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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360936

RESUMO

Dietary consumption of fruits and vegetables is related to a risk reduction in a series of leading human diseases, probably due to the plants' antioxidant content. Plant-derived nanovesicles (PDNVs) have been recently receiving great attention regarding their natural ability to deliver several active biomolecules and antioxidants. To investigate the presence of active antioxidants in fruits, we preliminarily analyzed the differences between nanovesicles from either organic or conventional agriculture-derived fruits, at equal volumes, showing a higher yield of nanovesicles with a smaller size from organic agriculture-derived fruits as compared to conventional ones. PDNVs from organic agriculture also showed a higher antioxidant level compared to nanovesicles from conventional agriculture. Using the PDNVs from fruit mixes, we found comparable levels of Total Antioxidant Capacity, Ascorbic Acid, Catalase, Glutathione and Superoxide Dismutase 1. Finally, we exposed the nanovesicle mixes to either chemical or physical lytic treatments, with no evidence of effects on the number, size and antioxidant capacity of the treated nanovesicles, thus showing a marked resistance of PDNVs to external stimuli and a high capability to preserve their content. Our study provides for the first time a series of data supporting the use of plant-derived nanovesicles in human beings' daily supplementation, for both prevention and treatment of human diseases.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Frutas/química , Agricultura Orgânica , Verduras/química , Dieta , Vesículas Extracelulares , Humanos
2.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(33): 39905-39914, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34374514

RESUMO

The lack of functional groups or binding sites largely hindered the broad application of microporous organic networks (MONs). Herein, we report the fabrication of the sulfonate group-enriched magnetic MON composite (MMON-SO3H@SO3Na) via the combination of the sulfonic acid group containing the monomer and thiol-yne click postmodification for efficient magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) of benzimidazole fungicides (BZDs) from complex sample matrices. The well-defined core-shell-structured MMON-SO3H@SO3Na was obtained and served as an advanced adsorbent for MSPE for concentrating and monitoring trace BZDs. The MMON-SO3H@SO3Na with numerous sulfonate groups provides plenty of ion-exchange, hydrogen-bonding, and π-π sites, leading to the favorable affinity to BZDs via multiple interaction mechanisms. The MMON-SO3H@SO3Na-based MSPE-high-performance liquid chromatography method afforded a wide linear range, low limits of detection, large enrichment factors, good precisions, and reusability for BZDs. Trace BZDs in complex vegetables and fruit samples were successfully detected by the established method. The MMON-SO3H@SO3Na also exhibited good selectivity toward multiple types of polar contaminants containing hydrogen-bonding sites and aromatic structures. This work provided a new postsynthesis strategy for constructing novel and multifunctioned magnetic MONs for preconcentration of trace analytes in a complex matrix.


Assuntos
Alcanossulfonatos/síntese química , Alcinos/química , Benzimidazóis/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Fungicidas Industriais/isolamento & purificação , Compostos de Sulfidrila/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Química Click , Óxido Ferroso-Férrico/química , Frutas/química , Limite de Detecção , Magnetismo/métodos , Microesferas , Porosidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Verduras/química
3.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34279371

RESUMO

The important roles of food packaging are food protection and preservation during processing, transportation, and storage. Food can be altered biologically, chemically, and physically if the packaging is unsuitable or mechanically damaged. Furthermore, packaging is an important marketing and communication tool to consumers. Due to the worldwide problem of environmental pollution by microplastics and the large amounts of unused food wastes and by-products from the food industry, it is important to find more environmentally friendly alternatives. Edible and functional food packaging may be a suitable alternative to reduce food waste and avoid the use of non-degradable plastics. In the present review, the production and assessment of edible food packaging from food waste as well as fruit and vegetable by-products and their applications are demonstrated. Innovative food packaging made of biopolymers and biocomposites, as well as active packaging, intelligent packaging, edible films, and coatings are covered.


