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1.
J Sports Sci ; 38(4): 383-389, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31818198

RESUMO

The purpose of this study is to establish evidence of validity for wearable activity monitors providing real-time cadence against a criterion measure. Thirty-six healthy adults, aged 18-65 years, participated in the study. Four activity monitors including 2 watch-based monitors and 2 cadence sensors attaching to shoelaces were tested. Each participant completed the study protocol consisting of 2 distinct components: (1) treadmill protocol and (2) overground protocol. Lin's concordance correlation and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) were calculated for the comparisons between the criterion and measures of the monitors. Bland-Altman analysis was performed to determine the mean bias and 95% limits of agreement. All activity monitors showed high correlations with the criterion measures (p < .01). Lower correlations were observed at slow walking speeds in the watch-based monitors. In contrast, consistent and strong correlations were found with both cadence sensors regardless of walking speeds (p < .01). Similar patterns were observed in the MAPE scores. Greater than 90% of the participants were able to maintain prescribed walking intensity using real-time cadence. The results suggest that the wearable activity monitors are an acceptable measure of real-time cadence and provide the potential to improve intensity-based prescription of physical activity using the monitors.


Assuntos
Monitores de Aptidão Física , Velocidade de Caminhada/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Corrida/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Gait Posture ; 75: 142-148, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683184

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A relationship exists between step width and energy expenditure, yet the contribution of dynamic stability to energy expenditure is not completely understood. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients' energy expenditure is increased due to airway obstruction. Further, they have a higher prevalence of falls and balance deficits compared to controls. RESEARCH QUESTION: Is dynamic stability different between COPD patients and controls; and is the association between dynamic stability and energy expenditure different between groups? METHODS: Seventeen COPD patients (64.3 ±â€¯7.6years) and 23 controls (59.9 ±â€¯6.6years) walked on a treadmill at three speeds: self-selected walking speed (SSWS), -20%SSWS, and +20%SSWS. Mean and variability (standard deviation) of the anterior-posterior (AP) and medio-lateral (ML) margins of stability (MOS) were compared between groups and speed conditions, while controlling for covariates. Additionally, their association to metabolic power was examined. RESULTS: The association between stability and power did not significantly differ between groups. However, increased metabolic power was associated with decreased MOS AP mean (p < 0.0001), independent of speed. Increased MOS AP variability (p = 0.01) and increased SSWS (p's < 0.05) were associated with increased metabolic power. The MOS ML mean for COPD patients was greater than that of healthy patients (p = 0.02). MOS AP mean decreased as speed increased and differed by group (p = 0.048). For COPD patients, a plateau was observed at SSWS and did not decrease further at +20%SSWS compared to controls. MOS AP variability (p < 0.0001), MOS ML mean (p < 0.0001), and MOS ML variability (p = 0.003) decreased as speed increased and did not differ by group. SIGNIFICANCE: Patients with COPD operate at the upper limit of their metabolic reserve due to an increased cost of breathing. To compensate for their lack of stability, they walked with larger margins of stability in the ML direction, instead of changing the stability margins in the AP direction, due to its association with energy expenditure.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Caminhada/fisiologia , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Velocidade de Caminhada/fisiologia
3.
Gait Posture ; 75: 155-162, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698186

RESUMO

Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can exhibit a range of movement issues, which are often characterized by a general slowing of movement responses that can extend to walking speed. The current study was designed to examine the spatio-temporal features and pattern of acceleration for the trunk, neck and head during walking for a cohort of adults with ASD compared to neurotypical individuals. Twenty young adults with ASD and 20 age-matched neurotypical adults participated in this study. Participants performed five walking trials across a 20ft Protokinetics pressure sensitive surface at their preferred walking speed. Accelerations were collected using three triaxial accelerometers affixed to the head, neck, and lower trunk. Comparisons of acceleration amplitude (i.e., RMS), frequency, segmental gain and regularity (i.e., SampEn) during the walking tasks were performed. Results revealed that the adults with ASD walked slower than the neurotypical persons with a greater proportion of time spent in double stance. Despite walking at a slower pace overall, the adults with ASD exhibited a decreased ability to attenuate gait-related oscillations from the trunk to the head. Overall, these findings suggest that adults with ASD exhibited a decreased ability to accommodate and dampen those accelerations related to walking. As declines in gait speed are often linked with loss of head control, one suggestion is that the inability to appropriately compensate for gait-related oscillations may, in part, explain why persons with ASD walk slower.


