Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 739
Filtrar
1.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 39(10): 1792-1798, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017232

RESUMO

Motor vehicle crashes remain the leading cause of adolescent mortality and injury in the United States. For young drivers, crash risk peaks immediately after licensure and declines during the next two years, making the point of licensure an important safety intervention opportunity. Legislation in Ohio established a unique health-transportation partnership among the State of Ohio, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, and Diagnostic Driving, Inc., to identify underprepared driver license applicants through a virtual driving assessment system. The system, a computer-based virtual driving test, exposes drivers to common serious crash scenarios to identify critical skill deficits and is delivered in testing centers immediately before the on-road examination. A pilot study of license applicants who completed it showed that the virtual driving assessment system accurately predicted which drivers would fail the on-road examination and provided automated feedback that informed drivers on their skill deficits. At this time, the partnership's work is informing policy changes around integrating the virtual driving assessment system into licensing and driver training with the aim of reducing crashes in the first months of independent driving. The system can be developed to identify deficits in safety-critical skills that lead to crashes in new drivers and to address challenges that the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has introduced to driver testing and training.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo/legislação & jurisprudência , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Licenciamento/legislação & jurisprudência , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Gestão da Segurança/organização & administração , Interface Usuário-Computador , Adolescente , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Veículos Automotores/estatística & dados numéricos , Ohio , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Philadelphia , Projetos Piloto , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Transportes/métodos , Adulto Jovem
2.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239628, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970755

RESUMO

The increase in data amount makes the traditional Internet of Vehicles (IoV) fail to meet users' needs. Hence, the IoV is explored in series. To study the construction of freight integer linear programming (ILP) model based on fog computing (FG), and to analyze the application of the model in the optimization of the networking deployment (ND) of the IoV. FG and ILP are combined to build a freight computing ILP model. The model is used to analyze the application of ND optimization in the IoV system through simulations. The results show that while analyzing the ND results in different scenarios, the model is more suitable for small-scale scenarios and can optimize the objective function; however, its utilization rate is low in large-scale scenarios. While comparing and analyzing the network cost and running time, compared with traditional cloud computing solutions, the ND solution based on FG requires less cost, shorter running time, and has apparent effectiveness and efficiency. Therefore, it is found that the FG-based model has low cost, short running time, and apparent efficiency, which provides an experimental basis for the application of the later deployment of freight vehicles (FVs) in the Internet of Things (IoT) system for ND optimization. The results will provide important theoretical support for the overall deployment of IoV.


Assuntos
Simulação por Computador , Internet das Coisas , Veículos Automotores/estatística & dados numéricos , Planejamento de Cidades/normas , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto
3.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234564, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525933

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Single vehicle run-off crashes in urban areas constitute a growing problem that deserves more attention from authorities and researchers. This study aims to detect geometric road design risk factors characterizing places where urban run-off crashes might happen. METHODS: A case-control study was performed in the urban area of Valladolid (Spain) with data corresponding to a four-year period. Logistic regression models were used to analyze data, considering different variables related to design parameters in the models: type of intersection, radius of curvature, width of the pavement, width of the traffic lane, number of lanes for traffic in the same direction, direction of the traffic, length of the previous straight section, distance to the previous traffic light, slope, and finally, priority regulation. Two different scenarios were investigated: intersections and curves. RESULTS: The Adjusted Odds-Ratio of a run-off crash was five times higher in double direction roads with median strip than in one-way urban roads, for both curves and intersections, and almost nine times higher on road sections with previous straight lengths greater than 500 meters. Specific risk factors for intersections are "number of lanes for traffic in the same direction" (the odds of a run-off crash are more than five times higher on a road with two or more lanes), "length of preceding straight section" (the odds on road sections with lengths greater than 500 meters are more than nine times that of road sections with a length of less than 150 meters). For curves, specific factors are "width of the traffic lane" (the odds of a run-off crash on curves with lanes wider than 3.75m are more than six times higher) and "priority regulation" (the odds of a run-off crash increases more than twelve times on road sections with traffic light regulation over those without any regulation). CONCLUSIONS: The current study identifies urban road configurations that might require redesigning with the aim of decreasing the odds of a run-off crash, or the implementation of passive protective systems to mitigate their consequences. Specifically, intersections in two direction roads with median strip, more than two lanes per direction and a long preceding straight section, as well as curves with wide lanes and traffic light regulation, are the places that require attention.


