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1.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 10: CD002271, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Respiratory distress, particularly respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), is the single most important cause of morbidity and mortality in preterm infants. In infants with progressive respiratory insufficiency, intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) with surfactant has been the usual treatment, but it is invasive, potentially resulting in airway and lung injury. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has been used for the prevention and treatment of respiratory distress, as well as for the prevention of apnoea, and in weaning from IPPV. Its use in the treatment of RDS might reduce the need for IPPV and its sequelae. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of continuous distending pressure in the form of CPAP on the need for IPPV and associated morbidity in spontaneously breathing preterm infants with respiratory distress. SEARCH METHODS: We used the standard strategy of Cochrane Neonatal to search CENTRAL (2020, Issue 6); Ovid MEDLINE and Epub Ahead of Print, In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Daily and Versions; and CINAHL on 30 June 2020. We also searched clinical trials databases and the reference lists of retrieved articles for randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised or quasi-randomised trials of preterm infants with respiratory distress were eligible. Interventions were CPAP by mask, nasal prong, nasopharyngeal tube or endotracheal tube, compared with spontaneous breathing with supplemental oxygen as necessary. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methods of Cochrane and its Neonatal Review Group, including independent assessment of risk of bias and extraction of data by two review authors. We used the GRADE approach to assess the certainty of evidence. Subgroup analyses were planned on the basis of birth weight (greater than or less than 1000 g or 1500 g), gestational age (groups divided at about 28 weeks and 32 weeks), timing of application (early versus late in the course of respiratory distress), pressure applied (high versus low) and trial setting (tertiary compared with non-tertiary hospitals; high income compared with low income) MAIN RESULTS: We included five studies involving 322 infants; two studies used face mask CPAP, two studies used nasal CPAP and one study used endotracheal CPAP and continuing negative pressure for a small number of less ill babies. For this update, we included one new trial. CPAP was associated with lower risk of treatment failure (death or use of assisted ventilation) (typical risk ratio (RR) 0.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.50 to 0.82; typical risk difference (RD) -0.19, 95% CI -0.28 to -0.09; number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) 6, 95% CI 4 to 11; I2 = 50%; 5 studies, 322 infants; very low-certainty evidence), lower use of ventilatory assistance (typical RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.54 to 0.96; typical RD -0.13, 95% CI -0.25 to -0.02; NNTB 8, 95% CI 4 to 50; I2 = 55%; very low-certainty evidence) and lower overall mortality (typical RR 0.53, 95% CI 0.34 to 0.83; typical RD -0.11, 95% CI -0.18 to -0.04; NNTB 9, 95% CI 2 to 13; I2 = 0%; 5 studies, 322 infants; moderate-certainty evidence). CPAP was associated with increased risk of pneumothorax (typical RR 2.48, 95% CI 1.16 to 5.30; typical RD 0.09, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.16; number needed to treat for an additional harmful outcome (NNTH) 11, 95% CI 7 to 50; I2 = 0%; 4 studies, 274 infants; low-certainty evidence). There was no evidence of a difference in bronchopulmonary dysplasia, defined as oxygen dependency at 28 days (RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.35 to 3.13; I2 = 0%; 2 studies, 209 infants; very low-certainty evidence). The trials did not report use of surfactant, intraventricular haemorrhage, retinopathy of prematurity, necrotising enterocolitis and neurodevelopment outcomes in childhood. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: In preterm infants with respiratory distress, the application of CPAP is associated with reduced respiratory failure, use of mechanical ventilation and mortality and an increased rate of pneumothorax compared to spontaneous breathing with supplemental oxygen as necessary. Three out of five of these trials were conducted in the 1970s. Therefore, the applicability of these results to current practice is unclear. Further studies in resource-poor settings should be considered and research to determine the most appropriate pressure level needs to be considered.


Assuntos
Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas/métodos , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/terapia , Displasia Broncopulmonar/etiologia , Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Ventilação com Pressão Positiva Intermitente/efeitos adversos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Pneumotórax/etiologia , Surfactantes Pulmonares/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/mortalidade , Insuficiência Respiratória/prevenção & controle , Viés de Seleção , Falha de Tratamento
2.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(2): 249-260, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164138