Assuntos
Aceleração , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Marcha/fisiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Cabeça/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pescoço/fisiologia , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Tronco/fisiologia , Velocidade de Caminhada/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(50): e18286, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852105

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Spinal cord injury (SCI) patients who experience difficulties with independent walking use gait-assistive devices such as a cane, walker, or wheelchair. Few studies have explored gait patterns or cardiopulmonary function in chronic SCI patients after powered exoskeleton training. We investigated whether the cardiopulmonary function of a patient with an incomplete chronic cervical SCI and a hemiplegic gait pattern could be improved by walking training using a powered exoskeleton (Angelegs). PATIENT CONCERNS: A 57-year-old male was diagnosed with an SCI at C3-C4. The right upper and lower limb motor functions differed when evaluated before entry into the program. Motor function was good in the right leg but poor in the left one. Before program entry, the patient could walk for about 10 m using a cane. He did not have a history of severe medical or psychological problems and was not cognitively impaired. DIAGNOSIS: The patient was tetraplegia with incomplete SCI at C3-C4. INTERVENTIONS: The patient was trained for 6 weeks using a powered exoskeleton. The training program consisted of sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit movements, maintenance of balanced standing for 5 minutes, and walking for 15 minutes. OUTCOMES: After 6 weeks of training, gait speed improved in the timed up-and-go test, and cardiac function was enhanced as measured by the metabolic equivalent and VO2 tests. LESSIONS: Walking training using a powered exoskeleton can facilitate the effective rehabilitation and improve the gait speed and cardiopulmonary function of patients with chronic SCIs or strokes.


Assuntos
Vértebras Cervicais/lesões , Terapia por Exercício/instrumentação , Exoesqueleto Energizado , Extremidade Inferior/fisiopatologia , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/reabilitação , Velocidade de Caminhada/fisiologia , Caminhada/fisiologia , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/fisiopatologia
5.
Hum Mov Sci ; 68: 102540, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683084

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With increases in life expectancy, it is important to understand the influence of aging on gait, given that this activity is related to the independence of older adults and may help in the development of health strategies that encourage successful aging in all phases of this process. RESEARCH QUESTION: To compare gait parameters with usual and fast speeds for independent and autonomous older adults throughout the aging process (60 to 102 years old), and also to identify which of the gait variables are best for identifying differences across the different age groups. METHODS: Two hundred older adults aged between 60 and 102 years were evaluated. The sample was divided into 3 age groups: 60 to 79 years, 80 to 89 years and 90 years and over. The analyzed gait variables were: speed (meters/s), cadence (steps/min), stride time (seconds), step length (centimeters), double support (percentage of the gait cycle), swing (percentage of the gait cycle), step length variability (CoV%) and stride time variability (CoV%). RESULTS: Group comparison regarding usual gait and fast gait revealed a significant difference in all gait variables. In addition, it can be seen that variables such as gait speed and step length showed greater effect sizes in intergroup comparison (usual gait: 0.48 and 0.47; fast gait: 0.36 and 0.40; respectively), possibly showing that these variables can better detect the changes observed with increasing age. CONCLUSION: There are differences in the gait performance of older adults from different age groups for usual and fast gait speeds, which is more evident regarding gait speed and step length variables. We recommend the use of usual gait for the identification of the effects of aging because, besides showing a higher effect size values it is more comfortable and requires less effort from older subjects.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Marcha/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Velocidade de Caminhada/fisiologia
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(45): e17882, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31702661

RESUMO

The asymmetry in lower extremity strength is known to be related to the functional mobility in older adults living in the community. However, little is known about the association between lower extremity lean mass asymmetry and functional mobility in this patient group. Hence, this study aimed to determine whether asymmetry in lower extremity muscle mass has a significant relationship with functional mobility in older adults living in the community.This cross-sectional study analyzed the pre-existing data from the Korean Frailty and Aging Cohort Study. A total of 435 older people (aged 70-84 years) were divided into the following groups according to their Limb Asymmetry Index (LAsI): low, intermediate, and high asymmetric groups. LAsI is calculated using lower extremity lean mass, and comparisons between groups were conducted. The participants were also further divided into better and worse mobility groups based on their physical performance test results (Timed Up and Go and Short Physical Performance Battery), and comparisons between groups were conducted. Comparisons between fallers and non-fallers were also conducted. In addition, this study investigated the factors that had a significant effect on gait speed and fall experience within the past year among older adults living in the community.The LAsI was significantly associated with gait speed in older adults living in the community. Older adults in the highest tertile of the LAsI had a slower gait speed than those in the lowest tertile of the LAsI. However, no significant difference was observed in the LAsI between the better mobility group and worse mobility group. Moreover, the LAsI was not a significant predictor of falls.Asymmetry in lower extremity lean mass was significantly associated with gait speed in older adults living in the community.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Composição Corporal , Extremidade Inferior/patologia , Força Muscular , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Fragilidade/complicações , Fragilidade/fisiopatologia , Avaliação Geriátrica/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , República da Coreia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Velocidade de Caminhada/fisiologia
7.
Bone Joint J ; 101-B(11): 1459-1463, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31674236

RESUMO

AIMS: Rotational acetabular osteotomy (RAO) is an effective joint-preserving surgical treatment for acetabular dysplasia. The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in muscle strength, gait speed, and clinical outcome in the operated hip after RAO over a one-year period using a standard protocol for rehabilitation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 57 patients underwent RAO for acetabular dysplasia. Changes in muscle strength of the operated hip, 10 m gait speed, Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) hip score, and factors correlated with hip muscle strength after RAO were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: Three months postoperatively, the strength of the operated hip in flexion and abduction and gait speed had decreased from their preoperative levels. After six months, the strength of flexion and abduction had recovered to their preoperative level, as had gait speed. At one-year follow-up, significant improvements were seen in the strength of hip abduction and gait speed, but muscle strength in hip flexion remained at the preoperative level. The mean JOA score for hip function was 91.4 (51 to 100)) at one-year follow-up. Body mass index (BMI) showed a negative correlation with both strength of hip flexion (r = -0.4203) and abduction (r = -0.4589) one year after RAO. Although weak negative correlations were detected between strength of hip flexion one year after surgery and age (r = -0.2755) and centre-edge (CE) angle (r = -0.2989), no correlation was found between the strength of abduction and age and radiological evaluations of CE angle and acetabular roof obliquity (ARO). CONCLUSION: Hip muscle strength and gait speed had recovered to their preoperative levels six months after RAO. The clinical outcome at one year was excellent, although the strength of hip flexion did not improve to the same degree as that of hip abduction and gait speed. A higher BMI may result in poorer recovery of hip muscle strength after RAO. Radiologically, acetabular coverage did not affect the recovery of hip muscle strength at one year's follow-up. A more intensive rehabilitation programme may improve this. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2019;101-B:1459-1463.


Assuntos
Acetábulo/cirurgia , Luxação do Quadril/fisiopatologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Osteotomia/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Marcha/fisiologia , Luxação do Quadril/cirurgia , Articulação do Quadril/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteotomia/reabilitação , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Velocidade de Caminhada/fisiologia , Suporte de Carga/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Bone Joint J ; 101-B(11): 1423-1430, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31674240

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study was to assess the functional gain achieved following hip resurfacing arthroplasty (HRA). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 28 patients (23 male, five female; mean age, 56 years (25 to 73)) awaiting Birmingham HRA volunteered for this prospective gait study, with an age-matched control group of 26 healthy adults (16 male, ten female; mean age, 56 years (33 to 84)). The Oxford Hip Score (OHS) and gait analysis using an instrumented treadmill were used preoperatively and more than two years postoperatively to measure the functional change attributable to the intervention. RESULTS: The mean OHS improved significantly from 27 to 46 points (p < 0.001) at a mean of 29 months (12 to 60) after HRA. The mean metal ion levels at a mean 32 months (13 to 60) postoperatively were 1.71 (0.77 to 4.83) µg/l (ppb) and 1.77 (0.68 to 4.16) µg/l (ppb) for cobalt and chromium, respectively. When compared with healthy controls, preoperative patients overloaded the contralateral good hip, limping significantly. After HRA, patients walked at high speeds, with symmetrical gait, statistically indistinguishable from healthy controls over almost all characteristics. The control group could only be distinguished by an increased push-off force at higher speeds, which may reflect the operative approach. CONCLUSION: Patients undergoing HRA improved their preoperative gait pattern of a significant limp to a symmetrical gait at high speeds and on inclines, almost indistinguishable from normal controls. HRA with an approved device offers substantial functional gains, almost indistinguishable from healthy controls. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2019;101-B:1423-1430.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril/métodos , Marcha/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Análise da Marcha/instrumentação , Análise da Marcha/métodos , Articulação do Quadril/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoartrite do Quadril/fisiopatologia , Osteoartrite do Quadril/cirurgia , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/instrumentação , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Radiografia , Velocidade de Caminhada/fisiologia
9.
Hum Mov Sci ; 68: 102527, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689575