Assuntos
Filmes Comestíveis , Frutas/química , Verduras/química , Resíduos
4.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202485

RESUMO

In this work, steam explosion (SE) was exploited as a potential hydrothermal-humification process of vegetable wastes to deconstruct their structure and accelerate their decomposition to prepare humified substances. Results indicated that the SE process led to the removal of hemicellulose, re-condensation of lignin, degradation of the cellulosic amorphous region, and the enhancement of thermal stability of broccoli wastes, which provided transformable substrates and a thermal-acidic reaction environment for humification. After SE treatment, total humic substances (HS), humic acids (HAs), and fulvic acids (FAs) contents of broccoli samples accounted for up to 198.3 g/kg, 42.3 g/kg, and 166.6 g/kg, and their purification were also facilitated. With the increment of SE severity, structural characteristics of HAs presented the loss of aliphatic compounds, carbohydrates, and carboxylic acids and the enrichment of aromatic structures and N-containing groups. Lignin substructures were proved to be the predominant aromatic structures and gluconoxylans were the main carbohydrates associated with lignin in HAs, both of their signals were enhanced by SE. Above results suggested that SE could promote the decomposition of easily biodegradable matters and further polycondensation, aromatization, and nitrogen-fixation reactions during humification, which were conducive to the formation of HAs.


Assuntos
Benzopiranos/química , Substâncias Húmicas , Eliminação de Resíduos , Vapor , Verduras/química
5.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203867

RESUMO

In recent years, there has been a growing interest in studying and exploring the potential health benefits of foods, mainly from vegetables and fruits from regular intake. The presence of secondary metabolites, namely polyphenols, carotenoids and terpenes, in certain food matrices seems to contribute to their functional properties, expressed through an increased prevention in the development of certain chronic diseases, namely coronary heart diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, cancer and diabetes. However, some foods' volatile secondary metabolites also present important bioactive properties, although this is a poorly scientifically explored field. In this context, and in order to explore the potential bioactivity of volatile metabolites in different vegetables and fruits from regular consumption, the volatile composition was established using a green extraction technique, solid phase microextraction in headspace mode (HS-SPME), combined with gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 320 volatile metabolites, comprising 51 terpenic compounds, 45 organosulfur compounds, 31 aldehydes, 37 esters, 29 ketones, 28 alcohols, 23 furanic compounds, 22 hydrocarbons, 19 benzene compounds, 13 nitrogenous compounds, 9 carboxylic acids, 7 ethers, 4 halogenated compounds and 3 naphthalene derivatives, were positively identified. Each investigated fruit and vegetable showed a specific volatile metabolomic profile. The obtained results revealed that terpenic compounds, to which are associated antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities, are the most predominant chemical family in beetroot (61%), orange carrot (58%) and white carrot (61%), while organosulfur compounds (antiviral activity) are dominant in onion, garlic and watercress. Broccoli and spinach are essentially constituted by alcohols and aldehydes (enzyme-inhibition and antimicrobial properties), while fruits from the Solanaceae family are characterized by esters in tamarillo and aldehydes in tomato.


Assuntos
Frutas/química , Verduras/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Álcoois/análise , Aldeídos/análise , Ésteres/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Cetonas/análise , Metabolômica/métodos , Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Terpenos/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
6.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209338

RESUMO

Flavonoids comprise a large group of structurally diverse polyphenolic compounds of plant origin and are abundantly found in human diet such as fruits, vegetables, grains, tea, dairy products, red wine, etc. Major classes of flavonoids include flavonols, flavones, flavanones, flavanols, anthocyanidins, isoflavones, and chalcones. Owing to their potential health benefits and medicinal significance, flavonoids are now considered as an indispensable component in a variety of medicinal, pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, and cosmetic preparations. Moreover, flavonoids play a significant role in preventing cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), which could be mainly due to their antioxidant, antiatherogenic, and antithrombotic effects. Epidemiological and in vitro/in vivo evidence of antioxidant effects supports the cardioprotective function of dietary flavonoids. Further, the inhibition of LDL oxidation and platelet aggregation following regular consumption of food containing flavonoids and moderate consumption of red wine might protect against atherosclerosis and thrombosis. One study suggests that daily intake of 100 mg of flavonoids through the diet may reduce the risk of developing morbidity and mortality due to coronary heart disease (CHD) by approximately 10%. This review summarizes dietary flavonoids with their sources and potential health implications in CVDs including various redox-active cardioprotective (molecular) mechanisms with antioxidant effects. Pharmacokinetic (oral bioavailability, drug metabolism), toxicological, and therapeutic aspects of dietary flavonoids are also addressed herein with future directions for the discovery and development of useful drug candidates/therapeutic molecules.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Cardiotônicos , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Flavonoides , Frutas/química , Verduras/química , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacocinética , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Disponibilidade Biológica , Cardiotônicos/química , Cardiotônicos/farmacocinética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/farmacocinética , Flavonoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos
7.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063827

