Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 4.278
Filtrar
1.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; 60(16): 2676-2690, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876477

RESUMO

In recent years, applications of cold plasma treatments have shown high efficiency in sterilization of fresh fruit and vegetables. With encouraging results, development of this technique focuses on influences of cold plasma on the quality attributes of these fresh produce. More studies found that the quality attributes are maintained in an acceptable range or can even be improved under certain plasma treatment conditions. This review provides an overview of the multiple effects of cold plasma on the fresh produce, in terms of physical, chemical and physiological aspects. Besides, the possible mechanisms of how plasma influences these quality attributes is elaborated, which is useful for further modification and improvement of the plasma technology, so that quality enhancement and shelf life extension can be achieved. Future trends in the development of cold plasma technology are also presented. Cold plasma treatment is a potential technology for treating fresh fruit and vegetables to enhance their quality and extend their shelf life. However, knowledge of the effects of cold plasma on the quality changes of fresh fruit and vegetables is still limited. Therefore, there is a need for future studies to understand the mechanisms of plasma effects on controlling the interactions between plasma and food products in order to realize the early adoption of the technology to the food industry.


Assuntos
Conservação de Alimentos , Frutas , Gases em Plasma , Verduras , Frutas/química , Frutas/fisiologia , Esterilização , Verduras/química , Verduras/fisiologia
2.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236871, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745115

RESUMO

Element bioaccessibility consists of the fraction of the element that is mobilized from food matrices into digestive extractants. The degree of bioaccessibility of a toxic metal is a fundamental consideration in estimating its bioavailability. In addition, gaining a better understanding of the essential elements released into the gastro intestinal fluids allows a more thorough assessment of the health benefits of food matrices in the field of nutrition science. In the present study, an in vitro digestion model simulating gastro-intestinal digestion (GID) was used to investigate the bioaccessibility of stable elements in mixed leaf salad and 210Po in various foods (meat, seafood, vegetables). The simulation was carried out over three phases: after a pre-treatment with a saliva solution, raw and cooked seafood samples were subjected to a complete simulated gastrointestinal digestion (gastric digestion followed by bile-pancreas digestion). The 210Po bioaccessibility was found to range from 16.2±9.39% to 62.8±17.7% and from 6.26±2.15% to 67.5±13.1% for raw and cooked food respectively. Moreover, bioaccessibility could not be determined for As, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Hg, La, Pb, Sb, Sn, Te, Th, Tl, Ti, U. It proved to be poor (1-16%) for Al, Fe and S; fair (40-50%) for Cu, P, and Si; and high (>50%) for Ba, Ca, K, Mg, Mn, Ni, Rb, Sr, Zn. The results show that bioaccessibility varies according to the chemical form of the element in the food as well as the matrix composition.


Assuntos
Disponibilidade Biológica , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Polônio/análise , Oligoelementos/análise , Digestão , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro/métodos , Carne/análise , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Verduras/química
3.
Food Chem ; 332: 127424, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619947

RESUMO

Celery (Apium graveolens L. var dulce) is a widely cultivated vegetable which is popularly consumed due to its nutrient content and contains bioactive metabolites with positive effects on human physiology. In this study, 1H NMR spectroscopy coupled with multivariate statistical analyses was used to distinguish celery stem and leaf samples from different geographical origins. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were employed to investigate the differences between celery extracts from three geographical origins: Australia, Taiwan and China. Sugars, amino acids and organic acids were found to contribute significantly to the differentiation between origins, with mannitol identified as an important discriminating metabolite. It was demonstrated that NMR-based metabolomics is an effective approach for establishing reliable metabolomic fingerprints and profiles, enabling the identification of metabolite biomarkers for the possible discrimination of geographical origin.


