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1.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500624

RESUMO

This study investigated the effect of natural antioxidants inherent to beetroot (Beta vulgaris var. Vulgaris) on the ageing of environmentally friendly plastics. Certain properties were examined in this context, comprising thermal, mechanical, and morphological properties. A visual evaluation of relevant changes in the given polymers (polylactide and polycaprolactone) was conducted during an ageing test in a UV chamber (45 °C, 70% humidity) for 720 h. The films were prepared by a casting process, in which samples with the extract of beetroot were additionally incorporated in a common filler (bentonite), this serving as a carrier for the extract. The results showed the effect of the incorporated antioxidant, which was added to stabilize the biodegradable films. Its efficiency during the ageing test in the polymers tended to exceed or be comparable to that of the reference sample.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Beta vulgaris/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Poliésteres/química , Bentonita/química , Plásticos/química , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Verduras/química
2.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500636

RESUMO

The African pumpkin (Momordica balsamina) contains bioactive phenolic compounds that may assist in reducing oxidative stress in the human body. The leaves are mainly consumed after boiling in water for a specific time; this hydrothermal process and conditions of the gastrointestinal tract may affect the presence and bioactivity of phenolics either positively or negatively. In this study, the effects of hydrothermal processing (boiling) and in vitro simulated human digestion on the phenolic composition, bioaccessibility and bioactivity in African pumpkin were investigated in comparison with those of spinach (Spinacia oleracea). A high-resolution ultra-performance liquid chromatography, coupled with diode array detection, quadrupole time-of-flight and mass spectrometer (UPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS) was used to profile phenolic metabolites. Metabolites such as 3-caffeoylquinic acid, 5-caffeoylquinic acid, 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid and 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid were highly concentrated in the boiled vegetable extracts compared to the raw undigested and all digested samples. The majority of African pumpkin and spinach extracts (non-digested and digested) protected Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), (mouse fibroblast) L929 and human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) cells from 2,2'-Azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride (AAPH)-induced oxidative damage. From these results, the consumption of boiled African pumpkin leaves, as well as spinach, could be encouraged, as bioactive metabolites present may reduce oxidative stress in the body.


Assuntos
Cucurbita/química , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Momordica/química , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Células CACO-2 , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Flavonoides/química , Humanos , Camundongos , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polifenóis/química , Ácido Quínico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Quínico/química , Spinacia oleracea/química , Verduras/química
3.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500648

RESUMO

Ethanol extracts of two types of pepper (sweet and hot) were separated into fractions with increasing lipophilicity. After drying the extracts and fractions, their chemical composition, anti-radical activity in the DPPH radical system, and cytotoxic activity against PC-3 and HTC-116 cells were determined. A detailed qualitative analysis of the fractions was performed with the LC-QTOF-MS method. It was found that the chemical composition of pepper fractions did not always reflect their biological activity. The highest antiradical activity was detected in the fraction eluted with 40% methanol from sweet pepper. The highest total content of phenolic compounds was found in an analogous fraction from hot pepper, and this fraction showed the strongest cytotoxic effect on the PC-3 tumour line. The LC-MS analysis identified 53 compounds, six of which were present only in sweet pepper and four only in hot pepper. The unique chemical composition of the extracts was found to modulate their biological activity, which can only be verified experimentally.


Assuntos
Capsicum/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Antioxidantes/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Fenóis/química , Piper nigrum/química , Verduras/química
4.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500650

RESUMO

Recent increased interest in seaweed is motivated by attention generated in their bioactive components that have potential applications in the functional food and nutraceutical industries. In the present study, nutritional composition, metabolite profiles, phytochemical screening and physicochemical properties of freeze-dried brown seaweed, Sargassum polycystum were evaluated. Results showed that the S. polycystum had protein content of 8.65 ± 1.06%, lipid of 3.42 ± 0.01%, carbohydrate of 36.55 ± 1.09% and total dietary fibre content of 2.75 ± 0.58% on dry weight basis. The mineral content of S. polycystum including Na, K, Ca, Mg Fe, Se and Mn were 8876.45 ± 0.47, 1711.05 ± 0.07, 1079.75 ± 0.30, 213.85 ± 0.02, 277.6 ± 0.12, 4.70 ± 0.00 and 4.45 ± 0.00 mg 100/g DW, respectively. Total carotenoid, chlorophyll a and b content in S. polycystum were detected at 45.28 ± 1.77, 141.98 ± 1.18 and 111.29 µg/g respectively. The total amino acid content was 74.90 ± 1.45%. The study revealed various secondary metabolites and major constituents of S. polycystum fibre to include fucose, mannose, galactose, xylose and rhamnose. The metabolites extracted from the seaweeds comprised n-hexadecanoic acid, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, mono(2-ethylhexyl) ester, benzenepropanoic acid, 3,5-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-hydroxy- methyl ester, 1-dodecanol, 3,7,11-trimethyl-, which were the most abundant. The physicochemical properties of S. polycystum such as water-holding and swelling capacity were comparable to several commercial fibre-rich products. In conclusion, results of this study indicate that S. polycystum is a potential candidate as functional food sources for human consumption and its cultivation needs to be encouraged.


Assuntos
Nutrientes/química , Feófitas/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Sargassum/química , Alga Marinha/química , Antioxidantes/química , Carotenoides/química , Clorofila A/química , Fibras na Dieta , Humanos , Malásia , Minerais/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Verduras/química
5.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1178: 338802, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482881

RESUMO

Dispersive micro solid-phase extraction procedure using a novel and selective sorbent prepared from four components was developed as a sample preparation strategy for extracting five organophosphorus pesticides, including fenitrothion, malathion, ethion, and chlorpyrifos, and diazinon in several vegetables, fruit juices, and cow's milk samples. Due to the high importance of the sorbent in the microextraction process, the percentages of sorbent components, including metal-organic framework (ZIF-67), chitosan, magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles, and silica nanoparticles, were optimized by a simplex lattice mixture design. After optimizing the sorbent composite, effective parameters on the extraction of organophosphorus pesticides were optimized using a definitive screening design and Box-Behnken design, respectively. A surfactant (Triton X100) as a dispersion agent with a low volume (10 µL) was utilized in the microextraction procedure to reduce the sorbent dispersion time and increase the sorbent dispersion efficiency. Under the optimal conditions, linearity for the determination of fenitrothion, malathion, ethion, chlorpyrifos, and diazinon was in the concentration ranges of 0.13-1100, 0.27-1000, 0.38-1000, 0.21-1200, and 0.11-1100 ng mL-1 with a determination coefficient higher than 0.9906, respectively. The quantitation limits, detection limits, and relative standard deviations (n = 5) were lower than 0.38 ng mL-1, 0.11 ng mL-1, and 4.59% for the determination of organophosphorus pesticides. The method application for measuring OPPs on cucumber, carrot, tomato, apple juice, orange juice, and cow's milk indicated the presence of residual amounts of malathion in a cucumber sample, diazinon in a carrot sample, and chlorpyrifos in a tomato sample.


Assuntos
Resíduos de Praguicidas , Praguicidas , Animais , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Limite de Detecção , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Leite/química , Compostos Organofosforados/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Extração em Fase Sólida , Verduras , Água/análise
6.
Ethiop J Health Sci ; 31(3): 599-610, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34483617

RESUMO

Background: The association of dietary patterns (DPs) linked to the severity of coronary artery disease (CAD) is little known. Therefore, this study aims to explore the relationship between major DPs and the severity of CAD. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among423 newly discovered CAD patients (both genders, aged 35-65 years), who underwent coronary angiography. The severity of CAD was assessed by the Gensini score. All patients were tested using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and other related data through face-to-face interviews. Factor analysis and logistic regression were applied by using SPSS version-24. Results: By principal component analysis, two major DPs were identified: "Unhealthy" DP that characterized mainly by high intakes of sugar and sweets, soft drinks, salts, cooking oils, and processed meats, and "Healthy" DP that consisting high intakes of fruits, fish, poultry, vegetables, whole grains. After adjustment for confounding variables, the odds of severe CAD was significantly higher in the third (T3) and second (T2) tertile of the unhealthy pattern by 4.79 and 2.48 times more compared to the first tertile (T1) (OR 4.79; 95%CI 2.60, 8.83; P<0.001) and (OR 2.48; 95%CI 1.40, 4.39; P=0.002), respectively. However, the odds of CAD severity in the T3 and T2 of the healthy pattern was lowered by 0.24 and 0.38 times less compared to the T1 (OR 0.24; 95%CI 0.12, 0.47; P=0.002) and (OR 0.38; 95%CI 0.20, 0.73; P=0.006), respectively. Conclusion: The severity of CAD was significantly increased by the unhealthy dietary pattern, while decreased by adherence to the healthy pattern.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/etiologia , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Verduras
7.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(4): e20200721, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495203

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of the jambolan (Syzigium cumini L.) peel and leaves extract added in pectin based edible coating onto color changes, mass loss and ß-carotene retention of minimally processed papaya during storage at 5 ±2 °C for 9 days. Leaves and peels were crushed in water in solid:liquid ratio, 1:1.5 and 1:2.0 and filtrered to obtain vegetable extracts. After, aqueous solutions were prepared adding 2% of pectin and 5% of extract. The mass loss increasing in all treatments evaluated in this work, being that in the final of 9 days of storage, control and P2 (peel 2%) treatment presented the highest loss, 6.23 and 10.12% respectively. The L1.5 (leaf 1.5%) treatment was the one presented the lowest percentage of mass loss (3.8%). The values of () of the control samples reduced significantly during the storage period, reaching 21% of reduction after 9 days. Coating with vegetable extract from jambolan peel and leaf reduced the loss of ß-carotene in minimally processed papaya during the storage, being that the treatment P1.5 provided the highest retention value of the compound. The results demonstrated that the studied coating set with extracts (peel and leaves) of jambolan, was efficient to preserve the color, the mass loss and the ß-carotene content of the minimally processed papaya.


Assuntos
Carica , Filmes Comestíveis , Pectinas , Extratos Vegetais , Verduras , beta Caroteno/análise
8.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 2): 3805-3813, 2021.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468674

RESUMO

This paper aimed to identify food consumption differences as per healthy and unhealthy diet markers among adults living in Brazilian urban and rural areas. A cross-sectional study was performed with data from the National Health Survey (2013). Diet was assessed by using healthy and unhealthy diet markers. Prevalence (%) was estimated, and sequential logistic regression models were adjusted to estimate odds ratios (OR) and confidence intervals (95%CI). Urban areas evidenced a higher consumption of fruits and vegetables, fish, soft drinks, and meal replacement by snacks, while rural areas showed higher consumption of meat with excess fat and beans. Adjusted analyses showed higher regular consumption of beans and meat with excess fat; and lower consumption of soft drinks, fruits and vegetables and meal replacement by snacks in rural areas compared to urban areas. Similar trends were observed in the macro-regions of the country. Food consumption differences among Brazilians living in rural and urban areas denote the importance of fostering food policies that respect and value food traditions and culture.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Verduras , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , População Urbana
9.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 2): 3895-3906, 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468682

RESUMO

This study investigates the extent to which aspects of the social integration of the elderly are linked to higher levels of fruit and vegetable consumption. It involved a cross-sectional study based on data from the National Study of Dependency in the Elderly, with a sample of 3278 elderly individuals. The variables of social integration considered were: frequency of meeting with close relatives, other relatives and neighbors and friends in the last 12 months; participation in recreational activities and in community groups, in addition to housing arrangements and marital status. The number of servings of fruit and vegetables consumed per day was the dependent variable. Logistic regression analysis was then conducted. In the adjusted model, more frequent encounters with siblings, in-laws and nephews, participation in community groups or organizations, are factors that increase the possibility of consuming two or more servings of fruit and vegetables a day, versus 1 serving or none; the opposite was observed when living alone. The variables of social integration that can increase the possibility of attaining the recommendation of consumption of fruit and vegetables daily (5 or more) in the adjusted model are frequency of encounters with siblings, in-laws and nephews and living alone.


Assuntos
Frutas , Verduras , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Integração Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Curr Microbiol ; 78(10): 3770-3781, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487210

RESUMO

Enhanced biofuel production strategies from microalgae by employing affordable bio-waste usage are fetching significance, nowadays. This study examines the effect of VWE for enhanced biomass from new indigenous microalgal isolates, Asterarcys sp. SPC, Scenedesmus sp. KT-U, Scenedesmus sp. KTWL-A, Coelastrum sp. T-E, and Chlorella sp. TWL-B. The growth of microalgae in VWE-treated growth media showed considerable increase (1.14-2.3 folds) than control medium (without VWE). Further, two effective native microalgae were selected based on growth in VWE treatment, biomass productivity, and TAG accumulation through statistical clustering analysis. Mixotrophic batch cultivation of Scenedesmus sp. KT-U and Asterarcys sp. SPC cultivated using VWE treatment in the optimum concentration had produced significant average increase in BP (1.8 and 1.4 folds, respectively) than control (without VWE). Whereas in the lipid production phase, there was a noticeable increase in lipid yield in VWE-treated cells of lipid phase (231.8 ± 17.9 mg/L and 243.5 ± 25 mg/L) in Scenedesmus sp. KT-U and Asterarcys sp. SPC, respectively, than in control (140.5 ± 28 mg/L and 166.4 ± 23 mg/L) with considerable TAG accumulation. Thus, this study imparts strain selection process of native microalgae based on vegetable waste usage for improved yield of biomass and lipid amenable for cost-effective biodiesel production.


Assuntos
Chlorella , Microalgas , Scenedesmus , Biocombustíveis , Biomassa , Lipídeos , Verduras , Águas Residuárias
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501763

RESUMO

The purpose of this communication is to describe the Brighter Bites produce voucher program, and its implementation and utilization across Brighter Bites families in four cities in the U.S., during the COVID-19 pandemic. The voucher program was implemented over nine weeks starting April 2020, with up to four USD 25 store-specific produce coupons sent bi-weekly to the homes of each participating Brighter Bites family (USD 100 total/family). Measures included type of produce purchased, amount of voucher that was used, number of vouchers distributed and redeemed by families, and a post-program participant satisfaction survey. Descriptive statistics, including count, frequency, and percent, were computed, both overall and stratified by city. During this time, Brighter Bites distributed a total of over 43,982 vouchers to 12,482 low-income families, with a redemption rate of 60% (at least one voucher redeemed) across all cities. During times of crisis, non-profit-for-profit partnerships, such as the one between Brighter Bites and the grocery retail industry, are feasible, and successful in providing produce to families in need.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Insegurança Alimentar , Frutas , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Verduras
12.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(10): 642, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508274

RESUMO

The present research describes the successful preparation of melon peel biochar modified with CoFe2O4 (MPBC/CoFe2O4) followed by its usage as a new sorbent to separate, preconcentrate, and determine the toxic heavy metal ions by magnetic solid-phase extraction. The metal ion desorption was performed by 0.1 M HCl solution with a volume of 5.0 mL. Flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) was utilized for detection of the analyte levels. SEM-EDX, TEM, XRD, and FTIR techniques were carried out to illuminate the structure of MPBC/CoFe2O4. The fundamental variables affecting the adsorption and elution efficiencies of the analyte ions including solution pH, MPBC/CoFe2O4 amount, type and concentration of eluent, adsorption and desorption equilibrium time, and sample volume were optimized. The detection limits were calculated as 0.41, 1.82, and 3.16 µg L-1 for Cu2+, Cd2+, and Pb2+ ions, respectively, with the relative standard deviation of lower than 4.2%. There were no substantial interference effects on the analyte ion recovery due to the presence of foreign ions at high levels. Five minutes of contact time was adequate to attain the adsorption equilibrium. The adsorption capacity of MPBC/CoFe2O4 was obtained as 106.4, 65.4, and 188.7 mg g-1 for Cu2+, Cd2+, and Pb2+ ions, respectively, by utilizing Langmuir isotherm model. The pseudo-second order model is favorable to identify the adsorption kinetics. The method was validated by spike/recovery test, and then, it was successfully implemented to determine the aforementioned analyte levels in sea and stream water, pepper, black cabbage, eggplant, and tomato samples.


Assuntos
Cucurbitaceae , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adsorção , Cádmio/análise , Carvão Vegetal , Monitoramento Ambiental , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Chumbo , Extração em Fase Sólida , Espectrofotometria Atômica , Verduras , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
13.
Water Sci Technol ; 84(5): 1159-1169, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34534113

RESUMO

Alternative sanitising agents are required in the fruit and vegetable processing industry, capable of effectively disinfecting both the product and the washing water to increase its reuse, while not producing harmful by-products like chlorine-based agents. In the present work, electro-oxidation (EO) and ozone are proposed for vegetable process water reuse, being optimised for their individual and combined application. The application of hybrid electro-oxidation and ozone achieved 7 log reduction after 15 min of treatment in batch using boron-doped diamond (BDD) as anode material, showing important synergistic effects when compared with the individual treatments. When the process was applied in continuous mode, up to 6 log reduction of total bacteria was achieved using EO alone with Ru as the anode and stainless steel as the cathode, under 11 mA/cm2 of current density, a cell retention time of 12 s and no addition of chemical reagents (electrolyte). Under these conditions, the absence of microorganisms in water was maintained for more than 24 h, no harmful by-products (chlorate, bromate) were detected and no damage to lettuce seeds were observed when evaluating water reuse potential.


Assuntos
Verduras , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Diamante , Eletrodos , Frutas/química , Oxirredução , Tecnologia , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
14.
Food Res Int ; 147: 110531, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399509

RESUMO

The study of the diversity within and between major Solanaceae crops (pepper, tomato, eggplant) is of interest for the selection and development of balanced diets. We have measured thirty-six major fruit composition traits, encompassing sugars, organic acids, antioxidants and minerals, in a set of 10 accessions per crop for pepper, tomato and eggplant, grown under the same cultivation conditions. The aim was to evaluate the diversity within species and to provide an accurate comparison of fruit composition among species by reducing to a minimum the environmental effect. Pepper, tomato and eggplant had a clearly distinct composition profile. Pepper showed the highest average content in total sugars and organic acids. Fructose and glucose were the major sugar compounds in the three species, although in pepper and tomato sucrose was present only in trace amounts. Citric acid was the major organic acid in pepper and tomato, while in eggplant it was malic acid. Pepper and eggplant had the highest total antioxidant activity. Vitamin C content was much higher in pepper than in tomato and eggplant, while eggplant accumulated high concentrations of chlorogenic acid. Furthermore, eggplant was the species with higher content in most minerals, particularly for K, Mg and Cu, while pepper was the richest in Fe. Due to their complementary nutritional profiles, a combined regular consumption of the three vegetables would supply more than 20% of the Dietary Reference Intake of several of the analysed phytochemicals. The large diversity within each species is of interest for selecting varieties with better nutritional and organoleptic profiles, as well as for breeding new cultivars.


Assuntos
Lycopersicon esculentum , Solanum melongena , Frutas , Melhoramento Vegetal , Verduras
15.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445014

RESUMO

The maternal diet can potentially influence the life-course health of the child. A poor-quality maternal diet creates nutrient deficiencies and affects immune-metabolic regulation during pregnancy. The nutrient-based overall dietary quality can be assessed using the Nutrient-Rich Food Index 9.3 (NRF9.3), which measures adherence to the national reference daily values of nutrient intake. Pro- and anti-inflammatory nutrient intake can be assessed using the energy-adjusted dietary inflammatory index (E-DII), a comprehensive index of diet-derived inflammatory capacity. Using these indices, we assessed the overall dietary quality and inflammatory potential of pregnant women during mid-gestation in an urban area of Japan (n = 108) and found that there was a strong inverse correlation between the NRF9.3 and E-DII scores. Comparison of the scores among the tertiles of NRF9.3 or E-DII indicated that dietary fiber, vitamin C, vitamin A, and magnesium mainly contributed to the variability of both indices. Intake of vegetables and fruits was positively associated with high NRF9.3 scores and negatively associated with high E-DII scores, after adjustment for maternal age, pre-pregnancy body mass index, and educational level. Consistent with the previous studies that used dietary pattern analysis, this study also demonstrated that vegetables and fruits were the food groups chiefly associated with high dietary quality and low inflammatory potential among pregnant Japanese women.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Avaliação Nutricional , Estado Nutricional , Valor Nutritivo , Recomendações Nutricionais , Adulto , Registros de Dieta , Dieta Saudável/efeitos adversos , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Frutas , Humanos , Inflamação/etiologia , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Proteção , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Tóquio , Verduras
16.
J Med Food ; 24(8): 786-805, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34382862

RESUMO

Consumption of plant-derived natural products and over-the-counter (OTC) drugs is increasing on a global scale, and studies of phytochemical-OTC drug interactions are becoming more significant. The intake of dietary plants and herbs rich in phytochemicals may affect drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) and transporters. These effects may lead to alterations in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of OTC drugs when concomitantly administered. Some phytochemical-drug interactions benefit patients through enhanced efficacy, but many interactions cause adverse effects. This review discusses possible mechanisms of phytochemical-OTC drug interactions mediated by phase I and II DMEs and phase III transporters. In addition, current information is summarized for interactions between phytochemicals derived from fruits, vegetables, and herbs and OTC drugs, and counseling is provided on appropriate and safe use of OTC drugs.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras , Medicamentos sem Prescrição , Interações Medicamentosas , Frutas , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Verduras
17.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371952

RESUMO

The distinct Tibetan regional diet is strongly influenced by the regional biogeography, indigenous traditions, popular religious beliefs and food taboos. In the context of the nutritional transition in Tibet, studies seldom report on the food consumption and dietary patterns of Tibetan residents. This is a cross-section study of 552 local adults (≥18 years old, 277 men and 275 women) living in 14 agricultural countries along the Yarlung Tsangpo River. Dietary intakes were assessed by a culturally specific FFQ and compared with the Chinese Dietary Pagoda (2016). Dietary Patterns were extracted by using PCA method. The binary logistic regression model was applied to assess the association between independent variables (genders, regions and age groups) and adherence to dietary patterns. With the exception of meat (100 ± 260 g/day) and soybean nuts (42 ± 12 g/day), which exceeded the recommended dietary intakes of CDP, the dietary intake of other foods were not up to the recommended value. In particular, the intake of aquatic products (2 ± 0.1 g/day), vegetables (90 ± 19 g/day), dairy products (114 ± 29 g/day), cereals (117 ± 27 g/day) and fruits (97 ± 25 g/day) were seriously inadequate, which were 95%, 70%, 62%, 53.2% and 51.5% lower than the recommended intakes, respectively. Four dietary patterns were identified. "Local traditional diet" was characterized by a high intake of tsampa (roasted highland barley flour), culturally specific beverages (sweet tea and yak buttered tea), potato and yak beef and was associated with female, rural and older adults (≥51 years old). The male, urban and 18~30 years old group had a higher adherence score with the "Han diet", which was comprised of rice, pork, dumplings, eggs, milk and cabbage. The "Beverage diet", which mainly include tsampa, chang (homemade barley wine) and sweet tea, was associated with the following group: female, urban and aged 18~30 years. The "Out-sourced diet" pattern, consisting of mainly rice, steam bread and some processed meat, was associated with being male, urban and 18-30 years of age. These findings indicate that the dietary practice of the Tibetan people still has strong local characteristics, but it is also undergoing a dietary transition with the penetration of the Chinese Han diet and the increased consumption of outsourced (processed) foods. The unbalanced dietary intake of Tibetan residents should be taken seriously by all parties.


Assuntos
Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Bebidas , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Frutas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Componente Principal , Recomendações Nutricionais , Rios , População Rural , Fatores Sexuais , Tibet , População Urbana , Verduras , Adulto Jovem
18.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371965

RESUMO

Vegetables, fruits and berries are associated with reduced disease risk, and recommended intake is "five-a-day". We studied the intake of vegetables, fruits and berries and compliance with "five-a-day" in 11,425 adults (40-96 years) who completed a food frequency questionnaire in the seventh wave of the Tromsø Study (2015-2016). Intake and proportion above/below recommended intake (250 g/day of vegetables and 250 g/day of fruits/berries, combined and separately) were analyzed. Logistic regression was used to examine compliance with recommendations in 10-year age-groups, and level of education, body mass index (BMI) and physical activity, in strata of sex and adjusted for total energy. Median intake of vegetables was 228 and 168 g/day, and fruits/berries 292 and 268 g/day, in women and men, respectively. In total, 31% of women and 17% of men met the five-a-day recommendation, and 44% and 60% of women, and 25% and 54% of men, met the recommendation for vegetables and fruits/berries, respectively. Odds of compliance with recommendation for both vegetables and fruits/berries were positively associated with age, education and physical activity (p trend < 0.001). The intake of vegetables, fruits and berries was suboptimal, in particular for vegetables. More women than men met the recommendation, and intake varied by education, physical activity level, age and BMI.


Assuntos
Dieta , Preferências Alimentares , Frutas , Recomendações Nutricionais , Verduras , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega , Inquéritos Nutricionais
19.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr ; 76(3): 340-346, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34342789

RESUMO

Brassica vegetables are common in cuisines worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the antiglycation, methylglyoxal (MG)-trapping action and antioxidant activity of Brassica vegetable extract (BVE) from cabbage, cauliflower and Chinese cabbage. The results showed that cauliflower had the highest phenolic content with the strongest DPPH radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power and oxygen radical absorbance capacity. Seven phenolic acids and three flavonoids were identified by ESI-Q-TOF-MS analysis. The common phenolic compounds in all BVE were sinapic acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid. The BVE (0.5 mg/mL) showed significant inhibitory activity against glucose-induced fluorescent advanced glycation end products (AGEs) formation (34 - 67%) and preserved the amount of protein thiol group (30 - 35%). In addition, all extracts (0.125 - 4 mg/mL) also had the ability to trap MG, a reactive glycating agent. Total phenolic content of BVE exhibited a positive correlation with DPPH radical scavenging activity (r = 0.524) and % inhibition of AGE formation (r = 0.570) and % MG-trapping capacity (r = 0.786). These findings suggest that the BVE possesses antioxidant and antiglycating activity that may help to protect against protein glycation and oxidation mediated by glycation reaction.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Brassica , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Aldeído Pirúvico , Verduras
20.
Environ Pollut ; 286: 117564, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34438491

RESUMO

Deca-brominated diphenyl ether (BDE-209) is shown to be persistent in soil and it's urgent to find an effective method to remove BDE-209 from contaminated soil. In this study, the investigation of BDE-209 degradation in three different rice-vegetable rotation soils induced by electron beam (E-beam) irradiation under flooded and non-flooded conditions was conducted. The reductive efficiency of 14C-BDE209 reached the highest level at 50 kGy and the values in flooded soils of rice-eggplant rotation soil (RES), rice-peanut soil (RPS), and rice-chili pepper soil (RCS) were 93.5%, 87.2%, and 73.8%, respectively. The reductive efficiencies in non-flooded soils of RES, RPS, and RCS were 73.4%, 81.0%, and 78%, respectively. The D0.5 values (dose required for reducing 50% BDE-209) of BDE-209 in non-flooded soils were lower than those in flooded soils, suggesting greater degradation efficiency of BDE-209 in non-flooded soils than in flooded soils. The BDE-209 was degraded into higher-brominated PBDEs and lower-brominated PBDEs by E-beam irradiation. The results demonstrate that BDE-209 in the soil can be degraded by E-beam irradiation, non-flooded condition is better than flooded condition for the removal of BDE-209, and the main degradation mechanism of BDE-209 by E-beam irradiation is debromination. This study provides a rapid and effective method for degrading BDE-209 that is persistent in soils, and has important implications for the remediation of soil contaminated by PBDEs in and around E-waste dismantling areas.


Assuntos
Oryza , Poluentes do Solo , Elétrons , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Rotação , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Verduras
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