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1.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(11): 699, 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044641

RESUMO

The present study was intended to determine the potentially toxic elements (PTEs) concentration in fly ash (FA), soil, plant, and vegetable to assess the impacts of pollution on the nearby areas of coal-fired thermal power plant (TPP). The PTEs concentrations (mg/kg) in FA were Cr (48-74) > Pb (41-65) > Cd (7.4-9.7) > As (3.19-4.43) > Hg (0.518-0.598). The contamination factor (Cf) for Cd was highest in agricultural soil (Cf = 22) followed by roadside soil (Cf = 20), and forest soil (Cf = 15), which showed that the soil was strongly polluted due to the presence of Cd. The ecological risk index (ERI) in the topsoil of roadside area was also very high (1130), due to the high value of ecological risk factor of Cd (898) and Hg (213). The health risk associated with the intake of soil containing PTEs were also estimated by calculating hazard index (HI), and the values showed that the risk posed to children was minimum (HI < 1). But in case of roadside area, the HI was very close to one (0.975) indicating that the prolong exposure may pose severe health risk. The bioaccumulation coefficient of all PTEs for Albizia lebbeck and Madhuca longifolia were < 1, indicating less PTEs accumulation in the plant species. The hazard quotient of all PTEs (except of Hg) through vegetable consumption (Allium cepa and Raphanus sativus) was > 1, which signifies that the long-time consumption of contaminated vegetables may cause severe risk to the people.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Criança , Carvão Mineral , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Índia , Metais Pesados/análise , Centrais Elétricas , Medição de Risco , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Verduras
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998292

RESUMO

This study applied a qualitative approach to investigate the underlying influences on consumers' green food consumption from the intention generation phase to intention execution phase in the perspectives of purchase intention and the intention-behaviour gap (IBG). Additionally, the impact of the "Coronavirus Disease 2019" (COVID-19) pandemic on consumers' green food purchases was explored. Research data were derived from semi-structured in-depth interviews with 28 consumers and analyzed using grounded theory. The findings identified factors that influenced intentions and the IBG in the process of consumers' green food purchases. Specifically, these findings reported that health consciousness, perceived attributes, environmental consciousness, social influence, family structure, and enjoyable shopping experiences were identified as major drivers for generating consumers' green food purchase intentions. High prices of green food, unavailability issues, mistrust issues, and limited knowledge were factors triggering the gap between green food purchase intentions and behaviours. In addition, the results revealed that the COVID-19 crisis increased consumers' green food purchase intentions, whereas the IBG widens as a result of issues of unavailability, price, and panic. These findings will help stakeholders build future policy and suitable strategies to better promote green food consumption in the Chinese context.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Infecções por Coronavirus , Intenção , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Verduras/economia , Betacoronavirus , China , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(suppl 2): 4151-4156, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027351

RESUMO

Our aim was to analyze the association between previously diagnosed lifetime depression and changes in physical activity (PA), TV-viewing, consumption of fruits and vegetables as well as frequency of ultra-processed food (UPF) consumption. Data of 41,923 Brazilian adults (6,881 with depression and 35,042 without depression) were used. Participants reported PA (≥ 150 min/week), TV-viewing (≥ 4 h/day), frequency of eating fruits or vegetables (≤ 4 days/week) and UPF (≥ 5 days/week). For incidence indicators, we only considered participants without the risk behavior before the quarantine. People without and with depression presented, respectively, incidence of physical inactivity [70.1% (95%CI: 67.4-72.8) vs 76.3 (70.3-81.5)], high TV-viewing [31.2 (29.6-32.8) vs 33.9 (30.5-37.4)], low frequency of fruit or vegetable consumption [28.3 (25.8-31.0) vs 31.5 (26.1-37.5)] and elevated frequency of UPF consumption [9.7 (8.9-10.7) vs 15.2 (13.0-17.7)]. Participants with depression were more likely to present elevated frequency of UPF consumption incidence [OR:1.49 (95%CI:1.21-1.83)]. Thus, participants with previous diagnosis of depression were at risk for incidence of unhealthy diet behaviors.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Estilo de Vida , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Quarentena , Adolescente , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Brasil/epidemiologia , Dieta , Exercício Físico , Fast Foods/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Frutas , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Comportamento Sedentário , Televisão , Verduras , Adulto Jovem
4.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 49(5): 759-794, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070820

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the contamination of benzo(a)pyrene in edible vegetable oil from Henan Province. METHODS: A total of 1190 edible vegetable oil samples from Henan Province were collected. The concentration of benzo(a)pyrene was examined by high performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: The concentration of benzo(a)pyrene in prepackaged edible vegetable oils was <0. 3-63. 5 µg/kg with an average of 1. 5 µg/kg. The detection rate of benzo(a)pyrene in samples was 80. 0%, and the over standard rate was 0. 6%. In terms of subclasses of vegetable oil, the sesame seed oil samples were most seriously contaminated with benzo(a)pyrene. The risk of the benzo(a)pyrene contamination of sesame seed oil produced by aqueous extraction method was higher than that by mechanical pressed method. The risk of benzo(a)pyrene contamination in sesame seed oil and rapeseed oil increased as the decrease of quality grade. CONCLUSION: The result suggested that the sesame seed oil produced by aqueous extraction method had high risk in benzo(a)pyrene contamination in Henan Province.


Assuntos
Benzo(a)pireno , Verduras , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Óleos Vegetais
5.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 49(5): 836-839, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070832

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate dietary exposure of cadmium and their potential health risks of adults in Jiangxi Province. METHODS: The concentration data of cadmium of 11 kinds of foods were obtained from food safety monitoring in Jiangxi Province in 2012-2017. The food consumption data was obtained from food consumption survey in Jiangxi Province in 2016. Based on the deterministic assessment model, the dietary exposure of cadmium of adults in Jiangxi Province was calculated. RESULTS: The average dietary exposure of cadmium was 18. 426 µg/kg per month, accounting for 73. 7% of the provisional tolerable monthly intake(PTMI). The large portion exposure(P95) of cadmium was 29. 724 µg/kg per month, accounting for 118. 9% of PTMI. The average and the large portion(P95) dietary exposure range of cadmium in different age groups were 16. 224-19. 774 and 24. 059-33. 387 µg/kg per month, respectively. It was indicated that the main dietary sources of cadmium were rice and vegetables, which were contributed more than 92% of total dietary exposure of cadmium. CONCLUSION: The potential health risks caused by dietary exposure to cadmium of adults in Jiangxi Province was at an acceptable level. But there were some potential health risks in high exposure population.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Exposição Dietética , Cádmio/análise , Cádmio/toxicidade , Dieta , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Verduras
6.
Zootaxa ; 4772(1): zootaxa.4772.1.8, 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055629

RESUMO

Invasive species threaten the ecological and economic wellbeing of a country (Pimentel et al. 2001). In the last decade, several mealybugs and soft scale insects have been accidentally introduced to India, of which some have become serious pests (e.g., Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, Paracoccus marginatus Williams Granara de Willink, Phenacoccus madeirensis Green and Pseudococcus jackbeardsleyi Gimpel Miller); others are widening their host ranges and spreading rapidly. Kilifia acuminata (Signoret) and Protopulvinaria longivalvata Green seem relatively harmless but Trijuba oculata (Brain) and Pulvinaria urbicola Cockerell cause economic damage (Joshi Rameshkumar 2013; Joshi 2017).


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Manihot , Animais , Índia , Espécies Introduzidas , Verduras
7.
Med Lav ; 111(4): 296-305, 2020 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32869766

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Occupational pesticide poisoning is an important public health concern worldwide, especially in developing countries. OBJECTIVES: This study was aimed at determining the prevalence and risk factors of acute pesticide poisoning (APP) among the vegetable and fruit farmers in Karacabey District in northwest Turkey. METHODS: The study group consisted of 565 farmers. The dependent variable of the study is APP defined according to the World Health Organization's APP case definition matrix. The study's independent variables are the farmers' sociodemographic characteristics and the preventive measures they use when they are applying pesticides. The chi-square and logistic regression analysis analyzed the relationship between the dependent and independent variables. RESULTS: A total of 64 (11.3%) farmers reported APP and 75% of them presented to a health institution due to symptoms. The factors associated with increased risk of APP were: illiteracy (odds ratio (OR)=2.5), 14 years and less farming experience (OR=3.3), not reading the pesticide labels (OR=6.4), and contact with liquid pesticides (OR=2.3). -Conclusions: The study shows that approximately one out of ten farmers experience APP. Training programs should be planned and monitored to improve farmers' awareness of the dangers of pesticides, and they should be encouraged to adopt and implement protective measures.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Exposição Ocupacional , Praguicidas , Estudos Transversais , Fazendeiros , Frutas , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Praguicidas/envenenamento , Autorrelato , Turquia , Verduras
8.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 28(3): 208-218, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997477

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Fruit and vegetable intake has been reported as one of the significant protective factors against the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). This study aimed to assess the possible preventive effect of fruit and vegetable consumption on developing CVD. METHODS: A total of 398 participants (205 cases and 193 controls) referred for elective coronary angiography with clinical suspicion of coronary artery disease to Prince Hamza Hospital in Amman were enrolled in this case-control study. Dietary data were collected separately from each patient using interview-based food frequency questionnaire. RESULTS: The findings of the present study revealed that a total consumption of 3 servings of vegetable per day decreased significantly the risk of CVD to about 54% (OR = 0.46, 95% CI: 0.22-0.97, p = 0.033). Consumption of banana was found to reduce the risk of CVD to about 44% and 62% when consuming 1-2 and 3-6 servings/week, respectively, with p-value for trend 0.004. For the vegetables, the consumption of grape leaves and stuffed vegetables in general was significantly associated with lower risk of CVD. Increasing cauliflower consumption of 1-2 servings per week decreased CVD risk to about 37% (OR = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.38-0.98). Consuming up to 3-6 servings per week of mixed vegetables (OR = 0.10, 95% CI: 0.01-0.83) and onion (OR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.22-0.80) revealed an inverse association with CVD development. CONCLUSIONS: Adding to the present evidence, consumption of some fruits and vegetables could be considered as preventive factor against developing CVD. However, the association of consuming vegetables with preventing CVD was higher than the fruit consumption.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Frutas , Verduras , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Jordânia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Proteção
9.
S Afr Med J ; 110(8): 796-801, 2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880309

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Smoking cessation is a complex process influenced by factors such as smokers' nicotine dependence levels, socioeconomic status (SES) and other lifestyle behaviours. Little is known about these relationships in South Africa (SA). OBJECTIVES: To explore the relationship between nicotine dependence, SES, lifestyle behaviours and lifetime quit attempts among adult smokers in SA. METHODS: This study used data from 2 651 participants aged ≥16 years in the 2011 South African Social Attitudes Survey. Information on SES (measured by asset ownership), binge drinking, physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake, intention to quit smoking and lifetime quit attempts was extracted. Nicotine dependence was measured using the Heaviness of Smoking Index (HSI). All data were weighted to account for the complex survey design and to yield nationally representative estimates. Data analysis included binary logistic regression with high nicotine dependence (HND) defined as HSI ≥4 and lifetime quit attempts as separate outcomes. RESULTS: The prevalence of smoking was 20.1% (31.6% for males and 9.5% for females), and was highest in the mixed-ancestry group (37.0%). Overall, 14.5% of smokers had HND, with a higher proportion in the high-SES group. The odds of HND increased with every 10  years of smoking history (odds ratio (OR) 2.05; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.40 - 3.00) but decreased among participants who reported frequent physical activity (OR 0.4; 95% CI 0.18 - 0.86) and those who planned to quit (OR 0.37; 95% CI 0.19 - 0.75). Quit attempts were more likely among participants who reported frequent fruit and vegetable intake (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.07 - 2.98) and less likely among those reporting binge drinking (OR 0.31; 95% CI 0.16 - 0.59) or assessed as having HND (OR 0.32; 95% CI 0.17 - 0.58). CONCLUSIONS: Most adult smokers in SA have low nicotine dependence. However, the association of HND with high SES in this study suggests that although cessation treatment based on an integrated lifestyle behavioural intervention package may suffice for most smokers, a more intense cessation treatment package is needed for smokers of higher SES.


Assuntos
Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos , Tabagismo/epidemiologia , Adulto , Bebedeira/epidemiologia , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Frutas , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Distribuição por Sexo , Classe Social , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Verduras
10.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; 60(16): 2676-2690, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876477

RESUMO

In recent years, applications of cold plasma treatments have shown high efficiency in sterilization of fresh fruit and vegetables. With encouraging results, development of this technique focuses on influences of cold plasma on the quality attributes of these fresh produce. More studies found that the quality attributes are maintained in an acceptable range or can even be improved under certain plasma treatment conditions. This review provides an overview of the multiple effects of cold plasma on the fresh produce, in terms of physical, chemical and physiological aspects. Besides, the possible mechanisms of how plasma influences these quality attributes is elaborated, which is useful for further modification and improvement of the plasma technology, so that quality enhancement and shelf life extension can be achieved. Future trends in the development of cold plasma technology are also presented. Cold plasma treatment is a potential technology for treating fresh fruit and vegetables to enhance their quality and extend their shelf life. However, knowledge of the effects of cold plasma on the quality changes of fresh fruit and vegetables is still limited. Therefore, there is a need for future studies to understand the mechanisms of plasma effects on controlling the interactions between plasma and food products in order to realize the early adoption of the technology to the food industry.


Assuntos
Conservação de Alimentos , Frutas , Gases em Plasma , Verduras , Frutas/química , Frutas/fisiologia , Esterilização , Verduras/química , Verduras/fisiologia
11.
Water Sci Technol ; 82(2): 386-400, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941179

RESUMO

For the utilization of nitrogen and phosphorus in rural sewage tailwaters after biological treatment, four systems were examined regarding their ability to purify tailwaters of rural domestic sewage: a hydroponic vegetable system (HV), a subsurface flow constructed wetland (SFCW), a compound system with HV followed by SFCW (HV-SFCW), and a compound system with SFCW followed by HV (SFCW-HV). Parameters of the four systems were optimized to maximize the utilization efficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus, and the characteristics and pollutant removal efficiency of the process were investigated. Moreover, the edible security of vegetables was also evaluated. Results showed that the optimal hydraulic loadings for the four systems were 0.2, 0.3, 0.3, and 0.3 m3/(m2·d) (the lowest being the HV), respectively. In the combined system of HV-SFCW, high contribution proportions of the HV unit to the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) were obtained, reaching 46.7%, 58.1%, and 53.7%. The heavy metal content of plants harvested met the standards of the National Food Safety Standard Limit of Pollutants in Food (GB 2762-2012). Overall, the compound HV-SFCW system achieved the best performance, ensuring that effluent water quality met national standards and realized the effective utilization of nitrogen and phosphorus.


Assuntos
Ipomoea , Esgotos , Hidroponia , Nitrogênio/análise , Fósforo , Verduras , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Áreas Alagadas
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 737: 140266, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32783855

RESUMO

A 15N-tracer incubation experiment was conducted to investigate the short-term effects of biochar on gross N transformation rates and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions in soils under 1-year and 10-year vegetable cultivations. Biochar was applied at three rates: 0 (control), 10, and 30 t ha-1. Gross N transformation rates in the two vegetable soils varied in response to biochar application. Specifically, organic N oxidation into NO3- (ONorg) was almost negligible in the biochar-amended soils, and biochar application at 10 t ha-1 did not change either the rate of mineralization of organic N into NH4+ (MNorg) nor the inorganic N supply capacity (INS, ONorg + MNorg) in both soils, when compared to the control. However, 30 t ha-1 biochar decreased INS significantly, by inhibiting MNorg, in the 1-year vegetable soil but increased INS, by stimulating MNorg, in the 10-year vegetable soil. The rates of NH4+ oxidation into NO3- (ONH4), NO3- immobilization into organic N, and dissimilatory NO3- reduction into NH4+ were not influenced significantly by biochar application in the 1-year vegetable soil, resulting in no significant differences in NO3- production potential. Conversely, biochar decreased NO3- production potential significantly in the 10-year vegetable soil, by inhibiting ONH4 and increasing NH4+ immobilization into organic N (INH4), with more obvious effects under higher biochar application rates. Overall, the results demonstrate the capacity of biochar to stimulate NH4+ turnover and to decrease NO3- production potential in soil under long-term vegetable cultivation; however, the effect is limited under short-term vegetable cultivation. In addition, N2O emissions decreased significantly in biochar-amended vegetable soils.


Assuntos
Solo , Verduras , Carvão Vegetal , Óxido Nitroso/análise
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32751368

RESUMO

The present paper intends to address the impact of COVID-19 crisis upon the consumer buying behavior of fresh vegetables directly from local producers as observed 30 days later, after enforcing the state of emergency in Romania within a well-defined area, namely, the quarantined area of Suceava. The study relies on the interpretation of answers received from the quarantined area (N = 257) to a questionnaire applied online nationwide. The starting point of this paper is the analysis of the sociodemographic factors on the purchasing decision of fresh vegetables directly from local producers before declaring the state of emergency in Romania (16 March 2020). Further research has been conducted by interpreting the changes triggered by the COVID-19 crisis on the purchasing intention of such products before and after the end of the respective crisis. The aim of this scientific investigation relies on identifying the methods by which these behavioral changes can influence the digital transformation of short food supply chains.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Comportamento do Consumidor , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Quarentena , Verduras , Adulto , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Romênia/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Phytochemistry ; 178: 112468, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771676

RESUMO

The improvement and promotion of leafy vegetables, used for both food and medicine, benefits greatly from detailed knowledge of their health-promoting specialised metabolites. In the present study, we investigated the global metabolite variation in the leaves of 48 accessions of the leafy vegetable Gynandropsis gynandra using two complementary analytical platforms: liquid-chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) for an untargeted comparison of non-volatile semi-polar metabolites and gas-chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for an untargeted comparison of volatile metabolites. Our results revealed large variation in 936 semi-polar compounds including flavonoids, terpene glycosides, glucosinolates and various phenolic compounds. Unsupervised multivariate analysis indicated the variation in levels of the semi-polar metabolites was mainly driven by geography, with accessions from both West Africa and Asia forming a group clearly separated from East African accessions. Detected volatile metabolites included various sesquiterpenes, aldehydes, ketones, and sulphur-containing isothiocyanates. Variation in these compounds was however not geographically specific, but most likely linked to the taste and aroma of the leaves. The relative abundance in glucosinolates and isothiocyanates in the leaves allowed the clustering of accessions into two main groups that could be used for further plant-herbivore interaction studies. This study revealed both the broad spectrum of phytochemicals present in Gynandropsis gynandra leaves and the substantial variation in metabolite profiles among accessions from different regions of the world. Our results provide a basis for the development of breeding programs aiming at improving the levels of specialised metabolites in this tropical leafy vegetable for increased resistance against pests and diseases and improved human health.


Assuntos
Folhas de Planta , Verduras , África , África Ocidental , Ásia , Humanos
15.
J Environ Manage ; 274: 111193, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810680

RESUMO

Composting represents a suitable and cheap method for handling and processing seaweeds accumulated on the coast. Within this framework, two seaweed composts were prepared, one with Undaria pinnatifida accumulated in spring-summer and other with a mixture of seaweeds accumulated in autumn-winter, both from Central Patagonian beaches. The effect of these two composts was evaluated experimentally as an amendment for the growth of Sarcocornia perennis (chickenclaws), a plant species dominating Patagonian salt marshes. Both composts were applied at 75, 50, and 25% doses with perlite. The analysis of the compost properties (phytotoxicity test, C/N, electrical conductivity, pH, and metal content) allowed characterizing both composts as matures and stables. The growth results showed that both composts allow the growth of S. perennis in all doses tested; however, Undaria compost was better in the stimulation of vegetative growth when applied in dose 50%, followed by 75% of both composts. For these reasons, both composts from seaweed waste accumulated on Patagonian coasts could be used in the growth of S. perennis and potentially other plant species, giving value to the seaweeds that currently are considered a waste that disturb these coasts and are discarded without use.


Assuntos
Chenopodiaceae , Compostagem , Alga Marinha , Metais , Solo , Verduras
16.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 105(3): 405-410, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776280

RESUMO

The accumulation of zinc (Zn) in Cichorium intybus and effects of phytotoxicity during 90 days of growth on (natural) non-contaminated and Zn-contaminated soils were studied. The phytotoxicity effects were monitored by evaluating the leaf area, leaf biomass, leaf length and root length of the vegetable. The Zn concentrations ranged from 5.35 ± 1.05 to 37.5 ± 3.89 mg kg-1 in leaves of plants grown on natural soil, and from 334.0 ± 25.6 to 2232 ± 16.7 mg kg-1 when grown on Zn-contaminated soils. Zn accumulation caused a decrease in growth on contaminated soils and an increase in phytotoxicity. These effects were associated to high metal concentration, mobility and bioavailability in the soil as well as changes in the translocation mechanism from the roots to the leaves. Then, it must be avoided the organic fertilization of soils with either animal manure or other agricultural inputs containing high zinc concentrations.


Assuntos
Chicória/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Zinco/toxicidade , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Chicória/metabolismo , Fertilizantes , Metais , Folhas de Planta/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Plantas , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Verduras , Zinco/análise
17.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(6): 662-667, 2020 Jun 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842283

RESUMO

Objective: To establish Chinese diet balance index for preschool children(DBI_C), and evaluate the dietary quality of Chinese preschool children. Methods: DBI_C was established according to the methods establishing DBI_16 and the recommended intake of different kinds of food for preschool children. Three scoring methods [low bound score (LBS), high bound score (HBS), diet quality distance (DQD)] were used to evaluate the dietary quality of preschool children selected from the 2010-2012 China National Nutrition and Health Surveillance. Scores [P50(P25, P75)] were compared to reflect the diet quality of preschool children in different regions. Results: DBI_C scores for cereals of preschool children from big city, middle and small city, normal rural area, and poor rural area were 0.0 (-2.0, 6.0), 0.0 (0.0, 6.0), 4.0 (0.0, 10.0), and 10.0 (2.0, 12.0), respectively (P<0.001), indicating that the intakes of cereals of preschool children were adequate. Scores for animal food of preschool children from four types of location were 0.0 (-2.0, 2.0), 0.0 (-6.0, 2.0), -4.0 (-6.0, 0.0), and -6.0 (-8.0,-2.0), respectively (P<0.001), indicating that the intakes of animal food of rural preschool children were inadequate. Scores for vegetable and fruit, milk and soybean were both less than 0 (P<0.001), indicating that the intakes of these food were insufficient in both urban and rural area. Scores of LBS, HBS and DQD were 24.0 (18.0, 30.0), 8.0 (3.0, 13.0) and 33.0(26.0, 39.0). Children without diet insufficient problem in four type of location accounted for 30.8%, 7.8%, 4.3% and 1.1%, respectively (P<0.001). Children without diet excessive problem accounted for 54.0%, 57.3%, 52.9% and 32.6%, respectively (P<0.001). Children without diet imbalance problem were 10.6%, 1.1%, 1.3% and 0.3%, respectively (P<0.001). Conclusion: Diet quality of urban preschool children is better than that of rural preschool children. Dietary imbalance is the main problem among Chinese preschool children.


Assuntos
Dieta , Verduras , Animais , Pré-Escolar , China , Cidades , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Humanos
18.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236871, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745115

RESUMO

Element bioaccessibility consists of the fraction of the element that is mobilized from food matrices into digestive extractants. The degree of bioaccessibility of a toxic metal is a fundamental consideration in estimating its bioavailability. In addition, gaining a better understanding of the essential elements released into the gastro intestinal fluids allows a more thorough assessment of the health benefits of food matrices in the field of nutrition science. In the present study, an in vitro digestion model simulating gastro-intestinal digestion (GID) was used to investigate the bioaccessibility of stable elements in mixed leaf salad and 210Po in various foods (meat, seafood, vegetables). The simulation was carried out over three phases: after a pre-treatment with a saliva solution, raw and cooked seafood samples were subjected to a complete simulated gastrointestinal digestion (gastric digestion followed by bile-pancreas digestion). The 210Po bioaccessibility was found to range from 16.2±9.39% to 62.8±17.7% and from 6.26±2.15% to 67.5±13.1% for raw and cooked food respectively. Moreover, bioaccessibility could not be determined for As, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Hg, La, Pb, Sb, Sn, Te, Th, Tl, Ti, U. It proved to be poor (1-16%) for Al, Fe and S; fair (40-50%) for Cu, P, and Si; and high (>50%) for Ba, Ca, K, Mg, Mn, Ni, Rb, Sr, Zn. The results show that bioaccessibility varies according to the chemical form of the element in the food as well as the matrix composition.


Assuntos
Disponibilidade Biológica , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Polônio/análise , Oligoelementos/análise , Digestão , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro/métodos , Carne/análise , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Verduras/química
19.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237333, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776993

RESUMO

Hypertension is the leading risk factor for mortality and it is also one of the major risk factors for other non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The objective of the study was to assess the prevalence of hypertension and its associated factors among adults residing in Arba Minch health and demographic surveillance site (HDSS), Southern Ethiopia. A community-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2017 on the estimated sample size of 3,368 adults at Arba Minch Health and Demographic Surveillance site (HDSS). Data were collected using the WHO STEPS survey tools. Bivariate analysis was done to detect candidate variables at P-value less than 0.25 and entered into the final model to identify the independent predictors of hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension was 18.92% (95% CI: 17.63-20.28). The magnitude increase among respondents in the older age group [AOR 1.39 (95%CI: 1.05-1.84), 1.68 (95% CI: 1.26-2.23) and 2.67 (95%CI: 2.01-3.56) for age group 35-44, 45-54 and 55-64, respectively, compared to 25-34 years old group] and those with the higher wealth index [AOR 1.86 (95%CI: 1.33-2.59), 2.68 (95% CI: 1.91-3.75) and 2.97 (95%CI: 2.08-4.25) for 3rd quantile, 4th quantile and 5th quantile, respectively, compared to 1st quantile]. The odds of hypertension reduce among married participants (AOR 0.66, 95%CI: 0.51-0.85). Respondents with overweight (AOR 1.44, 95%CI: 1.02-2.02), khat chewing (AOR3.31, 95%CI: 1.94-5.64), low fruit and/or vegetable consumption (AOR 1.27, 95%CI: 1.05-1.53) and those who do not use coffee and tea (AOR 1.52, 95%CI: 1.03-2.24) had significantly higher likelihood of hypertension. Nearly one out of five participants have hypertension in this population. As hypertension is one of the silent killers, it is advisable to develop a system for enabling early detection and monitoring in the older age groups and overweight individuals.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Catha/efeitos adversos , Café , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Estado Civil/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância da População , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Chá , Verduras
20.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(2): 952-961, 2020 Feb 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32608757

RESUMO

An analytical approach was developed to simultaneously determine 13 antibiotics in sulfonamides, quinolones, and macrolides in leafy vegetables by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). After optimizing extracted solutions, purification methods, and eluents of antibiotics in vegetable substrates, and taking into account the influence of environmental changes and experimental conditions on the results, the optimal experimental scheme was determined. This involved ①weighing 500 mg of vegetable samples and adding 20 mL of methanol-Mcllvaine-Na2 EDTA solution; ② conducting ultrasonic and centrifugal extraction three times; ③ Allowing rotary evaporation to 20 mL to pass a HLB solid phase extraction column; ④ Eluting the extraction column using 6 mL of methanol, upon which the eluent was dried almost completely; ⑤ Re-dissolving the eluent with a mixed solution of acetonitrile:water (volume ratio of 2:8); ⑥ Detecting by UPLC-MS/MS after centrifugation and filtering. Phase A and B of UPLC-MS/MS used an aqueous solution of 1‰ formic acid and acetonitrile, respectively to conduct gradient elution. Results showed that when the pakchoi spiked at 300 ng·g-1, the spiked recoveries of 13 antibiotics were 38.05%-96.97%. At 150 ng·g-1, the spiked recoveries were 34.52%-111.10%. At 50 ng·g-1, the recoveries of standard addition were 41.75%-107.13%, and the relative deviation (RSD) values were all below 8.68%. The detection limit was 0.4-1 ng·g-1, and the limit of quantification was 1.5-3 ng·g-1. This demonstrated good extraction and recovery efficiency on different types of leafy vegetables, and presented a good analytical application effect. The antibiotic residues were detected in four kinds of leafy vegetables in found in markets. The total content ranged from 1.59 ng·g-1 to 32.01 ng·g-1, and the antibiotic content in samples was calculated by dry weight. The content of antibiotics in pakchoi was the highest, followed by Chinese cabbage, lettuce, and coriander. Among the antibiotics detected, sulfadimidine was the most abundant from the selected leafy vegetables. The content of antibiotics was very low, however the potential health risks caused by long-term consumption could not be ignored.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Verduras/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Extração em Fase Sólida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
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