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1.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239746, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986785

RESUMO

This research work aims to develop a deep learning-based crop classification framework for remotely sensed time series data. Tobacco is a major revenue generating crop of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) province of Pakistan, with over 90% of the country's Tobacco production. In order to analyze the performance of the developed classification framework, a pilot sub-region named Yar Hussain is selected for experimentation work. Yar Hussain is a tehsil of district Swabi, within KP province of Pakistan, having highest contribution to the gross production of the KP Tobacco crop. KP generally consists of a diverse crop land with different varieties of vegetation, having similar phenology which makes crop classification a challenging task. In this study, a temporal convolutional neural network (TempCNNs) model is implemented for crop classification, while considering remotely sensed imagery of the selected pilot region with specific focus on the Tobacco crop. In order to improve the performance of the proposed classification framework, instead of using the prevailing concept of utilizing a single satellite imagery, both Sentinel-2 and Planet-Scope imageries are stacked together to assist in providing more diverse features to the proposed classification framework. Furthermore, instead of using a single date satellite imagery, multiple satellite imageries with respect to the phenological cycle of Tobacco crop are temporally stacked together which resulted in a higher temporal resolution of the employed satellite imagery. The developed framework is trained using the ground truth data. The final output is obtained as an outcome of the SoftMax function of the developed model in the form of probabilistic values, for the classification of the selected classes. The proposed deep learning-based crop classification framework, while utilizing multi-satellite temporally stacked imagery resulted in an overall classification accuracy of 98.15%. Furthermore, as the developed classification framework evolved with specific focus on Tobacco crop, it resulted in best Tobacco crop classification accuracy of 99%.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Aprendizado Profundo , Imagens de Satélites/métodos , Tabaco/classificação , Verduras/classificação , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Humanos , Paquistão , Triticum/classificação
2.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92 Suppl 1: e20180757, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32491136

RESUMO

Pereskia grandifolia Haworth (PGH) and Pereskia aculeata Miller (PAM) are recognized sources of proteins; dietary fiber; vitamins and minerals make this plant leaves, raw, cooked, and braised, an important ally against protein and micronutrient deficiencies. One of the main problems is the presence of antinutritional factors that may interfere in the digestibility and bioavailability of some nutrients. The objective was to evaluate the amino acid profile and the chemical score of the raw leaves and the effects of heating media and time on the total dietary fiber, minerals, trypsin inhibition, oxalic acid and tannins of leaves of PGH and PAM. The samples had similar amino acid profiles and total dietary fiber. With regard to antinutritional compounds, heating the leaves of PGH led to a decrease in trypsin inhibition, primarily after the first minutes of wet cooking. Oxalic acid and tannins predominated in both species. Considering the interaction with time, the variables related to iron and zinc minimized the tannin responses in PGH and PAM, respectively. Heating media and times interfered with the chemical components present in the leaves of Pereskia species and led to high antinutrient retention after heat treatment.


Assuntos
Cactaceae/química , Valor Nutritivo , Verduras/química , Aminoácidos/análise , Cactaceae/classificação , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos , Minerais/análise , Proteínas/análise , Taninos/análise , Verduras/classificação
3.
Adv Neurobiol ; 24: 225-277, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006363

RESUMO

Vegetables come in varied colors, forms, and tastes. Health specialists highly encourage inclusion of vegetables in one's diet due to their inherent nutritional worth. This chapter will cover selected vegetables from wide-ranging families like roots, stems, leafy greens, and cruciferous varieties. The broad choice of the designated vegetables is predicated on popular household preferences, nourishing value, and health benefits. These vegetables are also in common use and are obtainable at the market. The health features of the vegetables are covered in such a way that they provide the distinctive phytonutrient quality coupled with prominent health findings.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável , Valor Nutritivo , Verduras/química , Verduras/classificação , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise
4.
Food Funct ; 10(12): 8208-8217, 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31701990