Assuntos
Prevenção de Acidentes/métodos , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Planejamento de Cidades/métodos , Modelos Logísticos , Veículos Automotores/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Espanha
4.
Accid Anal Prev ; 144: 105638, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32599314

RESUMO

Although the fatal rate of passenger vehicle-involved crashes has decreased in the United States, the fatal rate of truck-involved crashes has increased. This has, in recent years, become a more severe problem than that caused by passenger vehicle-involved crashes. More studies need to be conducted in order to investigate factors that impact the severity of truck-involved crashes within specific scenarios. This study identifies and evaluates the factors that affect the severity of the truck-involved crashes at cross and T-intersections in North Carolina from 2005 to 2017. A latent class clustering for data segmentation is implemented to mitigate unobserved heterogeneity inherent in the crash data. Four partial proportional odds models, which include fixed and unfixed parameters, are developed considering the heterogeneous and ordinal nature inherent in severities. Estimated parameters and marginal effects are further investigated for better interpreting the impacts. Results show heterogeneous explanatory variables and associated coefficients for different classes and severity levels, which indicate the superiority of this combined approach to obtaining more specific factors and accurate coefficients that are estimated in different scenarios. Many factors are found to contribute to the severities, and crossroad scenarios are found to be more severe than T-intersections. The top five driving behaviors at intersections that contribute to the severity include disregarded signs, improper lane use, followed too closely, ignored signals, and failure to yield. These behaviors arouse a necessity to amend the traffic laws and strengthen drivers' education while giving further insights to engineering practitioners and researchers.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Veículos Automotores/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Acidentes de Trânsito/classificação , Acidentes de Trânsito/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Ambiente Construído/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , North Carolina/epidemiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
5.
Accid Anal Prev ; 142: 105577, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413545

RESUMO

This study investigates the impact that delta-V, the relative change in vehicle velocity pre- and post-crash, has on the severity of motor vehicle collisions (MVCs). We study injury severity using two metrics for each occupant - the number of injuries suffered, and the probability of suffering a serious or worse (MAIS 3+) injury. We use a cross-sectional set of generally-representative MVC data between 2010 and 2015 as a basis for our research. Collision factors that influence the crash environment are combined with the injuries that were suffered in MVCs. The influence of delta-V is captured using a mediation analysis, whereby delta-V acts as the focal point between crash factors and injury outcome. The mediation approach adds to existing research by presenting a detailed view of the relationship between injury severity, delta-V and other collision factors. We find evidence of competitive mediation, wherein a collision factor's positive association with injury severity is offset by a negative association with delta-V. Neglecting to include delta-V in our study would have let the factor's association with injury severity go undiscovered. In addition, certain collision factors are found to be related to injury severity solely because of delta-V, while others are found to have a significant impact regardless of delta-V. Our results support the multitude of policy recommendations that promote seatbelt use and warn against alcohol-impaired driving, and support the proliferation of safety-enabled vehicles whose technology can mitigate the bodily damage associated with detrimental crash types.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Distribuição por Idade , Causalidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Veículos Automotores/estatística & dados numéricos , Orientação Espacial/fisiologia , Cintos de Segurança/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/etiologia
6.
Lancet Glob Health ; 8(6): e819-e828, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32446347

