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1.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 151: 110813, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056606

RESUMO

Turkey, with her two important straits, is geographically in the middle of one of the major transportation routes and will continue to face risks the oil tankers pose in those sensitive areas. This paper revisits the site of an oil tanker accident that occurred at the northern entrance of the Istanbul Strait in 1994. The aim of the study was to simulate the same accident in PISCES-II Simulator to compare the response actions of the time with the present capabilities. Effort is also made to understand how the negative impacts of an oil spill accident can be lessened. Therefore, the study is planned to set to cover two separate response scenarios for the identical oil spill incident, actually simulating the 1994 M/T Nassica accident. The results showed that oil pollution response in places with strong currents like Istanbul Strait needs special care to sea conditions as well as related assets.


Assuntos
Vazamento de Resíduos Químicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluição por Petróleo/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluição Química da Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Transportes , Turquia
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492047

RESUMO

To reduce damage caused by chemical accidents, it is important to establish a prevention system for chemical accidents. The first step in the prevention of chemical accidents is to screen the high-risk chemical plants. Risk index, one of the screening methods, can indirectly estimate the risk at each chemical plant. For calculating the risk index, the probability of an accident needs to be estimated, which requires complex calculation and confidential data from plants that are difficult to obtain. Therefore, we developed a new index, the accident probability index, to estimate accident probability in chemical plants using readily accessible data. We conducted a literature survey on the existing risk indices and interviewed chemical experts and government chemical managers to select surrogate indicators related to chemical accidents, and four indicators were chosen: hazardous characteristics of chemicals, handling volume, records of accident frequency, and national accident frequency of chemicals. We calculated the accident probability index for 4520 chemical plants, and index value means was 5.324 (95% confidence interval (CI): 3.156, 7.493). An increase by 10 in the index value denoted a 1.06-fold (95% CI: 1.04, 1.08) increase in the odds ratio for actual accident occurrence. The accident frequency of the fourth quartile of the index value was 4.30 times (95% CI: 1.72, 10.75) higher than those of the first quartile.


Assuntos
Vazamento de Resíduos Químicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Probabilidade , Humanos
3.
Prehosp Disaster Med ; 34(4): 385-392, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280729

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Global Terrorism Database (GTD) is an open-source database on terrorist incidents around the world since 1970, and it is maintained by the National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism (START; College Park, Maryland USA), a US Department of Homeland Security Center of Excellence. The consortium reviews media reports to determine if an event meets eligibility to be categorized as a terrorism incident for entry into the database. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to characterize chemical terrorism incidents reported to the GTD and understand more about the kinds of chemical agents used, the associated morbidity and mortality, the geography of incidents, and the intended targets. METHODS: Chemical terrorism incidents from 1970 through 2015 were analyzed by chemical agent category, injury and fatality, geographic region, and target. RESULTS: During the study period, 156,772 terrorism incidents were reported to the GTD, of which 292 (0.19%) met the inclusion criteria for analysis as a chemical terrorism incident. The reported chemical agent categories were: unknown chemical (30.5%); corrosives (23.3%); tear gas/mace (12.3%); unspecified gas (11.6%); cyanide (8.2%); pesticides (5.5%); metals (6.5%); and nerve gas (2.1%). On average, chemical terrorism incidents resulted in 51 injuries (mean range across agents: 2.5-1,622.0) and seven deaths (mean range across agents: 0.0-224.3) per incident. Nerve gas incidents (2.1%) had the highest mean number of injuries (n = 1,622) and fatalities (n = 224) per incident. The highest number of chemical terrorism incidents occurred in South Asia (29.5%), Western Europe (16.8%), and Middle East/North Africa (13.0%). The most common targets were private citizens (19.5%), of which groups of women (22.8%) were often the specific target. Incidents targeting educational institutions often specifically targeted female students or teachers (58.1%). CONCLUSIONS: Chemical terrorism incidents rarely occur; however, the use of certain chemical terrorism agents, for example nerve gas, can cause large mass-causality events that can kill or injure thousands with a single use. Certain regions of the world had higher frequency of chemical terrorism events overall, and also varied in their frequencies of the specific chemical terrorism agent used. Data suggest that morbidity and mortality vary by chemical category and by region. Results may be helpful in developing and optimizing regional chemical terrorism preparedness activities.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Terrorismo Químico/estatística & dados numéricos , Defesa Civil/organização & administração , Planejamento em Desastres/organização & administração , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Vazamento de Resíduos Químicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Gerenciamento de Dados , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Saúde Global , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Medição de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida , Ferimentos e Lesões/diagnóstico , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade
4.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 72(suppl 1): 32-40, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30942342

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to describe case of occupational exposure to chemical products. METHOD: descriptive retrospective study using record data of 382 workers assisted in the Outpatient Care for Occupational Toxicology of the Reference Center of Workers' Health of the Federal District, between 2009 and 2013. RESULTS: From the total, 66.7% were men, 55.2% had up to 9 years of activity and 81% did not use personal protective equipment (PPE). Nearly 60% were farmers and environmental surveillance agents, exposed to pesticides (63%), of which 40% were organophosphorus insecticides. The majority (68%) presented butyrylcholinesterase activity decreased, mostly farmers (85.9%); 57.3% of workers were considered poisoned - 61.6% by pesticides and 37.9% by industrial chemicals -, and away from work for at least 10 days. CONCLUSION: The profile was male workers, from 30 to 39 years, which not used PPE, indicating the need for prevention together with them to prevent poisonings.


Assuntos
Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Envenenamento/etiologia , Adulto , Vazamento de Resíduos Químicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Fazendeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Envenenamento/complicações , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 13(4): 799-805, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30602405

RESUMO

On December 1, 2017, the Fuji factory of Arakawa Chemical Industries exploded. Dust that formed as a byproduct from the crushing and packing process of the resin for ink exploded at the facility. The Fuji City Fire Department requested the dispatch of 2 physician-staffed helicopters (known as a doctor helicopter [DH] in Japan). The first party of emergency services established a headquarters and first-aid station. However, this area was feared to be at risk of a second explosion. Physicians performed re-triage for all 11 burned patients. Three severely injured patients were transported to emergency medical service centers either by ground ambulance or the DH without undergoing any decontamination. The physician who escorted the patient by ground ambulance complained of a headache. One of the severely injured patients was treated at a local hospital and then transported to an emergency medical service center after undergoing decontamination and intubation. Fortunately, all patients who were transported to medical facilities obtained a survival outcome. Chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and explosive incidents are rare but can be fatal for responders to these types of disaster. Therefore, all who work in these settings should be prepared and trained adequately to ensure that they have the knowledge and skill to both manage patients and protect themselves from harm. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;13:799-805).


Assuntos
Queimaduras/mortalidade , Vazamento de Resíduos Químicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/normas , Papel do Médico , Aeronaves/estatística & dados numéricos , Queimaduras/epidemiologia , Queimaduras/terapia , Vazamento de Resíduos Químicos/mortalidade , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/métodos , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Explosões/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Triagem/métodos , Triagem/normas , Triagem/estatística & dados numéricos
6.
Emerg Med J ; 36(2): 117-123, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30504458

RESUMO

The UK is currently in the process of implementing a modified response to chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear and hazardous material incidents that combines an initial operational response with a revision of the existing specialist operational response for ambulant casualties. The process is based on scientific evidence and focuses on the needs of casualties rather than the availability of specialist resources such as personal protective equipment, detection and monitoring instruments and bespoke showering (mass casualty decontamination) facilities. Two main features of the revised process are: (1) the introduction of an emergency disrobe and dry decontamination step prior to the arrival of specialist resources and (2) a revised protocol for mass casualty (wet) decontamination that has the potential to double the throughput of casualties and improve the removal of contaminants from the skin surface. Optimised methods for performing dry and wet decontamination are presented that may be of relevance to hospitals, as well as first responders at the scene of a chemical incident.


Assuntos
Descontaminação/métodos , Derramamento de Material Biológico/estatística & dados numéricos , Vazamento de Resíduos Químicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Protocolos Clínicos/normas , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido
8.
Mil Med ; 183(suppl_2): 130-132, 2018 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30189064

RESUMO

Toxic industrial chemicals include chlorine, phosgene, hydrogen sulfide, and ammonia have variable effects on the respiratory tract, and maybe seen alone or in combination, secondary to inhalation injury. Other considerations include the effects of cyanide, carbon monoxide, and fire suppressants. This Clinical Practice Guideline (CPG) will provide the reader with a brief overview of these important topics and general management strategies for each as well as for inhalation injury. Chlorine, phosgene, hydrogen sulfide, and ammonia are either of intermediate or high water solubility leading to immediate reactions with mucous membranes of the face, throat, and lungs and rapid symptoms onset after exposure. The exception to rapid symptom onset is phosgene which may take up to a day to develop severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. Management of these patients includes early airway management, lung-protective ventilator strategies, aggressive pulmonary toilet, and avoidance of volume overload.


Assuntos
Vazamento de Resíduos Químicos/mortalidade , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Amônia/efeitos adversos , Vazamento de Resíduos Químicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Cloro/efeitos adversos , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Fosgênio/efeitos adversos
9.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 25(25): 24704-24712, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29923048

RESUMO

Accidents have happened in the chemical industries all over the world with serious consequences for the adjacent heavily populated areas. In this study, the impact of the probable hypothetical event, releasing considerable amounts of hydrogen fluoride (HF) as a strong irritant into the atmosphere over the city of Isfahan from a strategic chemical plant, was simulated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD). In this model, the meteorological parameters were integrated into time and space, and dispersion of the pollutants was estimated based on a probable accidental release of HF. According to the hypothetical results of the simulation model in this study, HF clouds reached Isfahan in 20 min and exposed 80% of the general public to HF concentration in the range of 0-34 ppm. Then, they dissipated 240 min after the time of the incident. Supposing the uniform population density within the proximity of the city of Isfahan with the population of 1.75 million, 5% of the population (87,500 people) could be exposed for a few minutes to a HF concentration as high as 34 ppm. This concentration is higher than a very hazardous concentration described as the Immediate Danger to Life and Health (30 ppm). This hypothetical risk evaluation of environmental exposure to HF with the potential of health risks was very instrumental for the general public of Isfahan in terms of risk management. Similar studies based on probable accidental scenarios along with the application of a simulation model for computation of dispersed pollutants are recommended for risk evaluation and management of cities in the developing countries with a fast pace of urbanization around the industrial sites.


Assuntos
Vazamento de Resíduos Químicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Indústria Química , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Gestão de Riscos/métodos , Cidades , Exposição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Ácido Fluorídrico , Irã (Geográfico) , Saúde Pública , Fatores de Tempo , Urbanização
11.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 25(18): 18189-18199, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29696537

RESUMO

Chemical accidents are major causes of environmental losses and have been debated due to the potential threat to human beings and environment. Compared with the single statistical analysis, co-word analysis of chemical accidents illustrates significant traits at various levels and presents data into a visual network. This study utilizes a co-word analysis of the keywords extracted from the Web crawling texts of environmental loss-related chemical accidents and uses the Pearson's correlation coefficient to examine the internal attributes. To visualize the keywords of the accidents, this study carries out a multidimensional scaling analysis applying PROXSCAL and centrality identification. The research results show that an enormous environmental cost is exacted, especially given the expected environmental loss-related chemical accidents with geographical features. Meanwhile, each event often brings more than one environmental impact. Large number of chemical substances are released in the form of solid, liquid, and gas, leading to serious results. Eight clusters that represent the traits of these accidents are formed, including "leakage," "poisoning," "explosion," "pipeline crack," "river pollution," "dust pollution," "emission," and "industrial effluent." "Explosion" and "gas" possess a strong correlation with "poisoning," located at the center of visualization map.


Assuntos
Vazamento de Resíduos Químicos/classificação , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Modelos Teóricos , Vazamento de Resíduos Químicos/economia , Vazamento de Resíduos Químicos/estatística & dados numéricos , China , Monitoramento Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluição Ambiental/economia , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Medição de Risco
12.
Am J Emerg Med ; 36(10): 1837-1844, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29534918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Carbon monoxide (CO) is an insidious gas responsible for approximately 21,000 emergency department visits, 2300 hospitalizations, and 500 deaths in the United States annually. We analyzed 10 combined years of data from two Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry acute hazardous substance release surveillance programs to evaluate CO incident-related injuries. METHODS: Seventeen states participated in these programs during 2005-2014. RESULTS: In those 10years, the states identified 1795 CO incidents. Our analysis focused on 897 CO incidents having injured persons. Of the 3414 CO injured people, 61.0% were classified as general public, 27.7% were employees, 7.6% were students, and 2.2% were first responders. More than 78% of CO injured people required hospital or pre-hospital treatment and 4.3% died. The location for most injured people (39.9%) were homes or apartments, followed by educational facilities (10.0%). Educational services had a high number of people injured per incident (16.3%). The three most common sources of CO were heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems; generators; and motor vehicles. Equipment failure was the primary contributing factor for most CO incidents. CONCLUSIONS: States have used the data to evaluate trends in CO poisoning and develop targeted public health outreach. Surveillance data are useful for setting new policies or supporting existing policy such as making CO poisoning a reportable condition at the state level and requiring CO alarms in all schools and housing. Public health needs to remain vigilant to the sources and causes of CO to help reduce this injury and death.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/efeitos adversos , Intoxicação por Monóxido de Carbono/epidemiologia , Vazamento de Resíduos Químicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Substâncias Perigosas/efeitos adversos , Habitação/normas , Ferimentos e Lesões/induzido quimicamente , Monitoramento Ambiental , Falha de Equipamento , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Habitação/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Vigilância da População , Sistema de Registros , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia
13.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 12(3): 411-414, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29198239

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: On August 12, 2015, a hazardous chemical explosion occurred in the Tianjin Port of China. The explosions resulted in 165 deaths, 8 missing people, injuries to thousands of people. We present the responses of emergency medical services and hospitals to the explosions and summarize the lessons that can be learned. METHODS: This study was a retrospective analysis of the responses of emergency medical services and hospitals to the Tianjin explosions. Data on injuries, outcomes, and patient flow were obtained from the government and the hospitals. RESULTS: A total of 46 ambulances and 143 prehospital care professionals were dispatched to the scene, and 198 wounded were transferred to hospitals by ambulance. More than 4000 wounded casualties surged into hospitals, and 798 wounded were admitted. Both emergency medical services and hospitals were quick and successful in the early stage of the explosions. The strategy of 4 centralizations (4Cs) for medical services management in a mass casualty event was successfully applied. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of accidental events has increased in recent years. We should take advantage of the lessons learned from the explosions and apply these in future disasters. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018; 12: 411-414).


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Explosões/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo , Vazamento de Resíduos Químicos/estatística & dados numéricos , China , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/métodos , Humanos , Incidentes com Feridos em Massa/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Capacidade de Resposta ante Emergências/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana
14.
Integr Environ Assess Manag ; 14(2): 205-211, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29240307

