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1.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(2): 472-487, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34462916

RESUMO

Specialized metabolites from plants are important for human health due to their antioxidant properties. Light is one of the main factors modulating the biosynthesis of specialized metabolites, determining the cascade response activated by photoreceptors and the consequent modulation of expressed genes and biosynthetic pathways. Recent developments in light emitting diode (LED) technology have enabled improvements in artificial light applications for horticulture. In particular, the possibility to select specific spectral light compositions, intensities and photoperiods has been associated with altered metabolite content in a variety of crops. This review aims to analyze the effects of indoor LED lighting recipes and management on the specialized metabolite content in different groups of crop plants (namely medicinal and aromatic plants, microgreens and edible flowers), focusing on the literature from the last 5 years. The literature collection produced a total of 40 papers, which were analyzed according to the effects of artificial LED lighting on the content of anthocyanins, carotenoids, phenols, tocopherols, glycosides, and terpenes, and ranked on a scale of 1 to 3. Most studies applied a combination of red and blue light (22%) or monochromatic blue (23%), with a 16 h day-1 photoperiod (78%) and an intensity greater than 200 µmol m-2  s-1 (77%). These treatment features were often the most efficient in enhancing specialized metabolite content, although large variations in performance were observed, according to the species considered and the compound analyzed. The review aims to provide valuable indications for the definition of the most promising spectral components toward the achievement of nutrient-rich indoor-grown products. © 2021 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Flores/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Plantas Comestíveis/metabolismo , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo , Verduras/efeitos da radiação , Carotenoides/química , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Produção Agrícola/instrumentação , Produção Agrícola/métodos , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/metabolismo , Flores/efeitos da radiação , Luz , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos da radiação , Plantas Comestíveis/química , Plantas Comestíveis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Comestíveis/efeitos da radiação , Plantas Medicinais/química , Plantas Medicinais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Medicinais/efeitos da radiação , Verduras/química , Verduras/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Verduras/metabolismo
2.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(2): 844-850, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231921

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Beyond nutrition, fruits and vegetables can be considered as natural sources of bioactive molecules, for which beneficial effects on human health are widely recognised. To improve food quality, soilless growing systems could represent a good strategy for promoting a sustainable food production chain, although the nutritional and nutraceutical properties of their products should be investigated in depth. The main quality traits and the volatile and non-volatile secondary metabolites of Solanum lycopersicum L., Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Fuss and Ocimun basilicum L. grown in an aquaponics system and in organic farming were quantified and compared. RESULTS: On a fresh basis, soil-grown P. crispum and O. basilicum showed significantly higher total phenolics and antioxidant activity compared to aquaponic crops, whereas, on a dry basis, both plants showed opposite results. Soil-grown S. lycopersicum was significantly richer in total phenolics, whereas the aquaponic type showed a higher antioxidant activity. Aquaponics induced the accumulation of resveratrol in P. crispum, rosmarinic acid and myricetin in O. basilicum, and lycopene in S. lycopersicum. Among the volatile compounds, in O. basilicum, linalool was the main constituent in both treatments, whereas τ-cadinol represented the second constituent in aquaponic crops. The volatile profiles of P. crispum did not differ significantly between the two cultivation methods. CONCLUSION: The overall quality of organic and aquaponics cultures appeared to be comparable. The results showed that aquaponic farming method can be an innovative, rapid and sustainable way of producing quality food. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Frutas/química , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hidroponia/métodos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Verduras/química , Verduras/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Antioxidantes/química , Produtos Agrícolas/química , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Hidroponia/instrumentação , Agricultura Orgânica , Fenóis/química
3.
Biomolecules ; 11(5)2021 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067181