RESUMO

Arm swing asymmetry is commonly observed in early Parkinson's disease (PD) and has been found to be useful for early diagnosis. However, there are uncertainties about the nature of its relationships with gait parameters, especially shoulder and elbow motions. Therefore, this study explored how these relationships are different between PD and controls. Forty one early PD and 23 controls were included. Participants walked at self-selected speed for 3D motion analysis. Arm swing at the wrist (AS), temporospatial parameters and kinematics in elbow, shoulder and trunk were obtained. Amplitudes and asymmetries of these variables were compared between PD and control groups. PD group showed increased AS asymmetry, compared to controls. Multiple hierarchical regression analysis on AS asymmetry was conducted in order to investigate how PD influences on the relationship between AS asymmetry and other variables. In pooled data (PD and control group), asymmetries in elbow and shoulder range of motion (RoM) were significant predictors for AS asymmetry but walking speed and asymmetries in temporospatial parameters were not significant. Group effect (PD effect) was significantly mediated by only elbow RoM asymmetry. Interaction between group and elbow RoM asymmetry was statistically significant, indicating that group was an effect modifier for elbow RoM asymmetry effect on AS asymmetry. Conclusively, arm swing asymmetry measured at the wrist represents the involvement of PD effect on the unilateral and distal upper limb in early stage. These findings are helpful for future researches related to clinical applications and mechanisms of arm swing asymmetry in PD.


Assuntos
Braço/fisiopatologia , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Caminhada/fisiologia , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Articulação do Cotovelo/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Marcha/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Movimento/fisiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Articulação do Ombro/fisiopatologia , Tronco/fisiopatologia , Velocidade de Caminhada/fisiologia
10.
Hum Mov Sci ; 68: 102524, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733429

RESUMO

In computational models of human walking, both magnitude and timing of locomotor propulsion are important for mechanical and metabolic efficiency, suggesting that these are likely tightly controlled by the neuromuscular system. Studies of actual human walking have focused primarily on magnitude-related measures of propulsion, often ignoring its timing. The purpose of this study was to quantify the timing of onset and peak propulsion relative to contralateral heel strike (HS) in healthy, young adults walking at multiple speeds. Propulsion was quantified at the ground-level using the anterior component of the anteroposterior ground reaction force, the limb-level using individual limb power, and the joint-level using ankle power. Contrary to common computational models, most of our timing-related measures indicated that propulsion occurred after contralateral HS. Timing-related measures of propulsion also changed with walking speed - as speed increased, individuals initiated propulsion earlier in the support phase. Timing of locomotor propulsion is theoretically important for walking performance, especially metabolic efficiency, and could therefore provide important clinical information. This study provides a set of relatively simple metrics that can be used to quantify propulsion and benchmark data that can be used for future comparisons with individuals or populations with gait impairments.


Assuntos
Caminhada/fisiologia , Adulto , Articulação do Tornozelo/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos/fisiologia , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Feminino , Calcanhar/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Velocidade de Caminhada/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Frailty Aging ; 8(4): 205-209, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637407

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sedentary lifestyle leads to worse health outcomes with aging, including frailty. Older adults can benefit from regular physical activity, but exercise promotion in the clinical setting is challenging. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this clinical demonstration project was to implement a Geriatric Walking Clinic for older adults and determine whether this clinical program can lead to improvements in characteristics of frailty. DESIGN: This was a clinical demonstration project/quality improvement project. SETTING: Outpatient geriatrics clinic at the South Texas Veterans Health Care System (STVHCS). PARTICIPANTS: Older Veterans, aged ≥60 years. INTERVENTION: A 6-week structured walking program, delivered by a registered nurse and geriatrician. Patients received a pedometer and a comprehensive safety evaluation at an initial face-to-face visit. They were subsequently followed with weekly phone calls and participated in a final face-to-face follow-up visit at 6 weeks. MEASUREMENTS: Grip strength (handheld dynamometer), gait speed (10-ft walk), Timed Up and Go (TUG), and body mass index (BMI) were assessed at baseline and follow-up. Frailty status for gait speed was assessed using Fried criteria. RESULTS: One hundred eighty five patients completed the program (mean age: 68.4 ±7 years, 88% male). Improvements from baseline to follow-up were observed in average steps/day, gait speed, TUG, and BMI. Improvement in gait speed (1.13 ±0.20 vs. 1.24 ± 0.23 meter/second, p<0.0001) resulted in reduced odds of meeting frailty criteria for slow gait at follow-up compared to the baseline examination (odds ratio = 0.31, 95% confidence interval: 0.13-0.72, p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that a short duration, low-intensity walking intervention improves gait speed and TUG. This new clinical model may be useful for the promotion of physical activity, and for the prevention or amelioration of frailty characteristics in older adults.


Assuntos
Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Fragilidade/prevenção & controle , Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos , Caminhada/fisiologia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento , Velocidade de Caminhada/fisiologia
12.
Nat Med ; 25(9): 1356-1363, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501600

RESUMO

Conventional leg prostheses do not convey sensory information about motion or interaction with the ground to above-knee amputees, thereby reducing confidence and walking speed in the users that is associated with high mental and physical fatigue1-4. The lack of physiological feedback from the remaining extremity to the brain also contributes to the generation of phantom limb pain from the missing leg5,6. To determine whether neural sensory feedback restoration addresses these issues, we conducted a study with two transfemoral amputees, implanted with four intraneural stimulation electrodes7 in the remaining tibial nerve (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT03350061). Participants were evaluated while using a neuroprosthetic device consisting of a prosthetic leg equipped with foot and knee sensors. These sensors drive neural stimulation, which elicits sensations of knee motion and the sole of the foot touching the ground. We found that walking speed and self-reported confidence increased while mental and physical fatigue decreased for both participants during neural sensory feedback compared to the no stimulation trials. Furthermore, participants exhibited reduced phantom limb pain with neural sensory feedback. The results from these proof-of-concept cases provide the rationale for larger population studies investigating the clinical utility of neuroprostheses that restore sensory feedback.


Assuntos
Amputados/reabilitação , Membros Artificiais , Joelho/fisiopatologia , Membro Fantasma/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Retroalimentação Sensorial , Humanos , Joelho/inervação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Membro Fantasma/fisiopatologia , Velocidade de Caminhada/fisiologia
13.
J Sports Sci ; 37(23): 2751-2758, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506039

RESUMO

This study used the intensity gradient (IG) and average acceleration metrics to describe children's activity profiles and explore associations with body mass index (BMI) z-score. Two hundred and forty-six children (n = 138 girls) aged 9.6 ± 1.4 years wore a wrist-mounted ActiGraph wGT3X-BT accelerometer for 7 days on their non-dominant wrist. Physical activity (PA) metrics captured included: the IG which describes the intensity distribution of accelerations across the 24 h monitoring period; average acceleration which provides a measure of the volume of activity; total moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and inactive time. Acceleration was averaged over 5s epochs. Finally, BMI z-score was calculated for each participant. Average acceleration was negatively associated with BMI z-score (p < 0.05) independent of age and gender but not IG. The IG was negatively associated with BMI z-score independent of potential correlates and average acceleration. Total MVPA was not associated with BMI-z score. The IG and average acceleration metrics may be used to explore the independent or cumulative effects of the volume and intensity distribution of activity upon measures of health and well-being in children to inform specific activity recommendations.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Exercício/fisiologia , Aceleração , Actigrafia/instrumentação , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Monitores de Aptidão Física , Humanos , Masculino , Análise de Regressão , Corrida/fisiologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Velocidade de Caminhada/fisiologia
14.
Gait Posture ; 74: 162-168, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525654

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Decreased muscular strength and poorer postural stability impact the physical function of breast cancer survivors (BCS) and increases their risk of falls. Gait assessment, particularly in the backward direction, is often used as an indicator of fall risk in several populations. However this information is unknown in BCS. RESEARCH QUESTION: What are the differences in forward, backward, and accelerated forward walking in BCS in comparison to individuals without a prior cancer diagnosis? METHODS: 17 postmenopausal BCS (mean age: 58.5 (8.5) years) and 17 age-matched women without a prior cancer diagnosis (mean age: 59.11 (5.55) years) completed 5 trials each of forward, backward, and fast forward walking conditions. Absolute (Means) and variability (Coefficient of variation) estimates were obtained for spatio-temporal gait parameters. Lower body, upper body and handgrip strengths were measured. RESULTS: For absolute estimates of gait, significant group main effects indicated that BCS had 7% shorter step length (P = 0.019) and 8% slower gait speed (P = 0.048). For variability estimates of gait, there was a significant interaction for stance time (P = 0.035). BCS had greater stance time variability during forward and fast forward conditions, but lesser variability during backward condition. Averaged across all the conditions, BCS had 38% greater step length variability (P = 0.043), 50% greater gait speed variability (P = 0.028), and 28.5% greater single support time variability (P = 0.004). Averaged across both the groups, all the variables except for swing time variability were significantly different among the conditions (all P< = 0.013). BCS also had significantly reduced upper body strength (P = 0.036). SIGNIFICANCE: Slower and shorter steps while walking both forwards and backwards could be indicative of a more cautious gait strategy by BCS. Also, BCS possibly focused on controlling spatial parameters during forward walking but temporal parameters while backward walking. Whether these alterations are related to an increased fall risk within BCS needs to be determined.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/fisiopatologia , Marcha/fisiologia , Caminhada/fisiologia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Velocidade de Caminhada/fisiologia
15.
Gait Posture ; 74: 169-175, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525655