RESUMO

Research supports the theory that the microbiome of plants and mushrooms produce potent activators of pathogen recognition receptors which are principal contributors to the stimulation of macrophages. We have previously reported that the in vitro macrophage stimulatory activity of water-soluble extracts from 13 different types of edible mushrooms is predominantly due to bacterial components originating from the naturally occurring bacterial communities within these materials. The purpose of the current study was to further investigate the bacterial-dependent activity of the water-soluble extracts and assess whether these 13 types of mushrooms contain water-insoluble beta glucans that activate the dectin-1b signaling pathway. Activity of the water-soluble extracts was predominantly due to Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 agonists. For dectin-1b-dependent activity (indicative of water-insoluble beta glucans), culinary mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus varieties) were essentially inactive, whereas most of the medicinal mushrooms (Lentinula edodes, Grifola frondosa, Hypsizygus marmoreus varieties, Flammulina velutipes) exhibited potent activation. A. bisporus samples with no detectable dectin-1b-dependent activity had yeast colony forming units that were 687 times lower than L. edodes exhibiting high activity, indicating that the active insoluble beta glucans are derived from colonizing yeast. In addition, co-stimulation of macrophages with the TLR agonists and insoluble beta glucan was found to result in a synergistic enhancement of in vitro cytokine production. Taken together, these findings indicate that the in vitro macrophage activating potential of edible mushrooms is due to the collaborative interaction of water-soluble TLR agonists (derived from colonizing bacteria) and water-insoluble beta glucans (derived from colonizing yeast).


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Bactérias/química , Lectinas Tipo C/imunologia , Ativação de Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Receptores Toll-Like/imunologia , Verduras/microbiologia , Leveduras/química , beta-Glucanas/farmacologia , Agaricales/classificação , Animais , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/metabolismo , Lectinas Tipo C/genética , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Células RAW 264.7 , Receptores Toll-Like/agonistas , Receptores Toll-Like/genética , Verduras/química , Verduras/classificação , Leveduras/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Leveduras/metabolismo , beta-Glucanas/metabolismo
5.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 6(2): 132-148, jul dic 2019. ^c27 cmilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1095876

RESUMO

Los oligoelementos son importantes constituyentes nutricionales de las hierbas comestibles. Se colectaron 11 especies, nueve nativas (Amaranthus hybridus, Cnidoscolus aconitifolius, Crotalaria longirostrata, Dysphania ambrosioides, Lycianthes synanthera, Sechium edule, Solanum americanum, S. nigrescens, S. wendlandii) y dos introducidas (Moringa oleifera, Spinacea oleracea) en dos regiones de Guatemala. Se prepararon muestras de la hierba seca, cocida y de caldo de hierba fresca. Se cuantificaron por espectrofotometría de absorción atómica los macro (N, P, K) y oligoelementos (Ca, Mg, Na, Cu, Zn, Mn), taninos por espectrofotometría y oxalatos por permanganimetría. El contenido de oligoelementos es diverso, para Zn, la hierba control S. oleracea contienen buena cantidad (90-140 ppm); de las nativas D. ambrosioides (130-160 ppm) y A. hybridus (70-80 ppm) tienen la mayor cantidad. Respecto a Fe las hierbas control tienen buena composición (S. oleracea, 220-280 ppm y M. oleifera, 105-135 ppm); de las nativas A. hybridus (90-240 ppm), C. aconitifolius (75-185 ppm) y L. synanthera (75-140 ppm) tienen buenas concentraciones. Se encontraron niveles elevados de oxalatos en S. oleracea (67.30 (5.51) mg/g), L. synanthera (56.30 (9.67) mg/g) y S. nigrescens (33.6 (5.48) mg/g); en las demás hierbas se encontraron niveles menores. Los niveles de taninos fueron bajos (0.1-0.8 mg/g) para todas las especies. Se demuestra que cuatro especies nativas tienen un buen contenido de oligoelementos y presentan valores menores de antinutricionales que los controles.


Trace elements are important nutritional constituents from edible herbs. Eleven species were collected in two regions of Guatemala, nine native (Amaranthus hybridus, Cnidoscolus aconitifolius, Crotalaria longirostrata, Dysphania ambrosioides, Lycianthes synanthera, Sechium edule, Solanum americanum, S. nigrescens, S. wendlandii) and two introduced (Moringa oleifera, Spinacea oleracea). Dry, cooked and broth samples were prepared. By atomic absorption spectrometry, macro (N, P, K) and trace elements (Ca, Mg, Na, Cu, Zn, Mn) were quantified, tannins by spectrophotometry, and oxalates by permanganometry. Trace elements content is diverse, for Zn, control herb S. oleracea contained high quantity (90-140 ppm); from the natives D. ambrosioides (130-160 ppm) and A. hybridus (70-80 ppm) contained high amounts. For Fe, control herbs had high composition (S. oleracea, 220-280 ppm, M. oleifera, 105-135 ppm); from the natives A. hybridus (90-240 ppm), C. aconitifolius (75-185 ppm) and L. synanthera (75-140 ppm) had the highest amounts. High levels of oxalates were demonstrated in S. oleracea (67.30 (5.48) mg/g), L. synanthera (56.30 (9.67) mg/g), and S. nigrescens (33.6 (5.48) mg/g); from the others levels.