RESUMO

A previous systematic review revealed that lutein intake leads to improved cognitive function among older adults. However, the association between lutein intake and brain health remains unclear. METHODS: We searched the Web of Science, PubMed, PsycInfo, and Cochrane Library for research papers. The criteria were (1) an intervention study using oral lutein intake or a cross-sectional study that examined lutein levels and the brain, (2) participants were older adults, and (3) brain activities or structures were measured using a brain imaging technique (magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or electroencephalography (EEG)). RESULTS: Seven studies using MRI (brain activities during rest, cognitive tasks, and brain structure) and two studies using EEG were included. We mainly focused on MRI studies. Three intervention studies using MRI indicated that 10 mg lutein intake over 12 months had a positive impact on healthy older adults' brain activities during learning, resting-state connectivity, and gray matter volumes. Four cross-sectional studies using MRI suggested that lutein was positively associated with brain structure and neural efficiency during cognitive tasks. CONCLUSION: Although only nine studies that used similar datasets were reviewed, this systematic review indicates that lutein has beneficial effects on healthy older adults' brain health.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Luteína/farmacologia , Idoso , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Envelhecimento Cognitivo/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Frutas/química , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Verduras/química
8.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 221: 112428, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34146981

RESUMO

This study investigated the levels of highly toxic pesticides (HTPs) in 6554 vegetable and fruit samples from 31 regions of China, along with the associated risk of dietary exposure for the population between 2014 and 2017. 18 HTPs were detected in 325 (4.96%) samples, and the levels of HTPs in 103 (1.57%) samples were found to be higher than the maximum residue limits (MRLs) of China. The rate of detection of HTPs in six types of vegetables and fruits, in a decreasing order, was found to be as follows: eggplant (8.84%) >grape (5.58%) >tomato (5.43%) >cucumber (5.43%) >pear (3.12%) >apple (2.30%). The level of contamination of HTPs was found to be higher in vegetables compared with fruits. The vegetable and fruit samples with the highest percentages of HTPs exceeding MRLs were found in eggplants from Guangxi (20%) and grapes from Inner Mongolia (12.5%), respectively. Both, the average target hazard quotient (THQ) of a single highly toxic pesticide (HTP) and the average hazard index (HI) of the mixture of HTPs for adults and children from vegetables and fruits from the 31 regions were found to be less than one. Omethoate, carbofuran, ethoprophos, triazophos, and phorate were identified as the major contributors to the average HI for vegetables, and carbofuran, ethoprophos, omethoate, phorate, and phosphamidon were identified as the primary contributors to the average HI for fruits. The results of this study revealed that HTPs in vegetables and fruits did not cause any significant chronic risk of dietary exposure. The detection of HTPs exceeding MRLs in some of the samples implied that appropriate management guidelines for HTPs should be implemented to protect the health of the consumers.


Assuntos
Exposição Dietética/estatística & dados numéricos , Frutas/química , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Medição de Risco , Verduras/química , Adulto , Criança , China , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos
9.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2326: 289-299, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34097277

RESUMO

Pesticides has become an essential part of our life and have entered and bioaccumulated in water, air, soil ecosystem, and food. However, the majority of the pesticides are not biodegradable and eco-friendly, and the accumulation of them in food and the ecosystem could constitute a serious risk to human and environmental health. It is critical to understand pesticides' identities and level of residues present in environment and food. Robust analytical techniques that offer easy, fast, and reliable extraction of multiresidue pesticides in water, soil and food with matrix interference-free quantification are necessary for proper risk assessment. Although various methods have been reported for pesticides extraction in food and environment samples, dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) has become the most popular sample preparation method for pesticides analysis today. Multiresidue pesticides extraction in food and environmental sample using a novel d-SPE method, dispersive pipette extraction (DPX), is described step-by-step in this chapter.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Praguicidas/isolamento & purificação , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/isolamento & purificação , Água/análise , Grão Comestível/química , Alimentos , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Frutas/química , Verduras/química
10.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073741