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the relative safety of different ventilation methods regarding mortality and rates of complication, on neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS). Methods: Network Meta-analysis was used to collect data on randomized controlled trials of pulmonary ventilation strategies in preterm infants with a mean gestational age of less than 32 weeks. Diagnostic criteria on NRDS were published in the PubMed, Cochrane, Web of Science, EBSCO, and Springer Link databases from January 1986 to June 2018. Revman 5.3 software was used to evaluate the quality of studies, based on the Cochrane quality assessment tool. Data were analyzed by Bayesian and frequency methods, using both Win BUGS 1.4.3 and STATA 13.0 software. Safety of different ventilation strategies for NRDS mortality and complications would include intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and were evaluated. Counted data was displayed by OR and 95%CI. Results: A total of 31 RCTs were included in this paper, including 5 827 preterm infants and 11 ventilation strategies. There were no statistically significant differences appearing in 11 ventilation strategies on mortality, PDA or ROP. IVH results were reported in 28 studies. Compared with nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV), both high- frequency oscillation ventilation (HFOV) (OR=3.33, 95%CI: 1.08-16.67, P<0.05) and synchronized intermittent mechanical ventilation (SIMV) (OR=8.22, 95%CI: 1.25-29.44, P<0.05) schemes seemed to have increased the risk of IVH in preterm infants with NRDS. NIPPV appeared the optimal ventilation strategy in the rankings of cumulative probability. Results on clustering showed that NIPPV was probably the best ventilation strategy for children with NRDS after considering the orders of IVH, PDA and ROP on mortality, respectively. However, HFOV, IMV, and SIMV did not seem to be the ideal ventilated strategies. Conclusions: Most of the clinical decision makers might prefer using NIPPV in the treatment of children with NRDS through mechanical ventilation systems to reduce both the incidence and death caused by IVH, PDA and ROP. It was not recommended to use HFOV, SIMV and IMV in treating NRDS with gestational less than 32 weeks. We suggested that larger numbers of multi-center RCTs ba carried out to make the above conclusions more convincing.


Assuntos
Respiração Artificial/efeitos adversos , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/terapia , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Ventilação com Pressão Positiva Intermitente/efeitos adversos , Ventilação com Pressão Positiva Intermitente/métodos , Metanálise em Rede , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(8): e19084, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32080082

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sustained Inflations (SI) and Intermittent Positive Pressure Ventilation (IPPV) are two interventions to prevent Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). The aim of this study is to assess the effect of these two interventions. METHODS: The databases of PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) will be comprehensively searched from inception to September 2019. All RCTs and quasi-RCTs which compare the efficacy of SI vs IPPV among preterm infants are eligible. We will assess the methodological quality using the Cochrane Handbook version 5.1.0. A meta-analysis will be performed using RevMan 5.3 software and the results will be presented using risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). CONCLUSIONS: This study will provide strong evidence for assessing the effect of SI and IPPV on BPD or death among preterm infants. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42019135816.


Assuntos
Displasia Broncopulmonar/prevenção & controle , Insuflação/efeitos adversos , Ventilação com Pressão Positiva Intermitente/efeitos adversos , Lesão Pulmonar Induzida por Ventilação Mecânica/prevenção & controle , Peso ao Nascer , Displasia Broncopulmonar/mortalidade , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Insuflação/instrumentação , Ventilação com Pressão Positiva Intermitente/instrumentação , Estudos Prospectivos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento , Lesão Pulmonar Induzida por Ventilação Mecânica/mortalidade
4.
J Neonatal Perinatal Med ; 12(3): 249-253, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30932902

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate the association between the use of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) or nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) with the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). METHODS: This is a single center retrospective cohort analysis of infants born at ≤1000 grams and ≤28 weeks gestation with respiratory distress treated with nCPAP or NIPPV. Groups were compared using Student's t test or chi-square, and associations estimated by logistic regression. RESULTS: Compared to nCPAP, infants who received NIPPV had a higher incidence of moderate to severe (M-S) BPD (84.2 vs 65.5%, p = 0.044) and death or severe BPD (75.0 vs 47.6%, p = 0.003). Each day on NIPPV was associated with an increased risk of M-S BPD (OR 1.08, p < 0.001) and an increased risk of death or severe BPD (OR 1.03, p = 0.006). After adjusting for days on oxygen, ventilator days, and days on all respiratory support, the odds of developing M-S BPD increased by 4.9% for each additional week on NIPPV (CI 2.1-7.7%, p = .0001). CONCLUSION: In this cohort, use of NIPPV was associated with an increased risk for developing BPD when compared to infants receiving nCPAP, and each additional day on NIPPV carried significant increased risk for developing BPD.


Assuntos
Displasia Broncopulmonar/etiologia , Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas/efeitos adversos , Recém-Nascido de Peso Extremamente Baixo ao Nascer , Ventilação com Pressão Positiva Intermitente/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Masculino , Ventilação não Invasiva/efeitos adversos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed ; 104(1): F57-F62, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29353261

