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1.
Waste Manag ; 120: 209-220, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310597

RESUMO

Reverse logistics management of End-of-Life Vehicles (ELVs) is increasingly focusing on practical solutions for getting additional value from products at the end of their life. As automotive is one of the fastest-growing sectors, the number of ELVs to be collected and recycled has been steadily increasing due to more stringent regulations. On the other hand, the operational cost (transportation) of collecting ELVs might exceed half of the purchased price. Furthermore, parameters that influence the solution of the routing problem for the collection of ELVs tend to change due to the dynamic customers' locations and variations in vehicle type and the condition of the vehicules at the end of their life. This research proposes a new reverse logistics routing problem for the collection of end-of-life vehicles. It combines the classical Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) with the pick-up problem and additional constraints such as loading pick-up sequences, time-windows, multi-trips, heterogeneous internal fleet, and external carriers. We also developed an efficient heuristic to construct routes and assign dealers to truck routes for solving large and real-size instances in a reasonable time. In collaboration with a significant player in North America for ELVs recycling, we performed a sensitivity analysis to compare the industry's current practices and the proposed method. The validation process with different instances demonstrates results consistency and provides useful managerial insights. Finally, sensitivity analysis shows potential changes in the solution performance regarding the penalty cost of unused internal fleet, the extra broker cost, the size of ELVs collected, and the number of the internal carriers' truck fleet.


Assuntos
Reciclagem , Transportes , Veículos Automotores
2.
J Environ Manage ; 278(Pt 1): 111499, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120098

RESUMO

This study aims to determine the relationship between motor vehicle lifetime and lifetime mileage, while considering drivers' propensity to drive and its effects on vehicle CO2 emissions. To do this, we analyze the relationship between lifetime mileage and vehicle lifetime for two vehicle types; a hybrid and a gasoline vehicle. We also employ a quantile regression approach to estimate the effects of drivers' propensity to drive on lifetime mileage. By estimating the CO2 emissions based on driver's propensity to drive, we analyze the effects of propensity to drive on vehicle CO2 emissions. Our results show that, for drivers who drive longer distances, the rate of decrease in average mileage grows as the vehicle age increases. Further, the results of our analysis, which considers this decrease in mileage, show that the cumulative CO2 emissions calculated under the assumption of uniform average annual mileage have been overestimated. The actual lifecycle CO2 emissions for the Prius are therefore smaller than previously reported by the previous studies, leading us to conclude that the hybrid is a more environmentally friendly vehicle than previously thought. Those of the Premio as a conventional gasoline vehicle, however, is approximately twice that. We suggest that vehicle lifecycle assessments should take into account the annual decrease in mileage demonstrated in this study.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Condução de Veículo , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Gasolina , Veículos Automotores , Emissões de Veículos/análise
3.
Chemosphere ; 262: 127295, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32536422

RESUMO

Good air quality is documented as a significant factor of social justice. The human health hazards associated with air pollution are not distributed equally across cities; the most vulnerable people are more exposed to ambient air as they commute to work and wait for buses or trains at the stations. Aerosols play important roles in atmosphere quality and the climate; their oxidation at the nanoscale level may possibly increase the reactivity and toxicity of atmospheric particulates. Indoor school environments are characterized by high concentrations of different airborne particulate and gaseous pollutants. The documentation of nanoparticles (NPs), ultra-fine particles (UFPs), and micron-size particle species present in indoor primary schools are an important aspect in the recognition of their influence in respirational difficulties and decreased cognitive progress in children. This work utilizes the study of condensed water, sampled with portable dehumidifiers (PD), to describe NPs and UFPs in the vapor stage of enclosed zones. The acquired extracts were analyzed by advanced electron microscopy techniques. A total of 392 NPs and 251 UFPs were examined in a set of 22 samples acquired in moderately limited or inadequately ventilated indoor areas from several schools. Noting that NPs-related disorders happen at particular places of respirational structure, identification of site-specific NPs accumulation should be anticipated in direction to better verify the corresponding human health outcomes resulting from respirable NPs.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Nanopartículas/análise , Aerossóis/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Atmosfera , Criança , Cidades , Poeira , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Gases , Humanos , Veículos Automotores , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise , Instituições Acadêmicas
4.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 100: 34-42, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33279047

RESUMO

Non-road equipment is one of the key contributing sources to air pollution. Thus, an accurate development of emission inventory from non-road equipment is imperative for air quality management, especially for equipment with a large population such as diesel-fueled forklifts. The objective of this paper is to characterize duty-cycle based emissions from diesel-fueled forklifts using a portable emission measurement system (PEMS). Three duty-cycles were defined in this study, including idling, moving, and working (active duty operation) and used to characterize in-use emissions for diesel-fueled forklifts. A total of twelve diesel-fueled forklifts were selected for real-world emission measurements. Results showed that fuel-based emission factors appear to have smaller variability compared to time-based ones. For example, the time-based emission factors for CO, HC, NO, and PM2.5 for forklifts were estimated to be 16.6-43.9, 5.3-15.1, 26.2-49.9, 5.5-11.1 g/hr with the fuel-based emission factors being 12.1-20.3, 4.1-8.3, 19.1-32.4, 3.5-6.5 g/kg-fuel, respectively. NO emissions appear to be the biggest concern for emissions control. Furthermore, most of the emissions factors estimated from this study are significantly different from those in both National Guideline for Emission Inventory Development for Non-Road Equipment in China and well-developed emission factor models such as NONROAD by US EPA. This implies that localized, preferably fuel-based emission factors should be adjusted based on real-world emission measurements in order to develop a representative emission inventory for non-road equipment.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , China , Gasolina/análise , Veículos Automotores , Emissões de Veículos/análise
5.
Environ Pollut ; 267: 115695, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254641

RESUMO

This study explores the generation of ultrafine particle emissions, measured in particle number (PN), based on a portable emissions measurement system (PEMS) in the City of Toronto between October and December 2019. Two driving routes were designed to include busy arterial roads and highways. All measurements were conducted between 10 a.m. and 4 p.m. Altogether, emissions from 31 drives were collected, leading to approximately 200,000 s of data. A spike detection algorithm was employed to isolate PN spikes in time series data. A sensitivity analysis was also conducted to identify the most optimum method for spike detection. The results indicate that the average emission rate during a PN spike is approximately 8 times the emission rate along the rest of the drive. In each test trip, about 25% of the duration was attributed to spike events, contributing 75% of total PN emissions. A Pearson correlation of 0.45 was estimated between the number of PN spikes and the number of sharp accelerations (above 8.5 km/h/s). The Pearson correlation between the occurrence of high engine torque (above 65.0 Nm) and the number of PN spikes was estimated at 0.80. The number of PN spikes was highest on arterial roads where the vehicle speed was relatively low, but with high variability, and including a high number of sharp accelerations. This pattern of UFP emissions leads to high UFP concentrations along arterial roads in the inner city core.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Gasolina , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Gasolina/análise , Veículos Automotores , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise , Emissões de Veículos/análise
6.
Environ Pollut ; 267: 115456, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254715

RESUMO

On-road remote sensing (RS) is a rapid, non-intrusive and economical tool to monitor and control the emissions of in-use vehicles, and currently is gaining popularity globally. However, a majority of studies used a single RS technique, which may bias the measurements since RS only captures a snapshot of vehicle emissions. This study aimed to use a unique dual RS technique to assess the characteristics of on-road vehicle emissions. The results show that instantaneous vehicle emissions are highly dynamic under real-world driving conditions. The two emission factors measured by the dual RS technique show little correlation, even under the same driving condition. This indicates that using the single RS technique may be insufficient to accurately represent the emission level of a vehicle based on one measurement. To increase the accuracy of identifying high-emitting vehicles, using the dual RS technique is essential. Despite little correlation, the dual RS technique measures the same average emission factors as the single RS technique does when a large number of measurements are available. Statistical analysis shows that both RS systems demonstrate the same Gamma distribution with ≥200 measurements, leading to converged mean emission factors for a given vehicle group. These findings point to the need for a minimum sample size of 200 RS measurements in order to generate reliable emission factors for on-road vehicles. In summary, this study suggests that using the single or dual RS technique will depend on the purpose of applications. Both techniques have the same accuracy in calculating average emission factors when sufficient measurements are available, while the dual RS technique is more accurate in identifying high-emitters based on one measurement only.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Condução de Veículo , Monitoramento Ambiental , Veículos Automotores , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto , Projetos de Pesquisa , Tamanho da Amostra , Emissões de Veículos
7.
Afr Health Sci ; 20(2): 658-665, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33163028

RESUMO

Background: Despite significant gains in the HIV epidemic in South Africa, with reduction in mortality and elimination of vertical transmission, national HIV prevalence remains high, with women rather than men continuing to bear higher burden of the disease. Population subgroups, through ignorance, disbelief or recklessness, continue to engage in risky sexual behaviour. A substantial proportion of minibus taxi drivers engage in risky sex, seldom seeing themselves at risk for STIs or HIV/AIDS. These taxi drivers have been linked with so-called taxi queens, with whom they engage in transactional and intergenerational relationships. Objectives: The study explored condom use and condom negotiation strategies among taxi drivers and taxi queens in Kwa- Zulu-Natal, South Africa. Methods: Applying explorative qualitative design, we conducted focus group discussion and individual interviews among participants who were purposively recruited in KwaZulu-Natal. Result: Qualitative data analysis revealed that condom use and negotiation are sources of conflict for the participants. In addition, the strategies employed by participants to ensure condom usage are not always sustainable and are likely to be problematic due to a variety of complex factors. Conclusion: Our study concludes by recommending a nested public health response that takes cognizance of factors that promote sustainable condom use strategies among this population subgroup.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Ocupações , Sexo Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Adulto , Condução de Veículo/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Veículos Automotores , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Sexual , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Transportes
8.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(12): 787, 2020 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33241491

RESUMO

The transportation of container trucks in urban areas not only frequently causes traffic jams but also produces severe air pollution. With regard to this consideration, measurements of particle concentrations and traffic volume on different polluted days were carried out to discover the varied characteristics of particles from container truck transportation in the port area. Based on the original data, descriptive statistics were performed firstly to reveal the statistical characteristics of particle number concentrations (PNC). The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test as well as the Anderson-Darling test was adopted to identify the "best-fit" distributions on PNC data while the corresponding maximum likelihood estimation was conducted to estimate the parameters of the identified distribution. Additionally, the Pearson correlation analysis and principal component analysis were performed respectively to reveal the relationships between traffic volume and PNC. The results showed that on a hazy day, PNC levels in the morning were generally higher than those in the afternoon, while on a non-hazy day, the results were opposite. Particles in all sizes on a non-hazy day and larger than 0.5 µm on a hazy day were verified to fit the lognormal distribution. In contrast to the particles below 2 µm, the particles above 2 µm exhibited higher correlations with the traffic flow of a container truck in the morning on a hazy day. These results indicate the importance of reducing air pollution from a container truck and provide policymakers with a foundation for possible measures in a port city.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Veículos Automotores , Material Particulado/análise , Emissões de Veículos/análise
9.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0235943, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151953

RESUMO

Transmission pathways of SARS-CoV-2 are aerosol, droplet and touching infected material. The diffusion of the virus contagion among people is easier in indoor location, but direct detection of SARS-CoV-2 in air or on surfaces is quite sparse, especially regarding public transport, while it would be important to know how and if it is safe to use them. To answer these questions we analysed the air and the surfaces most usually touched by passengers inside a city bus during normal operation, in order to understand the possible spreading of the virus and the effectiveness of the protective measures. The measurements were carried out across the last week of the lockdown and the first week when, gradually, all the travel restrictions were removed. The air and surface samples were analysed with the RT-PCR for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 virus. After two weeks of measurements and more than 1100 passenger travelling on the bus the virus was never detected both on surfaces and on air, suggesting that the precautions adopted on public transportation are effective in reducing the COVID-19 spreading.


Assuntos
Aerossóis , Microbiologia do Ar , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Veículos Automotores , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Humanos , Itália , Pandemias , Viagem
10.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241967, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33216761

RESUMO

Many researchers use life cycle assessment methodology to investigate the energy and environmental impacts of energy-saving and new energy vehicles. However, in the context of China, the life cycle energy-saving and emission-reduction effects of extended-range electric vehicles (EREVs), and the optimal applicable vehicle size and driving conditions for EREVs have been rarely studied. In this study, based on the life cycle assessment theory, the resource consumption, energy exhaustion, and environmental impact of EREVs were comprehensively analyzed. In addition, a differential evaluation model of ecological benefits was established for comparing EREVs with other vehicles with different power sources. Finally, scenario analysis was performed in terms of different vehicle sizes and driving conditions. The results have shown that EREV has great advantages in reducing mineral resource consumption and fossil energy consumption. The consumption of mineral resources of EREV is 14.68% lower than that of HEV, and the consumption of fossil energy is 34.72% lower than that of ICEV. In terms of environmental impact, EREV lies in the middle position. The scenario analysis has revealed that, for EREV in China, the optimal vehicle size is the passenger car and the optimal driving condition is the suburban condition. This work helps to understand the environmental performance of EREVs in China and may provide a decision-making reference for the government.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo/estatística & dados numéricos , Fontes de Energia Elétrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Veículos Automotores/estatística & dados numéricos , China , Eletricidade , Meio Ambiente , Emissões de Veículos
12.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240819, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064750

RESUMO

As cattle movement data in the United States are scarce due to the absence of mandatory traceability programs, previous epidemic models for U.S. cattle production systems heavily rely on contact rates estimated based on expert opinions and survey data. These models are often based on static networks and ignore the sequence of movement, possibly overestimating the epidemic sizes. In this research, we adapt and employ an agent-based model that simulates beef cattle production and transportation in southwest Kansas to analyze the between-premises transmission of a highly contagious disease, foot-and-mouth disease. First, we assess the impact of truck contamination on the disease transmission with the truck agent following an independent clean-infected-clean cycle. Second, we add an information-sharing functionality such that producers/packers can trace back and forward their trade records to inform their trade partners during outbreaks. Scenario analysis results show that including indirect contact routes between premises via truck movements can significantly increase the amplitude of disease spread, compared with equivalent scenarios that only consider animal movement. Mitigation strategies informed by information sharing can effectively mitigate epidemics, highlighting the benefit of promoting information sharing in the cattle industry. In addition, we identify salient characteristics that must be considered when designing an information-sharing strategy, including the number of days to trace back and forward in the trade records and the role of different cattle supply chain stakeholders. Sensitivity analysis results show that epidemic sizes are sensitive to variations in parameters of the contamination period for a truck or a loading/unloading area of premises, and indirect contact transmission probability and future studies can focus on a more accurate estimation of these parameters.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Febre Aftosa/transmissão , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/patologia , Simulação por Computador , Febre Aftosa/epidemiologia , Febre Aftosa/patologia , Disseminação de Informação , Modelos Biológicos , Veículos Automotores , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(8): 3581-3590, 2020 Aug 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33124331

RESUMO

A method for developing a high-resolution emission inventory for road vehicles based on traffic flow monitoring data is proposed in this study. The characteristics of road traffic flow were analyzed and a high-resolution emission inventory of vehicle in Chengdu was established. The results showed that the traffic flow and emissions in Chengdu exhibited an obvious "double peak" distribution, and that the traffic volume of vehicles during peak hours accounted for 39.85% of the total. China IV vehicles, small vehicles, and gasoline vehicles were the main types of road vehicles classified. The daily emissions of SO2, NOx, CO, PM10, PM2.5, BC, OC, and VOCs from road vehicles were 3.89, 162.08, 324.11, 4.79, 4.36, 1.89, 0.78, and 44.37 t, respectively. The overall spatial distribution showed a decreasing trend from the city center to the periphery, and the time distribution essentially presented a "double peak" distribution. The related indicators of particulate matter were greatly affected by the number of trucks. The main source of NOx, PM10, PM2.5, BC, and OC was large diesel vehicles, and the main source of CO was small gasoline vehicles. NOx emissions from large vehicles accounted for up to 80% of the total. The method based on registered vehicles led to an overestimation of the emissions from road vehicles in Chengdu, with a proportion between 1% and 30%.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Emissões de Veículos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , China , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Veículos Automotores , Emissões de Veículos/análise
14.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 39(10): 1792-1798, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017232

RESUMO

Motor vehicle crashes remain the leading cause of adolescent mortality and injury in the United States. For young drivers, crash risk peaks immediately after licensure and declines during the next two years, making the point of licensure an important safety intervention opportunity. Legislation in Ohio established a unique health-transportation partnership among the State of Ohio, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, and Diagnostic Driving, Inc., to identify underprepared driver license applicants through a virtual driving assessment system. The system, a computer-based virtual driving test, exposes drivers to common serious crash scenarios to identify critical skill deficits and is delivered in testing centers immediately before the on-road examination. A pilot study of license applicants who completed it showed that the virtual driving assessment system accurately predicted which drivers would fail the on-road examination and provided automated feedback that informed drivers on their skill deficits. At this time, the partnership's work is informing policy changes around integrating the virtual driving assessment system into licensing and driver training with the aim of reducing crashes in the first months of independent driving. The system can be developed to identify deficits in safety-critical skills that lead to crashes in new drivers and to address challenges that the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has introduced to driver testing and training.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo/legislação & jurisprudência , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Licenciamento/legislação & jurisprudência , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Gestão da Segurança/organização & administração , Interface Usuário-Computador , Adolescente , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Veículos Automotores/estatística & dados numéricos , Ohio , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Philadelphia , Projetos Piloto , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Transportes/métodos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Accid Anal Prev ; 146: 105758, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947208

RESUMO

This study aimed to determine the risk factors associated with unsafe events involving a motor vehicle, that occurred while group riding (cycling) in Perth, Western Australia. Naturalistic video footage was collected from 52 group riders and unsafe events identified. A case-crossover study was used to compare the road infrastructure and group behavioural characteristics of 108 case sites where unsafe events occurred to 216 control sites where no unsafe events occurred. After controlling for potential confounding factors, roundabouts increased the risk of an unsafe event compared to midblocks (odds ratio (OR): 3.63, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.57-8.42, p = 0.003), priority control intersections (OR: 4.36, 95% CI: 1.49-12.76, 0.007) and traffic signal intersections (OR: 5.57, 95% CI: 1.42-21.79, p = 0.014). Raised traffic islands (OR: 2.30, 95% CI: 1.41-3.78, p = 0.001), posted speed limits of ≥60 km per hour (OR: 2.45, 95% CI: 1.55-3.86, p < 0.001) and group rider traffic violations (OR: 2.51, 95% CI: 1.14-5.53, p = 0.022) also significantly increased the risk of an unsafe event. Riding two abreast in the traffic lane (OR: 0.50, 95% CI: 0.32-0.76, p = 0.002) or having all riders in the bicycle lane (OR: 0.14, 95% CI: 0.04-0.51, p = 0.003), significantly reduced the risk of an unsafe event, compared to riding single file in the traffic lane. Simple road infrastructure treatments on popular group riding routes as well as education targeting both group riders and motorists, could reduce unsafe events and promote a safer, more inclusive shared road environment for group riders.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Ciclismo , Ambiente Construído/estatística & dados numéricos , Veículos Automotores , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Austrália Ocidental
16.
J Safety Res ; 74: 55-69, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32951796

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although public buses have been demonstrated as a relatively safe mode of transport, the number of injuries to public bus passengers is far from negligible. Existing studies of public bus safety have focused primarily on injuries caused by collisions. Surprisingly, limited effort has been devoted to identifying factors that increase the severity of passenger injuries in non-collision incidents. METHOD: Our study therefore investigated the injury risk of public bus passengers involved in collision incidents and non-collision incidents comparatively, based on a police-reported dataset of 17,383 passengers injured on franchised public buses over a 10-year period in Hong Kong. A random parameters logistic model was established to estimate the likelihood of fatal and severe injuries to passengers as a function of various factors. RESULTS: Our results indicated substantial inconsistences in the effects of risk factors between models of non-collision injuries and collision injuries. The severity of passenger injuries tended to increase significantly when non-collision incidents occurred due to excessive speed of bus drivers, on double-decker buses, in less urbanized areas, in winter, in heavy rains, during daytime, and at night without street lighting. Elderly female passengers were also found more likely to be fatally or severely injured in non-collision incidents if they lost their balance while boarding, alighting from, or standing on a bus. In comparison, the following factors were associated with a greater likelihood of fatal or severe injuries in collision incidents: elderly female passengers, standing passengers who lost balance, buses out of driver control, double-decker buses, collisions with vehicles or objects, and less urbanized areas. Practical Applications: Based on our comparative analysis, more targeted countermeasures, namely "4E" (engineering, enforcement, emergency, and education) and "3A" (awareness, appreciation, and assistance), were recommended to mitigate collision injuries and non-collision injuries to public bus passengers, respectively.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Veículos Automotores , Índices de Gravidade do Trauma , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Hong Kong , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Safety Res ; 74: 71-79, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32951797

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cargo Tank Trucks (CTTs) are a primary surface transportation carrier of hazardous materials (hazmat) in the United States and CTT rollover crashes are the leading cause of injuries and fatalities from hazmat transportation incidents. CTTs are susceptible to rollover crashes because of their size, distribution of weight, a higher center of gravity, and the surging and sloshing of liquid cargo during transportation. This study identified and quantified the effects of various factors on the probability of rollover and release of hazmat in traffic crashes where a CTT was involved. METHOD: Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA)-based logistic regression models were estimated with rollover and hazmat release as the binary response variables, and crash, truck, roadway, environment, and driver characteristics as the explanatory variables. 2010-2016 police-reported CTT-involved crash data from Nebraska and Kansas was utilized. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves confirmed appropriateness of the modeling approach for inference and prediction on the crash dataset. RESULTS: CTTs are more likely to rollover in crashes while turning and changing lanes relative to going straight; side impacts (side collisions) and severe crosswinds increased the likelihood of rollovers; tractor and semi-trailer body style decreased the probability of rollover, while truck tractors are more prone to rollovers; collisions with fixed objects and higher posted speeds increased the rollover probability; rollovers and intersection crash locations increased the likelihood of hazmat release. CONCLUSIONS: The findings can assist stakeholders (policy-makers, private shippers, and CTT drivers) in restricting CTTs' operations for safety; scheduling, routing, and fleet planning; and low-level decision-making (e.g., emergency stopping or local routing). Practical Applications: This study identified and quantified the effects of different factors on the conditional probability of rollover and release of hazmat in CTT-involved crashes. The findings may assist stakeholders in decision-making towards safe operations of CTTs for transportation of hazmat.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Substâncias Perigosas , Veículos Automotores/estatística & dados numéricos , Teorema de Bayes , Kansas , Modelos Logísticos , Nebraska
18.
J Safety Res ; 74: 9-15, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32951800

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: With the significant number of motor-vehicle fatalities occurring on the nation's roadways in recent years, there exists a need to integrate a more complete range of data sources, available at a regional or statewide level, to effectively evaluate existing safety concerns and quantify their impacts. Crash data alone does not provide ample crash-associated citation, injury, and roadway characteristics; therefore, a more cohesive dataset is required to accurately and completely analyze the true impacts of motor-vehicle crashes. Previously developed strategies linked crash data with citation and roadway inventory data to enhance the identification and optimization of highway safety strategies. METHOD: The main objective of this research focused on developing a new deterministic linkage between crash and Emergency Medical Services (EMS) data, by utilizing the Massachusetts Crash Data System (CDS) and the Massachusetts Ambulance Trip Record Information System (MATRIS). RESULTS: After several iterations of match criterion, the validated linkage successfully matched 58.3% of MATRIS records (containing an Injury Cause of Motor Vehicle Crash) to a CDS person record (55011 linked pairs, between 2014 and 2016). The data linkage provided significant insight into injury trends in several highway safety emphasis areas such as roadway departure, speeding-related, and distraction-affected crashes. The findings from this research are twofold: (1) an established process for linking previously separate data sets, and (2) a mechanism for analysis that provides decision-makers and safety professionals with a better measure of crash outcomes.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação/métodos , Veículos Automotores , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação/estatística & dados numéricos , Massachusetts
19.
Accid Anal Prev ; 146: 105736, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890973

RESUMO

The consequences of crashes, including injury, loss of lives, and damage to properties, are further worsened when buses plying expressways are involved in the crash. Previous studies have separately analyzed crash severity in terms of monetary cost, injuries and loss of lives, and the size of crashes in terms of the number of vehicles involved. However, as both outcome variables are correlated, it is imperative to perform a combined analysis using an appropriate econometric model to achieve a better model fit. This study contributes to the literature by jointly exploring the factors influencing the severity and size of express bus-involved crashes that occur on expressways and characterizes the dependence between both outcome variables by employing a more plausible copula regression framework. Likelihood ratio tests were also conducted to investigate the temporal stability of the factors that affect both crash severity and size. Based on the goodness-of-fit statistics, the Frank copula model proved superior to the independent ordered probit model. The estimate of the underlying dependence between the outcome variables provided a better comprehension of the correlation between them. Temporal instability was detected for the individual parameters in the models and is attributed to the changing driving behavior due to the heightened road safety campaigns. The results suggest that traffic exposure measures are significantly associated with a higher propensity of observing increased bus crash severity and size. Insights into the factors influencing the size and severity of express bus crashes are discussed, and appropriate engineering, enforcement, and education-related countermeasures are proposed.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Veículos Automotores/estatística & dados numéricos , Condução de Veículo/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Veículos Automotores/classificação , Ferimentos e Lesões/etiologia
20.
Accid Anal Prev ; 146: 105754, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32932020

RESUMO

Determining the impact of driver-monitoring technologies to improve risky driving behaviours allows stakeholders to understand which aspects of onboard sensors and feedback need enhancement to promote road safety and education. This study investigates the influence of camera monitoring on Heavy Goods Vehicle (HGV) drivers' risky behaviours. We also assess whether monitoring affects individual driving events further when coupled with safe driving practices coaching. We evaluate the outcome of those practices on three telematics incidents heavily reliant on driving errors and violations, i.e., the number of vehicle harsh braking, harsh cornering and over speeding incidents. The objective is to understand how frequently individual incidents caused by risky driving behaviour occur (a) without camera monitoring and without any coaching; (b) after camera installation; and (c) after camera installation and coaching. We investigate two commercial HGV companies (Company 1 and Company 2) with 263 and 269 vehicles, respectively, over a 16 months period, from which the first 8 months contain data collected before the installation of cameras (baseline) and the rest of the dataset contains incident counts after the installation of cameras (intervention). Company 1 provides coaching during the intervention phase while Company 2 does not offer coaching. Our analysis considers the baseline and the intervention phases during the same seasons to eliminate any possible bias due to the influence of weather on driving behaviour. Results show an overall significant reduction in the mean frequency of harsh braking incidents from baseline to intervention by 16.82% in Company 1 and 4.62% in Company 2, and a significant reduction in the mean frequency of over speeding incidents from baseline to intervention by 34.29% in Company 1 and 28.13% in Company 2. Furthermore, the effect of coaching has a significant difference in reducing the frequency of harsh braking (p = .011) and harsh cornering (p < .001) compared to just camera monitoring. These results suggest that coaching interventions are more effective in reducing driving errors while monitoring reduces both driving errors and violations.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Condução de Veículo/educação , Veículos Automotores , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tutoria/métodos , Assunção de Riscos , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Transportes
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