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individuals with CAI have demonstrated a more inverted foot position during walking when compared to a healthy control group. Copers are individuals who have had an ankle sprain but learn to cope and return to pre-injury levels of function and may be a better comparison group than healthy controls because they have had the same initial injury. RESEARCH QUESTION: A controlled laboratory study was performed to simultaneously analyze differences in lower extremity walking gait kinematics, kinetics, and surface electromyography (EMG) between individuals with CAI and copers at a preferred walking speed (PWS), 120% preferred walking speed (120WS), and standardized walking speed (SWS) of 1.34 m/s. METHODS: Thirty-six (18 coper, 18 CAI) physically active individuals participated. Three-dimensional kinematics and kinetics at the ankle, knee, and hip and EMG amplitude for fibularis longus, tibialis anterior, medial gastrocnemius, and gluteus medius muscles were analyzed. Ten consecutive strides from each speed were analyzed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). A 2 × 3 group by speed ANOVA and post-hoc t-tests were used to compare differences between the coper and CAI groups. RESULTS: The CAI group had more ankle inversion at IC (PWS: MD = 4.2°, d = 1.08; 120WS: MD = 5.0°, d = 1.28; SWS: MD = 6.6°, d = 1.37) and greater peak inversion throughout swing at all three walking speeds (PWS: MD = 4.2°, d = 0.89; 120WS: MD = 4.4°, d = 0.91; SWS: MD = 6.2°, d = 1.21). The CAI group had greater peak hip adduction during swing (PWS: MD = 4.5°, d = 0.96; 120WS: MD = 4.1°, d = 1.04; SWS: MD = 3.6°, d = 0.98). SIGNIFICANCE: The CAI group demonstrated greater ankle inversion at IC and during the swing phase and greater peak hip adduction during the swing phase compared to the copers. As the speed increased, ankle inversion in the CAI group also increased which could be linked to greater risk of recurrent sprains. Therefore, modeling gait training programs after the coper mechanics may be advantageous.


Assuntos
Traumatismos do Tornozelo/fisiopatologia , Articulação do Tornozelo/fisiopatologia , Marcha/fisiologia , Instabilidade Articular/fisiopatologia , Velocidade de Caminhada/fisiologia , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Eletromiografia/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Hum Mov Sci ; 67: 102517, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525664

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most stroke patients exhibit low levels of walking activity, a key component of secondary stroke prevention. The predictors of walking activity may be multifactorial and are thus far partially understood. We aimed to study the neuroanatomic correlates of low levels of daily walking activity following hemispheric stroke. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 33 community-dwelling stroke survivors (age: 63.9 ±â€¯12.9 years; % female: 36.4%; NIHSS at admission: 3.3 ±â€¯4.0) were prospectively recruited at least 3 months after a first ever, unilateral, supratentorial stroke confirmed by brain magnetic resonance imaging. Walking activity was measured by daily step counts (steps∙day-1), recorded using an Actigraph GT3x+ triaxial accelerometer over 7 consecutive days. Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping was performed to identify brain areas associated with walking activity following stroke. RESULTS: Participants presented 4491.9 ±â€¯2473.7 steps∙day-1. Lower levels of walking activity were related to lesions of the posterior part of the putamen, of the posterior limb of the internal capsule and of the anterior part of the corona radiata. No cortical region was associated with walking activity. CONCLUSIONS: Our preliminary results identify subcortical neuroanatomical correlates for reduced walking activity following stroke. If confirmed, these results could serve as a rationale for the development of targeted rehabilitative strategy to improve mobility after stroke.


Assuntos
Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Caminhada/fisiologia , Atividades Cotidianas , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/métodos , Velocidade de Caminhada/fisiologia
17.
Gait Posture ; 74: 83-86, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491564

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a clinical need to be able to reliably detect meaningful changes (0.1 to 0.2 m/s) in usual gait speed (UGS) considering reduced gait speed is associated with morbidity and mortality. RESEARCH QUESTION: What is the impact of tester on UGS assessment, and the influence of test repetition (trial 1 vs. 2), timing method (manual stopwatch vs. automated timing), and starting condition (stationary vs. dynamic start) on the ability to detect changes in UGS and fast gait speed (FGS)? METHODS: UGS and FGS was assessed in 725 participants on a 8-m course with infrared timing gates positioned at 0, 2, 4 and 6 m. Testing was performed by one of 13 testers trained by a single researcher. Time to walk 4-m from a stationary start (i.e. from 0-m to 4-m) was measured manually using a stopwatch and automatically via the timing gates at 0-m and 4-m. Time taken to walk 4-m with a dynamic start was measured during the same trial by recording the time to walk between the timing gates at 2-m and 6-m (i.e. after 2-m acceleration). RESULTS: Testers differed for UGS measured using manual vs. automated timing (p = 0.02), with five and two testers recording slower and faster UGS using manual timing, respectively. 95% limits of agreement for trial 1 vs. 2, manual vs. automated timing, and dynamic vs. stationary start ranged from ±0.15 m/s to ±0.20 m/s, coinciding with the range for a clinically meaningful change. Limits of agreement for FGS were larger ranging from ±0.26 m/s to ±0.35 m/s. SIGNIFICANCE: Repeat testing of UGS should performed by the same tester or using an automated timing method to control for tester effects. Test protocol should remain constant both between and within participants as protocol deviations may result in detection of an artificial clinically meaningful change.


Assuntos
Análise da Marcha/métodos , Marcha/fisiologia , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Velocidade de Caminhada/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modalidades de Fisioterapia/normas , Adulto Jovem
18.
Obes Facts ; 12(5): 543-553, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505515

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The preferred walking speed (PWS), also known as the "spontaneous" or "self-selected" walking speed, is the speed normally used during daily living activities and may represent an appropriate exercise intensity for weight reduction programs aiming to enhance a more negative energy balance. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine, simultaneously, the energetics, mechanics, and perceived exertion determinants of PWS in individuals with obesity. METHODS: Twenty-three adults with obesity (age 32.7 ± 6.8 years, body mass index 33.6 ± 2.6 kg/m2) were recruited. The participants performed 10 min of treadmill familiarization, and PWS was determined. Each subject performed six 5-min walking trials (PWS 0.56, 0.83, 1.11, 1.39, and 1.67 m/s). Gas exchanges were collected and analyzed to obtain the gross energy cost of walking (GCw), rated perceived exertion (RPE) was measured using a 6-20 Borg scale, and the external mechanical work (Wext) and the fraction of mechanical energy recovered by the pendular mechanism (Recovery) were computed using an instrumented treadmill. Second-order least-squares regression was used to calculate the optimal walking speed (OWS) of each variable. RESULTS: No significant difference was found between PWS (1.28 ± 0.13 m/s) and OWS for GCw (1.28 ± 0.10 m/s), RPE cost of walking (1.38 ± 0.14 m/s), and Recovery (1.48 ± 0.27 m/s; p > 0.06 for all), but the PWS was significantly faster than the OWS for Wext (0.98 ± 0.56 m/s; p < 0.02). Multiple regression (r = 0.72; p = 0.003) showed that ∼52% of the variance in PWS was explained by Recovery, Wext, and height. CONCLUSION: The main finding of this study was that obese adults may select their PWS in function of several competing demands, since this speed simultaneously minimizes pendular energy transduction, energy cost, and perceived exertion during walking. Moreover, recovery of mechanical work, external work, and height seem to be the major determinants of PWS in these individuals.


Assuntos
Obesidade , Preferência do Paciente , Velocidade de Caminhada/fisiologia , Caminhada/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Obesidade/terapia , Consumo de Oxigênio , Preferência do Paciente/psicologia , Percepção/fisiologia , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Programas de Redução de Peso , Adulto Jovem
19.
Fisioter. Pesqui. (Online) ; 26(3): 304-310, jul.-set. 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039885

RESUMO

RESUMO A velocidade da marcha (VM) tem sido considerada um marcador de saúde em idosos capaz de predizer desfechos adversos de saúde, mas a compreensão de fatores associados a ela ainda é limitada e controversa. O objetivo deste trabalho é identificar desfechos adversos de saúde relacionados ao declínio da velocidade de marcha em idosos comunitários. Trata-se de estudo transversal e multicêntrico, que avaliou o autorrelato de doenças crônicas e de hospitalização no último ano, polifarmácia e velocidade de marcha. Utilizou-se análise de regressão logística para estimar os efeitos de cada variável independente na chance de os idosos apresentarem declínio na velocidade de marcha inferior (VM<0,8m/s) (α=0,05). Participaram da pesquisa 5.501 idosos. A menor velocidade da marcha mostrou-se associada a portadores de doenças cardíacas (OR=2,06; IC: 1,67-2,54), respiratórias (OR=3,25; IC: 2,02-5,29), reumáticas (OR=2,16; IC: 1,79-2,52) e/ou depressão (OR=2,51; IC: 2,10-3,14), hospitalizados no último ano (OR=1,51; IC: 1,21-1,85) e polifarmácia (OR=2,14; IC: 1,80-2,54). Assim, os resultados indicaram que idosos com velocidade de marcha menor que 0,8m/s apresentam maior risco de eventos adversos de saúde. Dessa forma, sugere-se que a velocidade de marcha não seja negligenciada na avaliação de idosos comunitários, inclusive na atenção básica.


RESUMEN La velocidad de la marcha (VM) se ha considerado un marcador de salud en los ancianos capaz de predecir resultados adversos en la salud, pero la comprensión de sus factores asociados todavía es limitada y controvertida. El presente estudio tiene como objetivo identificar los resultados adversos para la salud relacionados con la disminución de la velocidad de la marcha en los ancianos comunitarios. Se trata de un estudio transversal y multicéntrico, el que evaluó el autoinforme de enfermedades crónicas y de la hospitalización en el último año, la polifarmacia y la velocidad de la marcha. Se utilizó el análisis de regresión logística para estimar los efectos de cada variable independiente sobre la posibilidad de que los ancianos presenten una disminución más baja en la velocidad de la marcha (VM<0,8 m/s) (α=0,05). Participaron en el estudio 5.501 ancianos. La velocidad de marcha más baja estuvo asociada a portadores de enfermedades cardíacas (OR=2,06; IC: 1,67-2,54), respiratorias (OR=3,25; IC: 2,02-5,29), reumáticas (OR=2,16; IC: 1,79-2,52) y/o depresión (OR=2,51; IC: 2,10-3,14), hospitalizados en el último año (OR=1,51; IC: 1,21-1,85) y polifarmacia (OR=2,14; IC: 1,80-2,54). De esta manera, los resultados indicaron que los ancianos con velocidades de marcha por debajo de 0,8m/s presentan un mayor riesgo de eventos adversos para la salud. Por lo tanto, se sugiere que la velocidad de la marcha no debe ser descuidada en la evaluación de ancianos comunitarios, incluso en la atención primaria.


Abstract Gait speed (GS) can predict adverse health outcomes. However, an understanding of its associated factors is still limited and with some controversy. The objective of this study was to identify adverse health outcomes related to the decline in gait speed in community-dwelling older adults. This is a cross-sectional study that evaluated records of chronic diseases and hospitalization in the last year, polypharmacy, and gait speed. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the effects of each independent variable on the chance of older adults presenting a decline in gait speed (GS<0.8 m/s) (α=5%). In total, 5,501 older adults participated. Brazilian older adults with heart diseases (OR=2.06; 1.67-2.54 CI), respiratory diseases (OR=3.25; 2.02-5.29 CI), rheumatic (OR=2.16; 1.79-2.52 CI) and/ or depression diseases (OR=2.51; 2.10-3.14 CI); hospitalized in the last year (OR=1.51; 1.21-1.85 CI) and under polypharmacy (OR=2.14; 1.80-2.54 CI) were associated with lower gait speed. Thus, the results showed that those with gait speed lower than 0.8 m/s are at higher risk of some adverse health events. Therefore, it is suggested that gait speed should not be neglected in the evaluation in community-dwelling older adults, including basic health care.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Saúde do Idoso , Velocidade de Caminhada/fisiologia , Brasil , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Doença Crônica , Estudos Transversais , Fatores de Risco
20.
Clin Interv Aging ; 14: 1265-1276, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31371932

RESUMO

Background: Gait measures such as gait speed, stride length, step width, and stance duration change with advanced age and are associated with adverse health outcomes among older adults. The stride-to-stride variabilities of gait measures are also related to falls and cognitive decline in older adults; however, reference values of these gait parameters in older Japanese adults do not exist. This study aimed to determine the reference values of gait parameters as measured by a plantar pressure platform in community-dwelling older Japanese adults. Methods: Community-dwelling adults (N=1,212) who were independent in basic activities of daily living and aged 70-96 years (491 men, 721 women) completed the gait performance measurement in a geriatric health assessment. We assessed 10 gait performance measures with a plantar pressure platform system (P-WALK, BTS Bioengineering) and calculated means and coefficient of variations (CVs) of the gait measures as well as quintiles for those gait parameters per age group among men and women. Results: Mean (SDs) of gait speed, stride length, step width, and stance durations were 1.26 (0.24) meters per second (m/s), 121.9 (19.8) cm, 24.0 (3.2) cm, and 552.4 (60.4) milliseconds (ms), respectively, in men, and 1.27 (0.21) m/s, 115.7 (16.3) cm, 17.9 (2.8) cm, and 517.6 (59.8) ms, respectively, in women. Mean of CVs (SD) of stride length, step width, and single-stance duration were 2.76 (1.35), 12.06 (3.98), and 5.74 (2.66), respectively, in men and 2.69 (1.24), 15.65 (4.53), and 5.77 (2.40), respectively, in women. Gait parameters (except CVs of step width) declined significantly with age regardless of gender (P< 0.01 for trends). Conclusion: This study determined age group dependent gait parameter reference values, presented as means with quintile ranges, in community-dwelling older Japanese adults. These reference values may be useful metrics for gait assessment in the elderly.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Vida Independente , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Velocidade de Caminhada/fisiologia , Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica/métodos , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Valores de Referência , Características de Residência
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