RESUMO

The study assesses the antioxidant activity, total phenolic content, total flavonoids content and lipophilic pigments (ß-carotene, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b) content in homemade and marketed fruit and vegetable whey beverages and fruit and vegetable mousses. All of the tests were performed using spectrophotometric methods. The highest polyphenol content was found in the homemade green whey beverage W1G (541.95 mg/100 g) and the lowest in the market green whey beverage W2G (46.18 mg/100 g). In the fruit and vegetable mousses under study, the highest content of polyphenolic compounds was determined in the red mousse R3 (76.41 mg/100 g). The highest content of flavonoids was observed in the homemade orange whey beverage W1O (63.06 mg/100 g) and in the green mousse G2 (69.80 mg/100 g). The values of the antioxidant activity of whey beverages and mousses varied depending on the composition. The highest content of ß-carotene was identified in homemade orange whey beverage (4.36 mg/100 g) and in orange mousses (in range 1.10-2.24 mg/100 g), while chlorophylls a and b-in homemade green whey beverage W1G (3.00 mg/100 g and 1.31 mg/100 g respectively) and in green mousses (chlorophyll a in range 0.54 to 1.42 mg/100 g and chlorophyll b in range 0.13 to 0.32 mg/100 g).


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Bebidas/análise , Frutas/química , Verduras/química , Soro do Leite/química , Flavonoides/análise , Fenóis/análise , Pigmentos Biológicos/análise
11.
Food Chem ; 361: 130173, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34062455

RESUMO

Glutathione and its disulfide were determined in a single run using liquid chromatography with on-line post-column derivatization and fluorimetric detection (340 nm/425 nm). The analytes were separated using a reversed-phase column capable of operating at 100% aqueous mobile phase and detected following direct on-line reaction with o-phthalaldehyde (7.5 mmol L-1) in highly basic medium (0.37 mol L-1 NaOH). The instrumental and chemical variables were carefully investigated towards high sensitivity and throughput, while special attention was paid to validating potential matrix effects. Glutathione and its disulfide could be selectively determined with respective LODs of 0.10 and 0.30 µmol L-1 in the absence of matrix effect (<6%). The endogenous content of the analytes was accurately determined in various food samples with recoveries ranging between 80 and 120% in all cases. The proposed method is reliable and promising as a generic analytical tool for the convenient estimation of the redox status of glutathione in various food matrices.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Dissulfeto de Glutationa/análise , Glutationa/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Limite de Detecção , Oxirredução , Verduras/química , Vinho/análise , o-Ftalaldeído/química
12.
Food Chem ; 362: 130148, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098438

RESUMO

Agricultural products are often contaminated with trace amounts of pesticide residues. To ensure food safety, a reliable, sensitive, and efficient method that accurately identifies pesticide residues in a wide variety of foodstuffs is needed. This study applied a modified QuEChERS extraction technique, coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) to optimize the identification of the cyflufenamid, a new broad-spectrum fungicide with unclear mode of action in toxicity, in 12 foodstuffs. The method has been validated according to the European Union SANTE/12682/2017 guidelines for its linearity, limit of detection (LOD), and limit of quantification (LOQ), indicating an excellent performance. The recovery of cyfluenamid in all matrix were ranged between 70.8% and 117.8%, with relative standard deviation (RSD) <15% which is much lower compared to other methods. The method has been used for determine cyfluenamid in foodstuffs followed the ISO17025:2017 measurement technical note, which demonstrated it is suitable for routine quantitative analysis of cyflufenamid in most of the popular commercial agricultural products.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Fluorbenzenos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Frutas/química , Fungicidas Industriais/análise , Limite de Detecção , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Verduras/química
13.
Food Chem ; 360: 130006, 2021 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33984559