RESUMO

Biostimulants, are a diverse class of compounds including substances or microorganism which have positive impacts on plant growth, yield and chemical composition as well as boosting effects to biotic and abiotic stress tolerance. The major plant biostimulants are hydrolysates of plant or animal protein and other compounds that contain nitrogen, humic substances, extracts of seaweeds, biopolymers, compounds of microbial origin, phosphite, and silicon, among others. The mechanisms involved in the protective effects of biostimulants are varied depending on the compound and/or crop and mostly related with improved physiological processes and plant morphology aspects such as the enhanced root formation and elongation, increased nutrient uptake, improvement in seed germination rates and better crop establishment, increased cation exchange, decreased leaching, detoxification of heavy metals, mechanisms involved in stomatal conductance and plant transpiration or the stimulation of plant immune systems against stressors. The aim of this review was to provide an overview of the application of plant biostimulants on different crops within the framework of sustainable crop management, aiming to gather critical information regarding their positive effects on plant growth and yield, as well as on the quality of the final product. Moreover, the main limitations of such practice as well as the future prospects of biostimulants research will be presented.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Verduras/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/efeitos dos fármacos , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Verduras/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Biomolecules ; 11(6)2021 05 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072781

RESUMO

Chitin and chitosan are natural compounds that are biodegradable and nontoxic and have gained noticeable attention due to their effective contribution to increased yield and agro-environmental sustainability. Several effects have been reported for chitosan application in plants. Particularly, it can be used in plant defense systems against biological and environmental stress conditions and as a plant growth promoter-it can increase stomatal conductance and reduce transpiration or be applied as a coating material in seeds. Moreover, it can be effective in promoting chitinolytic microorganisms and prolonging storage life through post-harvest treatments, or benefit nutrient delivery to plants since it may prevent leaching and improve slow release of nutrients in fertilizers. Finally, it can remediate polluted soils through the removal of cationic and anionic heavy metals and the improvement of soil properties. On the other hand, chitin also has many beneficial effects such as plant growth promotion, improved plant nutrition and ability to modulate and improve plants' resistance to abiotic and biotic stressors. The present review presents a literature overview regarding the effects of chitin, chitosan and derivatives on horticultural crops, highlighting their important role in modern sustainable crop production; the main limitations as well as the future prospects of applications of this particular biostimulant category are also presented.


Assuntos
Quitina/farmacologia , Quitosana/farmacologia , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fertilizantes , Verduras/crescimento & desenvolvimento
5.
Food Microbiol ; 99: 103798, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34119093

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii infection can result in toxoplasmosis and potential psychological effects. Research commonly focuses on infection through contact with cat fecal matter or consumption of contaminated meat. However, T. gondii oocysts can persist in the environment for years and may be present in soils and on soil-grown produce. Rates of oocyst DNA recovery from produce were high, with 18% of vegetable samples testing positive for T. gondii via PCR test and melt curve analysis. Radishes had significantly higher oocyst counts than arugula, collard greens, kale, lettuce, and spinach. There were no significant differences in oocyst detection rates between samples taken from organic farmer's markets and conventional grocery stores. This study demonstrates that these oocysts can transfer to produce grown both conventionally and using organic techniques.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Verduras/parasitologia , Alimentos Orgânicos/parasitologia , Oocistos/classificação , Oocistos/genética , Oocistos/isolamento & purificação , Agricultura Orgânica/métodos , Solo/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/classificação , Toxoplasma/genética , Verduras/crescimento & desenvolvimento
6.
Food Microbiol ; 99: 103801, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34119095

RESUMO

The FDA Produce Safety Rule states that water used for irrigation purposes, likely to come into contact with the edible portion of fruit and vegetables, must not exceed a defined limit of Escherichia coli populations. Although aquaponics has not been included in this guideline, it is worth investigating to establish a baseline for facilities to reference in produce production. Two microbial assays were performed, one a decoupled media-based aquaponics system over one year and another on a decoupled nutrient film technique (NFT) aquaponics system over 16 days. Water was sampled from each system over time to analyze changes of E. coli and coliforms. The geometric mean (GM) and statistical threshold variable (STV) were calculated based on E. coli populations from the irrigation source in each system. From the first experiment, it was determined, based on the FDA Produce Safety Rule, that E. coli must be monitored more closely from June to January as they were above the advised limit. The second experiment determined that E. coli and coliforms in the water significantly decreased over 16 days. Water should be held for 8 d and up to 16 d to reduce the likelihood of foodborne pathogens to contaminate produce.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Água Doce/microbiologia , Hidroponia/instrumentação , Irrigação Agrícola , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Verduras/crescimento & desenvolvimento
7.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0253668, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34166454