Assuntos
Apium/química , Metabolômica/métodos , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Aminoácidos/análise , Apium/metabolismo , Austrália , China , Análise Discriminante , Humanos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Manitol/análise , Manitol/metabolismo , Análise Multivariada , Folhas de Planta/química , Análise de Componente Principal , Verduras/química , Verduras/metabolismo
4.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235345, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667930

RESUMO

This study was carried out to investigate the risks of simultaneous exposure to pesticide residues and bacteria contaminants in locally produced fresh vegetables and vegetables in Tanzania. A total of 613 samples were analyzed for pesticide residues, out of which 250 were also analyzed for bacterial contamination. Overall, 47.5% had pesticide residues, 74.2% exceeded Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs). Organophosphorus (95.2%), organochlorines (24.0%), pyrethroids (17.3%), and carbamates (9.2%) residues dominated. MRL values were mostly exceeded in tomatoes, onions, watermelons, cucumbers, Chinese cabbage, and sweet paper. Tetramethrin (0.0329-1.3733 mg/kg), pirimiphos-methyl (0.0003-1.4093 mg/kg), permethrin (0.0009-2.4537 mg/kg), endosulfan (beta) (0.0008-2.3416 mg/kg), carbaryl (0.0215-1.5068 mg/kg), profenofos (0.0176-2.1377 mg/kg), chlorpyrifos (0.0004-1.2549 mg/kg) and dieldrin (0.0011-0.5271 mg/kg) exceeded MRLs. The prevalence of bacteria contamination was high (63.2%). Enterobacter (55.6%) Pseudomonas aeruginosa (32.4%), E. coli (28.2%), Citrobacter (26.8%), Klebsiella oxytoca (14.8%), and Salmonella (7.7%) were isolated. Furthermore, 46.4% tested positive for both pesticide residues and bacterial contaminants. Vegetables from farms (60.7%) contained more dual contaminants than market-based vegetables (41.8%). This may have resulted from excessive pesticide use and unhygienic handling of fresh fruits and vegetables at production level. Binary logistic regression showed that fresh fruits and vegetables with pesticide residues were 2.231 times more likely to have bacteria contaminants (OR: 2.231; 95% CI: 0.501, 8.802). The contamination levels of pesticide residues and bacterial contaminants could be perceived as a serious problem as most fresh fruits and vegetables recorded values of pesticide residues far above the MRLs with pathogenic bacteria isolated in higher proportions. MRLs was higher in most vegetables consumed raw or semi-cooked such as watermelons, carrots, cucumber, tomatoes, onion and sweet paper. There is an urgent need to develop pesticide monitoring and surveillance systems at farmer level, educating farmers and promoting the use of greener pesticides to mitigate the health effects of pesticides and bacterial contaminants.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Frutas/efeitos adversos , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Verduras/efeitos adversos , Citrobacter/isolamento & purificação , Citrobacter/patogenicidade , Enterobacter/isolamento & purificação , Enterobacter/patogenicidade , Frutas/química , Frutas/microbiologia , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/efeitos adversos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/química , Klebsiella oxytoca/isolamento & purificação , Klebsiella oxytoca/patogenicidade , Resíduos de Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Resíduos de Praguicidas/química , Praguicidas/química , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolamento & purificação , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/patogenicidade , Piretrinas/efeitos adversos , Piretrinas/química , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Salmonella/patogenicidade , Verduras/química , Verduras/microbiologia
5.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(2): 952-961, 2020 Feb 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32608757