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Delivery of inadvertent high tidal volume (VT) during positive pressure ventilation (PPV) in the delivery room is common. High VT delivery during PPV has been associated with haemodynamic brain injury in animal models. We examined if VT delivery during PPV at birth is associated with brain injury in preterm infants <29 weeks' gestation. METHODS: A flow-sensor was placed between the mask and the ventilation device. VT values were compared with recently described reference ranges for VT in spontaneously breathing preterm infants at birth. Infants were divided into two groups: VT<6 mL/kg or VT>6 mL/kg (normal and high VT, respectively). Brain injury (eg, intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH)) was assessed using routine ultrasound imaging within the first days after birth. RESULTS: A total of 165 preterm infants were included, 124 (75%) had high VT and 41 (25%) normal VT. The mean (SD) gestational age and birth weight in high and normal VT group was similar, 26 (2) and 26 (1) weeks, 858 (251) g and 915 (250) g, respectively. IVH in the high VT group was diagnosed in 63 (51%) infants compared with 5 (13%) infants in the normal VT group (P=0.008).Severe IVH (grade III or IV) developed in 33/124 (27%) infants in the high VT group and 2/41 (6%) in the normal VT group (P=0.01). CONCLUSIONS: High VT delivery during mask PPV at birth was associated with brain injury. Strategies to limit VT delivery during mask PPV should be used to prevent high VT delivery.


Assuntos
Hemorragia Cerebral/etiologia , Salas de Parto/organização & administração , Doenças do Prematuro/etiologia , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Ventilação com Pressão Positiva Intermitente/efeitos adversos , Ventilação com Pressão Positiva Intermitente/métodos , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Volume de Ventilação Pulmonar
7.
Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed ; 104(3): F280-F284, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30032105

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the incidence of patient-ventilator asynchrony and different types of asynchrony in preterm infants treated with non-synchronised nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (nIPPV). DESIGN: An observational study was conducted including preterm infants born with a gestational age (GA) less than 32 weeks treated with non-synchronised nIPPV. During 1 hour, spontaneous breathing was measured with transcutaneous electromyography of the diaphragm simultaneous with ventilator inflations. An asynchrony index (AI), a percentage of asynchronous breaths, was calculated and the incidence of different types of inspiratory and expiratory asynchrony were reported. RESULTS: Twenty-one preterm infants with a mean GA of 26.0±1.2 weeks were included in the study. The mean inspiratory AI was 68.3%±4.7% and the mean expiratory AI was 67.1%±7.3%. Out of 5044 comparisons of spontaneous inspirations and mechanical inflations, 45.3% of the mechanical inflations occurred late, 23.3% of the mechanical inflations were early and 31.4% of the mechanical inflation were synchronous. 40.3% of 5127 expiratory comparisons showed an early termination of ventilator inflations, 26.7% of the mechanical inflations terminated late and 33.0% mechanical inflations terminated in synchrony with a spontaneous expiration. In addition, 1380 spontaneous breaths were unsupported and 611 extra mechanical inflations were delivered. CONCLUSION: Non-synchronised nIPPV results in high patient-ventilator asynchrony in preterm infants during both the inspiratory and expiratory phase of the breathing cycle. New synchronisation techniques are urgently needed and should address both inspiratory and expiratory asynchrony.


Assuntos
Recém-Nascido Prematuro/fisiologia , Ventilação com Pressão Positiva Intermitente/efeitos adversos , Mecânica Respiratória/fisiologia , Ventiladores Mecânicos/efeitos adversos , Eletromiografia , Expiração/fisiologia , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Inalação/fisiologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/métodos , Ventilação com Pressão Positiva Intermitente/métodos , Masculino
8.
Eur Respir Rev ; 27(150)2018 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30487291

RESUMO

Sustained inflations and avoidance of endotracheal mechanical ventilation (eMV) are delivery room interventions aimed at preventing bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Their effectiveness is the subject of the present meta-analysis.The databases MEDLINE, EMBASE and CENTRAL were searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of preterm infants that compared: 1) sustained inflations with intermittent positive-pressure ventilation; and 2) a non-intubated strategy of respiratory support with one that prescribed eMV at an earlier stage. Data extraction and analysis followed the standard methods of the Cochrane Collaboration. The primary outcome was death or BPD, defined as need for oxygen or positive pressure treatment at 36 weeks' postmenstrual age.Avoiding eMV (nine RCTs, 3486 infants) reduced the risk of death or BPD, with a risk ratio of 0.90 (95% CI 0.84-0.97) and a number needed to treat of 35. After sustained inflations (six RCTs, 854 infants), the risk ratio was 0.85 (95% CI 0.65-1.12). A current multicentre RCT of sustained inflations in very preterm infants was halted for increased early mortality in the sustained inflations arm.While strategies aimed at avoiding eMV had a small but significant impact on preventing BPD, sustained inflations had no effect and may even increase mortality in very preterm infants.


Assuntos
Displasia Broncopulmonar/prevenção & controle , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Ventilação com Pressão Positiva Intermitente/efeitos adversos , Ventilação não Invasiva/efeitos adversos , Nascimento Prematuro , Displasia Broncopulmonar/diagnóstico , Displasia Broncopulmonar/etiologia , Displasia Broncopulmonar/mortalidade , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Ventilação com Pressão Positiva Intermitente/mortalidade , Intubação Intratraqueal/efeitos adversos , Ventilação não Invasiva/mortalidade , Fatores de Proteção , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
J Perinatol ; 38(12): 1631-1635, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30291321

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The study aim was to identify the frequency with which tidal volumes were achieved in a target range in infants requiring positive pressure ventilation on emergency transport. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a prospective observational study of infants requiring continued positive pressure ventilation during emergency transport after resuscitation and stabilization. Blindly recorded data were analyzed for percentage of breaths that were below range, in range, and above desired range of 4-6 mL/kg. RESULT: Fourteen patients were monitored during transport from the delivery room to the neonatal intensive care unit, and 15 patients were monitored during inter-facility transport. During delivery room transport, 21 and 7% of patients were in target range greater than 50 and 90% of the time, respectively. During inter-hospital transport, 60 and 7% of patients were in target range greater than 50 and 90% of the time, respectively. CONCLUSION: Clinical assessment of appropriate ventilation is difficult and often inaccurate during emergency neonatal transport. Improved monitoring of respiratory function to guide clinical status during transport is necessary. More investigation and implementation are urgently needed.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência/normas , Ventilação com Pressão Positiva Intermitente/métodos , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Volume de Ventilação Pulmonar , Transporte de Pacientes , Salas de Parto/organização & administração , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/organização & administração , Ventilação com Pressão Positiva Intermitente/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Ressuscitação/métodos
10.
J Pediatr ; 201: 34-39.e3, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30251638

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the use of a hydrocolloid nasal barrier dressing during binasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy, compared with no barrier dressing, reduces the rate of nasal injury in very preterm and/or very low birth weight infants. STUDY DESIGN: A single-center randomized controlled trial conducted in the neonatal intensive care unit at The Royal Women's Hospital, Melbourne. Eligible infants were born <30 weeks of gestation and/or with birth weight <1250 g, and had received ≥4 hours, but <48 hours, of CPAP. Infants were randomly allocated to receive either a hydrocolloid nasal barrier dressing during CPAP (barrier group), or no barrier dressing (no barrier group). The primary outcome was the incidence of any nasal injury during CPAP support, until the infant was both >30 weeks of postmenstrual age and >1250 g, unless CPAP therapy was stopped earlier. Nasal injury was regularly assessed by bedside nurses using a standardized form. RESULTS: A total of 108 preterm infants were enrolled: 53 infants in the barrier group and 55 infants in the no barrier group. Infants in the barrier group had a significantly lower rate of nasal injury compared with the no barrier group: 18 of 53 (34%) vs 31 of 55 (56%), respectively (P = .02), number needed to treat; 5 infants. No significant differences were detected in any secondary respiratory outcomes, or in the rate of common neonatal morbidities. CONCLUSIONS: Prophylactic use of a nasal barrier dressing within 48 hours of commencing treatment with binasal CPAP in very preterm or very low birth weight infants reduces nasal injury. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register ACTRN12616000438459.


Assuntos
Curativos Hidrocoloides , Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas/efeitos adversos , Ventilação com Pressão Positiva Intermitente/efeitos adversos , Nariz/lesões , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/terapia , Austrália , Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas/instrumentação , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Ventilação com Pressão Positiva Intermitente/instrumentação , Masculino
11.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 20(8): 603-607, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30111466

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical efficacy of nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) and heated humidified high flow nasal cannula (HHHFNC) in the treatment of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) among very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants. METHODS: A total of 89 very low birth weight premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) who were randomly administered with NIPPV (n=46) and HHHFNC (n=43) as an initial respiratory support. The incidence of initial treatment failure, the usage of pulmonary surfactant (PS), the parameters of respiratory support treatment and the incidence of complications were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the NIPPV and HHHFNC groups in the following items: the rate of intubation within 72 hours, rate of PS use, duration of invasive or non-invasive mechanical ventilation, duration of oxygen therapy, and incidence rates of severe apnea and pneumonia (P>0.05). There were also no significant differences in the incidence rates of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, necrotizing enterocolitis, retinopathy of prematurity, patent ductus arteriosus, intracranial hemorrhage, and air leak between the two group (P>0.05). The incidence rate of nose injury in the NIPPV group was higher than that in the HHHFNC group (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: As an initial respiratory support for very low birth weight preterm infants with RDS, HHHFNC has a similar clinical effect as NIPPV, suggesting that HHHFNC is a safe and effective clinical option as a non-invasive ventilation treatment.


Assuntos
Ventilação com Pressão Positiva Intermitente/métodos , Ventilação não Invasiva/métodos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Ventilação com Pressão Positiva Intermitente/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Ventilação não Invasiva/efeitos adversos , Terapia Respiratória
12.
PLoS One ; 13(8): e0202641, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30118519

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Effective positive pressure ventilation (PPV) of non-breathing newborns is crucial in facilitating cardio-respiratory adaptation at birth. Identifying predictors of death in newborns receiving PPV is important in order to facilitate preventative strategies. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the perinatal predictors of death including the quality of PPV administered among admitted newborns. METHODS: An observational study of admitted newborns who received PPV after birth was conducted. Research assistants observed all deliveries and recorded perinatal events on data collection forms. Measured heart rate (HR) and ventilation parameters were then compared between newborns who died and survivors. RESULTS: Newborns (n = 232) were studied between October 2014 and November 2016. Newborns who died (n = 53) compared to survivors (n = 179) had more fetal heart rate (FHRT) abnormalities (12/53 vs 19/179; p = 0.03); lower initial HR (<100 beats/minute) at start of PPV (44/48 vs 77/139; p<0.001); and a longer time for HR to increase >100 beats/minute from birth (180 vs 149 seconds; p = 0.07). Newborns who died compared to survivors took longer time (14 vs 4 seconds; p = 0.008) and more inflations (7 vs 3; p = 0.006) to achieve an expired volume (Vt) of 6 ml/kg, respectively. Median delivered Vt during the first 60 seconds of PPV was less in newborns who died compared to survivors (5 vs 6 ml/kg; p = 0.12). Newborns who died proceeded to severe encephalopathy (15/31 vs 1/59; p<0.001) compared to survivors. CONCLUSION: Depressed newborns who proceeded to death compared to survivors, exhibited delayed HR response to PPV which may partly reflect FHRT abnormalities related to interruption of placental blood flow, and/or a timely delay in establishing adequate Vt. Depressed newborns progressed to moderate/severe encephalopathy. Improving FHRT monitoring to identify fetuses at risk for expedited delivery, coupled with optimizing delivery room PPV might decrease mortality in this setting.


Assuntos
Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/fisiologia , Ventilação com Pressão Positiva Intermitente/métodos , Ressuscitação/métodos , Salas de Parto , Feminino , Hospitais Rurais , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Ventilação com Pressão Positiva Intermitente/efeitos adversos , Gravidez , Respiração , Ressuscitação/efeitos adversos
13.
Pediatr Int ; 60(10): 957-961, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30133079

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-invasive neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NIV-NAVA), a mode of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) controlled by diaphragmatic electrical activity, may be superior to other NIV as a respiratory support after extubation in preterm infants, but no report has compared NIV-NAVA with other NIV methods. We evaluated the effectiveness and adverse effects of NIV-NAVA after extubation in preterm infants <30 weeks of gestation. METHODS: This retrospective study involved patients who were born before 30 weeks of gestation. We mainly used NIV-NAVA or nasal intermittent positive-pressure ventilation (NIPPV) for preterm infants as the NIV after extubation and compared these two groups. The primary outcome was treatment failure. The secondary outcomes were extubation failure and adverse events. Treatment failure was defined as a change of NIV (NIPPV was switched to NIV-NAVA, or NIV-NAVA was switched to NIPPV) or reintubation ≤7 days after extubation. RESULTS: Fifteen patients were in the NIV-NAVA group, and 19 were in the NIPPV group. The gestational age of the NIV-NAVA group was younger than that of the NIPPV group (25.7 ± 2.4 weeks vs 27.3 ± 1.8 weeks). Treatment failure occurred in six cases (40%) in the NIV-NAVA group and in nine cases (47.4%) in the NIPPV group, and no significant difference was demonstrated. No significant difference in adverse events was noted. CONCLUSIONS: NIV-NAVA has advantages compared with NIPPV as the NIV for premature infants after extubation. NIV-NAVA can also be used safely without a significant difference in the rate of complications compared with NIPPV.


Assuntos
Suporte Ventilatório Interativo , Ventilação com Pressão Positiva Intermitente , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Suporte Ventilatório Interativo/efeitos adversos , Ventilação com Pressão Positiva Intermitente/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 19(12): 1301-1305, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29237534

RESUMO

Nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) can augment nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) by delivering intermittent positive pressure ventilation in a noninvasive way and can provide a new option for neonatal noninvasive respiratory support. NIPPV has an advantage over nCPAP in primary and post-extubation respiratory support. Moreover, it can reduce severe apnea of prematurity. Synchronized NIPPV has promising application prospects. This review article summarizes the advances in the application of NIPPV in neonatal respiratory support to promote the understanding and standardization of this technique.


Assuntos
Ventilação com Pressão Positiva Intermitente , Extubação , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Ventilação com Pressão Positiva Intermitente/efeitos adversos , Ventilação com Pressão Positiva Intermitente/instrumentação , Ventilação com Pressão Positiva Intermitente/métodos , Prognóstico
16.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 2: CD003212, 2017 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28146296

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous randomised trials and meta-analyses have shown that nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) is a useful method for providing respiratory support after extubation. However, this treatment sometimes 'fails' in infants, and they may require endotracheal re-intubation with its attendant risks and expense. Nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) can augment NCPAP by delivering ventilator breaths via nasal prongs. Older children and adults with chronic respiratory failure benefit from NIPPV, and the technique has been applied to neonates. However, serious side effects including gastric perforation have been reported with older methods of providing NIPPV. OBJECTIVES: Primary objective To compare effects of management with NIPPV versus NCPAP on the need for additional ventilatory support in preterm infants whose endotracheal tube was removed after a period of intermittent positive pressure ventilation. Secondary objectives To compare rates of gastric distension, gastrointestinal perforation, necrotising enterocolitis and chronic lung disease; duration of hospitalisation; and rates of apnoea, air leak and mortality for NIPPV and NCPAP. SEARCH METHODS: We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2015, Issue 9), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to 28 September 2015), Embase (1980 to 28 September 2015) and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL; 1982 to 28 September 2015). We also searched clinical trials databases, conference proceedings and reference lists of retrieved articles for randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing use of NIPPV versus NCPAP in extubated preterm infants. NIPPV included non-invasive support delivered by a mechanical ventilator or a bilevel device in a synchronised or non-synchronised way. Participants included ventilated preterm infants who were ready to be extubated to non-invasive respiratory support. Interventions compared were NIPPV, delivered by short nasal prongs or nasopharyngeal tube, and NCPAP, delivered by the same methods.Types of outcomes measures included failure of therapy (respiratory failure, rates of endotracheal re-intubation); gastrointestinal complications (i.e. abdominal distension requiring cessation of feeds, gastrointestinal perforation or necrotising enterocolitis); pulmonary air leak; chronic lung disease (oxygen requirement at 36 weeks' postmenstrual age) and mortality. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Three review authors independently extracted data regarding clinical outcomes including extubation failure; endotracheal re-intubation; rates of apnoea, gastrointestinal perforation, feeding intolerance, necrotising enterocolitis, chronic lung disease and air leak; and duration of hospital stay. We analysed trials using risk ratio (RR), risk difference (RD) and the number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) or an additional harmful outcome (NNTH) for dichotomous outcomes, and mean difference (MD) for continuous outcomes. We used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach to assess the quality of evidence. MAIN RESULTS: Through the search, we identified 10 trials enrolling a total of 1431 infants and comparing extubation of infants to NIPPV or NCPAP. Three trials had methodological limitations and possible selection bias.Five trials used the synchronised form of NIPPV, four used the non-synchronised form and one used both methods. Eight studies used NIPPV delivered by a ventilator, one used a bilevel device and one used both methods. When all studies were included, meta-analysis demonstrated a statistically and clinically significant reduction in the risk of meeting extubation failure criteria (typical RR 0.70, 95% CI 0.60 to 0.80; typical RD -0.13, 95% CI -0.17 to -0.08; NNTB 8, 95% CI 6 to 13; 10 trials, 1431 infants) and needing re-intubation (typical RR 0.76, 95% CI 0.65 to 0.88; typical RD -0.10, 95% CI -0.15 to -0.05; NNTB 10, 95% CI 7 to 20; 10 trials, 1431 infants). We graded evidence for these outcomes as moderate, as all trial interventions were unblinded. Although methods of synchronisation varied (Graseby capsule or pneumotachograph/flow-trigger), the five trials that synchronised NIPPV showed a statistically significant benefit for infants extubated to NIPPV in terms of prevention of extubation failure up to one week after extubation.Unsynchronised NIPPV also reduced extubation failure. NIPPV provided via a ventilator is more beneficial than that provided by bilevel devices in reducing extubation failure during the first week. When comparing interventions, investigators found no significant reduction in rates of chronic lung disease (typical RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.10; typical RD -0.02, 95% CI -0.08 to 0.03) or death, and no difference in the incidence of necrotising enterocolitis. Air leaks were reduced in infants randomised to NIPPV (typical RR 0.48, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.82; typical RD -0.03, 95% CI -0.05 to -0.01; NNTB 33, 95% CI 20 to 100). We graded evidence quality as moderate (unblinded studies) or low (imprecision) for secondary outcomes. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Implications for practice NIPPV reduces the incidence of extubation failure and the need for re-intubation within 48 hours to one week more effectively than NCPAP; however, it has no effect on chronic lung disease nor on mortality. Synchronisation may be important in delivering effective NIPPV. The device used to deliver NIPPV may be important; however, data are insufficient to support strong conclusions. NIPPV does not appear to be associated with increased gastrointestinal side effects. Implications for research Large trials should establish the impact of synchronisation of NIPPV on safety and efficacy of the technique and should compare the efficacy of bilevel devices versus a ventilator for providing NIPPV.


Assuntos
Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/métodos , Dilatação Patológica/etiologia , Enterocolite Necrosante/etiologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Ventilação com Pressão Positiva Intermitente/efeitos adversos , Intubação Intratraqueal , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/efeitos adversos , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/mortalidade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia , Retratamento , Estômago , Desmame do Respirador/métodos
17.
Acta Clin Croat ; 56(3): 555-560, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29479923

RESUMO

Many papers have been published investigating the effects of intraoperative mechanical ventilation on the incidence of intra- and postoperative respiratory complications. The potential advantages of protective pressure over volume-controlled ventilation mode during laparoscopic surgery have yet to be proven. This study included 60 patients aged between 18 and 70 with ASA score 1-3, body mass index (BMI) ≤35 kg/m2, and without prior history of chronic respiratory diseases, who were scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anesthesia. Patients were assigned randomly to protective pressure or volume-controlled mechanical ventilation mode. The initial results showed no significant differences in respiratory and hemodynamic parameters between the groups. Comparison of patients with BMI ≥25 showed significantly lower peak inspiratory pressure (Ppeak) at 15 (18.52 vs. 21.83 cm H2O, p=0.022), 30 (18.73 vs. 21.83 cm H2O, p=0.009) and 45 (18.94 vs. 22.667 cm H2O, p=0.010) minutes after tracheal intubation in the pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) group. Other measured parameters were of similar characteristics. It is concluded that PCV and volume-controlled ventilation were equally effective in maintaining adequate ventilation, oxygenation and hemodynamic stability in the groups of patients observed. However, comparison of obese patients revealed some advantages of PCV which, given the present pace of change, should be additionally investigated.


Assuntos
Colecistectomia Laparoscópica , Ventilação com Pressão Positiva Intermitente , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Doenças Respiratórias , Adulto , Idoso , Anestesia Geral/métodos , Colecistectomia Laparoscópica/efeitos adversos , Colecistectomia Laparoscópica/métodos , Feminino , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Ventilação com Pressão Positiva Intermitente/efeitos adversos , Ventilação com Pressão Positiva Intermitente/métodos , Cuidados Intraoperatórios/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Testes de Função Respiratória , Doenças Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Doenças Respiratórias/etiologia , Doenças Respiratórias/prevenção & controle
18.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; 30(23): 2838-2843, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27892756

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe the incidence, indications and clinical outcomes following high pressures on noninvasive respiratory support (NRS) in preterm neonates. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study of all neonates with BW <1.500 g admitted from July 2012 to June 2014 and placed on high noninvasive respiratory support (NRS), defined as mean airway pressure ≥10 cm H2O for at least 12 continuous hours using nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) and/or nasal high-frequency ventilation (NIHFV). Clinical and physiological outcomes following high NRS were ascertained. Median (IQR) and percentages were used to describe continuous and categorical data, respectively. RESULTS: There were 131 instances of high NRS use in 70 of 315 eligible infants. Most common indication was post-extubation, observed in 37% (49/131) of high NRS instances. Intubation was avoided in 71% (93/131) of instances in the first 7 days following high NRS initiation. There were no physiological perturbations in heart rate, blood pressure or oxygen requirement. Furthermore, there were no instances of lung hyperinflation, pneumothoraces or spontaneous intestinal perforation following high NRS. CONCLUSION: The use of high NRS pressure was followed by avoidance of intubation in the majority of cases without adverse effects. Further research on high NRS use including its indications, clinical outcomes and safety profile is warranted.


Assuntos
Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas , Ventilação de Alta Frequência/métodos , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Ventilação com Pressão Positiva Intermitente , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/terapia , Estudos de Coortes , Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas/efeitos adversos , Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas/métodos , Feminino , Ventilação de Alta Frequência/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Ventilação com Pressão Positiva Intermitente/efeitos adversos , Ventilação com Pressão Positiva Intermitente/métodos , Masculino , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 12: CD005384, 2016 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27976361

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) is a strategy for maintaining positive airway pressure throughout the respiratory cycle through the application of bias flow of respiratory gas to an apparatus attached to the nose. Treatment with NCPAP is associated with decreased risk of mechanical ventilation and might be effective in reducing chronic lung disease. Nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) is a form of noninvasive ventilation during which patients are exposed intermittently to higher levels of airway pressure, along with NCPAP through the same nasal device. OBJECTIVES: To examine the risks and benefits of early NIPPV versus early NCPAP alone for preterm infants at risk of or in respiratory distress within the first hours after birth.Primary endpoints are respiratory failure and the need for intubated ventilatory support during the first week of life. Secondary endpoints include chronic lung disease (CLD) (oxygen therapy at 36 weeks' postmenstrual age), air leaks, duration of respiratory support, duration of oxygen therapy, intraventricular hemorrhage, and incidence of mortality. SEARCH METHODS: We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2015, Issue 9), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to September 28, 2015), Embase (1980 to September 28, 2015), and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL; 1982 to September 28, 2015). We also searched clinical trials databases, conference proceedings, and the reference lists of retrieved articles for randomized controlled trials and quasi-randomized trials. A member of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group handsearched abstracts from the European Society of Pediatric Research (ESPR). We contacted the authors of ongoing clinical trials to ask for information. SELECTION CRITERIA: We considered all randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials. Studies selected compared NIPPV versus NCPAP treatment, starting at birth or shortly thereafter in preterm infants (< 37 weeks' gestational age). DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We performed data collection and analysis using the recommendations of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. MAIN RESULTS: Ten trials, enrolling a total of 1061 infants, met criteria for inclusion in this review. Meta-analyses of these studies showed significantly reduced risk of meeting respiratory failure criteria (typical risk ratio (RR) 0.65, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.51 to 0.82; typical risk difference (RD) -0.09, 95% CI -0.13 to -0.04) and needing intubation (typical RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.64 to 0.94; typical RD -0.07, 95% CI -0.12 to -0.02) among infants treated with early NIPPV compared with early NCPAP. The meta-analysis did not demonstrate a reduction in the risk of CLD among infants randomized to NIPPV (typical RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.58 to 1.06). Investigators observed no evidence of harm. Review authors graded the quality of the evidence as moderate (unblinded studies). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Early NIPPV does appear to be superior to NCPAP alone for decreasing respiratory failure and the need for intubation and endotracheal tube ventilation among preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome. Additional studies are needed to confirm these results and to assess the safety of NIPPV compared with NCPAP alone in a larger patient population.