RESUMO

Supply chain integration plays an important role in the development of the vegetable industry in terms of vegetable quality, vegetable safety, and vegetable security in rural China. This paper explores how agricultural cooperatives integrate the vegetable supply chain by taking a trinity cooperative as an example in China. It explains the translation concatenation of supply chain integration for this cooperative by constructing actor networks in four development stages, including the seed stage, start-up stage, development stage, and mature stage. The findings show that supply chain integration in production cooperation, supply & sales cooperation, and credit cooperation is a useful trinity cooperative model of supply chain integration for investigating vegetable supply chain integration through internal integration and external integration. This paper suggests that cooperatives in the vegetable supply chain should facilitate close coordination among different shareholders and further improve the efficiency of supply chain integration. The government should provide training opportunities and funding to encourage cooperatives to participate in supply chain integration within the vegetable industry.


Assuntos
Produção Agrícola/economia , Fazendeiros , População Rural , Verduras , China , Humanos , Verduras/economia , Verduras/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Verduras/provisão & distribuição
8.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250494, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33891634

RESUMO

Differences in technical efficiency across farms are one of the major factors explaining differences in farm survival and growth and changes in farm industry structure. This study employs Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to compute technical inefficiency scores for output, energy, materials, pesticides and fertiliser of a sample of Dutch indoor vegetable farms within the period 2006-2016. A bootstrap truncated regression model is used to determine statistical associations between producer-specific characteristics and technical inefficiency scores for the specified inputs. For the sample of indoor growers, the average technical inefficiency was about 14% for energy, 23% for materials, 24% for pesticides and 22% for fertilisers. The bootstrap truncated regression suggested that the degree of specialisation exerts adverse effects on the technical inefficiency of variable inputs. While age, short-term, long-term debt and subsidy were statistically significant, the coefficients were not economically significant. Building the capacity of farmers to reduce input inefficiency will enable farmers to be competitive and reduce the adverse effects of input overuse on the environment.


Assuntos
Agricultura/educação , Fazendeiros , Fazendas/normas , Verduras/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Indústria de Laticínios , Eficiência , Emprego/normas , Feminino , Fertilizantes/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Países Baixos
9.
Food Microbiol ; 97: 103414, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33653513

RESUMO

Microbial contamination of sprouts commonly occurs because of the pathogens present on and in the seeds and the optimal conditions for bacteria growth provided during the germination and sprouting processes. This study examined the decontamination effect of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW), a 'generally recognized as safe' (GRAS) disinfectant, in the production process of alfalfa sprouts. SAEW with various available chlorine concentrations (ACC, 25, 35, 45 mg/L) and different pH levels (5.0, 5.7 and 6.4) was used to soak seeds for different length of time (0.5 and 6 h), after which the variations in natural Enterobacteriaceae, water absorption and seed germination (germination rate, weight and length of sprouts) were determined. The results showed that when the seeds were soaked with SAEW, albeit with different ACC (25, 35 and 45 mg/L) and pH levels (5.0, 5.7 and 6.4), a significant reduction of Enterobacteriaceae and no negative effect on sprout quality was observed. The water absorption and germination rates were also not significantly adversely affected by SAEW soaking. These findings suggest that SAEW could be used to decontaminate natural Enterobacteriaceae in the production of alfalfa sprouts, with no negative side effects on the alfalfa seeds.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Enterobacteriaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicago sativa/microbiologia , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Água/química , Cloro/química , Cloro/farmacologia , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Desinfetantes/química , Eletrólise , Enterobacteriaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Medicago sativa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/microbiologia , Verduras/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Verduras/microbiologia
10.
J Nutr Biochem ; 92: 108615, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33705954