RESUMO

An analytical approach was developed to simultaneously determine 13 antibiotics in sulfonamides, quinolones, and macrolides in leafy vegetables by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). After optimizing extracted solutions, purification methods, and eluents of antibiotics in vegetable substrates, and taking into account the influence of environmental changes and experimental conditions on the results, the optimal experimental scheme was determined. This involved ①weighing 500 mg of vegetable samples and adding 20 mL of methanol-Mcllvaine-Na2 EDTA solution; ② conducting ultrasonic and centrifugal extraction three times; ③ Allowing rotary evaporation to 20 mL to pass a HLB solid phase extraction column; ④ Eluting the extraction column using 6 mL of methanol, upon which the eluent was dried almost completely; ⑤ Re-dissolving the eluent with a mixed solution of acetonitrile:water (volume ratio of 2:8); ⑥ Detecting by UPLC-MS/MS after centrifugation and filtering. Phase A and B of UPLC-MS/MS used an aqueous solution of 1‰ formic acid and acetonitrile, respectively to conduct gradient elution. Results showed that when the pakchoi spiked at 300 ng·g-1, the spiked recoveries of 13 antibiotics were 38.05%-96.97%. At 150 ng·g-1, the spiked recoveries were 34.52%-111.10%. At 50 ng·g-1, the recoveries of standard addition were 41.75%-107.13%, and the relative deviation (RSD) values were all below 8.68%. The detection limit was 0.4-1 ng·g-1, and the limit of quantification was 1.5-3 ng·g-1. This demonstrated good extraction and recovery efficiency on different types of leafy vegetables, and presented a good analytical application effect. The antibiotic residues were detected in four kinds of leafy vegetables in found in markets. The total content ranged from 1.59 ng·g-1 to 32.01 ng·g-1, and the antibiotic content in samples was calculated by dry weight. The content of antibiotics in pakchoi was the highest, followed by Chinese cabbage, lettuce, and coriander. Among the antibiotics detected, sulfadimidine was the most abundant from the selected leafy vegetables. The content of antibiotics was very low, however the potential health risks caused by long-term consumption could not be ignored.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Verduras/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Extração em Fase Sólida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
6.
Food Chem ; 332: 127150, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659696

RESUMO

We report an optical biosensor using imine, 5-((anthrcene-9-ylmethylene) amino)-2,3dihydrophthalazine) 1-4-dione (ADD) for direct detection of ascorbic acid (AA) via FRET quenched. The ADD was successfully prepared by using simple ultra - sonication method, which was characterized by various spectroscopic techniques. The fluorescence intensity of ADD probe was drastically quenched in presence of AA, and shown excellent selectivity towards the detection of AA in presence of possible biological active interferences. A wide linear range from 0.25 to 190 µM was achieved towards the detection of AA with a LOD of 10 nM. The occurrence of FRET mechanism is due to intermolecular hydrogen bonding between ADD and AA, which was confirmed by Density Functional Theory calculations. Moreover, the biosensor was successfully applied for the detection of AA in real samples such as fruits and vegetables to demonstrate the practicability. In addition, the developed biosensor could be a simple and economically cheap platform for the detection of AA in food samples.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Frutas/química , Luminol/análogos & derivados , Fenômenos Ópticos , Sonicação , Verduras/química , Técnicas de Química Sintética , Limite de Detecção , Luminol/síntese química , Luminol/química
7.
Food Chem ; 333: 127504, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32679416

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to extract zinc and manganese from foods and vegetables using an amphiphilic copolymer adsorbent, poly(styrene)-co-2-vinylpyridine which was synthesized via reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization from styrene and 2-vinyl pyridine in the presence of a trithiocarbonate and 2,2'-azo-bis isobutyro nitrile (AIBN) in toluene solution under argon at 80 °C. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy were used in the characterization of the obtained copolymer. Under the optimum conditions, several validation variables such as uncertainty measurement, selectivity, robustness, precisions, matrix effects and accuracy were investigated. Taking an adsorption time of 15 min, detection limits of 0.04 µg L -1 and 0.2 µg L-1and 7.9 µg L-1and enrichment factors of 145 and 110 were obtained for Mn(II) and Zn(II), respectively.The method was successfully applied to the analysis of Mn(II) and Zn(II) in foods and vegetables.


Assuntos
Manganês/isolamento & purificação , Poliestirenos/química , Polivinil/química , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Verduras/química , Zinco/isolamento & purificação , Adsorção , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Manganês/análise , Polimerização , Extração em Fase Sólida/instrumentação , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Zinco/análise
8.
Food Chem ; 333: 127447, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32688304

RESUMO

Quantification of the specific folate vitamers to estimate total folate in foods is not standardized. A collaborative study, including eight European laboratories, was conducted in order to determine the repeatability and reproducibility of the method for folate quantification in foods using the plant-origin γ-glutamyl hydrolase as part of the extraction procedure. The seven food samples analyzed represent the food groups; fruits, vegetables, dairy products, legumes, offal, fish, and fortified infant formula. The homogenization step was included, and six folate vitamers were analyzed using LC-MS/MS. Total folate content, expressed as folic acid equivalent, was 17-490 µg/100 g in all samples. Horwitz ratio values were within the acceptable range (0.60-1.94), except for fish. The results for fortified infant formula, a certified reference material (NIST 1869), confirmed the trueness of the method. The collaborative study is part of a standardization project within the Nordic Committee on Food Analysis (NMKL).


Assuntos
Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Ácido Fólico/análise , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida/normas , Laticínios/análise , Grão Comestível/química , Produtos Pesqueiros/análise , Análise de Alimentos/normas , Alimentos Fortificados/análise , Frutas/química , Humanos , Lactente , Fórmulas Infantis/análise , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/normas , Verduras/química
9.
Food Chem ; 333: 127500, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32693317

RESUMO

The objectives of this study were to optimize the condition of ultrasonic treatment combined with aqueous chlorine dioxide (ClO2) on nitrate content of spinach by response surface methodology (RSM), and determine the effectiveness of ultrasound (US) and ClO2 alone and in combination, on spinach postharvest quality during 7 days' storage period. The optimal treatment parameters obtained were ultrasonic power (300 W), ClO2 concentration (50 ppm), treatment time (4 min). The combined treatments significantly reduced the nitrate content and maintained better storage quality in terms of total soluble solids (TSS) and ascorbic acid content compared with the individual treatment or untreated. For Chlorophyll content, the combined treatment was significantly higher than the control and ClO2 treatment, but lower than ultrasonic treatment. The results demonstrated that US combined with ClO2 are promising alternatives for the reduction of nitrate content, as well as preserving the quality of stored leafy vegetables.


Assuntos
Compostos Clorados/farmacologia , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Conservantes de Alimentos/farmacologia , Nitratos/análise , Óxidos/farmacologia , Spinacia oleracea/química , Ultrassom/métodos , Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Clorofila/análise , Conservação de Alimentos/instrumentação , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Folhas de Planta/química , Spinacia oleracea/efeitos dos fármacos , Verduras/química , Verduras/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Food Chem ; 332: 127444, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653769

RESUMO

By-products of Belgian endive represent an interesting yet underutilised source of dietary fibre (DF). Dietary fibre concentrates (DFC) that are low in sugar and neutral in taste are sought by the food industry to increase DF content and improve texture in food products. The aim was to set up a biorefinery process to produce DFC from forced roots of Belgian endive (DFC-BE) and characterise the resulting product. As a control, non-treated forced roots powder (FRP-BE) was tested. Water extraction significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the content of sugars, phenolic acids (PA) and sesquiterpene lactones (SL) in DFC-BE. In contrast, total dietary fibre concentration (TDF) was higher in DFC-BE (81.82 g/100 g DW) in comparison to FRP-BE (49.04 g/100 g DW). DFC-BE offers an excellent water holding capacity (WHC) of 14.71 g water/g DW and a swelling capacity (SWC) of 23.46 mL water/g DW, suggesting possible use as a functional food ingredient.


Assuntos
Chicória/química , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Resíduos/análise , Bélgica , Alimento Funcional/análise , Raízes de Plantas/química , Pós/química , Verduras/química
11.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 201: 110833, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535368

RESUMO

The largest mercury (Hg) mining district in the world is located in Almadén (Spain), with well-known environmental impacts in the surrounding ecosystem. However, the impact of mercury on the health of the inhabitants of this area has not been documented accordingly. This study aims to carry out a probabilistic human health risk assessment using Bayesian modeling to estimate the non-carcinogenic risk related to Hg through multiple exposure pathways. Samples of vegetables, wild mushrooms, fish, soil, water, and air were analyzed, and adult residents were randomly surveyed to adjust the risk models to the specific population data. On the one hand, the results for the non-carcinogenic risk based on Hazard Quotient (HQ) showed unacceptable risk levels through ingestion of Hg-contaminated vegetables and fish, with HQ values 20 and 3 times higher, respectively, than the safe exposure threshold of 1 for the 97.5th percentile. On the other hand, ingestion of mushrooms, dermal contact with soil, ingestion of water, dermal contact with water and inhalation of air, were below the safety limit for the 97.5th percentile, and did not represent a risk to the health of residents. In addition, the probabilistic approach was compared with the conservative deterministic approach, and similar results were obtained. This is the first study conducted in Almadén, which clearly reveals the high levels of human health risk to which the population is exposed due to the legacy of two millennia of Hg mining.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Mercúrio/análise , Mineração , Adulto , Agaricales/química , Ar/análise , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Ecossistema , Peixes/metabolismo , Humanos , Distribuição Aleatória , Medição de Risco , Solo/química , Espanha , Verduras/química
12.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92 Suppl 1: e20180757, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32491136