Assuntos
Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas , Ventilação com Pressão Positiva Intermitente , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/terapia , Insuficiência Respiratória/prevenção & controle , Displasia Broncopulmonar/prevenção & controle , Doença Crônica , Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Ventilação com Pressão Positiva Intermitente/efeitos adversos , Hemorragias Intracranianas , Intubação Intratraqueal/estatística & dados numéricos , Oxigenoterapia/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumotórax/epidemiologia , Pneumotórax/etiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
20.
Rev. cuba. anestesiol. reanim ; 15(3): 187-196, sept.-dic. 2016. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | CUMED | ID: cum-65518

RESUMO

Introducción: la enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica es la sexta causa de muerte a nivel mundial. La prolongación del tiempo inspiratorio es una práctica con ventajas y desventajas. Objetivo: comparar los beneficios de diferentes tiempos inspiratorios sobre la oxigenación, las presiones en la vía respiratorias y las variaciones hemodinámicas. Métodos: estudio analítico longitudinal prospectivo con un grupo. Universo de 36 pacientes que cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión.Resultados: la media de la edad fue de 70,5 años ± 8,3 años, el 59 por ciento fueron mujeres. El 38,7 por ciento fueron hipertensos, y el 41,2 por ciento cardiópatas. Las presiones pico fue de 26,6 mbar Ti corto y en el Ti largo 19,1 mbar (t student 1,28). Las medias de las presiones mesetas se comportaron diferentes con Ti corto de 20,6 mbar y Ti largo 19,6 mbar con t student de 0,04. Las medias de las frecuencias respiratorias en el Ti corto fueron de 12,6 resp/min y en el Ti largo 10,7 resp/min con t student fue de 5,92. La relación entre saturación de oxigeno/fracción inspirada de oxigeno en el Ti corto fue de 243 y en el Ti largo 248, pero la t student fue de 5,9.Conclusiones: la prolongación del tiempo inspiratorio durante la ventilación intraoperatoria controlada por presión en pacientes con enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica es ventajosa porque reduce las presiones de la vía respiratoria y mantiene los parámetros de oxigenación y hemodinámicos con relación al tiempo inspiratorio convencional, por lo que pudiera ser una alternativa para el manejo anestésico de estos pacientes(AU)


Introduction: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is the sixth leading cause of death worldwide. Lengthening the inspiration time is a practice with advantages and disadvantages. Objective: To compare the benefits of different inspiration times on oxygenation, airway pressures and hemodynamic changes.Methods: Prospective longitudinal analytic study with a group. Sample group of 36 patients who met the inclusion criteria.Results: The mean age was 70.5 years ± 8.3 years, 59 percent were women. 38.7 percent were hypertensive, and 41.2 percent were cardiac patients. The peak pressures were 26.6 mbar in the short Ti and 19.1 mbar in the long Ti (Student's t-distribution was 1.28). The means of the plateau pressure behaved different: with short Ti, 20.6 mbar, and with long Ti, 19.6 mbar, with Student's t-distribution: 0.04. Mean respiratory rates in the short Ti were 12.6 breaths/min and in the long Ti, 10.7 breaths/min, with Student's t-distribution 5.92. The relation between oxygen saturation and fraction of inspired oxygen in the Ti short was 243 and in the long Ti was 248, but the Student's t-distribution was 5.9 t. Conclusions: Lengthened inspiratory time during intraoperative pressure-controlled ventilation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is advantageous because it reduces the airway pressure and maintains oxygenation and hemodynamic parameters versus conventional inspiration time, so it could be an alternative for the anesthetic management of these patients(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/mortalidade , Ventilação com Pressão Positiva Intermitente/efeitos adversos , Anestesia/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Longitudinais
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