Assuntos
Oligoelementos/administração & dosagem , Oligoelementos/análise , Verduras/classificação , Desnutrição/prevenção & controle , Taninos/análise , Amaranthus/química , Jatropha/química
6.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 13843, 2019 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554847

RESUMO

There is a wide variation of flowering time among lines of Brassica rapa L. Most B. rapa leafy (Chinese cabbage etc.) or root (turnip) vegetables require prolonged cold exposure for flowering, known as vernalization. Premature bolting caused by low temperature leads to a reduction in the yield/quality of these B. rapa vegetables. Therefore, high bolting resistance is an important breeding trait, and understanding the molecular mechanism of vernalization is necessary to achieve this goal. In this study, we demonstrated that BrFRIb functions as an activator of BrFLC in B. rapa. We showed a positive correlation between the steady state expression levels of the sum of the BrFLC paralogs and the days to flowering after four weeks of cold treatment, suggesting that this is an indicator of the vernalization requirement. We indicate that BrFLCs are repressed by the accumulation of H3K27me3 and that the spreading of H3K27me3 promotes stable FLC repression. However, there was no clear relationship between the level of H3K27me3 in the BrFLC and the vernalization requirement. We also showed that if there was a high vernalization requirement, the rate of repression of BrFLC1 expression following prolonged cold treatments was lower.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Brassica rapa/classificação , Brassica rapa/genética , Resposta ao Choque Frio , Flores/classificação , Flores/genética , Flores/fisiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Histonas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/genética , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Verduras/classificação , Verduras/genética , Verduras/fisiologia
7.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 63, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483005

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the quantity and diversity in the consumption fruits and vegetables, as well as its relationship with the consumer's purchase characteristics and food environment. METHODS: Baseline study stemming from a controlled and randomized community trial investigating a sample representative of Primary Health Care services (Health Academy Program) of Belo Horizonte, state of Minas Gerais. The intake of fruits and vegetables was analyzed in servings/day, whereas diversity was assessed by the Food Frequency Questionnaire. Users were also questioned on the frequency, purchase location and availability of these foods at their households. To assess the consumer's food environment, commercial establishments within a 1.6 km radius around the program unit sampled were audited. RESULTS: 3,414 adults and older adults (88.1% women) were investigated, as well as 336 commercial establishments, in 18 units of the Health Academy Program. The average consumption of fruits and vegetables was adequate [5.4 (SD = 2.1) servings/day] but monotonous, with average daily intake of two different types. In the establishments audited, a good diversity (77.7% and 85.0%) and variety (74.5% and 81.4%) of fruits and vegetables was observed, although with lower quality of vegetables (60.4%). After adjusting for sociodemographic variables, we identified that knowledge on food crops (p = 0.006), increased monthly availability of fruits at households (p < 0.001), and greater variety of fruits (p = 0.03) and quality of vegetables (p = 0.05) in commercial establishments could improve the quantitative intake of fruits and vegetables, whereas a greater variety of fruits (p = 0.008) would increase consumption diversity. CONCLUSIONS: The intake of fruits and vegetables was quantitatively adequate but monotonous, being influences by the consumer environment. Such results highlight the need for improving educational actions in health services and programs, in addition to acting on the consumer environment, aiming to promote and maintain the adequate and diversified consumption, as recommended by Brazilian guidelines for proper and healthy eating.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável/estatística & dados numéricos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Brasil , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Frutas/classificação , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Características de Residência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Verduras/classificação
8.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 184: 109593, 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479760

RESUMO

Leaf vegetables have strong capabilities to take up cadmium (Cd) compared to other vegetable varieties. Until now, the differences in Cd uptake and accumulation by leaf vegetables from different families and genera and the related health risks were unknown. To remedy this, we studied 71 leaf vegetables (multiple genotypes within 17 categories of vegetables) in soil cultivation experiments (3 Cd treatment levels). Results showed that at 2.12 mg kg-1 Cd treatment, the dry weight of only five genotypic varieties from the families Brassicaceae and Asteraceae significantly decreased compared to the control, suggesting their weak Cd tolerances. Vegetables from the Brassicaceae, Asteraceae, Apiaceae, and Convolvulaceae families had stronger Cd absorption capabilities, whereas those from the Liliaceae and Amaranthaceae families had weaker ones. Cluster analysis found that the 17 vegetable categories could be divided into three groups: vegetables with high Cd accumulation capabilities were Lactuca sativa L.var. ramosa Hort. and Lactuca sativa var. longifoliaf. Lam. Vegetables with moderate Cd accumulation capabilities were bok choy, napa cabbage, choy sum, leaf mustard, Lactuca sativa L., Sonchus oleraceus L., celery, coriander, and water spinach. Vegetables with low Cd accumulation capabilities were cabbage, crown daisy, garlic chive, Allium ascalonicum, Gynura cusimbua, and edible amaranth. Estimated daily intake (EDI) and target hazard quotient (THQ) analysis results showed that 100% genotypes of vegetables from the Apiaceae and Convolvulaceae families had health risks; 100% genotypes of Lactuca sativa L., Sonchus oleraceus L., Lactuca sativa L. var. ramosa Hort., and Lactuca sativa var. longifoliaf. Lam from the Asteraceae family carried high risks. Of vegetables in the Brassicaceae family, 42.9% showed risks. Vegetables from the Amaranthaceae and Liliaceae families, Gynura cusimbua and crown daisy from the Asteraceae family, and cabbage from the Brassicaceae family all displayed relatively low risks (all 100%).


Assuntos
Cádmio/metabolismo , Contaminação de Alimentos , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Verduras/metabolismo , Cádmio/análise , Cádmio/toxicidade , Humanos , Folhas de Planta/classificação , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Medição de Risco , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Especificidade da Espécie , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Verduras/classificação , Verduras/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 15(1): 18, 2019 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30922334

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Archipelagos of islands have played an important role in shaping some of the paradigms of biology, including the theory of the evolution of species. Later, their importance in biology was further emphasised by the theory of island biogeography, which contributed to a better understanding of the shaping of species richness not only on real islands, but on isolated habitat islands as well. Although ethnobotany is a well-established discipline, patterns of knowledge about plant uses in archipelagos have never been quantitatively analysed, and the whole concept has been only briefly mentioned in the ethnobiological context. The aim of our study was to record which taxa of wild vegetables have been consumed in the Adriatic islands and to establish if such variables as island size, population size, flora or its isolation are correlated with the number of wild vegetables used. METHODS: We interviewed 225 people (15 from each island). RESULTS: Altogether, the use of 89 species of wild vegetables has been recorded. The largest number of wild vegetables is eaten on the islands of Korcula, Vis and Solta, and the lowest on Ugljan, Cres and Dugi Otok. The studied independent variables had a small and statistically not significant effect on the wild vegetable list length. The most visible effect was an increasing trend from north-west to south-east, overrunning the typical biogeographical island patterns. Moreover, one of the large and well-populated islands, Korcula, showed an 'unusually' high level of wild vegetable use. We hypothesise that the current use of so many species on this island has been maintained by the inhabitants' awareness that they are the holders of relic knowledge, an awareness reiterated by ethnographic and popular publications, as well as a strong history of famine. The most interesting edible species used in the Adriatic islands are Bunium alpinum, Cytinus hypocystis (both mainly on Pasman), Lotus edulis (on Vis) and Posidonia oceanica (on Vis and Korcula). CONCLUSIONS: The recorded relationships between the demographic and geographical features of the islands were statistically not significant. We assume that cultural and historical factors diversifying the use of plants in particular islands are stronger than the above-mentioned measurable variables.


Assuntos
Etnobotânica , Ilhas , Verduras/classificação , Croácia , Geografia , Oceanos e Mares
10.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0210542, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30633764

