucleosídeos de Purina/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Vasoconstritores/farmacologia , Vasodilatadores/farmacologia
13.
Transplantation ; 104(9): 1792-1803, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371846

RESUMO

Because of the high demand of organs, the usage of marginal grafts has increased. These marginal organs have a higher risk of developing ischemia-reperfusion injury, which can lead to posttransplant complications. Ex situ machine perfusion (MP), compared with the traditional static cold storage, may better protect these organs from ischemia-reperfusion injury. In addition, MP can also act as a platform for dynamic administration of pharmacological agents or gene therapy to further improve transplant outcomes. Numerous therapeutic agents have been studied under both hypothermic (1-8°C) and normothermic settings. Here, we review all the therapeutics used during MP in different organ systems (lung, liver, kidney, heart). The major categories of therapeutic agents include vasodilators, mesenchymal stem cells, antiinflammatory agents, antiinfection agents, siRNA, and defatting agents. Numerous animal and clinical studies have examined MP therapeutic agents, some of which have even led to the successful reconditioning of discarded grafts. More clinical studies, especially randomized controlled trials, will need to be conducted in the future to solidify these promising results and to define the role of MP therapeutic agents in solid organ transplantation.


Assuntos
Preservação de Órgãos/métodos , Transplante de Órgãos/métodos , Perfusão/métodos , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Terapia Genética , Humanos , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/prevenção & controle , Vasodilatadores/farmacologia
14.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 319(1): H123-H132, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469638

RESUMO

Cold exposure causes cutaneous vasoconstriction via a reflex increase in sympathetic activity and a local effect to augment adrenergic constriction. Local cooling also initiates cutaneous dilatation, which may function to restrain cold-induced constriction. However, the underlying mechanisms and physiological role of cold-induced dilatation have not been defined. Experiments were performed to assess the role of endothelial-derived mediators in this response. In isolated pressurized cutaneous mouse tail arteries, cooling (28°C) did not affect the magnitude of dilatation to acetylcholine in preconstricted arteries. However, inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) [NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME)] and prostacyclin (PGI2) (indomethacin) reduced acetylcholine-induced dilatation at 37°C but not at 28°C, suggesting that cooling increased NO/PGI2-independent dilatation. This NO/PGI2-independent dilatation was reduced by inhibition of endothelial SK (UCL1684) and IK (TRAM34) Ca2+-activated K+-channels (KCa), consistent with endothelium-derived hyperpolarization (EDH). Cooling also increased dilatation to direct activation of KCa channels (SKA31, CyPPA) but did not affect dilatation to exogenous NO (DEA-NONOate). This cooling-induced increase in EDH-type dilatations was associated with divergent effects on potential downstream EDH mechanisms: cooling reduced dilatation to K+, which mimics an intercellular K+ cloud, but increased direct communication between endothelial and smooth muscle cells (myoendothelial coupling), assessed by cellular transfer of biocytin. Indeed, inhibition of gap junctions (carbenoxolone) abolished the EDH-type component of dilatation to acetylcholine during cooling but did affect NO-dominated dilatation at 37°C. Cooling also inhibited U46619 constriction that was prevented by inhibition of IK and SK KCa channels or inhibition of gap junctions. The results suggest that cooling dilates cutaneous arteries by increasing myoendothelial communication and amplifying EDH-type dilatation.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Cold causes cutaneous vasoconstriction to restrict heat loss. Although cold also initiates cutaneous dilatation, the mechanisms and role of this dilatation have not been clearly defined. This study demonstrates that cooling increases myoendothelial coupling between smooth muscle and endothelial cells in cutaneous arteries, which is associated with increased endothelium-derived hyperpolarization (EDH)-type dilatation. Dysfunction in this process may contribute to excessive cold-induced constriction and tissue injury.


Assuntos
Artérias/fisiologia , Temperatura Baixa , Endotélio Vascular/fisiologia , Músculo Liso Vascular/fisiologia , Pele/irrigação sanguínea , Vasodilatação , Acetilcolina/farmacologia , Alcanos/farmacologia , Animais , Artérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Carbenoxolona/farmacologia , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Epoprostenol/farmacologia , Indometacina/farmacologia , Masculino , Potenciais da Membrana , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , NG-Nitroarginina Metil Éster/farmacologia , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Canais de Potássio Cálcio-Ativados/metabolismo , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Compostos de Quinolínio/farmacologia , Vasoconstrição , Vasoconstritores/farmacologia , Vasodilatadores/farmacologia
15.
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol ; 318(6): F1409-F1417, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32390511

