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2.
Emerg Med Clin North Am ; 39(3): 493-508, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215399

RESUMO

Anatomically, the airway is ever changing in size, anteroposterior alignment, and point of most narrow dimension. Special considerations regarding obesity, chronic and acute illness, underlying developmental abnormalities, and age can all affect preparation and intervention toward securing a definitive airway. Mechanical ventilation strategies should focus on limiting peak inspiratory pressures and optimizing lung protective tidal volumes. Emergency physicians should work toward minimizing risk of peri-intubation hypoxemia and arrest. With review of anatomic and physiologic principles in the setting of a practical approach toward evaluating and managing distress and failure, emergency physicians can successfully manage critical pediatric airway encounters.


Assuntos
Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/terapia , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Manuseio das Vias Aéreas , COVID-19/terapia , Criança , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/complicações , Cuidados Críticos , Desenho de Equipamento , Capacidade Residual Funcional , Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/uso terapêutico , Intubação Intratraqueal/métodos , Laringoscópios , Laringoscopia/métodos , Laringe/anatomia & histologia , Doenças Neuromusculares/terapia , Ventilação não Invasiva , Oxigenoterapia , Medicina de Emergência Pediátrica , Obesidade Pediátrica/complicações , Respiração com Pressão Positiva , Gravação em Vídeo
3.
Acta Biomed ; 92(3): e2021269, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212900

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Diaphragmatic dysfunction is seen in up to 60% of critically ill patients with respiratory failure, and it is associated with worse outcomes. The functionality of the diaphragm can be studied with simple and codified bedside ultrasound evaluation. Diaphragm excursion is one of the most studied parameters. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of diaphragmatic dysfunction in critically ill non-intubated patients admitted to a general intensive care unit with acute respiratory failure. METHODS: We collected data, including ultrasound diaphragm excursion, at 2 time points: at T0 (at the time of recruitment, just before starting NIV) and at T1 (after one hour of NIV). RESULTS: A total of 47 patients were enrolled. The prevalence of diaphragm dysfunction was 42.5% (95% CI 28, 3 - 57,8). Surgical patients showed a higher incidence (relative risk of 1.97) than medical patients. Mean DE was not significantly different between NIV responders (1,35 ± 0.78 cm) and non-responders (1.21 ± 0.85 cm, p 0,6). Patients with diaphragmatic dysfunction responded positively to NIV in 60% (95% CI 36.0 - 80.9%) of cases, while patients without diaphragmatic dysfunction responded positively to the NIV trial in 70.4% (95% CI 49.8 - 86.2%) of cases (p = 0.54). Taking the use of ultrasound diaphragm excursion as a potential predictor of NIV response, the corresponding ROC curve had an area under the curve of 0.53; the best balance between sensitivity (58.1%) and specificity (62.5%) was obtained with a cut-off diaphragm excursion of 1.37 cm. CONCLUSIONS: Diaphragm dysfunction is particularly frequent in critically ill patients with respiratory failure. The functionality of the diaphragm can be effectively and easily tested by bedside ultrasound examination. Overall, our results point towards tentative evidence of a trend of a different response to NIV in patients with vs without diaphragmatic dysfunction.


Assuntos
Ventilação não Invasiva , Insuficiência Respiratória , Diafragma/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Insuficiência Respiratória/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Ultrassonografia
4.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 33(6): 686-691, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34296687

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy (HFNC) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and mild hypercapnia, and to evaluate the early predictive ability of physiological parameters in these patients. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted based on Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care-IV (MIMIC-IV) updated in September 2020 and the data of adult patients with COPD and mild hypercapnia [45 mmHg (1 mmHg = 0.133 kPa) < arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) ≤ 60 mmHg] from 2008 to 2019 were collected. These patients were assigned to the HFNC group or non-invasive ventilation (NIV) group according to whether they received HFNC or NIV. Baseline data such as gender, age, body mass index (BMI), simplified acute physiology score II (SAPS II), Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) and physiological parameters were collected. A propensity score matching was conducted according to the baseline data of the HFNC group patients. The 48-hour and 28-day intubation rates, 28-day mortality, length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay, the length of hospital stay, and the changes in physiological parameters within 48 hours after treatment were compared between the two groups. The receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC curve) was drawn and the ratio of heart rate over pulse oxygen saturation (HR/SpO2) and ROX index [SpO2/(inhaled oxygen concentration, FiO2×respiratory rate, RR)] were analyzed to predict the 24-hour and 48-hour intubation rates. RESULTS: A total of 524 520 inpatient records were screened and 153 patients were included, while 37 patients in the HFNC group and 116 patients in NIV group. There were 31 patients in the HFNC group and 84 patients in the NIV group remained after propensity score matching according to the baseline data. There were no significant differences in the baseline data of gender, age, BMI, SAPS II, CCI score, physiological parameters and prognosis data except the length of ICU stay. The length of ICU stay in HFNC group was significant longer than that of the NIV group [days: 4.6 (3.1, 10.0) vs. 3.1 (1.6, 5.8), P < 0.05]. HR and RR at 40-48 hours were significantly lower than those at 0-8 hours after treatment only in the HFNC group [HR (bpm): 84.1±12.2 vs. 91.1±16.4, RR (times/min): 19.8±4.9 vs. 21.6±4.1, both P < 0.05]. Both in the HFNC group and NIV group the pH increased (7.42±0.08 vs. 7.36±0.05 and 7.41±0.06 vs. 7.36±0.05, both P < 0.05) and PaCO2 decreased significantly [mmHg: 46.3 (39.5, 51.0) vs. 49.8 (45.5, 54.0) and 46.0 (40.5, 51.5) vs. 49.5 (45.5, 55.3), both P < 0.05]. The HR, PaO2 were higher in the HFNC group than those in the HFNC group at 40-48 hours after treatment [HR (bpm): 91.1±15.4 vs. 84.1±12.2, PaO2 (mmHg): 99.5 (86.0, 132.3) vs. 85.8 (76.5, 118.0), both P < 0.05], PaO2/FiO2 were lower in the HFNC group than that in the HFNC group at 40-48 hours after treatment [mmHg: 223.8 (216.5, 285.0) vs. 278.0 (212.3, 306.0), P < 0.05]. Both HR/SpO2 and ROX index at 4 hours after treatment had predictive value for 24-hour and 48-hour intubation in the HFNC group. The areas under ROC curve (AUC) of HR/SpO2 at 4 hours after treatment in the HFNC group were larger than those of ROX index for predicting 24-hour and 48-hour intubation (24-hour: 0.649 vs. 0.574, 48-hour: 0.692 vs. 0.581, both P < 0.01); the 95% confidence interval (95%CI) of 4 hours HR/SpO2 and for ROX index predicting 24 hours and 48 hours intubation were 0.497-0.780, 0.567-0.799, 0.450-0.694 and 0.454-0.716, respectively. The high sensitivity of HR/SpO2 and ROX index in predicting 24-hour and 48-hour intubation were 84.6%, 92.9%, 88.2% and 94.4%, respectively, and the low specificity were 52.3%, 23.7%, 54.7% and 29.6%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: HFNC can be used in COPD patients with mild hypercapnia, but it cannot replace NIV. The accuracy of ROX index at 4 hours after HFNC treatment in predicting intubation in COPD patients with mild hypercapnia is poor.


Assuntos
Ventilação não Invasiva , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Insuficiência Respiratória , Adulto , Cânula , Cuidados Críticos , Humanos , Hipercapnia , Oxigênio , Oxigenoterapia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 33(6): 692-696, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34296688

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the application effect of high-flow nasal canula oxygen therapy (HFNC) after extubation in patients with mechanical ventilation (MV) in the intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: A prospective study was conducted. From January 2018 to June 2020, 163 MV patients admitted to Yijishan Hospital of Wannan Medical College were enrolled, and they were divided into HFNC group (82 cases) and traditional oxygen therapy group (81 cases) according to the oxygen therapy model. The patients included in the study were given conventional treatment according to their condition. In the HFNC group, oxygen was inhaled by a nasal high-flow humidification therapy instrument. The gas flow was gradually increased from 35 L/min to 60 L/min according to the patient's tolerance, and the temperature was set at 34-37 centigrade. The fraction of inspiration oxygen (FiO2) was set according to the patient's pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2) and SpO2 was maintained at 0.95-0.98. A disposable oxygen mask or nasal cannula was used to inhale oxygen in the traditional oxygen therapy group, and the oxygen flow was 5-8 L/min, maintaining the patient's SpO2 at 0.95-0.98. The differences in MV duration before extubation, total MV duration, intubation time, reintubation time, extubation failure rate, ICU mortality, ICU stay, and in-hospital stay were compared between the two groups, and weaning failure were analyzed. RESULTS: There was no significant differences in MV duration before extubation (days: 4.33±3.83 vs. 4.15±3.03), tracheal intubation duration (days: 4.34±1.87 vs. 4.20±3.35), ICU mortality [4.9% (4/82) vs. 3.7% (3/81)] and in-hospital stay [days: 28.93 (15.00, 32.00) vs. 27.69 (15.00, 38.00)] between HFNC group and traditional oxygen therapy group (all P > 0.05). The total MV duration in the HFNC group (days: 4.48±2.43 vs. 5.67±3.84) and ICU stay [days: 6.57 (4.00, 7.00) vs. 7.74 (5.00, 9.00)] were significantly shorter than those in the traditional oxygen therapy group, the reintubation duration of the HFNC group was significantly longer than that of the traditional oxygen therapy group (hours: 35.75±10.15 vs. 19.92±13.12), and the weaning failure rate was significantly lower than that of the traditional oxygen therapy group [4.9% (4/82) vs. 16.0% (13/81), all P < 0.05]. Among the reasons for weaning failure traditional oxygen therapy group had lower ability of airway secretion clearance than that of the HFNC group [8.64% (7/81) vs. 0% (0/82), P < 0.05], there was no statistically differences in the morbidity of heart failure, respiratory muscle weakness, hypoxemia, and change of consciousness between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: For MV patients in the ICU, the sequential application of HFNC after extubation can reduce the rate of weaning failure and the incidence of adverse events, shorten the length of ICU stay.


Assuntos
Ventilação não Invasiva , Insuficiência Respiratória , Extubação , Cânula , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Oxigênio , Oxigenoterapia , Estudos Prospectivos , Respiração Artificial , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia
6.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 33(6): 708-713, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34296691

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) and high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy (HFNC) on the prognosis of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) accompanied with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted in Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology when authors worked as medical team members for treating COVID-19. COVID-19 patients with pulse oxygen saturation/fraction of inspiration oxygen (SpO2/FiO2, S/F) ratio < 235, managed by medical teams [using S/F ratio instead of oxygenation index (PaO2/FiO2) to diagnose ARDS] from February to April 2020 were included. The patients were divided into NIPPV group and HFNC group according to their oxygen therapy modes. Clinical data of patients were collected, including general characteristics, respiratory rate (RR), fraction of FiO2, SpO2, heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), S/F ratio in the first 72 hours, lymphocyte count (LYM), percentage of lymphocyte (LYM%) and white blood cell count (WBC) at admission and discharge or death, the duration of dyspnea before NIPPV and HFNC, and the length from onset to admission. The differences of intubation rate, all-cause mortality, S/F ratio and RR were analyzed, and single factor analysis and generalized estimation equation (GEE) were used to analyze the risk factors affecting S/F ratio. RESULTS: Among the 41 patients, the proportion of males was high (68.3%, 28 cases), the median age was 68 (58-74) years old, 28 cases had complications (68.3%), and 34 cases had multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS, 82.9%). Compared with HFNC group, the proportion of complications in NIPPV group was higher [87.5% (21/24) vs. 41.2% (7/17), P < 0.05], and the value of LYM% was lower [5.3% (3.4%-7.8%) vs. 10.0% (3.9%-19.7%), P < 0.05], the need of blood purification was also significantly lower [0% (0/24) vs. 29.4% (5/17), P < 0.05]. The S/F ratio of NIPPV group gradually increased after 2 hours treatment and RR gradually decreased with over time, S/F ratio decreased and RR increased in HFNC group compared with baseline, but there was no significant difference in S/F ratio between the two groups at each time point. RR in NIPPV group was significantly higher than that in HFNC group after 2 hours treatment [time/min: 30 (27-33) vs. 24 (21-27), P < 0.05]. There was no significant difference in rate need intubation and hospital mortality between NIPPV group and HFNC group [66.7% (16/24) vs. 70.6% (12/17), 58.3% (14/24) vs. 52.9% (9/17), both P > 0.05]. Analysis of the factors affecting the S/Fratio in the course of oxygen therapy showed that the oxygen therapy mode and the course of illness at admission were the factors affecting the S/F ratio of patients [ßvalues were -15.827, 1.202, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) were -29.102 to -2.552 and 0.247-2.156, P values were 0.019 and 0.014, respectively]. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with HFNC, NIPPV doesn't significantly reduce the intubation rate and mortality of patients with COVID-19 accompanied with ARDS, but it significantly increases the S/F ratio of those patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Ventilação não Invasiva , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório , Insuficiência Respiratória , Idoso , Cânula , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxigênio , Oxigenoterapia , Respiração com Pressão Positiva , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/terapia , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13418, 2021 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34183764

RESUMO

In patients intubated for hypoxemic acute respiratory failure (ARF) related to novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), we retrospectively compared two weaning strategies, early extubation with immediate non-invasive ventilation (NIV) versus standard weaning encompassing spontaneous breathing trial (SBT), with respect to IMV duration (primary endpoint), extubation failures and reintubations, rate of tracheostomy, intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay and mortality (additional endpoints). All COVID-19 adult patients, intubated for hypoxemic ARF and subsequently extubated, were enrolled. Patients were included in two groups, early extubation followed by immediate NIV application, and conventionally weaning after passing SBT. 121 patients were enrolled and analyzed, 66 early extubated and 55 conventionally weaned after passing an SBT. IMV duration was 9 [6-11] days in early extubated patients versus 11 [6-15] days in standard weaning group (p = 0.034). Extubation failures [12 (18.2%) vs. 25 (45.5%), p = 0.002] and reintubations [12 (18.2%) vs. 22 (40.0%) p = 0.009] were fewer in early extubation compared to the standard weaning groups, respectively. Rate of tracheostomy, ICU mortality, and ICU length of stay were no different between groups. Compared to standard weaning, early extubation followed by immediate NIV shortened IMV duration and reduced the rate of extubation failure and reintubation.


Assuntos
COVID-19/patologia , Ventilação não Invasiva/métodos , Desmame do Respirador/métodos , Idoso , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/virologia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Fatores de Tempo , Traqueostomia
8.
Br J Hosp Med (Lond) ; 82(6): 1-9, 2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34191558

RESUMO

Ventilatory support is vital for the management of severe forms of COVID-19. Non-invasive ventilation is often used in patients who do not meet criteria for intubation or when invasive ventilation is not available, especially in a pandemic when resources are limited. Despite non-invasive ventilation providing effective respiratory support for some forms of acute respiratory failure, data about its effectiveness in patients with viral-related pneumonia are inconclusive. Acute respiratory distress syndrome caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 infection causes life-threatening respiratory failure, weakening the lung parenchyma and increasing the risk of barotrauma. Pulmonary barotrauma results from positive pressure ventilation leading to elevated transalveolar pressure, and in turn to alveolar rupture and leakage of air into the extra-alveolar tissue. This article reviews the literature regarding the use of non-invasive ventilation in patients with acute respiratory failure associated with COVID-19 and other epidemic or pandemic viral infections and the related risk of barotrauma.


Assuntos
Barotrauma/epidemiologia , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/terapia , Ventilação não Invasiva/efeitos adversos , Lesão Pulmonar Induzida por Ventilação Mecânica/epidemiologia , Humanos , Medição de Risco
9.
Wien Klin Wochenschr ; 133(13-14): 687-694, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34081190

RESUMO

Retinopathy of prematurity (nROP) among extremely low gestational age newborns (ELGAN) in Slovenia has increased in recent years. At the same time mortality has further decreased and less invasive approaches for treatment of respiratory distress syndrome have been established. With the aim to study the possible association between the incidence of ROP and the duration of noninvasive ventilation, this retrospective study comprised ELGANs born during the first period (2010/2011), when invasive respiratory support was the prevalent method and in the second period (2015/2016), when noninvasive respiratory support was adopted. The results showed that the duration of noninvasive ventilation is a potential risk factor for ROP. Controlling for known risk factors for ROP and then adjusting for gestational age, number of transfusions and fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2), the odds of ROP were 1.22 times greater (95% confidence interval, CI 1.01-1.48) with every additional week of noninvasive ventilation (p = 0.03).


Assuntos
Ventilação não Invasiva , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório , Retinopatia da Prematuridade , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Eslovênia/epidemiologia
10.
J Appl Physiol (1985) ; 131(1): 401-413, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34110232

RESUMO

We previously showed that use of portable noninvasive ventilation (pNIV) during recovery periods within intermittent exercise improved breathlessness and exercise tolerance in patients with COPD compared with pursed-lip breathing (PLB). However, in a minority of patients recovery from dynamic hyperinflation (DH) was better with PLB, based on inspiratory capacity. We further explored this using Optoelectronic Plethysmography to assess total and compartmental thoracoabdominal volumes. Fourteen patients with COPD (means ± SD) (FEV1: 55% ± 22% predicted) underwent, in a balanced order sequence, two intermittent exercise protocols on the cycle ergometer consisting of five repeated 2-min exercise bouts at 80% peak capacity, separated by 2-min recovery periods, with application of pNIV or PLB in the 5 min of recovery. Our findings identified seven patients showing recovery in DH with pNIV (DH responders) whereas seven showed similar or better recovery in DH with PLB. When pNIV was applied, DH responders compared with DH nonresponders exhibited greater tidal volume (by 0.8 ± 0.3 L, P = 0.015), inspiratory flow rate (by 0.6 ± 0.5 L/s, P = 0.049), prolonged expiratory time (by 0.6 ± 0.5 s, P = 0.006), and duty cycle (by 0.7 ± 0.6 s, P = 0.007). DH responders showed a reduction in end-expiratory thoracoabdominal DH (by 265 ± 633 mL) predominantly driven by reduction in the abdominal compartment (by 210 ± 494 mL); this effectively offset end-inspiratory rib-cage DH. Compared with DH nonresponders, DH responders had significantly greater body mass index (BMI) by 8.4 ± 3.2 kg/m2, P = 0.022 and tended toward less severe resting hyperinflation by 0.3 ± 0.3 L. Patients with COPD who mitigate end-expiratory rib-cage DH by expiratory abdominal muscle recruitment benefit from pNIV application.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Compared with the pursed-lip breathing technique, acute application of portable noninvasive ventilation during recovery from intermittent exercise improved end-expiratory thoracoabdominal dynamic hyperinflation (DH) in 50% of patients with COPD (DH responders). DH responders, compared with DH nonresponders, exhibited a reduction in end-expiratory thoracoabdominal DH predominantly driven by the abdominal compartment that effectively offset end-expiratory rib cage DH. The essential difference between DH responders and DH nonresponders was, therefore, in the behavior of the abdomen.


Assuntos
Ventilação não Invasiva , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Dispneia , Exercício Físico , Teste de Esforço , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Capacidade Inspiratória , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia
11.
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med ; 29(1): 85, 2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34187538

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) is recognized as first line ventilatory support for the management of acute pulmonary edema (APE) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations. We aimed to study the prehospital management of patients in acute respiratory distress with an indication for NIV and whether they received it or not. METHODS: This retrospective study included patients ≥18 years old who were cared for acute respiratory distress in a prehospital setting. Indications for NIV were oxygen saturation (SpO2) <90% and/or respiratory rate (RR) >25/min with a presumptive diagnosis of APE or COPD exacerbation. Study population characteristics, initial and at hospital vital signs, presumptive and definitive diagnosis were analyzed. For patients who received NIV, dyspnea level was evaluated with a dyspnea verbal ordinal scale (D-VOS, 0-10) and arterial blood gas (ABG) values were obtained at hospital arrival. RESULTS: Among the 187 consecutive patients included in the study, most (n = 105, 56%) had experienced APE or COPD exacerbation, and 56 (30%) received NIV. In comparison with patients without NIV, those treated with NIV had a higher initial RR (35 ± 8/min vs 29 ± 10/min, p < 0.0001) and a lower SpO2 (79 ± 10 vs 88 ± 11, p < 0.0001). The level of dyspnea was significantly reduced for patients treated with NIV (on-scene D-VOS 8.4 ± 1.7 vs 4.4 ± 1.8 at admission, p < 0.0001). Among the 131 patients not treated with NIV, 41 (31%) had an indication. In the latter group, initial SpO2 was 80 ± 10% in the NIV group versus 86 ± 11% in the non-NIV group (p = 0.0006). NIV was interrupted in 9 (16%) patients due to either discomfort (n = 5), technical problem (n = 2), persistent desaturation (n = 1), or vomiting (n = 1). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study contribute to a better understanding of the prehospital management of patients who present with acute respiratory distress and an indication for NIV. NIV was started on clinically more severe patients, even if predefined criteria to start NIV were present. NIV allows to improve vital signs and D-VOS in those patients. A prospective study could further elucidate why patients with a suspected diagnosis of APE and COPD are not treated with NIV, as well as the clinical impact of the different strategies. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was approved by our institutional ethical committee ( CER-VD 2020-01363 ).


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência/métodos , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Ventilação não Invasiva/métodos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/terapia , Adolescente , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
BMC Pediatr ; 21(1): 281, 2021 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34134650

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS) is a common cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality in premature newborns. In this study, we aim to compare the reintubation rate in preterm babies with RDS who were extubated to Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (NCPAP) versus those extubated to Nasal Intermittent Positive Pressure Ventilation (NIPPV). METHODS: This is a retrospective study conducted in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of Women's Wellness and Research Center (WWRC), Doha, Qatar. The medical files (n = 220) of ventilated preterm infants with gestational age ranging between 28 weeks 0 days and 36 weeks + 6 days gestation and extubated to non-invasive respiratory support (whether NCPAP, NIPPV, or Nasal Cannula) during the period from January 2016 to December 2017 were reviewed. RESULTS: From the study group of 220 babies, n = 97 (44%) babies were extubated to CPAP, n = 77 (35%) were extubated to NIPPV, and n = 46 (21%) babies were extubated to Nasal Cannula (NC). Out of the n = 220 babies, 18 (8.2%) were reintubated within 1 week after extubation. 14 of the 18 (77.8%) were reintubated within 48 h of extubation. Eleven babies needed reintubation after being extubated to NCPAP (11.2%) and seven were reintubated after extubation to NIPPV (9.2%), none of those who were extubated to NC required reintubation (P = 0.203). The reintubation rate was not affected by extubation to any form of non-invasive ventilation (P = 0.625). The mode of ventilation before extubation does not affect the reintubation rate (P = 0.877). The presence of PDA and NEC was strongly associated with reintubation which increased by two and four-folds respectively in those morbidities. There is an increased risk of reintubation with babies suffering from NEC and BPD and this was associated with an increased risk of hospital stay with a P-value ranging (from 0.02-0.003). Using multivariate logistic regression, NEC the NEC (OR = 5.52, 95% CI 1.26, 24.11, P = 0.023) and the vaginal delivery (OR = 0.23, 95% CI 0.07, 0.78, P = 0.018) remained significantly associated with reintubation. CONCLUSION: Reintubation rates were less with NIPPV when compared with NCPAP, however, this difference was not statistically significant. This study highlights the need for further research studies with a larger number of neonates in different gestational ages birth weight categories. Ascertaining this information will provide valuable data for the factors that contribute to re-intubation rates and influence the decision-making and management of RDS patients in the future.


Assuntos
Ventilação não Invasiva , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido , Extubação , Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Intubação Intratraqueal , Catar , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Vnitr Lek ; 67(E-2): 29-33, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074102

RESUMO

The new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is responsible for the development of acute infectious illness named COVID-19. While most people have a mild course of the disease, a significant minority of patients will develop some degree of respiratory insufficiency requiring hospitalization. In case of failure of conventional oxygen therapy, the method of choice in patients with respiratory insufficiency is ventilation with high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC). In order to reduce the dispersion of infectious aerosol during HFNC treatment, nasal cannula is often covered with a surgical mask in many hospitals. According to recent observations, the application of a surgical mask in these patients could also have a positive effect on oxygenation parameters without clinically relevant side effects. In the present set of case reports, we demonstrate this effective, simple and affordable way how to improve oxygenation in patients with COVID-19 and hypoxemic respiratory failure treated with HFNC.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Ventilação não Invasiva , Cânula , Humanos , Oxigenoterapia , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Online braz. j. nurs. (Online) ; 20: e20216487, 05 maio 2021. tab
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1224139

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos da musicoterapia nas respostas fisiológicas do recém-nascido pré-termo (RNPT) em ventilação não invasiva. MÉTODO: Estudo quase-experimental, de grupo único, do tipo antes e depois, com trinta prematuros, hospitalizados em uma Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal. RESULTADOS: Em relação à frequência respiratória (FR), observou-se redução de até seis incursões por minuto (p=<0,001) e em relação à frequência cardíaca (FC), de até sete batimentos por minuto (p=<0,002). Na saturação de oxigênio, identificou-se o aumento em média de 2% (p=0,003). A temperatura axilar apresentou aumento de 0,1ºC após a intervenção (p=0,05). Na escala de dor, identificou-se uma redução de um ponto (p=0,001). DISCUSSÃO: A musicoterapia apresenta efeitos benéficos em relação a redução da FR, da FC e do nível de dor, bem como, aumento da saturação de oxigênio e da temperatura axilar. CONCLUSÃO: A musicoterapia interfere positivamente nas respostas fisiológicas do RNPT em ventilação não invasiva.


OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of music therapy on the physiological responses of preterm newborns (PTNBs) on non-invasive ventilation. METHOD: A quasi-experimental study, with a single group and of the before-and-after type, conducted with thirty premature infants in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. RESULTS: As for respiratory frequency (RF), a reduction of up to six breaths per minute was observed (p=<0.001) and, in relation to heart rate (HR), the reduction was up to seven beats per minute (p=<0.002). In oxygen saturation, a 2% (p=0.003) mean increase was identified. Axillary temperature presented a 0.1ºC increase after the intervention (p=0.05). In the pain scale, a one-point reduction (p=0.001) was identified. DISCUSSION: Music therapy presents beneficial effects in relation to reductions in RF, HR and pain level, as well as an increase in oxygen saturation and axillary temperature. CONCLUSION: Music therapy interferes positively with the physiological responses of PTNBs on non-invasive ventilation.


OBJETIVO: Evaluar los efectos de la musicoterapia sobre las respuestas fisiológicas de los recién nacidos prematuros (RNP) con ventilación no invasiva. MÉTODO: Estudio cuasiexperimental, de un solo grupo, del tipo antes y después, con treinta prematuros, hospitalizados en una Unidad de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal. RESULTADOS: Se observó una reducción de la frecuencia respiratoria (FR) de hasta seis respiraciones por minuto (p=<0,001) y de la frecuencia cardíaca (FC) de hasta siete latidos por minuto (p=<0,002). Se detectó un aumento del 2% (p=0,003) en la saturación de oxígeno. La temperatura axilar aumentó 0,1ºC tras la intervención (p=0,05). Se identificó la reducción de un punto (p=0,001) en la escala de dolor. DISCUSIÓN: La musicoterapia tiene efectos beneficiosos en cuanto a la reducción de la FR, FC y el nivel de dolor, así como también, un aumento de la saturación de oxígeno y temperatura axilar. CONCLUSIÓN: La musicoterapia interfiere positivamente en las respuestas fisiológicas del RNP con ventilación no invasiva.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Ventilação não Invasiva , Monitorização Fisiológica , Musicoterapia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Cuidado da Criança , Saúde da Criança , Hospitais Universitários
18.
Pneumologie ; 75(6): 424-431, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33975371

RESUMO

Non-invasive strategies such as HFOT (high-flow oxygen therapy), CPAP (continuous positive airway pressure) and NIV (non-invasive ventilation) are increasingly being used during the COVID-19 pandemics in order to treat acute hypoxemic respiratory failure related to COVID-19, and this is aimed at avoiding intubation. This review article summarizes the current evidence by also emphasizing its heterogeneity. Importantly, current evidence suggests that these non-invasive strategies can be successfully used even in case of severe respiratory failure and are, thus, indeed capable of avoiding intubation, and consequently, tube-related complications. In contrast, it also remains to be emphasized that prolonged spontaneous breathing supported by non-invasive treatment strategies is also prone to complications. In particular, late NIV failure is associated with substantially deteriorated outcome, which is suggested to be meaningful in view of NIV failure rates still being high in Germany. Finally, the current article also refers to a parallel article that addresses the discussion being held in the public media in Germany concerning this topic. Here, its textual questionability, but also its negative consequences for both the research community and the general society are elaborated. In this context, the importance of national and regularly updated guidelines is emphasized.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Ventilação não Invasiva , Insuficiência Respiratória , Alemanha , Humanos , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Acta Biomed ; 92(2): e2021164, 2021 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33988138

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: In patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) non-invasive ventilation (NIV) improves lung mechanics and gas exchange, and decreases the work of breathing. Domiciliary NIV is mainly used in hypercapnic patients with severe disease, because it counteracts the progression of lung functional impairment and it is often used as a useful "bridge" to lung transplantation. However, to date, there are no standardized criteria to indicate the effect of a precocious starting of NIV in patients with functional ventilation inhomogeneity without hypercapnia. In this pilot study we assessed whether an early NIV treatment might influence functional and clinical outcomes in CF patients. METHODS: Six normocapnic CF patients were treated for one year with NIV. At baseline and after 1 year of NIV treatment, arterial gas analysis, spirometry, MBW to derive LCI, nocturnal cardio-respiratory polygraphy (PG), and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) were perfomed in all enrolled patients. RESULTS: After one year, despite spirometric and LCI values remain statistically not modified, the number of infectious exacerbations was reduced by 50%. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that nocturnal NIV improves clinical conditions of stable CF patients. Finally, we suggest that this procedure can be useful to counteract the progression of lung disease even in normocapnic patients.


Assuntos
Fibrose Cística , Ventilação não Invasiva , Fibrose Cística/complicações , Fibrose Cística/terapia , Humanos , Hipercapnia , Pulmão , Projetos Piloto
20.
J Nepal Health Res Counc ; 19(1): 135-139, 2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33934148

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Various studies have shown that low body mass index co-relates with the severity of Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The reduced body mass index in these patients is thought to be due to nutritional abnormality and raised circulating inflammatory markers. The study is aimed to find the association of body mass index with respiratory failure in patient with chronic obstructive pulmunory disease. METHODS: 142 patients who attended emergency /out-patient-department in Sir Sundarlal Hospital from August 2018 to July 2020 were enrolled for the study. 81 patients in one group had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation with Type II respiratory failure. Among this group low and normal body mass index subgroup was categorized.61 patients in another group had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Non-invasive ventilation was applied to case group. Categorization of body mass index was done <18.5(Low BMI) and 18.5-24.9 (Normal BMI ). RESULTS: The mean age of the study group was (63.53±9.021). There was a significant difference in the body mass index between the groups ( p=<0.001,t=15.40). Severity of respiratory failure was compared using ph and pco2 in the between the groups which showed no significant difference (p=1,chi square 0.000), (p=0.40,chi square=0.72) however it did affect the outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that overall respiratory failure was common in low body mass index cases compared to Control. Nevertheless there was no difference among severity of respiratory failure among low and normal body mass index subgroups and however it did affect the outcome.


Assuntos
Ventilação não Invasiva , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Insuficiência Respiratória , Índice de Massa Corporal , Humanos , Nepal , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações , Insuficiência Respiratória/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia
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