RESUMO

Vegetables are essential protective diet ingredients that supply ample amounts of minerals, vitamins, carbohydrates, proteins, dietary fiber, and various nutraceutical compounds for protection against various disease conditions. Color is the most important quality parameter for the farmers to access the harvest maturity while for the consumer's reliable indices to define acceptability or rejection. The colored vegetables contain functional compounds like chlorophylls, carotenoids, betalains, anthocyanins, etc. well recognized for their antioxidant, antimicrobial, hypolipidemic, neuroprotective, antiaging, diuretic, and antidiabetic properties. Recently, there has been a shift in food consumption patterns from processed to semi-processed or fresh fruits and vegetables to ensure a healthy disease-free life. This shifted the focus of agriculture scientists and food processors from food security to nutrition security. This has resulted in recent improvements to existing crops like blue tomato, orange cauliflower, colored and/or black carrots, with improved color, and thus enriched bioactive compounds. Exhaustive laboratory trials though are required to document and establish their minimum effective concentrations, bioavailability, and specific health benefits. Efforts should also be directed to breed color-rich cultivars or to improve the existing varieties through conventional and molecular breeding approaches. The present review has been devoted to a better understanding of vegetable colors with specific health benefits and to provide in-hand information about the effect of specific pigment on body organs, the effect of processing on their bioavailability, and recent improvements in colors to ensure a healthy lifestyle.


Assuntos
Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Pigmentos Biológicos/análise , Verduras/química , Dieta Saudável , Alimento Funcional , Genes de Plantas , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/genética , Pigmentos Biológicos/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/química , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Verduras/genética , Verduras/crescimento & desenvolvimento
11.
J Sci Food Agric ; 101(13): 5583-5590, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33709452

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most countries set regulatory values for the total trace element (TE) concentrations in soil, although there is growing interest in using a risk-based approach to evaluate the bioavailable TE using dilute salt extractants or other soil parameters, including pH and organic carbon. The present study compares the current regulatory system (based on total TEs and pH) and a risk-based approach using 0.01 mol L-1 CaCl2 to estimate the bioavailable fraction. RESULTS: In total, 150 paired samples of Chinese flowering cabbages (Brassica parachinensis) and their growth soils were collected, and the total and extractable concentrations of chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg), as well as soil pH and organic matter content, were measured. No more than 3.33% of the edible parts exceeded Chinese food safety standards, even when growing in soils exceeding the current regulatory thresholds by over 50%. The total soil Cd (1.5 mg kg-1 ), as well as the extractable concentrations of Cd (0.1 mg kg-1 ), Ni (0.03 mg kg-1 ) and Zn (0.1 mg kg-1 ), are the key factors affecting the TE concentrations in B. parachinensis. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that the current soil regulatory guidelines for safe production of B. parachinensis are overly strict and conservative. A risk-based approach based on the extractable TE concentrations would provide a better indication for plant uptake of soil TEs and avoid the waste of farmlands that can still produce safe vegetables. Future research should focus on providing crop-specific available TE concentration guidelines to promote effective utilization of farmlands. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Brassica/química , Oligoelementos/análise , Arsênio/análise , Brassica/classificação , Brassica/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cádmio/análise , China , Cromo/análise , Cobre/análise , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Mercúrio/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Níquel/análise , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Verduras/química , Verduras/classificação , Verduras/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zinco/análise
12.
J Sci Food Agric ; 101(6): 2422-2427, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low growth temperatures and the special light qualities of midnight sun in northern Scandinavia, have both been shown to improve eating quality of swede root bulbs. To study the combined effect of these factors on root development and sensory-related compounds, plants were grown in phytotron under different 24 h supplemental light-emitting diode (LED) light colours, at constant 15 °C, or reduced end-of-season temperature at 9 °C. RESULTS: Far-red LED (740 nm) light induced longer leaves and produced more roundly shaped bulbs, than the other light quality treatments. At constant 15 °C, supplemental light of far-red LED also produced a stronger purple crown skin colour than the other LED treatments. This difference between light quality treatments disappeared at 9 °C, as all bulb crowns developed a purple colour. There were no significant effects of LED-supplements on sugar concentrations, while the reduced temperature on average did increase concentrations of d-fructose and d-glucose. Total glucosinolate concentrations were not different among treatments, although the most abundant glucosinolate, progoitrin, on average was present in highest concentration under LEDs containing far-red light, and in lower concentration at 9 °C compared to 15 °C. CONCLUSION: The light quality of 24 h photoperiods in combination with temperature appears primarily important for growth and morphological traits in swede root bulbs. Influence of light quality and low temperature on appearance and sensory-related compounds may be utilized in marketing of root vegetables with special quality related to growth conditions of high latitude origin. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/efeitos da radiação , Glucosinolatos/análise , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Açúcares/química , Brassica napus/química , Brassica napus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica napus/metabolismo , Temperatura Baixa , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Humanos , Luz , Fotoperíodo , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos da radiação , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos da radiação , Açúcares/metabolismo , Paladar , Verduras/química , Verduras/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Verduras/metabolismo , Verduras/efeitos da radiação
13.
J Sci Food Agric ; 101(10): 4090-4098, 2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33368286