RESUMO

Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone known to stimulate postprandial insulin release. However, GLP-1 also exerts extrapancreatic effects, including renal effects. Some of these renal effects are attenuated in hypertensive rats, where renal expression of GLP-1 receptors is reduced. Here, we assessed the expression and vascular function of GLP-1 receptors in kidneys from young prehypertensive rats. We also examined GLP-1-induced vasodilation in the renal vasculature in wild-type (WT) and GLP-1 receptor knockout mice using wire and pressure myography and the isolated perfused juxtamedullary nephron preparation. We investigated whether GLP-1 and the metabolite GLP-1(9-36)amide had renal vascular effects independent of the known GLP-1 receptor. We hypothesized that hypertension decreased expression of renal GLP-1 receptors. We also hypothesized that GLP-1-induced renal vasodilatation depended on expression of the known GLP-1 receptor. In contrast to normotensive rats, no immunohistochemical staining or vasodilatory function of GLP-1 receptors was found in kidneys from prehypertensive rats. In WT mice, GLP-1 induced renal vasodilation and reduced the renal autoregulatory response. The GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin 9-39 inhibited relaxation, and GLP-1(9-36)amide had no vasodilatory effect. In GLP-1 receptor knockout mice, no relaxation induced by GLP-1 or GLP-1(9-36)amide was found, the autoregulatory response in afferent arterioles was normal, and no GLP-1-induced reduction of autoregulation was found. We conclude that in prehypertensive kidneys, expression and function of GLP-1 receptors is lost. The renal vasodilatory effect of GLP-1 is mediated exclusively by the known GLP-1 receptor. GLP-1(9-36)amide has no renal vasodilatory effect. GLP-1 attenuates renal autoregulation by reducing the myogenic response.


Assuntos
Arteríolas/efeitos dos fármacos , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/farmacologia , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/agonistas , Rim/irrigação sanguínea , Pré-Hipertensão/metabolismo , Artéria Renal/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasodilatação/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasodilatadores/farmacologia , Animais , Arteríolas/metabolismo , Arteríolas/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/análogos & derivados , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/genética , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Pré-Hipertensão/genética , Pré-Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR , Artéria Renal/metabolismo , Artéria Renal/fisiopatologia
16.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol ; 319(1): R33-R42, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401627

RESUMO

Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is commonly inferred from blood velocity measurements in the middle cerebral artery (MCA), using nonimaging, transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD). However, both blood velocity and vessel diameter are critical components required to accurately determine blood flow, and there is mounting evidence that the MCA is vasoactive. Therefore, the aim of this study was to employ imaging TCD (ITCD), utilizing color flow images and pulse wave velocity, as a novel approach to measure both MCA diameter and blood velocity to accurately quantify changes in MCA blood flow. ITCD was performed at rest in 13 healthy participants (7 men/6 women; 28 ± 5 yr) with pharmaceutically induced vasodilation [nitroglycerin (NTG), 0.8 mg] and without (CON). Measurements were taken for 2 min before and for 5 min following NTG or sham delivery (CON). There was more than a fivefold, significant, fall in MCA blood velocity in response to NTG (∆-4.95 ± 4.6 cm/s) compared to negligible fluctuation in CON (∆-0.88 ± 4.7 cm/s) (P < 0.001). MCA diameter increased significantly in response to NTG (∆0.09 ± 0.04 cm) compared with the basal variation in CON (∆0.00 ± 0.04 cm) (P = 0.018). Interestingly, the product of the NTG-induced fall in MCA blood velocity and increase in diameter was a significant increase in MCA blood flow following NTG (∆144 ± 159 ml/min) compared with CON (∆-5 ± 130 ml/min) (P = 0.005). These juxtaposed findings highlight the importance of measuring both MCA blood velocity and diameter when assessing CBF and document ITCD as a novel approach to achieve this goal.


Assuntos
Circulação Cerebrovascular/fisiologia , Artéria Cerebral Média/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Cerebral Média/fisiologia , Ultrassonografia Doppler Transcraniana/métodos , Adulto , Circulação Cerebrovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Artéria Cerebral Média/efeitos dos fármacos , Nitroglicerina/farmacologia , Análise de Onda de Pulso , Ultrassonografia Doppler em Cores , Vasodilatação/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasodilatação/fisiologia , Vasodilatadores/farmacologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Res Vet Sci ; 131: 206-214, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32408231

RESUMO

Flavonoids have shown beneficial effects in various disease conditions as reported by various previous studies. Biochanin-A is a flavonoid present in various plants in nature. Present investigation was done to assess the vasorelaxant potential of biochanin-A on isolated coronary artery of goat and its possible mechanism of action. Vascular reactivity experiments were done on circumflex coronary artery of goats using the tension experiments. Goat coronary arterial rings were relaxed with biochanin-A in concentration (0.1-100 µM)-dependent manner. Endothelium had no effect on biochanin-A-induced relaxation. Maximum relaxation induced by biochanin-A was 116.54 ± 12.21% in endothelium-intact artery and it was not significantly different with maximal relaxation (108.22 ± 1.88%) of endothelium-denuded vessel. L-NAME (100 µM) did not show any effect on biochanin-A-induced relaxation. TEA (BKCa channel blocker), and BaCl2 (KIR blocker) had no effect on biochanin-A-induced relaxation. However, biochanin-A-induced maximal relaxation (71.72 ± 4.50%) was reduced significantly (P < .001) in the presence of 4-aminopyridine (KV channel blocker, 3 mM) in comparison with control (114.07 ± 4.33%). Glibenclaminde (KATP channel blocker), H89 (PKA inhibitor), ICI182780 (estrogen receptor antagonist) showed partial attenuation in the biochanin-A-induced relaxation. ODQ (sGC blocker) and HC067047 (TRPV4 channel blocker) had no effect on biochanin-A-induced relaxation. In K+-depolarized endothelium-denuded arterial rings, biochanin-A (30 µM) significantly (P < .05; P < .001) decreased CaCl2-induced contractions (0.02 ± 0.01 g vs. control 0.73 ± 0.30 g). Biochanin-A did not influence the fasudil (rho kinase inhibitor) and SNP (NO-donor)-induced relaxation in this vessel. Biochanin-A showed relaxation in goat coronary artery in endothelium-independent pathways and showed the partial involvement of KATP, protein kinase A and estrogen receptors and full involvement of Cav1.2 channels.


Assuntos
Vasos Coronários/efeitos dos fármacos , Genisteína/farmacologia , Cabras , Vasodilatação/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasodilatadores/farmacologia , Animais , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino
18.
J Vasc Res ; 57(3): 152-163, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32248195

RESUMO

Palmitoylethanolamide is an endogenous lipid that exerts complex vascular effects, enhances the effects of endocannabinoids and induces a direct hypotension, but the mechanisms involved have been poorly explored. Hence, this study investigated in Wistar pithed rats the role of CB1, CB2, TRPV1 and GPR55 receptors in the inhibition by palmitoylethanolamide of the vasopressor responses produced by sympathetic stimulation or exogenous noradrenaline. Frequency- and dose-dependent vasopressor responses were analysed before and during intravenous (i.v.) continuous infusions of palmitoylethanolamide in animals receiving i.v. bolus of the antagonists NIDA41020 (CB1), AM630 (CB2), capsazepine (TRPV1), and/or cannabidiol (GPR55). Palmitoyletha-nolamide (0.1-3.1 µg/kg/min) dose-dependently inhibited the sympathetically induced and noradrenaline-induced vasopressor responses. Both inhibitions were: (i) partially blocked by 100 µg/kg NIDA41020, 100 µg/kg capsazepine, or 31 µg/kg cannabidiol; (ii) unaffected by 310 µg/kg AM630; and (iii) abolished by the combination NIDA41020 + capsazepine + cannabidiol (100, 100, and 31 µg/kg, respectively). The resting blood pressure was decreased by palmitoylethanolamide (effect prevented by NIDA41020, capsazepine or cannabidiol, but not by AM630). These results suggest that: (i) palmitoylethanolamide inhibits the vasopressor responses to sympathetic stimulation and exogenous noradrenaline and that it induces hypotension; and (ii) all these effects are mediated by prejunctional and vascular CB1, TRPV1 and probably GPR55, but not by CB2, receptors.


Assuntos
Artérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Etanolaminas/farmacologia , Ácidos Palmíticos/farmacologia , Vasodilatação/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasodilatadores/farmacologia , Animais , Artérias/inervação , Artérias/metabolismo , Estado de Descerebração , Estimulação Elétrica , Masculino , Norepinefrina/farmacologia , Ratos Wistar , Receptor CB1 de Canabinoide/metabolismo , Receptores de Canabinoides/metabolismo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/fisiologia , Simpatomiméticos/farmacologia , Canais de Cátion TRPV/metabolismo
19.
Vascular ; 28(5): 619-628, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32295493

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To detect the vascular tension and nitric oxide (NO) release synchronously in mice pulmonary artery, we perform two experiments and present a novel application of confocal wire myograph coupled with the confocal laser scanning microscopy. METHODS: In the first experiment, viable endothelium-intact mouse pulmonary artery (outer diameter 100-300 µM) rings underwent a one-hour preincubation with a NO-specific fluorescent dye, 4-amino-5-methylamino-2',7'-difluorofluorescein diacetate Calbiochem (2.5 µM), and then precontracted with phenylephrine (Phen, 10-6 M), and subsequently dilated in acetylcholine (ACh, 10-6 M - 10-4 M). The endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation and NO generation in pulmonary artery rings were simultaneously recorded. In the second experiment, after 30-min incubation with the former NO fluorescent dye, the qualified pulmonary artery rings were co-incubated for another 30 min with a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, 10-4 M Nω-nitro-L-arginine-methyl-ester (L-NAME), and then pretreated with Phen (10-6 M) followed by ACh (10-5 M). The Ach-induced vasodilation and NO release were recorded simultaneously. RESULTS: ACh (10-6 M - 10-4 M) promoted pulmonary artery relaxation and intracellular NO release in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, L-NAME (10-4 M) significantly attenuated the vasodilatation and the intracellular NO release. CONCLUSIONS: This combined application visually confirms that the synchronous changes in Ach induced vasodilation and NO release, which provides a new method for cardiovascular research.


Assuntos
Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Microscopia Confocal , Miografia , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Artéria Pulmonar/metabolismo , Vasodilatação , Acetilcolina/farmacologia , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , NG-Nitroarginina Metil Éster/farmacologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase/antagonistas & inibidores , Óxido Nítrico Sintase/metabolismo , Artéria Pulmonar/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Tempo , Vasodilatação/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasodilatadores/farmacologia
20.
Clin Hemorheol Microcirc ; 75(3): 279-289, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32280080

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the effect of nimodipine combined with betahistine on the levels of CRP and other inflammatory cytokines, as well as vascular endothelial function in patients with hypertensive cerebral vasospasm. METHODS: A total of 80 patients with hypertensive cerebral vasospasm from March 2016 to September 2018 were enrolled and randomly equally divided into two groups. At 1 week before enrollment, the application of all antihypertensive drugs was stopped. Then amlodipine tablets were used in control group, based on which nimodipine tablets were applied in observation group. All the patients included were followed up for 1 month. The changes in the cerebral vasospasm index in the course of treatment as well as inflammatory cytokines and indicators related to vascular endothelial function at 1 month after treatment were measured and compared between the two groups. The correlations of the cerebral vasospasm index with the changes in inflammatory cytokines and vascular endothelial function-related factors in the body were analyzed. Finally, the effective rates of blood pressure regulation and cerebral vasospasm treatment were compared, while the adverse reactions and the overall clinical treatment effect of the two groups were evaluated. RESULTS: The cerebral vasospasm indexes in observation group were significantly lower than those in control group at 3 d, 1 week and 1 month after treatment (p < 0.05). At 1 month after treatment, the levels of inflammatory cytokines such as high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in observation group were significantly reduced compared to those in control group (p < 0.05). As for vascular endothelial function-related indicators, the endothelin-1 (ET-1) level in observation group was markedly lower than that in control group, whereas the level of nitric oxide (NO) was statistically higher than that in control group (p < 0.05). The cerebral vasospasm index was statistically positively correlated with changes in hs-CRP, IL-6, TNF-α and ET-1 (p < 0.05), but negatively correlated with changes in NO (p < 0.05). Besides, the effective rates of blood pressure regulation and cerebral vasospasm treatment in observation group were significantly higher than those in control group (p < 0.05). The overall treatment effective rate in observation group was markedly higher than that in control group (p < 0.05), and there were no significant differences of adverse reactions between the two groups (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: For the treatment of hypertensive cerebral vasospasm, combined application of betahistine on the basis of nimodipine can effectively reduce the body's aseptic inflammatory responses, improve vascular endothelial function and increase the cerebral circulation blood flow, which offers a favorable strategy for clinical therapy.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , beta-Histina/uso terapêutico , Proteína C-Reativa/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Nimodipina/uso terapêutico , Vasodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Vasoespasmo Intracraniano/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , beta-Histina/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nimodipina/administração & dosagem , Vasodilatadores/farmacologia
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