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which aim to halve global traffic deaths by 2020, will not be met by most low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). In Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) region, traffic deaths have remained stable at a high-level despite strong progress in other health domains. We evaluated the effects of road safety interventions in LAC and estimated the benefits that vehicle design improvements would have in this region. METHODS: In our study done in October, 2018, we used a counterfactual analysis to assess the reduction in deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost if eight proven vehicle safety technologies were made more widely available in LAC countries. We estimated: (1) country-level incidence of traffic injuries, (2) the effectiveness of technologies through a systematic literature review, (3) the prevalence of car safety technologies, and (4) the lives saved and DALYs averted if all cars had these technologies. We characterised uncertainty in estimates by reporting the sensitivity of the results to alternative modelling assumptions. FINDINGS: Increasing availability of electronic stability control, which includes antilock-brake systems, would have the largest benefits in the LAC region, estimated at 19·4% (sensitivity analysis range 8·6-31·1) fewer deaths and 17·0% (5·7-29·2) fewer DALYs. Increasing use of seatbelts would reduce deaths by 12·1% (9·1-15·5) and DALYs by 12·6% (9·4-16·3). Optimisation for side-impacts would result in 6·3% (3·1-6·5) fewer deaths, and improvements to vehicle front-end design would result in 6·0% (2·2-10·4) fewer deaths. The overall effect of improved vehicle design in the region would be 28·1% (12·8-39·2) fewer deaths, and 29·1% (13·5-39·8) fewer DALYs. Other safety technologies modelled, including airbag (front and side), side door beam, and side structure and padding, have smaller benefits. INTERPRETATION: Regulating and encouraging the use of proven vehicle safety technologies in LMICs would have large gains and needs to be prioritised in the SDG agenda for 2030. FUNDING: Inter-American Development Bank.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/mortalidade , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Veículos Automotores/estatística & dados numéricos , Equipamentos de Proteção/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia , Modelos Estatísticos , Saúde Pública , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Desenvolvimento Sustentável
7.
Traffic Inj Prev ; 21(5): 303-307, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32319811

RESUMO

Objective: Recent changes in FMVSS have led to the utilization of side air curtains to provide occupant retention during rollover events. However, the safety advantage provided by the air curtains relies on the vehicle system's ability to detect the rollover event and deploy the curtains. The purpose of this study is to identify crash and vehicle characteristics in motor vehicle rollovers that influence side air curtain deployment and occupant outcomes. The current study aims to improve the understanding of rollover events and inspire more robust air curtain deployment strategies.Methods: Study data were extracted from rollover cases documented in the NASS-CDS data set from 2011 to 2015. Vehicle model years of 2011 or later with side air curtains installed were examined. The presence of a rollover sensor in each vehicle was determined from vehicle content data available on the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety's crash rating website. The resulting data set contained 14,003 weighted cases of rollover accidents in which the side air curtain did not deploy (40 raw count) and 23,178 cases of deployment (80 raw count).Results: Several crash event and vehicle characteristics were similar for the nondeployed and deployed groups, including number of quarter turns, primary location of damage, initiating event for the rollover, and vehicle model year. However, the nondeployed group included significantly more passenger vehicle body types (vs. SUV or truck) and had a significantly lower rate of rollover sensor presence. Presence of a rollover sensor increased the odds air curtain deployment by a factor of 36.5 (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.06-265). Cases in which both side air curtains deployed resulted in a higher frequency of injured occupants (Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale [MAIS] ≥ 3). However, rollover events resulting in these injuries were also associated with higher rates of impact with another object or vehicle and damage to the roof of the vehicle, suggesting a higher energy event.Conclusions: Nondeployment of the side curtain airbags in rollovers occurred more frequently in vehicles without dedicated rollover sensors, which were most frequently passenger vehicles.


Assuntos
Prevenção de Acidentes/instrumentação , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Veículos Automotores/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
Environ Geochem Health ; 42(10): 3415-3429, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32335847

RESUMO

Technical vehicle inspection centers are widespread in Kuwait. All vehicles should pass the test every 2 years if not older than 6 years or every 1 year for other vehicles. This study provided an insight into the data collected from test centers and the emission test utilized in Kuwait. Data were collected from test centers in the six Kuwaiti governorates. European standards were selected as limits for emission violations. Independent variables included the place of vehicle manufacture, vehicle's age, and odometer reading. A multinomial logit model was used to identify the significant predictors and determine the correlation between dependent and independent variables. Artificial neural network was employed to compare prediction estimates of neural network and multinomial logit. The findings showed that the place of vehicle's manufacture, vehicle's age, and odometer reading were significant regarding violating emission standards of carbon monoxide (CO). Asian vehicles, vehicles with more than 150,000 km mileage, and vehicles older than 15 years had a higher probability of failing the CO test compared to the place of manufacture. In contrast, the odometer reading was the only significant indicator for vehicles that have failed the hydrocarbons test, especially for vehicles with 150,000 km odometer reading. The findings of this study can reduce air-pollution, time, and money by targeting the most polluting vehicles; thus, more efficient test can be performed.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Veículos Automotores/estatística & dados numéricos , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Kuweit , Veículos Automotores/classificação
9.
Traffic Inj Prev ; 21(4): 247-253, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32275164