RESUMO

Plants contain endophytic bacteria, whose communities both influence plant growth and can be an important source of probiotics. Here we used deep sequencing of a 16S rRNA gene fragment and bacterial cultivation to independently characterize the microbiomes of five plant species from divergent taxonomic orders-potato (Solanum tuberosum), carrot (Daucus sativus), beet (Beta vulgaris), neep (Brassica napus spp. napobrassica), and topinambur (Helianthus tuberosus). We found that both species richness and diversity tend to be higher in the peel, where Alphaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria dominate, while Gammaproteobacteria and Firmicutes dominate in the pulp. A statistical analysis revealed that the main characteristic features of the microbiomes of plant species originate from the peel microbiomes. Topinambur pulp displayed an interesting characteristic feature: it contained up to 108 CFUs of lactic acid bacteria, suggesting its use as a source of probiotic bacteria. We also detected Listeria sp., in topinambur pulps, however, the 16S rRNA gene fragment is unable to distinguish between pathogenic versus non-pathogenic species, so the evaluation of this potential health risk is left to a future study.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , Ecossistema , Endófitos/genética , Verduras/fisiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Beta vulgaris/microbiologia , Beta vulgaris/fisiologia , Brassica napus/microbiologia , Brassica napus/fisiologia , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Daucus carota/microbiologia , Daucus carota/fisiologia , Endófitos/classificação , Endófitos/fisiologia , Helianthus/microbiologia , Helianthus/fisiologia , Microbiota/genética , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Solanum tuberosum/microbiologia , Solanum tuberosum/fisiologia , Verduras/classificação , Verduras/microbiologia
11.
J Nutr ; 149(2): 249-257, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30649390

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vegetable consumption reduces colon cancer risk when fed in the initiation stage of carcinogenesis; however, the effect of vegetable consumption during the post-initiation stage has rarely been examined. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the chemopreventive effects of feeding apiaceous and cruciferous vegetables on colon cancer risk in the post-initiation stage. METHODS: Thirty male Wistar rats (∼5 wk, 92 g) were subcutaneously injected with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine 1 time/wk for 2 wk. One week after the last dose, rats were randomly assigned to 3 groups: the basal diet, an apiaceous vegetable-containing diet (API; 21% fresh wt/wt), or a cruciferous vegetable-containing diet (CRU; 21% fresh wt/wt). All diets contained ∼20% protein, 7% fat, and 63% digestible carbohydrate. Experimental diets were fed for 10 wk, after which colons were harvested. RESULTS: CRU reduced aberrant crypt foci (ACF) number compared to the basal group (P = 0.014) and API (P = 0.013), whereas API decreased the proportion of dysplastic ACF relative to the basal group (P < 0.05). Both CRU and API reduced doublecortin-like kinase 1-positive marker expression relative to basal by 57.9% (P = 0.009) and 51.4% (P < 0.02). The numbers of CD44-positive ACF did not differ between the groups. We identified 14 differentially expressed microRNAs (miRNAs). Of these, expression of 6 miRNAs were greater or tended to be greater (P ≤ 0.10) in one or both vegetable-containing groups compared to the basal group. Bioinformatic analysis of these expression changes in miRNA predicted a change in WNT/ß-catenin signaling, indicating downregulation of ß-catenin in the vegetable-fed groups. Consistent with this bioinformatics analysis, ß-catenin-accumulated ACF were decreased in CRU (93.1%, P = 0.012), but not in API (54.4%, P = 0.125), compared to the basal group. CONCLUSION: Both apiaceous and cruciferous vegetables, fed post-initiation, reduce colonic preneoplastic lesions as well as cancer stem cell marker expression in rats, possibly by suppressing oncogenic signaling through changes in miRNA expression.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Colo/dietoterapia , Dieta , Verduras/classificação , 1,2-Dimetilidrazina/toxicidade , Animais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Neoplasias do Colo/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias do Colo/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de Hialuronatos/genética , Receptores de Hialuronatos/metabolismo , Masculino , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Mucinas/genética , Mucinas/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , beta Catenina/genética , beta Catenina/metabolismo
12.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(4): 1691-1699, 2019 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30206952

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-volatile and volatile flavor compounds of six Pleurotus mushrooms including Pleurotus citrinopileatus, P. cornucopiae, P. djamor, P. floridanus, P. ostreatus and P. sapidus were studied. RESULTS: The content of total free amino acids ranged from 21.80 to 40.60 g kg-1 and the content of monosodium glutamate (MSG)-like amino acids ranged from 3.10 to 8.64 g kg-1 . The content of total 5'-nucleotides ranged from 4.16 to 8.80 g kg-1 while the content of flavor 5'-nucleotides ranged from 2.00 to 4.51 g kg-1 . Sixty-three volatile compounds were identified in six Pleurotus mushrooms, including 17 aldehydes, 10 ketones, 14 alcohols, 2 ethers, 5 acids, 5 hydrocarbons, 10 heterocyclic and aromatic compounds. 1-Octen-3-one and 1-octen-3-ol were the key odor compounds in P. citrinopileatus, P. djamor, P. ostreatus, P. floridanus and P. sapidus, while 1-octen-3-one, 1-octen-3-ol and 2-octenal were the key odor compounds in P. cornucopiae. CONCLUSION: Pleurotus citrinopileatus had highest content of total free amino acids (40.60 g kg-1 ), total 5'-nucleotides (8.80 g kg-1 ) and flavor 5'-nucleotides (4.51 g kg-1 ) than other Pleurotus mushrooms. Moreover, eight-carbon compounds were the most abundant compounds in six Pleurotus mushrooms. Our study should be helpful in promoting the cultivation and consumption of these Pleurotus mushrooms. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Aromatizantes/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Pleurotus/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Aminoácidos/química , Pleurotus/classificação , Verduras/química , Verduras/classificação
13.
Food Chem ; 277: 347-352, 2019 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30502156

RESUMO

There is limited research concentrating on the effects of gut microbiota on the bioaccessibility and speciation of chromium (Cr) in vegetables. In this study, the physiologically based extraction test (PBET) and the unified BARGE method (UBM), were combined with the simulator of human intestinal microbial ecosystems (SHIME) to determine the bioaccessibility and speciation of Cr from vegetables. The results showed that the Cr bioaccessibility was the highest in the gastric phase. The Cr bioaccessibility from the water spinach was the highest, and was 1.6-3.4 and 1.1-1.8 times that of leaf lettuce and celery, respectively. The Cr bioaccessibilities of the UBM method were slightly greater than those of the PBET method. Additionally, the gut microbiota increased the Cr bioaccessibility and reduced more toxic Cr(VI) to less toxic Cr(III) from vegetables. Therefore, our study reveals the possible health risks of consuming Cr-contaminated vegetables based on the bioaccessibility and speciation of Cr.


Assuntos
Cromo/farmacocinética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Verduras/química , Adulto , Apium/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/microbiologia , Alface/química , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Spinacia oleracea/química , Verduras/classificação
14.
Nutrients ; 10(5)2018 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29751617

RESUMO

Adequate vegetable consumption is one of the cornerstones of a healthy diet. The recommendation to increase vegetable intake is part of most dietary guidelines. Despite widespread and long-running public health messages to increase vegetable intake, similar to other countries worldwide, less than 1 in 10 adult Australians manage to meet target advice. Dietary guidelines are predominantly based on studies linking diets high in vegetables with lower risk of chronic diseases. Identifying vegetables with the strongest health benefits and incorporating these into dietary recommendations may enhance public health initiatives around vegetable intake. These enhanced public health initiatives would be targeted at reducing the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Specific vegetable types contain high levels of particular nutrients and phytochemicals linked with cardiovascular health benefits. However, it is not clear if increasing intake of these specific vegetable types will result in larger benefits on risk of chronic diseases. This review presents an overview of the evidence for the relationships of specific types of vegetables, including leafy green, cruciferous, allium, yellow-orange-red and legumes, with subclinical and clinical CVD outcomes in observational epidemiological studies.


Assuntos
Sistema Cardiovascular , Dieta Saudável , Verduras/classificação , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Doença Crônica , Dieta , Fabaceae/química , Humanos , Política Nutricional , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Compostos Fitoquímicos/administração & dosagem , Fatores de Risco , Verduras/química
15.
Rev Saude Publica ; 52: 50, 2018.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29791530

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE To characterize the household purchase and the individual consumption of vegetables in Brazil and to analyze their relation with the consumption of ultra-processed foods. METHODS We have used data on the purchase of food for household consumption and individual consumption from the 2008-2009 Brazilian Household Budget Survey. The Brazilian Household Budget Survey studied the purchase of food of 55,970 households and the food consumption of 34,003 individuals aged 10 years and over. The foods of interest in this study were vegetables (excluding roots and tubers) and ultra-processed foods. We have described the amount of vegetables (grams) purchased and consumed by all Brazilians and according to the quintiles of caloric intake of ultra-processed food. To this end, we have calculated the crude and predicted values obtained by regression models adjusted for sociodemographic variables. We have analyzed the most commonly purchased types of vegetables (% in the total amount) and, in relation to individual food consumption, the variety of vegetables consumed (absolute number), the participation (%) of the types of culinary preparations based on vegetables, and the time of consumption. RESULTS The adjusted mean household purchase of vegetables was 42.9 g/per capita/day. The adjusted mean individual consumption was 46.1 g. There was an inverse relation between household purchase and individual consumption of vegetables and ultra-processed foods. Ten types of vegetables account for more than 80% of the total amount usually purchased. The variety consumed was, on average, 1.08 type/per capita/day. Approximately 60% of the vegetables were eaten raw, and the amount consumed at lunch was twice that consumed at dinner; individuals with higher consumption of ultra-processed foods tended to consume even less vegetables at dinner. CONCLUSIONS The consumption of vegetables in Brazil is insufficient, and this is worse among individuals with higher consumption of ultra-processed foods. The most frequent habit was to consume raw vegetables at lunch and with limited variety.


Assuntos
Fast Foods , Manipulação de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Verduras , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Criança , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Ingestão de Energia , Fast Foods/economia , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Manipulação de Alimentos/economia , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Nutritivo , Características de Residência , Verduras/classificação , Verduras/economia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Molecules ; 23(4)2018 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29642545

RESUMO

The complete chloroplast (cp) genome of Talinum paniculatum (Caryophyllale), a source of pharmaceutical efficacy similar to ginseng, and a widely distributed and planted edible vegetable, were sequenced and analyzed. The cp genome size of T. paniculatum is 156,929 bp, with a pair of inverted repeats (IRs) of 25,751 bp separated by a large single copy (LSC) region of 86,898 bp and a small single copy (SSC) region of 18,529 bp. The genome contains 83 protein-coding genes, 37 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, eight ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and four pseudogenes. Fifty one (51) repeat units and ninety two (92) simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were found in the genome. The pseudogene rpl23 (Ribosomal protein L23) was insert AATT than other Caryophyllale species by sequence alignment, which located in IRs region. The gene of trnK-UUU (tRNA-Lys) and rpl16 (Ribosomal protein L16) have larger introns in T. paniculatum, and the existence of matK (maturase K) genes, which usually located in the introns of trnK-UUU, rich sequence divergence in Caryophyllale. Complete cp genome comparison with other eight Caryophyllales species indicated that the differences between T. paniculatum and P. oleracea were very slight, and the most highly divergent regions occurred in intergenic spacers. Comparisons of IR boundaries among nine Caryophyllales species showed that T. paniculatum have larger IRs region and the contraction is relatively slight. The phylogenetic analysis among 35 Caryophyllales species and two outgroup species revealed that T. paniculatum and P. oleracea do not belong to the same family. All these results give good opportunities for future identification, barcoding of Talinum species, understanding the evolutionary mode of Caryophyllale cp genome and molecular breeding of T. paniculatum with high pharmaceutical efficacy.


Assuntos
Caryophyllales/genética , Genoma de Cloroplastos , Genoma de Planta , Sequência de Bases , Evolução Biológica , Caryophyllales/classificação , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Tamanho do Genoma , Íntrons , Medicina Tradicional , Repetições de Microssatélites , Filogenia , RNA de Transferência/genética , Verduras/classificação , Verduras/genética
17.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 107(4): 576-583, 2018 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29635494

RESUMO

Background: Exposure to vegetable flavors during infancy and toddlerhood is hypothesized to enhance vegetable acceptance when children transition to table foods. Objective: We sought to examine the vegetable types, ingredients, and nutrient contents of vegetable-containing infant and toddler foods (ITFs) manufactured and sold in the United States. Design: A database of ITFs that contain vegetables (n = 548) was compiled from websites of companies based in the United States (n = 24). Product information was recorded, including intended age or stage, ingredient lists, and selected nutrients from the Nutrition Facts label. Ingredient lists were used to categorize vegetables using the USDA vegetable categories: dark green (e.g., spinach), red and orange (e.g., carrots), starchy (e.g., green peas, corn), beans and peas (e.g., black beans), and other (e.g., green beans, beets). Furthermore, products were categorized as single-vegetable, multi-vegetable, vegetable and fruit, vegetable and meat, or vegetable and other combinations (e.g., grains and and or dairy). Nutrients were examined, including energy (kilocalories), carbohydrates, fiber, and total sugars [per serving, per 100 g, per reference amount customarily consumed (RACC), and percentage of kilocalories from sugars]. Results: Of the 548 vegetable products, only 52 single-vegetable products (9.5%) were identified, none of which contained dark green vegetables or beans and peas. Red and orange vegetables most often appeared as the first ingredient (23.7%) compared to other vegetable types, such as dark green vegetables, which were rarely listed first (1.1%). Fruits were listed as the first ingredient more commonly than all vegetables (37.8%). One-way ANOVA revealed that vegetable and fruit products contained more sugars on average than did vegetable products with other ingredients, such as dairy and/or grains (all P values < 0.001). Conclusions: Current available products do not provide caregivers with a sufficient variety of single-vegetable products or products containing dark green vegetables to facilitate children's subsequent acceptance of these vegetables. Guidance should include making caregivers aware of the limitations of commercial ITFs manufactured and sold in the US market.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos , Alimentos Infantis , Verduras , Humanos , Lactente , Valor Nutritivo , Estados Unidos , Verduras/classificação
18.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 5226, 2018 03 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29588477

RESUMO

The analysis and identification of different attributes of produce such as taxonomy, vendor, and organic nature is vital to verifying product authenticity in a distribution network. Though a variety of analysis techniques have been studied in the past, we present a novel data-centric approach to classifying produce attributes. We employed visible and near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy on over 75,000 samples across several fruit and vegetable varieties. This yielded 0.90-0.98 and 0.98-0.99 classification accuracies for taxonomy and farmer classes, respectively. The most significant factors in the visible spectrum were variations in the produce color due to chlorophyll and anthocyanins. In the infrared spectrum, we observed that the varying water and sugar content levels were critical to obtaining high classification accuracies. High quality spectral data along with an optimal tuning of hyperparameters in the support vector machine (SVM) was also key to achieving high classification accuracies. In addition to demonstrating exceptional accuracies on test data, we explored insights behind the classifications, and identified the highest performing approaches using cross validation. We presented data collection guidelines, experimental design parameters, and machine learning optimization parameters for the replication of studies involving large sample sizes.


Assuntos
Alimentos Orgânicos/análise , Frutas/química , Aprendizado de Máquina , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/métodos , Verduras/química , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Frutas/classificação , Verduras/classificação
19.
Food Res Int ; 105: 361-370, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29433225

RESUMO

Salad vegetables, commonly consumed at baby-leaf stages, are the most appropriate and emerging dietary source of antioxidant compounds. Screening and identification of nutrient-rich cultivars can be potentially useful to obtain a nutrient-dense diet. Thus, in this study, we explored the genetic potential of baby leaves of 23 diverse lettuce cultivars for the health-beneficial metabolites. The results showed that the composition and contents of the studied metabolites in lettuces varied significantly between cultivars and were principally dependent on leaf color. All red-leaf cultivars were rich in carotenoids, cyanidin, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, primarily in the form of α-linolenic and linoleic acid,) total phenolic contents (TPC), and antioxidant potential. Among carotenoids, all-E-lutein was found in highest amount, followed by all-E-violaxanthin and all-E-lactucaxanthin, accounting for an average of 30%, 28% and 15% of total carotenoids, respectively. The content of total folate was recorded in the range of 6.51 (cv. Caesar Green) to 9.73µg/g (DW) (cv. Asia Heuk Romaine). The principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the cyanidin and other phenolic compounds are the most potent scavengers of ABTS and DPPH radicals. The overall results suggested that all red-leaf lettuce cultivars have a distinct profile of phytoconstituents, which can be used as a nutrient-dense food.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Alface , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Verduras , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Carotenoides/análise , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Ácido Fólico/análise , Ácido Fólico/metabolismo , Alface/química , Alface/classificação , Alface/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Pigmentação , Verduras/química , Verduras/classificação , Verduras/metabolismo
20.
Food Res Int ; 102: 493-503, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29195977

RESUMO

Daylily flowers is an important vegetable in eastern Asia, widely used in many dishes. Daylily flowers are usually sold in dried forms in the supermarkets. There are a few method for processing fresh daylily flowers, however, no study has been conducted to analyze the effects of the processing methods in the composition of final products. In the present study, a flow-injection mass spectrometric fingerprinting (FIMS) method in combination with principal component analysis (PCA) was used to differentiate two species of daylily flowers (Mengzi and Chongli) with three different treatments (vacuum freeze drying, solar drying and hot-air drying treatments) for each. The results showed the fast and simple FIMS method could successfully differentiate between species (raw material) and treatments among each species. However, the two species could not be discriminated very well after being processed in hot-air drying treatment. The difference in chemical profiles of species and treatments were discussed.


Assuntos
Dessecação , Flores/química , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Liofilização , Hemerocallis/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Verduras/química , Biomarcadores/análise , Flores/classificação , Hemerocallis/classificação , Temperatura Alta , Análise de Componente Principal , Especificidade da Espécie , Verduras/classificação
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