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Water footprint assessment is essential for the evaluation of water scarcity that considers both direct and indirect water consumption along the supply chain. This paper presents the estimation of water footprint for locally grown fruits and vegetables in Australia. Water footprint was calculated based on the framework developed in the Water Footprint Assessment Manual for the crops which are the most practicable to grow in Australia. Nine different crops (apples, grapes, tomatoes, oranges, peaches/nectarines, cherries, potatoes, carrots/turnips and almonds) in the agricultural industry were selected and identified as the most water-consumptive crop and least water-consumptive crop. For each type of crop, the three main water footprint components (blue, green, and grey water) were calculated. RESULTS: It was found that almond had the highest water footprint (6671.96 m3  ton-1 ) and tomato had the lowest water footprint (212.24 m3  ton-1 ) in Australia. From the global comparison, it is revealed that total water footprint for Australian crops is much higher than the corresponding international average values, except for tomatoes, potatoes and almonds. Also, almonds had the highest water footprint among the nine crops investigated. CONCLUSION: The study provides an insight into future sustainable cropping patterns in Australia, which suggest that tomatoes, carrots/turnips, potatoes and apples should continue to be grown in Australia, whereas stone fruit (e.g., almonds) should no longer be grown because of its high water footprint. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Água/metabolismo , Irrigação Agrícola , Austrália , Produção Agrícola , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/metabolismo , Verduras/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Verduras/metabolismo , Água/análise
14.
J Sci Food Agric ; 101(9): 3933-3941, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33348451

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A floating system is a suitable low-cost hydroponic method for growing baby leaf vegetables. Among other, an important characteristic of the system is the use of large volume of nutrient solution which is characterized by high heat capacity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different root-zone temperatures on baby leaves of lettuce and rocket plants grown in a floating system under mild (spring) or extreme environmental conditions (summer and winter). RESULTS: Root-zone temperature was recorded in two tanks, one powered by a photovoltaic system and one where root-zone temperature was not controlled - this was used as a control tank. Photosynthetic parameters, yield, nutritional quality, and mineral composition were determined. In both baby leaf vegetables, during extreme weather conditions, yield was higher in the tanks with controlled root-zone temperature conditions than the control (+18.9% for rocket, and + 31.4% for baby lettuce), while quality parameters and chemical composition were not significantly affected. Stomatal conductance and net photosynthesis values were positively affected only during summer. On the other hand, control of root-zone temperature under mild weather conditions had no significant effect on baby lettuce and rocket. CONCLUSION: Control of the root-zone temperature could be a useful tool to improve productivity for baby lettuce and rocket crops cultivated in floating systems under extreme weather conditions. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Hidroponia/métodos , Alface/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Verduras/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Meios de Cultura/química , Meios de Cultura/metabolismo , Ambiente Controlado , Clima Extremo , Hidroponia/instrumentação , Alface/metabolismo , Minerais/análise , Valor Nutritivo , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Estações do Ano , Temperatura , Verduras/metabolismo
15.
Food Chem ; 345: 128807, 2021 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310261

RESUMO

An efficient dispersive solid-phase extraction method was developed to trace pesticide residues in commonly consumed vegetables. In this method, UiO-66 with uniform micropores was used as sorbent, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was applied to detect the pesticides. Thanks to the size sieving action of uniform micropores, UiO-66 directly extracted the target pesticides from vegetable matrices and excluded the relatively large matrix compounds. This well eliminated the matrix effect. The important experimental conditions were evaluated by orthogonal array experimental design. In optimized conditions, good linearity (R2 ≥ 0.99), detection limits (0.4-2.0 ng/g), recoveries (60.9-117.5%) and precision (relativestandarddeviations < 14.6%) were achieved. Moreover, the sorbent UiO-66 can be reused more than 20 times. These demonstrate a simple, reliable and robust method to screen the pesticide residues in vegetables. Furthermore, the validated method was applied to detect the pesticides in various organic and conventional vegetables.


Assuntos
Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Agricultura Orgânica , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/isolamento & purificação , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Verduras/química , Verduras/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Porosidade
16.
Environ Geochem Health ; 43(1): 361-374, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965604

RESUMO

Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) in sub-Saharan African countries are related to low dietary I intake and generally combatted through salt iodisation. Agronomic biofortification of food crops may be an alternative approach. This study assessed the effectiveness of I biofortification of green vegetables (Brassica napus L and Amaranthus retroflexus L.) grown in tropical soils with contrasting chemistry and fertility. Application rates of 0, 5 and 10 kg ha-1 I applied to foliage or soil were assessed. Leaves were harvested fortnightly for ~ 2 months after I application before a second crop was grown to assess the availability of residual soil I. A separate experiment was used to investigate storage of I within the plants. Iodine concentration and uptake in sequential harvests showed a sharp drop within 28 days of I application in all soil types for all I application levels and methods. This rapid decline likely reflects I fixation in the soil. Iodine biofortification increased I uptake and concentration in the vegetables to a level useful for increasing dietary I intake and could be a feasible way to reduce IDD in tropical regions. However, biofortification of green vegetables which are subject to multiple harvests requires repeated I applications.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes/análise , Alimentos Fortificados/análise , Iodo/análise , Solo/química , Verduras/química , Biofortificação , Disponibilidade Biológica , Deficiências Nutricionais/prevenção & controle , Iodo/deficiência , Folhas de Planta/classificação , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Verduras/classificação , Verduras/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Verduras/metabolismo
17.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 18287, 2020 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33106544

RESUMO

Four selected advance lines of drought-tolerant leafy vegetable amaranth were characterized for phenolic profiles, vitamins, and antioxidant activities. The selected advance lines exhibited differences in terms of genotypes with remarkable phenols, vitamins, flavonoids content, and potential radical quenching capacity. We identified twenty-five phenolic and flavonoid compounds including protocatechuic acid, salicylic acid, gentisic acid, gallic acid, ß-resorcylic acid, vanillic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, chlorogenic acid, ellagic acid, syringic acid, ferulic acid, kaempferol, m-coumaric acid, trans-cinnamic acid, quercetin, p-coumaric acid, apigenin, caffeic acid, rutin, sinapic acid, isoquercetin, naringenin, myricetin, catechin, and hyperoside. The selected advance lines VA14 and VA16 had abundant phenols, vitamins, flavonoids, and antioxidants potentiality. The selected drought-tolerant leafy vegetable amaranth showed high antioxidant potentiality as phenols, vitamins, flavonoids of these lines had a significant positive correlation with antioxidant capacities equivalent to Trolox using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and ABTS+. Therefore, drought-tolerant leafy vegetable amaranth VA14 and VA16 can be grown in semi-arid and drought-prone areas in the world to attaining vitamins and antioxidant sufficiency. The phenolic and flavonoids compounds identified in drought-tolerant leafy vegetable amaranth demand a comprehensive pharmacological study. The baseline data on phenolic and flavonoids compounds obtained in the present study will contribute to the scientist forum for the scientific evaluation of these compounds in vegetable amaranth.


Assuntos
Amaranthus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Antioxidantes/análise , Fenóis/análise , Amaranthus/química , Secas , Estresse Fisiológico , Verduras/química , Verduras/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vitaminas/análise
18.
Chemosphere ; 261: 128018, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33113642

RESUMO

Highly persistent, toxic and bioaccumulative per - and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) represents a serious problem for the environment and their concentrations and fate remain largely unknown. The present study consists of a PFAS screening in sludges originating from 43 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in the Czech Republic. To analyze an extended group of PFAS consisting of 32 PFAS, including GenX and other new replacements of older and restricted PFAS in sludge, a new method was optimized and validated using pressurized solvent extraction, followed by the SPE clean-up step to eliminate the observed matrix effects and LC-MS/MS. The results revealed high PFAS contamination of sewage sludge, reaching values from 5.6 to 963.2 ng g-1. The results showed that in the majority of the samples (about 60%), PFOS was the most abundant among the targeted PFAS, reaching 932.9 ng g-1. Approximately 20% of the analyzed samples contained more short-chain PFAS, suggesting the replacement of long-chain PFAS (especially restricted PFOA and PFOS). GenX was detected in 9 samples, confirming the trend in the use of new PFAS. The results revealed that significantly higher contamination was detected in the samples from large WWTPs (population equivalent > 50,000; p-value <0.05). Concerning the application of sludge in agriculture, our prediction using the respective PFAS bioconcentration factors, the observed concentrations, and the legislatively permitted management of biosolids in Czech Republic agriculture revealed that PFAS can cause serious contamination of cereals and vegetables (oat, celery shoots and lettuce leaves), as well as general secondary contamination of the environment.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/análise , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Propionatos/análise , Esgotos/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Verduras/química , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/metabolismo , Bioacumulação , Biossólidos , Cromatografia Líquida , República Tcheca , Fertilizantes/análise , Fluorcarbonetos/metabolismo , Propionatos/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Verduras/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Verduras/metabolismo , Águas Residuárias/química , Purificação da Água
19.
Mol Biol Rep ; 47(10): 8061-8074, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880066

RESUMO

Plastome (plastid genome) engineering has grown up and got smarter for the transgene expression. Plastid transformation has profound benefits over nuclear transformation, includes a higher level of transgene expression, integration via homologous recombination, transgene containment, lack of gene silencing, and position effect. Substantial and fruitful progress has been achieved in plastome engineering of vegetable crops through the use of improved regeneration/selection procedures, plastid transformation vectors with efficient promoters, and 3/, 5/regulatory sequences. Plastid transformation technology developed for vegetable crops being used as a platform for the production of industrially important proteins and some of the genes of agronomic importance has been stably integrated and expressed in plastome. Although great progress has been accomplished in the plastid transformation of vegetable crops, still it is restricted to few species because of the unavailability of whole plastome sequencing. In this review, the author focus on the technology, progress, and advancements in plastid transformation of vegetable plants such as lettuce, tomato, potato, cabbage, cauliflower, eggplant, carrot, soybean, and bitter melon are reviewed. The conclusions, future prospects, and expansion of plastid transformation technology to other vegetable crops for genetic improvement and production of edible vaccines are proposed.


Assuntos
Genomas de Plastídeos , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Verduras , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vacinas/genética , Verduras/genética , Verduras/crescimento & desenvolvimento
20.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(18)2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32942632

RESUMO

Monitoring the growth of fruit vegetables is essential for the automation of cultivation management, and harvest. The objective of this study is to demonstrate that the current sensor technology can monitor the growth and yield of fruit vegetables such as tomato, cucumber, and paprika. We estimated leaf area, leaf area index (LAI), and plant height using coordinates of polygon vertices from plant and canopy surface models constructed using a three-dimensional (3D) scanner. A significant correlation was observed between the measured and estimated leaf area, LAI, and plant height (R2 > 0.8, except for tomato LAI). The canopy structure of each fruit vegetable was predicted by integrating the estimated leaf area at each height of the canopy surface models. A linear relationship was observed between the measured total leaf area and the total dry weight of each fruit vegetable; thus, the dry weight of the plant can be predicted using the estimated leaf area. The fruit weights of tomato and paprika were estimated using the fruit solid model constructed by the fruit point cloud data extracted using the RGB value. A significant correlation was observed between the measured and estimated fruit weights (tomato: R2 = 0.739, paprika: R2 = 0.888). Therefore, it was possible to estimate the growth parameters (leaf area, plant height, canopy structure, and yield) of different fruit vegetables non-destructively using a 3D scanner.


Assuntos
Cucumis sativus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Imageamento Tridimensional , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Verduras/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Capsicum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento
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