RESUMO

Objective: The potential challenge for providing occupant protection accompanying seating preferences is an essential safety prerequisite for highly automated vehicle (HAV) popularization. This research is aimed toward identifying Asia-specific individualized seating preferences in HAVs and occupant safety awareness via a national survey in China.Methods: An online questionnaire survey was performed to investigate seating preferences (i.e., sitting posture, seating orientation, and position) and occupant safety awareness (i.e., seat belt usage and receptiveness to extended or additional restraints beyond the conventional three-point seat belt). We assessed whether perceptions were modulated by individual characteristics via bivariate and correlation analyses. The possibility of wearing seat belts was estimated by binary logistic regression.Results: The final survey data set includes 1,018 respondents after a rigorous validity check (response rate: 59.2%). The results show that preferred sitting postures and seating orientation were significantly associated with sociodemographic characteristics (e.g., gender, age, city tier) (p < 0.05). The rear seat was preferred in both the conventional (65.6%) and "face-to-face mode" seating configurations (77.6%), largely due to the fact that customers subjectively viewed it as being safer than sitting in a front seat in case of collisions. Despite the current trend of an increasing usage rate of seat belts, 48.5% of respondents preferred to be unrestrained in rear seats, especially for the subgroups who were from less developed cities and with a higher usage rate of public transport (p < 0.01). Low receptiveness to extended restraint and high comfort requirements were confirmed for the young, high-frequency road users, and for those who were from developed areas (p < 0.05).Conclusions: Diversified and specific seating preferences of Chinese occupants were identified facing emerging use of HAVs. Next generation occupant protection systems shall be adapted to account for the individualized expectations and needs on seating designs from certain population groups. Balanced restraint design between safety and comfort was required to exceed the existing strong dependence on exogenous causes of restraint use (e.g., legal restrictions) in Asia.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Veículos Automotores/estatística & dados numéricos , Restrição Física/psicologia , Cintos de Segurança/estatística & dados numéricos , Postura Sentada , Adolescente , Adulto , Automação , Conscientização , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Segurança , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
10.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0227474, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32275666

RESUMO

The traditional full-scan method is commonly used for identifying critical links in road networks. This method simulates each link to be closed iteratively and measures its impact on the efficiency of the whole network. It can accurately identify critical links. However, in this method, traffic assignments are conducted under all scenarios of link disruption, making this process prohibitively time-consuming for large-scale road networks. This paper proposes an approach considering the traffic flow betweenness index (TFBI) to identify critical links, which can significantly reduce the computational burden compared with the traditional full-scan method. The TFBI consists of two parts: traffic flow betweenness and endpoint origin-destination (OD) demand (rerouted travel demand). There is a weight coefficient between these two parts. Traffic flow betweenness is established by considering the shortest travel-time path betweenness, link traffic flow and total OD demand. The proposed approach consists of the following main steps. First, a sample road network is selected to calibrate the weight coefficient between traffic flow betweenness and endpoint OD demand in the TFBI using the network robustness index. This index calculates changes in the whole-system travel time due to each link's closure under the traditional full-scan method. Then, candidate critical links are pre-selected according to the TFBI value of each link. Finally, a given number of real critical links are identified from the candidate critical links using the traditional full-scan method. The applicability and computational efficiency of the TFBI-based approach are demonstrated for the road network in Changchun, China.