RESUMO

Pereskia grandifolia Haworth (PGH) and Pereskia aculeata Miller (PAM) are recognized sources of proteins; dietary fiber; vitamins and minerals make this plant leaves, raw, cooked, and braised, an important ally against protein and micronutrient deficiencies. One of the main problems is the presence of antinutritional factors that may interfere in the digestibility and bioavailability of some nutrients. The objective was to evaluate the amino acid profile and the chemical score of the raw leaves and the effects of heating media and time on the total dietary fiber, minerals, trypsin inhibition, oxalic acid and tannins of leaves of PGH and PAM. The samples had similar amino acid profiles and total dietary fiber. With regard to antinutritional compounds, heating the leaves of PGH led to a decrease in trypsin inhibition, primarily after the first minutes of wet cooking. Oxalic acid and tannins predominated in both species. Considering the interaction with time, the variables related to iron and zinc minimized the tannin responses in PGH and PAM, respectively. Heating media and times interfered with the chemical components present in the leaves of Pereskia species and led to high antinutrient retention after heat treatment.


Assuntos
Cactaceae/química , Valor Nutritivo , Verduras/química , Aminoácidos/análise , Cactaceae/classificação , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos , Minerais/análise , Proteínas/análise , Taninos/análise , Verduras/classificação
13.
J Chromatogr A ; 1623: 461153, 2020 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505272

RESUMO

In this study, a clean-up approach using a two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC) consisting of a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography column and a reversed phase column was investigated. A fully automated 2D-LC system was used and compared with a traditional quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) liquid chromatography (QuE-LC) method. The comparison was based on the results of a validation of selected analytes. It was investigated whether the detectability of analytes could be improved by the use of the 2D-LC. On the basis of these results, the relative detection rates were determined for every matrix. By means of those detection rates, the matrices were categorized regarding their complexity. Furthermore, the applicability of the 2D-LC was tested by participation in the European Proficiency Test in Fruits and Vegetables Screening Methods. In order to evaluate the separation and the elution profile of matrix components, multivariate data analysis was applied. For this purpose, ten matrices were processed in accordance to a QuEChERS protocol and the protocol for 2D-LC analysis. Moreover, the reagent blanks of the corresponding matrix were processed and analyzed by QuE-LC and 2D-LC. The results allowed evaluating the number of detected compounds for both methods. Additionally, the influence of compounds originating from reagent blanks can be estimated. In general, less compounds could be detected when 2D-LC was used. Especially, these were very polar compounds and compounds with m/z values >1500. These compounds seem to originate primarily from the used reagents especially from the citrate salts. However, the most of these compounds could be separated and were not detectable any more when 2D-LC was used. The results of the comparison based on validation and participation in the European Proficiency Test also show a better detectability for the most analytes with 2D-LC.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida/economia , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Praguicidas/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Frutas/química , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Verduras/química
14.
Food Chem ; 330: 127151, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32521395

RESUMO

The research developed a diazo-coupling carbon-dots (CDs) method for determining nitrite and optimized variables of sodium sulfanilate, CDs synthesis, characteristic wavelength, reaction time and temperature. The method can assay 0.025-2.0 mg/L NO2- and has a detection limit of 9.6 µg/L and 95-105% recovery. Subsequently, it was applied in detecting NO2- changes in some Chinese home cooking, the gotten results indicated that if the sautéed vegetables (cabbage, Chinese cabbage, spinach and lettuce) and stir-fry pork, fried peas and pickled vegetable are stored at 4 °C for 72 h, nitrite contents are far lower than the recommended value, but if stored at room temperature for 24 h, the content in pure vegetables and shredded pork with green pepper will exceed the recommended value. Therefore, the staying fresher for the sautéed vegetables at room temperature is 24 h, if stored in a refrigerator at 4 °C, their staying fresher can be extended to 72 h.


Assuntos
Culinária , Nitritos/análise , Verduras/química , Carbono/análise , Dicroísmo Circular , Temperatura Alta
15.
Food Chem ; 330: 127166, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535312

RESUMO

Knowing the bioaccessibility of vitamin C in foodstuffs produced for infants and young children is necessary to determine their daily vitamin C intake. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the bioaccessibility of vitamin C in fruit-, vegetable-, and cereal-based baby foodstuffs by an in vitro digestion model at varying gastric pHs. The concentrations of measured vitamin C were higher than the declared amounts on their label. The bioaccessibility of vitamin C ranged from 10.4 to 43.4%, and from 0.4 to 19.2% in fruit- and vegetable-based baby foodstuffs (declared vitamin C fortified) at gastric pH 1.5 and 4, respectively. For cereal-based baby foodstuffs, the bioaccessibility ranged from 1.3 to 53.8%, and from 0.3 to 26.3% at gastric pH 1.5 and 4, respectively. As revealed in this research, the bioaccessibility of vitamin C in baby foodstuffs is very low in both gastric pH conditions.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/química , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Alimentos Infantis/análise , Verduras/metabolismo , Vitaminas/química , Animais , Grão Comestível/química , Frutas/química , Verduras/química
16.
Food Chem ; 330: 127205, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32521397

RESUMO

The incidence of endocrine disruptors, both possible (glyphosate and glufosinate), and demonstrated (perchlorate and chlorate), was estimated in baby food commodities (meat, fish, cheese, vegetable and fruit). Ion-chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry analysis of the 105 samples did not show traces of glyphosate, glufosinate or their metabolites, while in 10.5% of the samples a quantifiable amount of perchlorate was found. Some samples based on fruit and vegetables revealed a substantial amount of chlorate, especially the preparations that contained carrots and potatoes: five samples were in a concentration range of 40-120 µg kg-1, while one homogenized pear sample reached 372.2 µg kg-1. The pure meat samples revealed occasional chlorate appearance, with less than 10 µg kg-1. This is the first report of chlorate evaluated in various types of baby food and may serve as symptomatic data regarding its occurrence in infant/toddler diets. Therefore, effective monitoring programs and subsequent strict regulations are strongly required.


Assuntos
Cloratos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Herbicidas/análise , Alimentos Infantis/análise , Percloratos/análise , Animais , Cloratos/química , Produtos Pesqueiros/análise , Frutas/química , Herbicidas/química , Carne/análise , Percloratos/química , Verduras/química
17.
J Vis Exp ; (160)2020 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32568237

RESUMO

The phyllosphere, the above ground portion of the plant that can be colonized by microbes, is a useful model system to identify processes of microbial community assembly. This protocol outlines a system for studying microbial community dynamics in the phyllosphere of Napa cabbage plants. It describes how to grow germ-free plants in test tubes with a calcined clay and nutrient broth substrate. Inoculation of germ-free plants with specific microbial cultures provides opportunities to measure microbial growth and community dynamics in the phyllosphere. Through the use of sterile vegetable extract produced from cabbages shifts in microbial communities that occur during fermentation can also be assessed. This system is relatively simple and inexpensive to set up in the lab and can be used to address key ecological questions in microbial community assembly. It also provides opportunities to understand how phyllosphere community composition can impact the microbial diversity and quality of vegetable fermentations. This approach for developing gnotobiotic cabbage phyllosphere communities could be applied to other wild and agricultural plant species.


Assuntos
Fermentação/fisiologia , Microbiota/fisiologia , Plantas/química , Verduras/química
18.
Food Chem ; 326: 126942, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407999

RESUMO

A non-targeted screening method based on ultrasound-assisted extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-QTOF-MS) was developed to screen for the presence of plastic-related chemicals (PRCs) in different types of food (fish, chicken, canned tuna, leafy vegetables, bread and butter). Eleven bisphenols were used as targeted compounds. Instrument linearity (r2 ≥0.98), inter-day precision (RSD ≤9.0%) as well as method detection limits (MDLs below 3.6 ng g-1) were satisfactory. Recoveries of the eleven bisphenols ranged from 76% to 122% among the different food matrices. The method was applied to food collected from Montreal, Canada in 2017-2018. The non-targeted screening approach identified a range of contaminants in different food matrices, including BPA, BPS, bis(2-ethylhexyl) adipate, dibutyl adipate, hexadecyl methacrylate and Irganox®1076. Further research is suggested to investigate the concentration of these PRCs, the consumption habits of average and specific populations and the potential routes of contamination.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Plásticos/análise , Animais , Compostos Benzidrílicos/análise , Pão/análise , Canadá , Galinhas , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Produtos Pesqueiros/análise , Peixes , Limite de Detecção , Carne/análise , Fenóis/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Verduras/química
19.
Food Chem ; 327: 127080, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32454274

RESUMO

A hydrazone based Schiff base (SB) has been synthesized and investigated for the detection, quantification and degradation of selective organophosphates (i.e diethyl chlorophosphate, diethyl cyanophosphonate, tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate and dichlorvos). The organophosphates (OPs) form a covalent bond with -OH groups of SB and form SB-OP which quenches emission signal at 533 nm. Therefore, it can be used for the spectrofluorimetric detection and quantification of OPs upto the detection limits of 10.2, 158.2, 10.3 and 122.7 nM, respectively. Besides, the SB-OP duo undergoes degradation to non-toxic species in the presence of Zn2+ ions. The mechanism of interaction between SB-OP-Zn2+ trio is investigated by spectrofluorometric, spectroscopic, chromatographic and spectrometric experiments. The optimized recognition and degradation protocols were found accurate and precise when applied to fruits, vegetable and soil samples. Overall, the developed protocols prove SB as highly sensitive, selective and recyclable 'pick and degrade' probe for the recognition and degradation of OPs.


Assuntos
Retardadores de Chama/análise , Frutas/química , Organofosfatos/química , Verduras/química , Zinco/química , Cátions Bivalentes , Fosfatos , Bases de Schiff/química
20.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 112(2): 354-363, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32453423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Better adherence to plant-based diets has been linked to lower risk of metabolic diseases but the effect on abdominal fat distribution and liver fat content is unclear. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to examine the association between different plant-based diet indices and measures of abdominal fat distribution and liver fat content. METHODS: In a population-based sample of 578 individuals from Northern Germany (57% male, median age 62 y), diet was assessed with a validated FFQ and an overall, a healthy, and an unhealthy plant-based diet index were derived. Participants underwent MRI to assess volumes of visceral and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue and liver signal intensity (LSI), a measure of liver fat content. Fatty liver disease (FLD) was defined as log LSI ≥3.0. Cross-sectional associations of the plant-based diet indices with visceral and subcutaneous abdominal fat volumes, LSI, and FLD were assessed in linear and logistic regression analyses. The most comprehensive model adjusted for age, sex, education, smoking, alcohol, physical activity, energy intake, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and BMI. RESULTS: Higher overall and healthy plant-based diet indices both revealed statistically significant associations with lower visceral and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue volumes and with lower odds of FLD in multivariable-adjusted models without BMI. Upon additional adjustment for BMI, only the association of the healthy plant-based diet with visceral adipose tissue remained statistically significant (per 10-point higher healthy plant-based diet index, percentage change in visceral adipose tissue: -4.9%, 95% CI: -8.6%, -2.0%). None of the plant-based diet indices was associated with LSI. The unhealthy plant-based diet index was unrelated to any of the abdominal or liver fat parameters. CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to healthy plant-based diets was associated with lower visceral adipose tissue. None of the other examined associations remained statistically significant after adjustment for BMI.


Assuntos
Dieta Vegetariana , Gorduras/metabolismo , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Verduras/metabolismo , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Dieta Saudável , Ingestão de Energia , Exercício Físico , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tamanho do Órgão , Verduras/química
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA