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1.
Waste Manag ; 101: 161-170, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610477

RESUMO

Food losses and waste are a global problem, with an estimated 1.3 billion tons lost annually. In Brazil, fruit and vegetable losses amount to approximately 30% and occur in the processing, handling and storage stages. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the post-harvest losses of fruits and vegetables in the Central Supply (CEASA) of Salvador, Brazil, its determinants and potential solutions to minimize the problem. A cross-sectional, descriptive and quantitative study was carried out in which data were collected by observing the operation of the supply units, registration in a field notebook, and administering a questionnaire to sellers that covered four main dimensions: socioeconomic profile of vendors; hygienic-sanitary conditions; characteristics of acquisition, storage and commercialization of products; and measures used by sellers to reduce losses. Many inadequacies were found, including the transportation and reception of products and their commercialization. Regarding hygiene, there were flaws in the care of the environment, the products and the food handlers. At most sites (75%), there were problems with infrastructure. The loss was estimated to be on the order of 9.5 tonnes/week, especially bananas, papayas, tomatoes, peppers and lettuce. The main causes of loss were exceeding volume in purchases, storage without refrigeration and careless handling by consumers and vendors. Strategies to reduce losses included price reduction, donation practices and consumption by sellers. The study indicates the need for improvements both in the infrastructure and in the hygienic care, management and post-harvest conservation of the fruits and vegetables.


Assuntos
Frutas , Verduras , Brasil , Comércio , Estudos Transversais , Abastecimento de Alimentos
2.
J Environ Manage ; 253: 109636, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678688

RESUMO

Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) is a frequently detected farmland contaminant that is harmful to the environment and human health. In this study, a DBP-degrading endophytic Bacillus siamensis strain T7 was immobilized in rice husk-derived biochar for bioremediation of DBP-polluted agricultural soils. The effects of this microbe-biochar composite on the soil prokaryotic community and the mechanism by which it regulates DBP degradation, were also investigated. A supplement of T7-biochar composite not only significantly boosted DBP biodegradation in soil by raising the DBP degradation rate constant and half-life from 0.1979 d-1 and 2.3131 d to 0.2434 d-1 and 2.1062 d, respectively, but also impeded DBP uptake by leafy vegetables. The general bioremediation effect of T7-biochar alliance excelled pure T7 suspensions and biochar, by trapping more DBP and boosting its complete degradation in soil. Besides, the combination of strain T7 and biochar can increase the proportion of some beneficial bacteria and boost the functional diversity of soil prokaryotic community, then to a certain extent may reverse the negative effect of DBP pollution on the agricultural soils. These results indicate that the rice-husk-derived biochar is a proper media when utilizing functional microbes into environmental treatment. Overall, T7-biochar composite is a promising soil modifier for soil bioremediation and the production of DBP-free crops.


Assuntos
Bacillus , Poluentes do Solo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Carvão Vegetal , Dibutilftalato , Humanos , Solo , Verduras
3.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 296, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692868

RESUMO

Introduction: There is a growing interest on vital roles of micronutrients in the maintenance of good health and enhancement of the immune system for prevention of diseases. Methods: Energy dispersive X-Ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometer was used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of selected micronutrients Zinc (Zn), Iron (Fe), Magnesium (Mg), Calcium (Ca) and Potassium (K) in ten African indigenous leafy vegetables (AILVs) (Corchorus olitorius, Cucurbita moschata, Amaranthus blitum, Brassica carinata , Cleome gynandra, Solanum scabrum , Crotalaria ochroleuca, Urticadioica, Manihot esculenta, Vigna unguiculata) which are cultivated, marketed and consumed in Kenya and across East and West Africa. Results: In this study, the highest levels of Calcium, Zinc and Iron were found in Urticadioica leaves (75.0 mg/g), Manihot esculenta leaves (0.1 mg/g) and Cucurbita moschata leaves (1.0 mg/g). Amaranthus blitum leaves exhibited the highest content of Magnesium (9.5 mg/g) and Potassium (36.5 mg/g) respectively. This study demonstrated that based on weight and bioavailabilty, 10 g of Cucurbita moschata (dried weight) provides between 57% to 136% daily value of iron for children age between 7 and 10 years old and can provide up to 41%, 81% and 27% daily value of iron for female aged 18+, lactating females aged 18+ and males aged 18+ respectively. A 10 g portion of Urticadioica leaves (dried weight) will provide 75% or 58% of the daily value of calcium based on the North American or western European recommendation respectively while the same amount of Amaranthus leaves provides between 37% to 50 % of daily value of magnesium for adults of nineteen years and older based on their weight. The daily value of zinc despite its dependency with age, weight and Zinc bioavailability can be supplied by 10 g of Manihot esculenta leaves (dried weight) at a percentage ranged from 8% to 39%. Based on the 3510 mg daily recommendation, 10 g of Amaranthus, Brassica carinata, Cleome gynandra and Cucurbita moschata (dried weight) will provide 10.4%, 10.0%, 9.8% and 9.3% daily value for potassium respectively. Conclusion: The research findings are scientific evidences of the nutritional contribution of African indigenous leafy vegetables.


Assuntos
Micronutrientes/análise , Necessidades Nutricionais , Verduras/química , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Quênia , Masculino , Folhas de Planta/química , Espectrometria por Raios X
4.
J Water Health ; 17(5): 837-844, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638033

RESUMO

Treated wastewater samples were collected, filtered using sterile 47-mm cellulose nitrate membrane and DNA extracted from the filtered materials. The presence of Blastocystis sp. was confirmed via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the SSU rRNA gene of Blastocystis sp. in 5/12 of samples. Based on the subtype analysis after sequencing, 2, 2 and 1 of ST2, ST6 and ST8 were detected among the isolates, respectively. Furthermore, both ST6s were allele 139, alleles 11 and 138 were identified in ST2 and the only ST8 was allele 95. The phylogenetic tree showed that one of ST2 was clustered together with those ST2 that were already reported from humans and animals. The presence of Blastocystis sp. in treated wastewater can indicate the potential role of this type of water for irrigation in the transmission of pathogenic microorganisms to downstream farmlands.


Assuntos
Irrigação Agrícola , Infecções por Blastocystis , Blastocystis/genética , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias/parasitologia , Animais , Blastocystis/isolamento & purificação , DNA de Protozoário , Fazendas , Fezes , Variação Genética , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Filogenia , Verduras
5.
Se Pu ; 37(9): 1019-1025, 2019 Sep 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642308

RESUMO

An analytical method for the determination of 34 pesticide residues in plant-derived foods was established using an automated QuEChERS sample preparation system combined with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The sample extraction and dispersive solid-phase extraction in the manual QuEChERS method were combined using the vortex vibration and centrifugation functions of the automated QuEChERS sample preparation system. The operating parameters and pretreatment steps were optimized, and the analytes were detected in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The quantification analysis was performed by the matrix-matched external standard method. The automated and the manual QuEChERS methods were compared from the methodological verification standpoint. The calibration curves showed good linearity in a certain range, and the correlation coefficients (R2) were greater than 0.99. The limits of detection and limits of quantification were 0.76-3.60 µg/kg and 2.28-10.80 µg/kg, respectively. Moreover, the recoveries ranged from 53.0% to 125.2%, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were less than 1.59% (n=5). The results obtained by the manual QuEChERS method were not significantly different from those obtained by the automated QuEChERS method. This method can effectively reduce the labor intensity and probability of error in the determination of pesticide residues.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Verduras/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Extração em Fase Sólida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
6.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 48(4): 560-572, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601336

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand the dietary intake quantity and quality of high school students in Shanghai education. METHODS: From 2015 to 2016, Shanghai center for Disease Control and Prevention, divided the school into three levels(urban area, suburban area and rural area) according to the economic level and population composition of the street where the school was located. The probability-proportional-to-size sampling technique was used to select 19 high schools, from which 9 boys and 9 girls from same class were randomly recruited for each grade. A total of 1026 students were recruited. The survey included general situation questionnaire and dietary inquiry. Participants were required to complete the standardized questionnaire form through face-to-face interviews with trained interviewers. Chinese Dietary Guidelines(2016) was used to evaluate dietary quantity while China healthy diet index(CHDI) was used to evaluate dietary quality. RESULTS: The medians of intake of grain, vegetables, fruits, meat/livestock, fish/shrimp, eggs, milk and milk products, bean and bean products, cooking oil, cooking salt were 313. 8, 189. 7, 66. 3, 179. 2, 34. 7, 48. 9, 133. 3, 33. 3, 27. 1 and 6. 0 g/d within high school students, respectively. In both boys and girls, the medians of intake of vegetables, fruits, fish/shrimp, dairy products were lower than reference standard and meat/livestock was higher(P<0. 05). The intake differences among different area's high school students upon grain, vegetables, fruits, poultry/livestock, fish/shrimp, dairy products, beans/nuts, cooking oil, cooking salt were statistically significant(P<0. 05). The CHDI median total score of high school students was 68. 5 in Shanghai. 75. 2% of the CHDI total scores were between 60 and 80. The vegetable score, dark vegetable score, fruit score and total CHDI score in boys were significantly lower than those in girls(P<0. 05). The urban area CHDI score was significantly higher than suburban's and countryside's(P<0. 05). CONCLUSION: Both dietary structure and dietary quality are inappropriate and unfit within high school students in Shanghai, the urban area's condition is better than another two. We suggest to increase intake of vegetables, fruits, fish/shrimp, dairy products while decrease poultry/livestock's consumption.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Estado Nutricional , Verduras , Animais , China , Cidades , Feminino , Frutas , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes
7.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 48(5): 728-732, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601312

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the situations of dietary microelements intakes among elderly people in different areas of Zhejiang Province, and analyze the food sources of microelements. METHODS: Data were obtained from the 2010-2012 Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey in Zhejiang Province. 832 elderly people( 434 male, 398 female, age was( 68. 02±6. 68) years) were from large cities, small-medium cities and rural counties. The 24-hour dietary recall method for 3 consecutive days was used to collect food intake information to analyze dietary intakes among elderly people of Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Se and their sources in different areas. RESULTS: The elderly people'intakes of Mn was 4. 86( 3. 44, 6. 45) mg/d, Cu was 1. 69( 1. 13, 2. 27) mg/d, and Se was36. 85( 21. 32, 54. 21) µg/d, those were generally low. The intake of Zn was 10. 15( 7. 94, 12. 62) mg/d in males, was low as well. Intakes of Mn, Cu, Se were significantly different in different areas, small-medium cities had highest intakes of Mn( 5. 87 mg/d)and Cu( 1. 88 mg/d), large cities had a highest intake of Se( 45. 47 µg/d). The food sources of microelements were slightly variant. Rural counties had less fungi and algae sources of Fe and Mn than large cities and small-medium cities. The Cu from vegetables were higher than dried legumes and the Se from poultry and poultry products were higher than eggs in rural counties. The Zn from fish, shellfish and mollusk were higher than dried legumes in large cities. CONCLUSION: The insufficient status of microelements intakes among elderly people in Zhejiang Province was serious, and there were differences among elderly people from different areas in intakes and food sources of microelements.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Nutrientes/análise , Estado Nutricional , Oligoelementos/análise , Idoso , Animais , Cidades , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Verduras
8.
J Environ Qual ; 48(4): 1038-1046, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589689

RESUMO

Given the presence of antibiotics and resistant bacteria in livestock manures, it is important to identify the key pathways by which land-applied manure-derived soil amendments potentially spread resistance. The goal of this field-scale study was to identify the effects of different types of soil amendments (raw manure from cows treated with cephapirin and pirlimycin, compost from antibiotic-treated or antibiotic-free cows, or chemical fertilizer only) and crop type (lettuce [ L.] or radish [ L.]) on the transport of two antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs; 1 and ) via storm runoff from six naturally occurring storms. Concurrent quantification of sediment and fecal indicator bacteria (FIB; and enterococci) in runoff permitted comparison to traditional agricultural water quality targets that may be driving factors of ARG presence. Storm characteristics (total rainfall volume, storm duration, etc.) significantly influenced FIB concentration (two-way ANOVA, < 0.05), although both effects from individual storm events (Kruskal-Wallis, < 0.05) and vegetative cover influenced sediment levels. Composted and raw manure-amended plots both yielded significantly higher 1 and B levels in runoff for early storms, at least 8 wk following initial planting, relative to fertilizer-only or unamended barren plots. There was no significant difference between 1 or B levels in runoff from plots treated with compost derived from antibiotic-treated versus antibiotic-free dairy cattle. Our findings indicate that agricultural fields receiving manure-derived amendments release higher quantities of these two "indicator" ARGs in runoff, particularly during the early stages of the growing season, and that composting did not reduce effects of ARG loading in runoff.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Animais , Antibacterianos , Bactérias , Bovinos , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Feminino , Esterco , Microbiologia do Solo , Verduras
9.
J Environ Manage ; 251: 109532, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542620

RESUMO

The incidence of coliforms in soil and agricultural produce was evaluated in two vegetable crops, namely, cauliflower and eggplant, which were grown using wastewater for irrigation. Field experiment was conducted at Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI), New Delhi, India. In the field experiments to irrigate the crop, municipal wastewater was applied through drip system. The filtration of irrigation water was done through sand media, disk media and their combination. The laterals were placed at surface and subsurface of soil. All filtration processes significantly reduced total coliforms (12-20%) and E. coli (15-25%) populations when evaluated against untreated wastewater. The population dynamics of coliforms in soil profiles indicated that the maximum population of E. coli was estimated on the surface of soil profile when using surface drip, which decreased with soil depth under subsurface placement of drip lateral. After crop harvesting, E. coli in the soil reduced until 20 days after the cessation of irrigation and was highly correlated with soil moisture. E. coli and total coliforms availability were noticed on the surface and in the tissues of leaf and fruit, the coliform count is higher on the surface of plants under surface placement of drip lateral. The concentration of coliforms was lower with eggplant in comparison to cauliflower due to the smooth fruit surface of eggplant. Our study reveals the critical role of subsurface drip irrigation in reducing the load of coliform both in the soil and the crop produce ensuring safety of the consumers against health hazards. In another way protect the environment from wastewater disposal and reduce the burden on synthetic fertilizers as well as shrinking freshwater resources.


Assuntos
Verduras , Águas Residuárias , Irrigação Agrícola , Escherichia coli , Incidência , Índia , Solo
10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(41): 11331-11339, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529945

RESUMO

Chiral pesticides are often produced and applied without distinguishing the difference of enantiomers, which sometimes leads to overuse and inaccurate risk assessment. Imazalil is a widely used chiral fungicide; its parent and major metabolite R14821 (imazalil-M) are usually detected in environmental and plant samples. The enantioselective bioactivity of imazalil enantiomers to seven typical pathogens (e.g., Fulvia fulva) was explored. S-(+)-Imazalil showed 3.00-6.59 times higher bioactivity than its antipode for selected pathogens. Molecular docking partly explained the mechanism of enantioselectivity in bioactivity. S-(+)-Imazalil had a stronger hydrophobic interaction and lower energy conformation with binding sites than R-(-)-imazalil. The acute toxicity of S-(+)-imazalil was 1.23-fold and 2.25-fold more than R-(-)-imazalil to P. subcapitata and D. magna, respectively. And, S-(+)-imazalil-M had 2.21-fold and 1.70-fold higher toxicity than R-(-)-imazalil-M to P. subcapitata and D. magna, respectively. However, R-(-)-imazalil was 1.21 times more toxic than S-(+)-imazalil to D. rerio. The enantioselective dissipation of imazalil and imazalil-M was explored under greenhouse conditions. High-effective S-(+)-imazalil preferentially enriched in leaf and fruit of tomato and cucumber, and no enantioselective degradation was found in soil. Imazalil-M enantiomers formed in cucumber, leaf of cucumber, and tomato, and the EF values fluctuated between 0.332 and 0.499. The results could provide information for more accurate assessment of imazalil; they implicated that using S-(+)-imazalil could reduce pesticide input and the risk to D. rerio.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais/química , Imidazóis/química , Poluentes do Solo/química , Verduras/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Animais , Ascomicetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Clorófitas/efeitos dos fármacos , Cucumis sativus/química , Daphnia/efeitos dos fármacos , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Frutas/química , Fungicidas Industriais/toxicidade , Imidazóis/toxicidade , Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Estereoisomerismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
11.
Bioresour Technol ; 293: 122081, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479855

RESUMO

It is very important to utilize associated vegetable products as resources, especially in large-scale vegetable cultivation areas. In this study, pepper straw, a vegetable waste, was pyrolyzed into pepper straw biochars (PBs) to investigate their sorption potential for phthalate acid esters (PAEs). The results showed that PBs have porous structures and abundant surface functional groups. Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and dimethyl phthalate (DMP) removal by PBs was divided into two stages, fast and slow sorption. The PBs pyrolyzed at 500 °C showed greater DBP and DMP sorption capacity than those pyrolyzed at 400 and 600 °C. Both chemical and physical sorption occurred in the whole sorption process of PAEs to PBs. It is proposed that converting pepper straw into biochars to use as sorbents could be an environmentally friendly way of vegetable waste resource utilization.


Assuntos
Ésteres , Ácidos Ftálicos , Adsorção , Carvão Vegetal , Dibutilftalato , Verduras , Água
12.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 63, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483005

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the quantity and diversity in the consumption fruits and vegetables, as well as its relationship with the consumer's purchase characteristics and food environment. METHODS: Baseline study stemming from a controlled and randomized community trial investigating a sample representative of Primary Health Care services (Health Academy Program) of Belo Horizonte, state of Minas Gerais. The intake of fruits and vegetables was analyzed in servings/day, whereas diversity was assessed by the Food Frequency Questionnaire. Users were also questioned on the frequency, purchase location and availability of these foods at their households. To assess the consumer's food environment, commercial establishments within a 1.6 km radius around the program unit sampled were audited. RESULTS: 3,414 adults and older adults (88.1% women) were investigated, as well as 336 commercial establishments, in 18 units of the Health Academy Program. The average consumption of fruits and vegetables was adequate [5.4 (SD = 2.1) servings/day] but monotonous, with average daily intake of two different types. In the establishments audited, a good diversity (77.7% and 85.0%) and variety (74.5% and 81.4%) of fruits and vegetables was observed, although with lower quality of vegetables (60.4%). After adjusting for sociodemographic variables, we identified that knowledge on food crops (p = 0.006), increased monthly availability of fruits at households (p < 0.001), and greater variety of fruits (p = 0.03) and quality of vegetables (p = 0.05) in commercial establishments could improve the quantitative intake of fruits and vegetables, whereas a greater variety of fruits (p = 0.008) would increase consumption diversity. CONCLUSIONS: The intake of fruits and vegetables was quantitatively adequate but monotonous, being influences by the consumer environment. Such results highlight the need for improving educational actions in health services and programs, in addition to acting on the consumer environment, aiming to promote and maintain the adequate and diversified consumption, as recommended by Brazilian guidelines for proper and healthy eating.


Assuntos
Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta Saudável/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Brasil , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Frutas/classificação , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Características de Residência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Verduras/classificação
13.
Environ Pollut ; 254(Pt B): 113115, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476671

RESUMO

There is a lack of understanding about the potential accumulation of antibiotics in plants exposed to low-dose contaminated soil. 12 Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis cultivars were used to investigate the different accumulation capacities of sulfamethoxypyridazine, tetracycline, ofloxacin, norfloxacin and difloxacin from the soil. The results showed a significant variation (p < 0.05) among the 12 cultivars in the accumulation of antibiotics. Cultivars Y1 and Y2 had the highest accumulation capacity with average concentrations of 3.26 and 3.00 µg kg-1, respectively, while cultivars Y4 and Y9 had the lowest accumulation capacity with average concentrations of 0.83 and 0.89 µg kg-1. The average antibiotic concentration in all edible part samples (2.74 µg kg-1) of the treatment group was about 3.0-fold of that of the control group (0.93 µg kg-1). The average bioconcentration factors of sulfamethoxypyridazine, tetracycline, ofloxacin, norfloxacin and difloxacin were 0.051, 0.031, 0.017, 0.036 and 0.034, respectively, indicating a higher uptake of sulfamethoxypyridazine compared to ofloxacin. And the mobility of antibiotics in soil is a main factor affecting the bioavailability for plants. The average concentration of antibiotics in edible parts of cultivar Y12 on the 25th and 45th day were 1.52 and 1.73 µg kg-1 and that of the roots were 3.73 and 6.61 µg kg-1, respectively. The concentrations of tetracycline and difloxacin in the edible parts and roots significantly increased with growing time, while the concentration of sulfamethoxypyridazine and ofloxacin changed little throughout the growing period. The potential risks of antibiotics in vegetables on human health cannot be ignored. Overall, attention should be paid to the translocation of antibiotics from soil to plants.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Disponibilidade Biológica , Humanos , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Verduras
14.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(39): 10871-10879, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31517482

RESUMO

This study evaluated the effect of triterpenoids from edible mushroom Poria cocos on intestinal epithelium integrity and revealed the transcriptional regulatory pathways that underpin restorative mechanisms in the gut. Based on computational docking studies, transcriptional activation experiments and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) protein immunofluorescence localization assays in cultured cells, 16α-hydroxytrametenolic acid (HTA) was discovered as a novel GR agonist in this study. HTA ameliorates TNF-α-induced Caco-2 monolayer intestinal epithelial barrier damage and suppressed activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase B (Akt), which attenuated downstream IκB and nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) phosphorylation through GR activation. Moreover, HTA prevented NF-κB translocation into the nucleus and binding to its cis-element and suppressed lipopolysaccharide-induced downstream NO production and pro-inflammatory cytokines at both protein and mRNA expression levels. In conclusion, HTA from P. cocos improves intestinal barrier function through a GR-mediated PI3K/Akt/NF-κB signaling pathway and may be potentially exploited as a supportive dietary therapeutic strategy for restoring gut health.


Assuntos
Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Wolfiporia/química , Células CACO-2 , Humanos , Proteínas I-kappa B/genética , Proteínas I-kappa B/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , NF-kappa B/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/genética , Fosforilação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/genética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Triterpenos/química , Verduras/química
15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(38): 10800-10812, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490681

RESUMO

In this work, a highly efficient pesticide residue screening and quantification method was established using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry based on in-source fragmentation. Over 400 pesticides were tested, among which 96 pesticides displayed in-source fragmentation. A novel concept of in-source fragment fraction was proposed to evaluate the extent of in-source fragmentation, which was found to be chemical structure- and source parameter-dependent. A high-resolution MS/MS library containing 403 pesticides and 126 fragments was created and was applied for library searching of pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits. The introduction of in-source fragments effectively circumvented misannotation and occurrence of false negatives. The quantification ability for the fragments was validated in terms of recovery, linearity, and limit of quantification and its superiority to the parent pesticides was established. Finally, the proposed method was applied for the analysis of real samples and proficiency test samples, and false negative results were successfully avoided in the analysis.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Frutas/química , Resíduos de Praguicidas/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Verduras/química , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Limite de Detecção
16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(33): 9362-9370, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368700

RESUMO

This manuscript presents an effective and robust method for simultaneous stereoselective determination of two pyrethroid insecticides, tetramethrin and α-cypermethrin in different food products by high-performance liquid chromatography. Enantioseparation was carried out using reversed-phase chromatography, and the influences of four polysaccharide-based chiral columns, mobile phase composition, and column temperature on retention were fully investigated. Satisfactory separation was obtained on Chiralpak IG column using acetonitrile-water (75:25, v/v) under isocratic conditions. To extract and purify the target analytes from food matrices, matrix solid-phase dispersion was employed with C18 as dispersant and primary secondary amine as well as graphitized carbon black as cleanup sorbents. Response surface method based on Box-Behnken design was implemented to assist optimization of the extraction variables. Then, method validation was done in real samples including specificity, linearity, sensitivity, trueness, precision, as well as stability, and its analytical performance fulfills the criteria recommended by the European Union SANTE/11945/2015, demonstrating its applicability in studying the stereochemistry of chiral tetramethrin and α-cypermethrin in food products.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Grão Comestível/química , Frutas/química , Inseticidas/química , Piretrinas/química , Verduras/química , Cromatografia de Fase Reversa/métodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Inseticidas/isolamento & purificação , Piretrinas/isolamento & purificação , Extração em Fase Sólida , Estereoisomerismo
17.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1157, 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438905

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study contributes to the limited number of studies that have explored the impact of not meeting the recommendations for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, screen time, fruit and vegetable consumption and sleep on overweight and obesity among adolescents. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of data from the 2015 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS), a provincially representative survey of students in publically funded schools in Ontario, Canada, was conducted. This study included self-reported data from students aged 11-17 years (n = 9866). The main outcome variable was overweight or obesity, classified using WHO BMI cut-points. Four independent variables for healthy weight behaviours were examined: (1) moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (≥ 60 mins vs. < 60 mins everyday over the last seven days); (2) screen time (< 2 h daily vs. ≥ 2 h daily); (3) fruit and vegetable consumption (≥ 5 times/day vs. < 5 times/day); (4) sleep (adequate based on guidelines vs. inadequate). Covariates included sex, age, Subjective Social Status (SSS), parental education and ethnicity. Binomial and multinomial logistic regression models were fitted to determine whether not meeting the recommendations for healthy weight behaviours was associated with overweight or obesity status. RESULTS: Only 2% of students in Ontario met the recommendations for all four healthy weight behaviours and 33% of students did not meet any of the four recommendations. In both the binomial and multinomial models, not meeting the recommendations for MVPA was the only significant healthy weight behaviour associated with both overweight and obesity (AOR: 1.29, 95% CI: 1.03-1.62), and solely obesity (AOR: 1.45, 95% CI: 1.05-1.99). Males, students with lower SSS ratings, and students with parents with an education of 'High School' or less were also at significantly greater odds of being obese. CONCLUSION: Findings from this study show that inadequate levels of MVPA is a critical behavioural predictor of obesity status in adolescents between the ages of 11-17 years, after controlling for differences in screen time, fruit and vegetable consumption, sleep, and demographics. Findings from this study could have implications toward policies and programs targeted at reducing obesity, and increasing the physical activity rates of adolescents.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Exercício/fisiologia , Feminino , Frutas , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Masculino , Ontário/epidemiologia , Tempo de Tela , Autorrelato , Sono , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo , Verduras
18.
Eur J Med Chem ; 181: 111579, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398616

RESUMO

Many bioactive agents have been extracted from plants or belong to functional foods and have been considered in the treatment of serious and multifactorial diseases, such as cancer. In particular, this review is focused on the anti-cancer properties owned by several natural products typically from the Mediterranean area. In some regions of the South of Italy, a lower cancer incidence has been observed. There is increasing evidence that adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern correlates with reduced risk of several cancer types. This could be mainly attributed to the typical lifestyle aspects of the Mediterranean diet, such as high consumption of fruit and vegetables. In this review, the main natural products of the Mediterranean area are discussed, with particular attention on their anti-cancer properties endowed with multi-target profiles.


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Anticarcinógenos/análise , Anticarcinógenos/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Frutas/química , Humanos , Neoplasias/dietoterapia , Azeite de Oliva/análise , Azeite de Oliva/uso terapêutico , Verduras/química , Vinho/análise
19.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(36): 10256-10264, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433628

RESUMO

In this study, a simple and effective chiral analytical method was developed to monitor prothioconazole and prothioconazole-desthio at the enantiomeric level using supercritical fluid chromatography-tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. The baseline enantioseparation for prothioconazole and prothioconazole-desthio was achieved within 2 min on a Chiralcel OD-3 column with CO2/0.2% acetic acid-5 mmol/L ammonium acetate 2-propanol (85:15, v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min and column temperature of 25 °C. The limit of quantitation for each enantiomer was 5 µg/kg, with a baseline resolution of >3.0. The results of enantioselective dissipation showed that R-(-)-prothioconazole was preferentially degraded in tomato, cucumber, and pepper under greenhouse conditions. S-(-)-prothioconazole-desthio was preferentially degraded in tomato and cucumber; however, R-(+)-prothioconazole-desthio was preferentially degraded in pepper. Results of this study may help to facilitate more accurate risk assessment of prothioconazole and its major metabolite in agricultural products.


Assuntos
Cucumis sativus/química , Fungicidas Industriais/química , Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Triazóis/química , Triazóis/metabolismo , Cromatografia com Fluido Supercrítico , Cucumis sativus/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Piper nigrum/química , Piper nigrum/metabolismo , Estereoisomerismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Verduras/química , Verduras/metabolismo
20.
J Environ Manage ; 248: 109321, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394478

RESUMO

The distribution and diastereomeric profiles of hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs, identified as persistent organic pollutants) in soil-vegetable system of open fields remain unknown. In this study, three main HBCD diastereoisomers (α-, ß-, and γ-HBCDs) were analyzed in paired soil and vegetable samples from vegetable farms in four cities (Guangzhou, Jiangmen, Huizhou, Foshan) of the Pearl River Delta region, Southern China. The sum concentrations of the three diastereoisomers (∑HBCDs) in soils varied from 0.99 to 18.4 ng/g (dry weight) with a mean of 5.77 ng/g, decreasing in the order of Jiangmen > Guangzhou > Huizhou > Foshan. The distributions of HBCDs in both soil and vegetable were diastereomer-specific, with γ-HBCD being predominant. The ∑HBCDs in vegetables ranged from 0.87 to 32.7 ng/g (dry weight) with a mean of 16.6 ng/g, generally higher than those of the corresponding soils. Thus bioconcentration factors (BCFs, the ratio of contaminant concentration in vegetable to that in soil) of HBCDs were generally greater than 1.0, implying higher accumulation in vegetable. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of ΣHBCDs via consumption of vegetables varied from 0.26 to 9.35 ng/kg bw/day with a mean of 3.60 ng/kg bw/day for adults and from 0.32 to 11.5 ng/kg bw/day with a mean of 4.41 ng/kg bw/day for Children, far lower than the oral reference dose (RfD, 2 × 105 ng/kg bw/day) proposed by US National Research Council. These results suggest that HBCD in the vegetables posed low health risk for the local population. These data are the first report on HBCD occurrence and health risk in soil-vegetable system of open fields.


Assuntos
Retardadores de Chama , Hidrocarbonetos Bromados , Criança , China , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Solo , Verduras
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