Assuntos
Planejamento de Cidades , Modelos Teóricos , Veículos Automotores/estatística & dados numéricos , Viagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Algoritmos , China , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Simulação por Computador , Fatores de Tempo
11.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 88(6): 760-769, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32195995

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Motor vehicle crash (MVC) fatalities have been declining while states passed various legislation targeting driver behaviors. This study assesses the impact of state laws on MVC fatality rates to determine which laws were effective. METHODS: Publically available data were collected on driver-related motor vehicle laws, law strengths, enactment years, and numbers of verified-trauma centers. Prospective data on crash characteristics and MVC fatalities 16 years or older from Fatality Analysis Reporting System 1999 to 2015 (n = 850) were obtained. Generalize Linear Autoregressive Modeling was used to assess the relative contribution of state laws to the crude MVC fatality rate while controlling for other factors. RESULTS: Lowering the minimum blood alcohol content (BAC) was associated with largest declines for all ages, especially the older cohorts: 16 years to 20 years (B = 0.23; p < 0.001), 21 years to 55 years (B = 1.7; p < 0.001); 56 years to 65 years (B = 3.2; p < 0.001); older than 65 years (B = 4.1; p < 0.001). Other driving under the influence laws were also significant. Per se BAC laws accompanying a reduced BAC further contributed to declines in crude fatality rates: 21 years to 55 years (B = -0.13; p < 0.001); older than 65 years (B = -0.17; p < 0.05). Driving under the influence laws enhancing the penalties, making revocation automatic, or targeting social hosts had mixed effects by age. Increased enforcement, mandatory education, vehicle impoundment, interlock devices, and underage alcohol laws showed no association with declining mortality rates. Red light camera and seatbelt laws were associated with declines in mortality rates for all ages except for older than 65 years cohort, but speed camera laws had no effect. Graduated Driver License laws were associated with declines for 16 years to 21 years (B = -0.06; p < 0.001) only. Laws targeting specific risks (elderly, motorcycles, marijuana) showed no effect on declining MVC mortality rates during the study period. CONCLUSION: States have passed a wide variety of laws with varying effectiveness. A few key laws, specifically laws lowering allowable BAC, implementing red light cameras, and mandating seatbelt use significantly reduced MVC mortality rates from 1999 to 2015. Simply adding more laws/penalties may not equate directly to lives saved. Continued research on state laws will better inform policy makers to meet evolving public health needs in the management of MVC fatalities. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Epidemiological, Level III.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/mortalidade , Condução de Veículo/legislação & jurisprudência , Dirigir sob a Influência/legislação & jurisprudência , Veículos Automotores/legislação & jurisprudência , Cintos de Segurança/legislação & jurisprudência , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Condução de Veículo/estatística & dados numéricos , Concentração Alcoólica no Sangue , Dirigir sob a Influência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Veículos Automotores/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos , Cintos de Segurança/estatística & dados numéricos , Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 3316, 2020 02 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32094429

RESUMO

Traffic injury trends have changed with safety developments. To establish effective preventive measures against traffic fatalities, the factors influencing fatalities must be understood. The present study evaluated data from a national medical database to determine the changes in these factors over time, as this has not been previously investigated. This observational study retrospectively analysed data from the Japanese Trauma Data Bank. Vehicle passengers involved in collisions from 2004-2008 and 2016-2017 were included. Data were compared between the two study periods, and between fatal and non-fatal patients within each period. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the factors influencing fatalities. In 2016-2017, patients were older and had lower fatality rates. In 2004-2008, fatalities were more likely to involve older male front-seat passengers with low d-BP, BT, and GCS values, and high AIS of the neck and abdomen. However, in 2016-2017, fatalities were more likely to involve older males with low GCS, high AIS of the abdomen, and positive focused assessment with sonography for trauma results. Our study identified independent factors influencing vehicle passenger fatalities, which will likely continue to evolve with the aging of the population and changing manners of injury.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/mortalidade , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Veículos Automotores/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Fatores de Risco , Sinais Vitais
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31936087

