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1.
Forensic Sci Rev ; 32(1): 55-81, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007928

RESUMO

This review focuses on the role of motor vehicles in the prevention of alcohol-related fatalities in the United States. Since alcohol significantly affects brain function, it is natural to make drivers the prime targets for impaired-driving-prevention programs. However, the prevalence, design, ease of operation, and safety features of motor vehicles, as well as state regulations of their operation, have an important influence on crash occurrences, particularly those involving alcohol. This review begins with a discussion of why the automobile became the central technological device in the alcohol-related fatality problem and then moves on to an overview of motor vehicle safety programs that have impacted impaired driving. The article then presents an extended discussion of the effectiveness of vehicle-based, alcohol-detecting ignition interlock devices (interlocks), which provided the principal specific vehicle-based effort in the 20th century to separate alcohol consumption from driving. The review ends with a commentary on the issues that will arise in managing operator impairment in autonomous (self-driving) vehicles-the probable principal 21st-century effort to reduce impaired driving and eliminate alcohol-related crashes by minimizing the role of the driver.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Dirigir sob a Influência , Veículos Automotores , Equipamentos de Proteção , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Estados Unidos
2.
J Environ Manage ; 258: 110007, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31929051

RESUMO

Toll plazas are places on the road network where increased emissions of exhaust gases occur due to changes in vehicle driving regime in their corresponding impact areas. Therefore, they provide a great potential in terms of the ability to significantly reduce the emission of pollutants by using advanced technologies. In light of this, this paper aims at getting the most accurate quantification of pollutant emission (CO, CO2, HC and NOx) for the various vehicle categories which use Manuel System (MS), Electronic toll collection (ETC) with mechanical barriers and Multi Lane Free Flow (MLFF) system, for determining ecological benefits that can be achieved using advanced tolling systems. The measurement of the emission of harmful gases was carried out in real field conditions for the five most common classes of passenger cars, light truck and semi-trailer-truck. Vehicle speed, fuel consumption and emission of pollutants were recorded every second, in various driving processes in the impact areas of toll plazas, as well as in numerous scenarios that involve a different number of vehicles in a queue. The obtained results show that the use of the MLFF system, compared to the MS, can achieve a reduction in CO2 in the range of 25%-45% and the reduction in NOx in the range of 32%-98%, depending on the type of vehicle and the considered scenario. The case study of the tolling system in the Republic of Serbia, on a sample of 77,408,112 vehicles, has shown that moving from the existing to an advanced MLFF tolling system allows for annual ecological benefits ranging from 1,349,862 € to 1,491,391 €.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Gasolina , Monitoramento Ambiental , Veículos Automotores , Sérvia , Emissões de Veículos
3.
Waste Manag ; 102: 613-623, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31783197

RESUMO

Waste collection is an important functional element in a modern waste management system; and may account for up to half of the total expenditure on waste management in industrialized nations. Most optimization of waste collection studies include truck route distance and fuel consumption considerations without explicitly considering the inter-relationships of the model parameters. This study however delineates the complex inter-relationships of waste composition, collection frequency, collection type, and truck compartment configurations in a small waste collection zone in Austin, Texas. A total of 48 different scenarios are modelled and investigated. Truck travel distances are found sensitive to collection frequency, truck capacity, volume ratio of truck compartment, and waste density. The results showed that the increase in waste density and waste collection frequency helped to save up to 18.2% in travel distances and 41.9% in travel time. Waste composition is significant in travel distance, regardless of truck design. Increasing truck capacity by 25% helped to save 4.1-24.4% of truck travel distances. Optimal volume ratio of truck compartments was 50:50 (50% volume for garbage and 50% volume for recyclables); a finding that is different than what is currently reported in the literature; pointing to the site-specific nature of studies of this type. The use of dual compartment trucks helps to reduce travel distances by up to 23.0% and travel time by up to 14.3%. It appears that the minimization of operation time within the collection area is key to an efficient system.


Assuntos
Resíduos de Alimentos , Eliminação de Resíduos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Veículos Automotores , Texas
4.
Water Res ; 170: 115305, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765826

RESUMO

Anaerobic digestion is sensitive to a wide variety of inhibitory substances that are the primary cause of anaerobic digester failure. Herein, an anaerobic digestion (AD) tank, which also functioned as the anodic chamber of an algae-assisted microbial fuel cell (AMFC), was established to treat food waste (FW) under an inhibition-relieved condition. About 2.9 L of CH4 was yielded by the AD-AMFC system, which was more than double the CH4 produced by the AD system, and 34% higher than that from the AD-MFC system. The result suggests that the bioelectrochemical system and algae successfully improved the AD performance and energy production. The AD-AMFC system had the highest volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration in the initial 20 days, but it maintained the lowest VFA concentration in the following days. Those results indicate that the AMFC shortened the acclimatisation phase of the AD process and then alleviated the adverse impact of VFAs by consuming VFAs as a substrate for electricity generation. Alkalinity generated by algal growth and cathode reactions buffered the H+ that migrated from the anolyte, which facilitated the pH recovery of the AD process. Ammonia inhibition of the AD was also relieved by the AMFC through reduction of the ammonia concentration to less than 500 mg/L in the anolyte. Additionally, the COD removal rate was improved to 89%, since the AMFC facilitated the decomposition of large molecules. The present study developed a practical structure for an AD tank and also explained the reason as to why the AMFC improved the AD performance.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica , Eliminação de Resíduos , Anaerobiose , Reatores Biológicos , Eletrodos , Alimentos , Metano , Veículos Automotores
5.
Water Environ Res ; 92(2): 173-176, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529657

RESUMO

Iron oxides facilitated anaerobic digestion process has been attracted more and more attention in the renewable energy production area. In the current study, goethite was added into the continuous stirred tank reactor with glucose as the substrate. Effect of the influent organic loading rate (OLR) on the reactor performances was explored. Results showed that goethite promoted the methane production significantly (p < 0.05) when OLR was changed between 1.20 and 1.80 g glucose L-1  day-1 . Compared to the control reactor, addition of goethite improved the methane production by13.4%-22.9%. The iron reduction rate had a positive correlation with the methane production rate. Microbial community analysis results showed that OLRs influenced the dominant methanogenic species in the both reactors. Methanothrix, Methanobacterium, Methanosarcina, and Methanocella were dominant under various OLR levels. PRACTITIONER POINTS: Goethite could promote the methanogenic process of glucose in the CSTRs under certain levels of OLRs. Iron reduction rate had a positive correlation with the methane production rate. OLRs influenced the dominant methanogenic species in the goethite-dosed reactors.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos , Metano , Anaerobiose , Compostos de Ferro , Minerais , Veículos Automotores
6.
Chemosphere ; 239: 124776, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526988

RESUMO

Modern microscopy studies are capable of revealing ultra-fine particles (UFPs) and nanoparticles (NPs) that are produced in the processes related to traffic vehicular, industrial, metropolitan, and marine aerosol dry deposition in the coastal zones. Especially, secondary aerosol passages complexes categories of NPs and UFPs, which can be accumulated on construction compounds and by dry deposition, encourages multiples monuments deterioration routes. The advanced electron microscopies method is one of the most utilized in environmental studies. Between the different industrial areas in the world, the Caribbean area is the most relevant symbols of air quality due to climatic conditions with strong winds, but this study shows that regionally the most industrialized region does not have an adequate air quality. In the present work, electron microscopy analyses are used to describe of the extent of ultra-fine particle and nanoparticles in walls in contact to weathering. Numerous phases were recognized by advanced mineralogy methods. Thanks to the new analytical procedure it was feasible to understand NPs and UFPs; the occurrence of potential hazardous elements (PHEs), most of them as minerals but also combined in multiple accumulations with Al-Cr-Fe-K-Mg-Pb-Si-Ti-Zn amorphous; and carbonaceous phases.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Nanopartículas/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Aerossóis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Poluição do Ar/análise , Atmosfera , Região do Caribe , Colômbia , Monitoramento Ambiental/instrumentação , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Desenvolvimento Industrial , Minerais/análise , Veículos Automotores , Material Particulado/química , Vento
7.
Chemosphere ; 240: 124820, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568942

RESUMO

A novel activated primary tank (APT) with an elutriation unit was developed for recovering carbon by the fermentation and elutriation of primary sludge, and the mechanical elutriation mechanism was analysed by conducting a batch fermentation experiment to improve carbon source recovery. The results indicated that a high stirring velocity gradient could cause sludge disintegration, which could not only shorten the fermentation time, but also increase the production of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) by 8.3% and 9.5%, respectively. Moreover, mechanical elutriation could also promote the release of SCOD from sludge to water, resulting in an increase in the yield of SCOD by 9.2%, it was observed that elutriation intensity plays a more important role than the elutriation time. The microbial community structure of the fermentation system was influenced by the stirring intensity. The relative abundance of fermentative bacteria in the reactor with a stirring intensity (G) of 160 s-1 was 13.8%, which was significantly higher than that in the reactor with G = 31 s-1 (8.037%), so the accumulation of VFAs and SCOD in the reactor with G = 160 s-1 was improved.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Carbono/química , Esgotos/química , Veículos Automotores
8.
Accid Anal Prev ; 134: 105324, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648116

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Side crashes between vehicles which usually lead to high casualties and property loss, rank first among total crashes in China. This paper aims to identify the factors associated with injury severity of side crashes at intersections and to provide suggestions for developing countermeasures to mitigate the levels of injuries. METHOD: In order to investigate the role of striking and struck vehicles in side crashes simultaneously, bivariate probit model was proposed and Bayesian approach was employed to evaluate the model, compared to the corresponding univariate probit model. DATA: Crash data from Beijing, China for the period 2009-2012 were used to carry out the statistical analysis. Based on the investigation with vehicles and data analysis on events, 130 intersection side crash cases were selected to form a specific dataset. Then, the influence of human, vehicles, roadway and environmental variables on crash severity was examined by means of bivariate probit regression within Bayesian framework. RESULTS: The effects of the factors on striking vehicle drivers and struck vehicle drivers were considered separately and simultaneously to find more targeted conclusions. The statistical analysis revealed vehicle type, lane number, no non-motorized lane and speeding have the corresponding influence on the injury severity of striking vehicles, while time of day and vehicle type of struck vehicles increased the likelihood of being injured. CONCLUSIONS: From the results it can be concluded that there indeed exists correlation between striking and struck vehicles in side crashes, although the correlation is not so strong. Importantly, Bayesian bivariate probit model can address the role of striking and struck vehicles in side crashes simultaneously and can accommodate the correlation clearly, which extends the range of univariate probit analysis. The general and empirical countermeasures are presented to improve the safety at intersections.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Teorema de Bayes , Pequim/epidemiologia , Ambiente Construído/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Veículos Automotores/classificação , Veículos Automotores/estatística & dados numéricos , Probabilidade
9.
Chemosphere ; 240: 124923, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726605

RESUMO

The purpose of this study is to deepen the knowledge of the various emission phenomena present in aerated tanks, widely used systems for municipal and industrial wastewater treatment. In order to investigate the emission mechanism, a specific model was developed. The theoretical model proposes to consider three different contributions to the emission of organic compounds from aerated wastewater tanks: the convection due to the sweep air flow rate, the rising bubbles stripping and the aerosol formation and successive evaporation. To compare the modeled results, an experimental campaign was conducted with two different solutes, acetone and butanol. The sampling was carried out with a Wind Tunnel system and the outflow gas samples were analysed with gas chromatographic technique. Moreover, this study investigates the dependence of the concentration in the gaseous phase from the speed of the air on the surface (1-5 cm/s) and from the flow of air diffused inside the liquid body (50-200 L/h). The empirical data were compared with theoretical curves. The results confirm two facts: the gas solute concentration decreases as the air velocity increases and, instead, increases with the air flow diffused through the tank.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Modelos Teóricos , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Aerossóis/análise , Veículos Automotores , Águas Residuárias/análise
10.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(34): 35163-35182, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31680201

RESUMO

Vehicle emission certification is evaluated under laboratorial conditions, where vehicles perform a standard driving cycle in controlled conditions leading to several critics, which have resulted in the implementation of the Worldwide harmonized Light Vehicle Test Procedure (WLTP) and the Real Driving Emissions (RDE) testing procedure, as a complementary certification procedure. RDE is still under debate since boundary conditions; evaluation and trip selection methods are still being studied to allow test reproducibility. Currently, the official data analysis method uses the moving average window (MAW_EC), based on the WLTP CO2 emissions for trip validity evaluation (RDE package 4) and emissions (RDE package 3). However, this does not consider the impact of vehicle dynamics. Consequently, this work focuses on developing a novel method to relate certification driving cycle dynamics and on-road test vehicle dynamics, to evaluate RDE tests fuel use and exhaust emissions in a comparable way to certification driving cycles, indicating how close, or far, real-world driving is from the laboratorial certification test. For this, a new method was developed called road vehicle evaluation method (ROVET), which relies on the cycle vehicle dynamic and on-road trip dynamics for assessing if both tests are comparable. Results from 5 measured vehicles with a portable emissions measurement system (PEMS) through reproducibility tests and 2 case studies, show that the ROVET provides results closer to the certification calculated reference than the most commonly used method in Europe (1% avg. difference for ROVET while 8% avg. difference for MAW_EC, regarding CO2 emission, for example). The use of vehicle dynamics on construction and references of a method could be used to incentivize the regulators to review the references used by the current used methods, which suffers several criticisms since their release. As the regulated methods are in constant update, this study could be useful for helping to improve or to be used as additional method for future vehicle certification procedures. Graphical abstract.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Condução de Veículo/estatística & dados numéricos , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Certificação , Europa (Continente) , Veículos Automotores , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
11.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(21): 12904-12913, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31609593

RESUMO

Heavy-duty vehicles require expensive aftertreatment systems for control of emissions such as particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) to comply with stringent emission standards. Reduced engine-out emissions could potentially alleviate the emission control burden, and thus bring about reductions in the cost associated with aftertreatment systems, which translates into savings in vehicle ownership. This study evaluates potential reductions in manufacturing and operating costs of redesigned emission aftertreatment systems of line-haul heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs) with reduced engine-out emissions brought about by co-optimized fuel and engine technologies. Three emissions reduction cases representing conservative, medium, and optimistic engine-out emission reduction benefits are analyzed, compared to a reference case: the total costs of aftertreatment systems (TCA) of the three cases are reduced to $11,400(1.63 ¢/km), $9,100 (1.30 ¢/km), and $8,800 (1.26 ¢/km), respectively, compared to $12,000 (1.71 ¢/km) for the reference case. The largest potential reductions result from reduced diesel exhaust fluid (DEF) usage due to lower NOx emissions. Downsizing aftertreatment devices is not likely, because the sizes of devices are dependent on not only engine-out emissions, but also other factors such as engine displacement. Sensitivity analysis indicates that the price and usage of DEF have the largest impacts on TCA reduction.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Análise Custo-Benefício , Gasolina , Veículos Automotores , Material Particulado , Emissões de Veículos
12.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(22): 13284-13292, 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31625379

RESUMO

The power of remote vehicle emission sensing stems from the big sample size obtained and its related statistical representativeness for the measured emission rates. But how many records are needed for a representative measurement and when does the information gain per record become insignificant? We use Monte Carlo simulations to determine the relationship between the sample size and the accuracy of the sample mean and variance. We take the example of NO emissions from diesel cars measured by remote emission monitors between 2011 and 2018 at various locations in Europe. We find that no more than 200 remote sensing records are sufficient to approximate the mean emission rate for Euro 4, 5, and 6a/b diesel cars with 80% certainty within a ±1 g NO per kg fuel tolerance margin (∼±50 mg NO per km). Between 300 and 800 remote sensing records are needed to approximate also the variance of the mean NO emission rates for those diesel car technologies. This translates to only 2 and up to 9 measurement days to characterize the means and their variance for a car fleet typical in Europe.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Europa (Continente) , Veículos Automotores , Tamanho da Amostra , Emissões de Veículos
13.
Environ Pollut ; 255(Pt 1): 113175, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542669

RESUMO

Emissions from passenger cars are one of major sources that deteriorate urban air quality. This study presents characterization of real-drive emissions from three Euro 6 emission level passenger cars (two gasoline and one diesel) in terms of fresh particles and secondary aerosol formation. The gasoline vehicles were also characterized by chassis dynamometer studies. In the real-drive study, the particle number emissions during regular driving were 1.1-12.7 times greater than observed in the laboratory tests (4.8 times greater on average), which may be caused by more effective nucleation process when diluted by real polluted and humid ambient air. However, the emission factors measured in laboratory were still much higher than the regulatory value of 6 × 1011 particles km-1. The higher emission factors measured here result probably from the fact that the regulatory limit considers only non-volatile particles larger than 23 nm, whereas here, all particles (also volatile) larger than 3 nm were measured. Secondary aerosol formation potential was the highest after a vehicle cold start when most of the secondary mass was organics. After the cold start, the relative contributions of ammonium, sulfate and nitrate increased. Using a novel approach to study secondary aerosol formation under real-drive conditions with the chase method resulted mostly in emission factors below detection limit, which was not in disagreement with the laboratory findings.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Veículos Automotores , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Poluição do Ar , Condução de Veículo , Gasolina/análise , Laboratórios , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/análise
14.
Environ Pollut ; 255(Pt 1): 113100, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542674

RESUMO

Diesel-fueled buses have been replaced by Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) to minimize the high level of emissions in urban areas. However, differences in indoor exposure levels to Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylene (BTEX) in those vehicles have not been investigated so far. The primary aim of this study was to determine if passengers are exposed to different BTEX levels when using buses powered by CNG or by diesel, and further explore if indoor levels are influenced by external air quality. For this purpose, BTEX air concentrations were measured in bus cabins (CNG and diesel), parking stations and in a background urban area using passive air samplers. Results showed that BTEX concentrations inside vehicles were higher than outside, but no significant differences were found between buses powered by CNG or by diesel. In CNG vehicles, high and significant positive correlation was found between benzene and the number of journeys in the same route (rs = 0.786, p < 0.05), vehicle operating time (rs = 0.738, p < 0.05), exposure time (rs = 0.714, p < 0.05) and exposure index (rs = 0.738, p < 0.05), but this was not observed for diesel vehicles. Benzene in bus cabins was found to be significantly below reference value for human health protection. However, excepting p-xylene, all other aromatic pollutants have a mean concentration significantly above the lowest effect level (p ≤ 0.002 for all comparisons). Additionally, higher BTEX levels in cabin buses than in outdoor air suggest the presence of other emission sources in indoor cabins. These findings emphasize the need for further studies to fully characterize indoor emission sources in order to minimize the negative impact of BTEX exposure to human health.


Assuntos
Derivados de Benzeno/análise , Benzeno/análise , Gás Natural/toxicidade , Tolueno/análise , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Xilenos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Humanos , Veículos Automotores
15.
Georgian Med News ; (292-293): 95-102, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560672

RESUMO

The article presents the results of the comprehensive hygienic studies of ambient air pollution (based on calculated and actual concentrations of main pollutants) in a zone of influence of modern filling stations (FS) of small and medium capacity, taking into account compliance with the fire-prevention requirements. Sanitary protection zones (SPZ) for filling stations were substantiated taking into account the capacity: for the filling stations of low and medium capacity - not less than 50 m, and for filling stations of large capacity - not less than 100 m at the equipping with the ecologically safe outfit, introduction of the effective air protection measures, and introduction of risk approach to sanitary-and-epidemiological assessment of the location of filling stations. Sanitary classification of the enterprises and industries was proved to require a revision and rationing of differentiated sanitary protection zones (minimum and maximum SPZ) for filling stations taking into account the capacity, implementation of the effective air protection measures and introduction of risk approach to sanitary- and-epidemiological assessment of the location of filling stations. A necessity of the introduction of the equipment to contain the carcinogenic fumes at vehicle refueling at existing and projected filling stations has been demonstrated, which will reduce air pollution in the working area for the filling stations workers and the environment of adjacent residential buildings, which will meet the EU directives (2008/50 / EC, 21.05, 2008; 2004/42 / EU, April 21, 2004; 1999/32 / EU, April 26, 1999; 98/70 / EU, May 21, 1998; 94/63 / EU, December 20, 1994) to the quality of gasoline, diesel fuel and control of the emissions from the filling stations, and the national legislation of Ukraine (SHR №173-96)..


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Monitoramento Ambiental/legislação & jurisprudência , Higiene , Indústrias/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Veículos Automotores , Ucrânia
16.
Accid Anal Prev ; 132: 105278, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518763

RESUMO

Traffic accidents can take place in very different ways and involve a substantially distinct number and types of vehicles. Thus, it is of interest to know which parts of a road structure present an overrepresentation of a specific type of traffic accident, specially for some typologies of collisions and vehicles that tend to trigger more severe consequences for the users being involved. In this study, a spatial approach is followed to estimate the risk that different types of collisions and vehicles present in the central area of Valencia (Spain), considering the accidents observed in this city during the period 2014-2017. A directed spatial linear network representing the non-pedestrian road structure of the area of interest was employed to guarantee an accurate analysis of the point pattern. A kernel density estimation technique was used to approximate the probability of risk along the network for each collision and vehicle type. A procedure based on these estimates and the sample size locally available within the network was designed and tested to determine a set of differential risk hotspots for each typology of accident considered. A Monte Carlo based simulation process was then defined to assess the statistical significance of each of the differential risk hotspots found, allowing the elaboration of rankings of importance and the possible rejection of the least significant ones.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Veículos Automotores/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidentes de Trânsito/classificação , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Ambiente Construído , Humanos , Método de Monte Carlo , Veículos Automotores/classificação , Medição de Risco , Espanha , Análise Espacial
17.
Accid Anal Prev ; 132: 105287, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514085

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rollover crashes of buses occur less frequently than do those involving passenger cars; however, they are associated with higher fatality rates. During rollover crashes, a vehicle experiences multidirectional acceleration and multiple impacts, yielding a complex interaction between structural components and its occupants. A better understanding of vehicle and occupant's motion, structural deformation, and vehicle and road interactions are necessary to improve the safety of the occupants during this event. One of the key factors in rollover crashworthiness assessment is to investigate the relationship between the strength of the vehicle's structure and the risk of injury outcomes. However, rollover crashes involving buses have received less research attention than have those involving passenger cars. Experimental studies in bus rollover safety have mainly focused on the structural integrity of the passenger compartment without considering the occupant responses. The main goal of this research is to evaluate the rollover mechanism and associated injury risk during two experimental rollover tests for a paratransit cutaway bus that is commonly used by transit agencies. METHODS: The modified dolly rollover (MDR) and tilt table (TT) tests were conducted using a similar bus and anthropomorphic test device (ATD) configurations. In each test, a 2-point and 3-point belted Hybrid III 50th percent male ATDs were used to quantify the kinematics of the occupants. The deformation index (DI), accelerations and angular velocities of the bus's CG were measured as vehicle responses. The collected data were then calibrated and filtered to assess the effects of the test procedure on kinematic responses of the vehicle and occupants. Next, the effectiveness of the 2-point vs 3-point seatbelt to reduce or prevent the injuries, the vulnerable body regions and corresponded injury risk were evaluated. RESULTS: The residual space remained intact (DI < 1) during both rollover tests, however, the ATD responses were quite different. The results of the injury assessment indicate that the risk of the injuries in the MDR test was significantly higher than the TT test. The highest risk of injuries was identified for the head, neck, and shoulder of 2-point belted ATD during the MDR test. Also, the main source of injuries during the MDR test was partial ejection due to the shattered side window, whereas for the TT test impacts between the ATDs and the side window and/or window frame were the injury causes. From the vehicle point of view, the total energy produced in the MDR was 3.5 times higher than the TT test, but the overall structural deformation in the TT test was higher than MDR test. Overall, the tilt table test provides a more severe scenario compared to the MDR test for the assessment of structural strength. Considering the limited real-world injury data in rollover crashes of buses, the MDR test presented the more realistic occupant responses.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Veículos Automotores , Ferimentos e Lesões/etiologia , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Cintos de Segurança/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/prevenção & controle
18.
Accid Anal Prev ; 132: 105285, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476585

RESUMO

Over the years the characteristics of traffic on Dutch motorways has changed, but its design guidelines did not develop as rapidly and large parts remain unchanged since the first guidelines from the 1970s. During the latest revision of the Dutch motorway design guidelines it became clear that a solid and comprehensive theoretical, or evidence based, background was lacking for the validity of the prescribed ramp spacing and required length for weaving segments. This article presents the underpinning of revising the Dutch design manual for motorways for turbulence in traffic. For this study loop detector data at eight on-ramps and five off-ramps were collected as well as empirical trajectory data at fourteen different on-ramps (three), off-ramps (three) and weaving segments (eight) in The Netherlands. The results show that the areas around ramps that are influenced by turbulence are smaller than described in the design manuals and that, in their present form, the microscopic simulation software packages VISSIM and MOTUS fail to simulate the number and location of lane-changes around ramps realistically.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo/estatística & dados numéricos , Ambiente Construído/normas , Ambiente Construído/estatística & dados numéricos , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Veículos Automotores/estatística & dados numéricos , Países Baixos
19.
RECIIS (Online) ; 13(3): 681-690, jul.-set. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1021593

RESUMO

Este texto pretende discutir, a partir de uma perspectiva comunicacional, a relação entre circulação urbana e cidadania. Em um primeiro momento introdutório, nos deteremos principalmente nos conceitos de sistemas comunicacionais, comum e comunicação. Em seguida, pensaremos como o paradigma moderno de circulação, histórica e contemporaneamente, interfere na organização do comum e nos espaços da cidade de modo a privilegiar circuitos domésticos e de consumo em detrimento de usos e ocupações mais livres do espaço público. Por fim, discutiremos sobre a ideia de cidadania no Brasil para pensar com há uma relação explícita no modo como se circula na cidade, se constitui o comum urbano e se dispõe de certos direitos, especificamente o de liberdade de locomoção, ou, se quisermos, o direito de ir e vir.


This text intends to discuss, from a communicational perspective, the relationship between urban circulation and citizenship. In the first introductory moment, we will focus mainly on the concepts of communication, common and communication systems. Next, we will think about how the modern paradigm of circulation, historically and contemporarily, interferes with the organization of the commons and the city spaces in order to privilege domestic and consumption circuits over the freer uses and occupations of public space. Finally, we will discuss about the idea of citizenship in Brazil to think with there is an explicit relation in the way it circulates in the city, if it constitutes the urban common and if it has certain rights, specifically freedom of movement, or, if we wish, the right to come and go.


Este texto pretende discutir, desde una perspectiva comunicacional, la relación entre la circulación urbana y la ciudadanía. En el primer momento introductorio, nos centraremos principalmente en los conceptos de comunicación, sistemas comunes y de comunicación. A continuación, pensaremos cómo el paradigma moderno de la circulación, histórica y contemporáneamente, interfiere con la organización de los espacios comunes y municipales para privilegiar los circuitos domésticos y de consumo sobre los usos y ocupaciones más libres del espacio público. Finalmente, discutiremos sobre la idea de ciudadanía en Brasil para pensar que existe una relación explícita en la forma en que circula en la ciudad, si constituye el común urbano y si tiene ciertos derechos, específicamente la libertad de movimiento o, si lo deseamos, El derecho a ir y venir.


Assuntos
Humanos , Transportes , Comunicação , Área Urbana , Participação da Comunidade , Liberdade de Circulação , Reforma Urbana , Cidades , Planejamento de Cidades , Veículos Automotores , Direitos Socioeconômicos
20.
Med Arch ; 73(3): 169-172, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402801

RESUMO

Introduction: Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are the most serious health issue in the world and the main cause of death after the first year of birth. Environmental factors are among the most important and effective aspects of RTIs occurrences and their human consequences. Aim: This study aimed to identify the environmental factors associated with road traffic accidents (RTAs) in Ilam province. Methods: All crash data in Ilam province in 2012 were investigated. RTI's data was collected using COM 114 form which included some human, environmental and vehicle related factors. Through Chi-Square test and logistic regression model, the association between environmental factors and RTIs was examined. For all statistical analyses we used the package Stata 13.1. Results: A total of 2314 traffic accidents were investigated. The highest 1659 (72.3%) and lowest 19 (0.83%) frequency of RTAs occurred during day and sunrise respectively. The majority of RTAs took place in July and September. The maximum number of RTAs was when the day was clear (91.7%) 2103 and the minimum when it was cloudy (3.5%) 81. A significant relationship was found between fatal RTAs and factors such as; the sort of the road, the hindered visibility, the location of the accident, the accidents' place, the climate, and lighting of the day (P<0.05). The adjusted chance of traffic accidents causing death or injuries in main streets was 9.7 times more than in highways; in sidetracks it was 3.54 times more. And when it was cloudy, the chance was 2.60 times more than when was clear (P<0.05). Conclusion: Regarding the standards of road construction, development of the roads, and educating drivers how to adjust their driving behavior to the environment and road conditions could have a great role in decreasing RTAs causing death or injury.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Acidentes de Trânsito/mortalidade , Ambiente Construído , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Iluminação , Veículos Automotores , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Tempo (Meteorologia) , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade
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