RESUMO

We investigated the characteristics and limitations in the event of hydrofluoric acid (HF) leakage by comparing and analyzing the offsite consequence analysis (OCA) tools based on the chemical plant operating conditions. We reviewed the tools Korea Offsite Risk Assessment (KORA) from South Korea and Risk Management Plan*Comp (RMP*Comp™) and Areal Location of Hazardous Atmospheres (ALOHA) from the United States. The scenario studied was based on a leak event from a 50% HF aqueous solution storage tank, and the operating conditions taken into consideration were the operating temperature and dike installation conditions. The results from the OCA differed; KORA presented a smaller range of offsite impact than did ALOHA. The offsite impact ranges of KORA and ALOHA increased as the operating temperature and dike installation area increased. However, RMP*Comp differed greatly in its offsite impact range results in the operating temperature range of 25 °C to 30 °C. Moreover, in the alternative scenario, a limitation existed in that the offsite impact range was not changed by the dike installation conditions. The offsite impact range analyzed via KORA and ALOHA reflected the reality of an HF leak accident better than that analyzed via RMP*Comp. Therefore, it is more reasonable to use KORA and ALOHA instead of RMP*Comp in OCA. Moreover, users should realize that ALOHA has a somewhat wider range of offsite impact than KORA does in OCA. The separation distance from the storage tank when installing a dike is effective between 1 and 1.5 m in consideration of securing the minimum workspace for workers. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2018;14:205-211. © 2017 SETAC.


Assuntos
Vazamento de Resíduos Químicos/prevenção & controle , Segurança Química/métodos , Substâncias Perigosas , Ácido Fluorídrico , Vazamento de Resíduos Químicos/estatística & dados numéricos , República da Coreia , Medição de Risco , Gestão de Riscos , Estados Unidos
15.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 12(2): 232-240, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28877779

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the adverse health symptoms experienced by adult subjects who were exposed to benzene after a flaring disaster at the BP refinery in Texas City, Texas. METHODS: A total of 2162 adults aged 18 years or older and exposed to benzene were included. Using the patients' medical charts, we collected and analyzed data on health complaints as well as the patients' serum levels of beta-2-microglobulin and urinary excretion of phenol. RESULTS: A total of 11,368 health symptom complaints were reported in 2162 adults exposed to benzene. Neurological symptoms occurred most frequently (174%), followed upper respiratory symptoms (115%), cough (31%), painful joints (30%), cardiac symptoms (28%), dermatological symptoms (28%), gastrointestinal symptoms (27%), diarrhea (25%), vision symptoms (21%), and nausea/vomiting (19%). Logistic regression analysis indicated that urinary symptoms (R2=0.65) and painful joints (R2=0.44) were positively associated with increasing age in benzene-exposed subjects. CONCLUSION: Adult subjects exposed to benzene experience a range of adverse health symptoms and an altered profile of urinary phenol, thus indicating they are at high risk of developing serious future health complications. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:232-240).


Assuntos
Benzeno/efeitos adversos , Vazamento de Resíduos Químicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Benzeno/envenenamento , Indústria Química/normas , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Texas
16.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 12(2): 211-221, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28760164

RESUMO

IntroductionFirst responders, including firefighters, police officers, emergency medical services, and company emergency response team members, have dangerous jobs that can bring them in contact with hazardous chemicals among other dangers. Limited information is available on responder injuries that occur during hazardous chemical incidents. METHODS: We analyzed 2002-2012 data on acute chemical incidents with injured responders from 2 Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry chemical incident surveillance programs. To learn more about such injuries, we performed descriptive analysis and looked for trends. RESULTS: The percentage of responders among all injured people in chemical incidents has not changed over the years. Firefighters were the most frequently injured group of responders, followed by police officers. Respiratory system problems were the most often reported injury, and the respiratory irritants, ammonia, methamphetamine-related chemicals, and carbon monoxide were the chemicals more often associated with injuries. Most of the incidents with responder injuries were caused by human error or equipment failure. Firefighters wore personal protective equipment (PPE) most frequently and police officers did so rarely. Police officers' injuries were mostly associated with exposure to ammonia and methamphetamine-related chemicals. Most responders did not receive basic awareness-level hazardous material training. CONCLUSION: All responders should have at least basic awareness-level hazardous material training to recognize and avoid exposure. Research on improving firefighter PPE should continue. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:211-221).


Assuntos
Vazamento de Resíduos Químicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Socorristas/estatística & dados numéricos , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/epidemiologia , Vazamento de Resíduos Químicos/mortalidade , Humanos , Vigilância da População/métodos , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
J Emerg Nurs ; 43(4): 333-338, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28363626

RESUMO

CONTRIBUTION TO EMERGENCY NURSING PRACTICE: • Chemical exposures daily pose a significant threat to life. Rapid assessment by first responders/emergency nurses is required to reduce death and disability. Currently, no informatics tools for Irritant Gas Syndrome Agents (IGSA) exposures exist to process victims efficiently, continuously monitor for latent signs/symptoms, or make triage recommendations. • This study uses actual patient data from a chemical incident to characterize and validate signs/symptoms of an IGSA Syndrome. Validating signs/symptoms is the first step in developing new emergency department informatics tools with the potential to revolutionize the process by which emergency nurses manage triage victims of chemical incidents. ABSTRACTINTRODUCTION: Chemical exposures can pose a significant threat to life. Rapid assessment by first responders/emergency nurses is required to reduce death and disability. Currently, no informatics tools for irritant gas syndrome agents (IGSA) exposures exist to process victims efficiently, continuously monitor for latent signs/symptoms, or make triage recommendations. This study describes the first step in developing ED informatics tools for chemical incidents: validation of signs/symptoms that characterize an IGSA syndrome. METHODS: Data abstracted from 146 patients treated for chlorine exposure in one emergency department during a 2005 train derailment and 152 patients not exposed to chlorine (a comparison group) were mapped to 93 possible signs/symptoms within 2 tools (WISER and CHEMM-IST) designed to assist emergency responders/emergency nurses with managing hazardous material exposures. Inferential statistics (χ2/Fisher's exact test) and diagnostics tests were used to examine mapped signs/symptoms of persons who were and were not exposed to chlorine. RESULTS: Three clusters of signs/symptoms are statistically associated with an IGSA syndrome (P < .01): respiratory (shortness of breath, wheezing, coughing, and choking); chest discomfort (tightness, pain, and burning), and eye, nose and/or throat (pain, irritation, and burning). The syndrome requires the presence of signs/symptoms from at least 2 of these clusters. The latency period must also be considered for exposed/potentially exposed persons. DISCUSSION: This study uses actual patient data from a chemical incident to characterize and validate signs/symptoms of an IGSA syndrome. Validating signs/symptoms is the first step in developing new ED informatics tools with the potential to revolutionize the process by which emergency nurses manage triage victims of chemical incidents.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Vazamento de Resíduos Químicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Irritantes/efeitos adversos , Incidentes com Feridos em Massa/estatística & dados numéricos , Triagem/métodos , Cloro/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
18.
Int J Occup Med Environ Health ; 30(1): 95-110, 2017 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28220910

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The research purpose was to analyze data concerning chemical incidents in Poland collected in 1999-2009 in terms of health hazards. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The data was obtained, using multimodal information technology (IT) system, from chemical incidents reports prepared by rescuers at the scene. The final analysis covered sudden events associated with uncontrolled release of hazardous chemical substances or mixtures, which may potentially lead to human exposure. Releases of unidentified substances where emergency services took action to protect human health or environment were also included. RESULTS: The number of analyzed chemical incidents in 1999-2009 was 2930 with more than 200 different substances released. The substances were classified into 13 groups of substances and mixtures posing analogous risks. Most common releases were connected with non-flammable corrosive liquids, including: hydrochloric acid (199 cases), sulfuric(VI) acid (131 cases), sodium and potassium hydroxides (69 cases), ammonia solution (52 cases) and butyric acid (32 cases). The next group were gases hazardous only due to physico-chemical properties, including: extremely flammable propane-butane (249 cases) and methane (79 cases). There was no statistically significant trend associated with the total number of incidents. Only with the number of incidents with flammable corrosive, toxic and/or harmful liquids, the regression analysis revealed a statistically significant downward trend. The number of victims reported was 1997, including 1092 children and 18 fatalities. CONCLUSIONS: The number of people injured, number of incidents and the high 9th place of Poland in terms of the number of Seveso establishments, and 4 times higher number of hazardous industrial establishments not covered by the Seveso Directive justify the need for systematic analysis of hazards and their proper identification. It is advisable enhance health risk assessment, both qualitative and quantitative, by slight modification of the data collection system so as to enable the determination of released chemical concentration and exposed populations. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(1):95-110.


Assuntos
Vazamento de Resíduos Químicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Substâncias Perigosas , Ferimentos e Lesões/induzido quimicamente , Vazamento de Resíduos Químicos/mortalidade , Humanos , Polônia/epidemiologia , Trabalho de Resgate/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição de Risco , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia
19.
Integr Environ Assess Manag ; 13(5): 815-820, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28121063

RESUMO

Specific environmental release categories (SPERCs) are an instrument for lower-tier environmental emissions assessments. They support chemical safety assessments under the European Union (EU) regulation Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation, and Restriction of Chemicals. SPERCs have been developed by industry and subjected to regulatory review. Within the framework of the Chemical Safety Report/Exposure Scenario Roadmap, the EU Chemicals Agency (ECHA), the EU Member State authorities, and European industry sector associations collaborate to improve the quality of the SPERCs. Following up on the outcome of ECHA's SPERC Best Practice Project, industry, together with ECHA, developed an updated SPERC factsheet template and guidance on how to fill it out. In addition, industry developed 2 sets of SPERC factsheet examples and the corresponding SPERC background documents. These documents were submitted to a multistakeholder review process. The comments from the review were discussed at a workshop in spring 2016. The workshop participants acknowledged the revised factsheet format including the corresponding guidance, the 2 SPERC factsheets, and the 2 SPERC background documents as best practice examples. The package is expected to support further improvement of the quality of the SPERCs. A common understanding was achieved of the need to match the level of detail of the use conditions description with the risk to be controlled (i.e., the emission intensity and hazard profile of the substances) and with the level of conservatism of SPERC release factors. The complete and transparent documentation of the derivation of the release factors and of their conservatism is conceived as crucial for the credibility of the SPERCs, such that they can be trusted by partners in the chemicals supply chain and by regulators. To that end, background documents will include a dedicated section describing the conservatism of SPERCs. The workshop concluded with an outline of the practical way forward for the improvement of SPERC documentation. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:815-820. © 2017 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society of Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry (SETAC).


Assuntos
Vazamento de Resíduos Químicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Conferências de Consenso como Assunto , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Política Ambiental , União Europeia
20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 23(19): 19675-85, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27402253

RESUMO

China has suffered various water source pollution incidents in the past decades, which have resulted in severe threats to the safety of the water supply for millions of residents. From the aspects of quantity fluctuation, temporal volatility, regional inequality, pollutant category variation, and accident type differences, this study first characterizes the current status of water source contaminations in China by analyzing 340 pollution events for the period spanning from 1985 to 2013. The results show a general increase in the number of accidents during the period 1985-2006 and then a rapid decline starting in 2007. Spring and summer are high-incidence seasons for pollution, and the accident rate in developed southeastern coastal areas is far higher than that in the northwestern regions. Hazardous chemicals and petroleum are the most frequently occurring pollutants, whereas heavy metals and tailings are becoming emerging contaminants during occasional pollutions. Most of the accidents that occurred before 2005 were blamed on illegal emissions or traffic accidents; however, leakage in production has gradually become a major accident type in the past decade. Then, in combination with government actions and policy constraints, this paper explores the deep inducements and offers valuable insight into measures that should be taken to ensure future prevention and mitigation of emergent source water pollution.


Assuntos
Vazamento de Resíduos Químicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Substâncias Perigosas/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluição da Água/estatística & dados numéricos , China , Poluição da Água/análise , Abastecimento de Água
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