RESUMO

Social and economic burdens caused by truck-involved rear-end collisions are of great concern to public health and the environment. However, few efforts focused on identifying the difference of impacting factors on injury severity between car-strike-truck and truck-strike-car in rear-end collisions. In light of the above, this study focuses on illustrating the impact of variables associated with injury severity in truck-related rear-end crashes. To this end, truck involved rear-end crashes between 2006 and 2015 in the U.S. were obtained. Three random parameters ordered probit models were developed: two separate models for the car-strike-truck crashes and the truck-strike-car crashes, respectively, and one for the combined dataset. The likelihood ratio test was conducted to evaluate the significance of the difference between the models. The results show that there is a significant difference between car-strike-truck and truck-strike-car crashes in terms of contributing factors towards injury severity. In addition, indicators reflecting male, truck, starting or stopped in the road before a crash, and other vehicles stopped in lane show a mixed impact on injury severity. Corresponding implications were discussed according to the findings to reduce the possibility of severe injury in truck-involved rear-end collisions.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Automóveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Veículos Automotores/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
14.
BMC Res Notes ; 13(1): 7, 2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900213

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Motor vehicle crashes are a leading cause of injury death in the United States, and Memorial Day weekend is one of six holiday periods with an increased number of motor vehicle fatalities in the United States. However, few motor vehicle fatality comparisons were made between Memorial Day weekend and non-holiday periods. Our aims were to determine which day(s) during the holiday had highest motor vehicle fatality risk compared to non-holiday travel and to identify potential risk factors. RESULTS: Of 43,457 traffic fatalities studied, 15,292 (35%) occurred during the holiday, with Saturday being deadliest but Monday having highest odds of traffic fatality. Both sexes, all years, age < 65, drivers and passengers, rural and urban, and all regions in the United States were at increased risk during the holiday versus non-holiday periods.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Veículos Automotores/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Intervalos de Confiança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Injury ; 51(2): 271-277, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668353

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The introduction of shared electric scooters (e-scooters) to New Zealand has resulted in a large number of injuries. Within the past year, there have been studies addressing some of the impact of these e-scooter injuries, but none have included outpatient data or total regional costs. METHODS: This was a retrospective review of e-scooter associated injuries presenting to Auckland region healthcare providers in the seven months since their introduction using Accident Compensation Corporation (ACC) Claims data. The type of injuries and key metrics of their overall hospital burden were assessed between September 2018 and April 2019. The financial cost of these injuries was also estimated. RESULTS: A total of 770 patient presentations associated with e-scooters were identified during the study period. Of these, 524 (68.1%) were treated in the community by primary care physicians and 246 (31.9%) were treated in Auckland hospitals. The 246 hospital presentations used a total of 5,569 hospital bed-hours with 75 patients (30.5%) requiring admission and inpatient care. Of the hospital presentations, 49 patients (19.9%) required at least one operation, and 105 (42.7%) required specialist follow up care. 26.8% of injuries were thought to be associated with alcohol use. The estimated injury rate was 60 per 100,000 trips and hospital presentation rate was 20 per 100,000 trips. The combined cost attributable to these injuries was $608,843 (NZD) for Auckland City Hospital and $1,303,155 for the whole Auckland region. CONCLUSIONS: The overall burden of care due to the introduction of e-scooters to New Zealand has had significant impact both on the primary urban trauma center as well as community care facilities. E-scooter related injuries have had a large impact on regional healthcare costs.


Assuntos
Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Veículos Automotores/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/economia , Acidentes/economia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Compensação e Reparação/legislação & jurisprudência , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/tendências , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/etiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
16.
Accid Anal Prev ; 134: 105324, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648116

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Side crashes between vehicles which usually lead to high casualties and property loss, rank first among total crashes in China. This paper aims to identify the factors associated with injury severity of side crashes at intersections and to provide suggestions for developing countermeasures to mitigate the levels of injuries. METHOD: In order to investigate the role of striking and struck vehicles in side crashes simultaneously, bivariate probit model was proposed and Bayesian approach was employed to evaluate the model, compared to the corresponding univariate probit model. DATA: Crash data from Beijing, China for the period 2009-2012 were used to carry out the statistical analysis. Based on the investigation with vehicles and data analysis on events, 130 intersection side crash cases were selected to form a specific dataset. Then, the influence of human, vehicles, roadway and environmental variables on crash severity was examined by means of bivariate probit regression within Bayesian framework. RESULTS: The effects of the factors on striking vehicle drivers and struck vehicle drivers were considered separately and simultaneously to find more targeted conclusions. The statistical analysis revealed vehicle type, lane number, no non-motorized lane and speeding have the corresponding influence on the injury severity of striking vehicles, while time of day and vehicle type of struck vehicles increased the likelihood of being injured. CONCLUSIONS: From the results it can be concluded that there indeed exists correlation between striking and struck vehicles in side crashes, although the correlation is not so strong. Importantly, Bayesian bivariate probit model can address the role of striking and struck vehicles in side crashes simultaneously and can accommodate the correlation clearly, which extends the range of univariate probit analysis. The general and empirical countermeasures are presented to improve the safety at intersections.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Teorema de Bayes , Pequim/epidemiologia , Ambiente Construído/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Veículos Automotores/classificação , Veículos Automotores/estatística & dados numéricos , Probabilidade
17.
Accid Anal Prev ; 135: 105360, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785479

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cycling, as a mode of active transportation, has numerous health and societal benefits, but carries risks of injury when performed on-road with vehicles. Cycle tracks are dedicated lanes with a physical separation or barrier between bicycles and motor vehicles. Studies on the effectiveness of cycle tracks in urban areas in North America, as well as the area-wide effects of cycle tracks are limited. AIMS: Study objectives were to examine the effect of cycle track implementation on cyclist-motor vehicle collisions (CMVC) occurring: (1) on streets treated with new cycle tracks; (2) on streets surrounding new cycle tracks in Toronto, Canada. METHODS: Intervention and outcome data were obtained from the City of Toronto. All police-reported CMVC from 2000 to 2016 were mapped. Analyses were restricted to 2 years pre- and 2 years post-track implementation. Rates were calculated for CMVC on streets with cycle tracks (objective 1) and in five defined areas surrounding cycle tracks (objective 2). Zero-Inflated Poisson regression was used to compare changes to CMVC rates before and after cycle track implementation for both objectives. All models controlled for season of collision and cycle track. RESULTS: The majority of CMVC on cycle tracks occurred at intersections (75%). The crude CMVC rate increased two-fold after cycle track implementation (IRR = 2.06, 95% CI: 1.51-2.81); however, after accounting for the increase in cycling volumes post-implementation, there was a 38% reduction in the CMVC rate per cyclist-month (IRR = 0.62, 95% CI: 0.44-0.89). On streets between 151 m - 550 m from cycle tracks, there was a significant 35% reduction in CMVC rates per km-month following track implementation (IRR = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.54-0.76). CONCLUSIONS: Cycle track implementation was associated with increased safety for cyclists on cycle tracks, after adjusting for cycling volume. In addition, there was a significant reduction in CMVC on streets surrounding cycle tracks between 151 m - 550 m distance from the tracks (a 'safety halo' effect), suggesting an area-wide safety effect of cycle track implementation.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Ciclismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Planejamento Ambiental , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Ciclismo/lesões , Feminino , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Veículos Automotores/estatística & dados numéricos , Ontário/epidemiologia , Segurança , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Accid Anal Prev ; 135: 105355, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31812901

RESUMO

Large truck rollover crashes present significant financial, industrial, and social impacts. This paper presents an effort to investigate the contributing factors to large truck rollover crashes. Specific focus was placed on exploring the role of heterogeneity and the potential sources of heterogeneity regarding their impacts on injury-severity outcomes. The data used in this study contained large truck rollover crashes that occurred between 2007 and 2016 in the state of Florida. A random parameter ordered logit (RPOL) model was applied. Various driver, vehicle, roadway, and crash attributes were explored as potential predictors in the model. Their impacts were examined for the presence of heterogeneity. Interaction effects were then added to the random variables in order to detect potential sources of heterogeneity. Model results showed that the impacts of lighting conditions and driving speed had significant variation across observations, and this variation could be attributed to driver actions and driver conditions at the time of the crash, as well as driver vision obstruction. Findings from this study shed light on the direction, magnitude, and randomness of the factors that contribute to large truck rollover crashes. Findings associated with heterogeneity could help develop more effective and targeted countermeasures to improve freight safety. Driver education programs could be planned more efficiently, and advisory and warning signs could be designed in a more insightful manner by taking into account specific roadway attributes, such as sandy surfaces, downhill, curved alignment, unpaved shoulders, and lighting conditions.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Condução de Veículo/estatística & dados numéricos , Veículos Automotores/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Ambiente Construído , Florida/epidemiologia , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índices de Gravidade do Trauma
19.
Traffic Inj Prev ; 20(sup2): S128-S132, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800326

RESUMO

Objective: Studies of vehicle occupant motions in response to abrupt vehicle maneuvers have demonstrated movements that may result in changes in the level of protection for the occupant if a crash subsequently occurs. The previous studies have typically used a single vehicle. The current study assesses whether the patterns of occupant head movement are different across passenger vehicle types.Method: Data collection was conducted on a closed test track with the same driver for all trials. A passenger sedan, a minivan, and a pickup truck were equipped with inertial measurement units to quantify vehicle dynamics. Head location was tracked using Microsoft Kinect v2 sensor and a novel methodology that fits 3 D head scan data to the depth data acquired in the vehicle. Twelve men and women with a wide range of body size and age were recruited. The primary purpose of the study was obfuscated by telling the participants that the focus was on vehicle ride motion. Participants sat in the right front seat and wore the vehicle belt. The first event during the test track route was a hard brake (approximately 1 g) to a stop from 35 mph (56 kph). Within the space of approximately 5 min the participants also experienced two aggressive, right-going lane changes, a sharp right turn with simultaneous hard braking, and a second hard braking event. The vehicles were presented in random order for each participant. This paper presents comparison across vehicles of head motions in the braking and lane-change maneuvers.Results: Accelerations were similar across the vehicles for both braking and lane-change events. The means (standard deviations) of forward head-CG excursion in the first braking event were 162 (54), 112 (39), and 176 (46) mm for the minivan, passenger car, and truck, respectively. The forward head excursion in the passenger car was found to be significantly smaller than in the other two vehicles using a paired t-test (p < 0.01). Across vehicles, the mean excursion in the second braking exposure was smaller than in the first (p < 0.01). In the first lane change event, the mean (SD) inboard head excursions were 126 (51), 110 (49), and 140 (68) mm; the values were not significantly different across vehicles or in the second lane-change event. A detailed investigation did not reveal an explanation for the smaller head excursions in the passenger car.Discussion: This is the first quantitative occupant kinematics study to compare responses across vehicles. Although a significant difference was found between vehicles, the overall responses are similar to those observed in a previous study.Conclusions: The results confirm previous studies showing large variance in excursions across occupants. Further study is needed to understand the factors that affect responses across vehicles.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Cabeça , Veículos Automotores/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceleração , Adulto , Idoso , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Tamanho Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31877756

RESUMO

This study analyses factors associated with cyclist injury severity, focusing on vehicle type, route environment, and interactions between them. Data analysed was collected by Spanish police during 2016 and includes records relating to 12,318 drivers and cyclist involving in collisions with at least one injured cyclist, of whom 7230 were injured cyclists. Bayesian methods were used to model relationships between cyclist injury severity and circumstances related to the crash, with the outcome variable being whether a cyclist was killed or seriously injured (KSI) rather than slightly injured. Factors in the model included those relating to the injured cyclist, the route environment, and involved motorists. Injury severity among cyclists was likely to be higher where an Heavy Goods Vehicle (HGV) was involved, and certain route conditions (bicycle infrastructure, 30 kph zones, and urban zones) were associated with lower injury severity. Interactions exist between the two: collisions involving large vehicles in lower-risk environments are less likely to lead to KSIs than collisions involving large vehicles in higher-risk environments. Finally, motorists involved in a collision were more likely than the injured cyclists to have committed an error or infraction. The study supports the creation of infrastructure that separates cyclists from motor traffic. Also, action needs to be taken to address motorist behaviour, given the imbalance between responsibility and risk.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Ciclismo/lesões , Meio Ambiente , Veículos Automotores/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Teorema de Bayes , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Veículos Automotores/classificação , Polícia , Espanha , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA