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Forensic Sci Int ; 275: 160-166, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28366623


Food poisoning is frequently caused by the accidental ingestion of toxic plants that possess strong morphological similarities to edible plants. False helleborine (Veratrum album) is one of the most common plants involved in such accidents. In cases of poisoning by toxic plants, rapid and accurate identification, usually based on the morphological or chemical analysis of plant parts, is required for appropriate medical treatment or forensic investigation. However, morphological examinations require experience in systematic botany because the samples are fragmentary, and chemical analysis of natural compounds can be difficult. In this study, we developed a TaqMan real-time PCR method using trnH-psbA and trnL-trnF that could be carried out in 30-60min. The lower detection limit was less than 10pg of DNA and the primer sets were specific to V. album and Veratrum stamineum. Mixed samples, cooked samples, and simulated gastric contents were successfully identified, and a multiplex assay of two regions was also possible. These results indicate that the TaqMan real-time PCR analysis is a very effective method to detect small samples of V. album and V. stamineum accurately and rapidly in poisoning cases.

Plantas Tóxicas/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Veratrum/genética , DNA de Plantas/genética , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/métodos
Plant J ; 82(6): 991-1003, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25939370


Steroid alkaloids have been shown to elicit a wide range of pharmacological effects that include anticancer and antifungal activities. Understanding the biosynthesis of these molecules is essential to bioengineering for sustainable production. Herein, we investigate the biosynthetic pathway to cyclopamine, a steroid alkaloid that shows promising antineoplastic activities. Supply of cyclopamine is limited, as the current source is solely derived from wild collection of the plant Veratrum californicum. To elucidate the early stages of the pathway to cyclopamine, we interrogated a V. californicum RNA-seq dataset using the cyclopamine accumulation profile as a predefined model for gene expression with the pattern-matching algorithm Haystack. Refactoring candidate genes in Sf9 insect cells led to discovery of four enzymes that catalyze the first six steps in steroid alkaloid biosynthesis to produce verazine, a predicted precursor to cyclopamine. Three of the enzymes are cytochromes P450 while the fourth is a γ-aminobutyrate transaminase; together they produce verazine from cholesterol.

Enzimas/metabolismo , Alcaloides de Veratrum/metabolismo , Veratrum/genética , Veratrum/metabolismo , 4-Aminobutirato Transaminase/genética , 4-Aminobutirato Transaminase/metabolismo , Algoritmos , Animais , Vias Biossintéticas , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Enzimas/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Células Sf9 , Transcriptoma
Gene ; 530(2): 229-35, 2013 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23973725


The sequence of the chloroplast genome, which is inherited maternally, contains useful information for many scientific fields such as plant systematics, biogeography and biotechnology because its characteristics are highly conserved among species. There is an increase in chloroplast genomes of angiosperms that have been sequenced in recent years. In this study, the nucleotide sequence of the chloroplast genome (cpDNA) of Veratrum patulum Loes. (Melanthiaceae, Liliales) was analyzed completely. The circular double-stranded DNA of 153,699 bp consists of two inverted repeat (IR) regions of 26,360 bp each, a large single copy of 83,372 bp, and a small single copy of 17,607 bp. This plastome contains 81 protein-coding genes, 30 distinct tRNA and four genes of rRNA. In addition, there are six hypothetical coding regions (ycf1, ycf2, ycf3, ycf4, ycf15 and ycf68) and two open reading frames (ORF42 and ORF56), which are also found in the chloroplast genomes of the other species. The gene orders and gene contents of the V. patulum plastid genome are similar to that of Smilax china, Lilium longiflorum and Alstroemeria aurea, members of the Smilacaceae, Liliaceae and Alstroemeriaceae (Liliales), respectively. However, the loss rps16 exon 2 in V. patulum results in the difference in the large single copy regions in comparison with other species. The base substitution rate is quite similar among genes of these species. Additionally, the base substitution rate of inverted repeat region was smaller than that of single copy regions in all observed species of Liliales. The IR regions were expanded to trnH_GUG in V. patulum, a part of rps19 in L. longiflorum and A. aurea, and whole sequence of rps19 in S. china. Furthermore, the IGS lengths of rbcL-accD-psaI region were variable among Liliales species, suggesting that this region might be a hotspot of indel events and the informative site for phylogenetic studies in Liliales. In general, the whole chloroplast genome of V. patulum, a potential medicinal plant, will contribute to research on the genetic applications of this genus.

Cloroplastos/genética , Genoma de Cloroplastos , Genômica , Filogenia , RNA de Plantas/genética , Veratrum/genética , Cloroplastos/classificação , Mapeamento Cromossômico , DNA Circular , Sequências Repetidas Invertidas , Liliaceae/classificação , Liliaceae/genética , RNA de Plantas/classificação , RNA Ribossômico/classificação , RNA Ribossômico/genética , RNA de Transferência/classificação , RNA de Transferência/genética , Smilacaceae/classificação , Smilacaceae/genética , Veratrum/classificação
Anal Biochem ; 409(1): 153-5, 2011 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20946863


Admixtures of different plant species are a common problem in raw materials for medicinal use. Two exemplary assays were developed to admixtures in Helleborus niger with high-resolution melting analysis. HRM proved to be a very sensitive tool in detecting admixtures, able to detect a ratio of 1:1000 with unknown species, and of 1:200,000 with Veratrum nigrum. The example proves the ability of HRM for quantification in multiplex PCR. The method is not limited to detecting adulterations. It can also be used to quantify a specific target by integrating a second amplicon in the assay as internal standard.

DNA de Plantas/química , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Primers do DNA/química , Genótipo , Helleborus/genética , Desnaturação de Ácido Nucleico , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Temperatura de Transição , Veratrum/genética
New Phytol ; 188(3): 879-91, 2010 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20659302


• The Quaternary climatic changes resulted in range shifts of species, providing chances for hybridization. However, the genetic signatures of such ancient introgression have rarely been reported. To investigate such signatures, we performed a phylogeographical study on the perennial plant Veratrum album ssp. oxysepalum, which may have hybridized long ago with another congeneric species, V. stamineum. • Sequence variations in chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) were examined in 43 populations in Japan and adjacent areas. Phylogenetic analyses of different cpDNA haplotypes were conducted on the basis of cpDNA and nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (nrITS) variations. • In the Japanese archipelago, two major groups of haplotypes were detected, one of which was distributed in a disjunct pattern. The major haplotype, occupying the central part of the species' distribution, formed a monophyletic group with V. stamineum in phylogenetic trees on the basis of cpDNA variation, although the two species did not form a monophyletic group in phylogenetic trees on the basis of nrITS variation. • Historical hybridization between V. album ssp. oxysepalum and V. stamineum in refugia during the Quaternary climatic oscillations, and the resulting chloroplast capture of V. stamineum by V. album ssp. oxysepalum, are most probably responsible for the disjunct distribution of cpDNA in V. album ssp. oxysepalum.

Evolução Biológica , DNA de Cloroplastos , Variação Genética , Haplótipos , Hibridização Genética , Filogenia , Veratrum/genética , DNA de Cloroplastos/história , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico , Ecossistema , Genes de Plantas , História Antiga , Japão