RESUMO

In this paper, a novel ratiometric electrochemical sensor for carbendazim (CBZ) detection was constructed by a composite of MXene@Ag nanoclusters and amino-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MXene@AgNCs/NH2-MWCNTs). The Ag nanoclusters (AgNCs) embedded in the MXene not only could inhibit the aggregation of MXene flakes and enhance the electrocatalytic ability, but also serve as an internal reference probe for the ratiometric electrochemical detection. Moreover, the introduction of NH2-MWCNTs can further improve the electrochemical signals of CBZ and Ag, resulting in the enhanced signal amplification and higher sensitivity. Based on these characteristics of the MXene@AgNCs/NH2-MWCNTs composite, the proposed sensor exhibits a favorable linear relationship between ICBZ/IAgNCs and the concentration of CBZ ranging from 0.3 nM to 10 µM and a low limit of detection of 0.1 nM. Moreover, the proposed ratiometric electrochemical sensing platform also demonstrates high selectivity, good reproducibility, secular stability, and satisfactory applicability in vegetable samples.


Assuntos
Benzimidazóis/análise , Carbamatos/análise , Fungicidas Industriais/análise , Prata/química , Verduras/química , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Limite de Detecção , Nanotubos de Carbono , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
14.
Food Chem ; 358: 129881, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933950

RESUMO

The perchlorate levels in 330 foods belonging to 5 varieties obtained from Wuhan were monitored. An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupoles mass spectrometry in combination with Cl18O4- internal standard method was performed to determine the level of perchlorate in various foods. Hereafter, dietary exposure and risk assessment of perchlorate was evaluated. The results revealed that the average level of perchlorate was 15.04 µg/kg with a detection of 95% among the whole food groups. The level of perchlorate in vegetables was the highest among the 5 varieties of food with an average content of 27.39 µg/kg, which in meat was the lowest with an average of 3.65 µg/kg. Estimated dietary intake results illustrated that males showed exposure in the range 0.004-0.18 µg/kg bw/day, which for females was 0.01-0.21 µg/kg bw/day. The results indicated that exposure to perchlorate via the food consumption for Wuhan people was evaluated as safe.


Assuntos
Exposição Dietética/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Percloratos/análise , China , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Água Potável/análise , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Carne/análise , Medição de Risco , Verduras/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
15.
Food Chem ; 360: 129740, 2021 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34023715

RESUMO

An enzyme-addition method to pretreat fried fruit and vegetable chips for acrylamide analysis is reported, followed by determination of the acrylamide contents in 36 marketed fruit and vegetable chip products using LC-MS/MS. To improve the extraction process, the FDA method was modified. Specifically, digestive enzymes were added, overcoming the clogging of filters (or SPE cartridges) after extraction of vegetable chips using water. Diastase was added to extract high-starch products, including potato chips. Recoveries of 90.3-105.5% acrylamide were obtained at the spiking levels of 25-500 µg/kg. LOD and LOQ were similar between the method with (4.5 and 13.7 µg/kg) and without diastase addition (4.4 and 13.2 µg/kg). Okra chip with high mucin content was extracted after adding pepsin. This method provided a recovery of 99.8-102.2%, LOD of 6.0 µg/kg, and LOQ of 18.1 µg/kg. Both methods could be used for analyzing acrylamide, with critical method parameters satisfying European Union regulations.


Assuntos
Acrilamida/química , Frutas/química , Verduras/química , Acrilamida/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Frutas/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Verduras/metabolismo
16.
Food Chem ; 359: 129932, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33945988

RESUMO

Performances of multiresidue analysis of one hundred of pesticides and contaminants, using GC-Q-Orbitrap method in full scan mode were compared to those obtained with GC-triple-quadrupole method in multiple reaction monitoring mode. In terms of sensitivity, 86% of molecules exhibited lower limit of detection values using GC-Q-Orbitrap than using GC-triple-quadrupole. For the GC-Q-Orbitrap method, more than 85% of the pesticides and contaminants showed good recovery [70-120%] in wheat samples, with relative standard deviation values < 20%. GC-Q-Orbitrap method appeared the most sensitive for most pesticides studied in wheat with limit of quantification values ranged between 0.1 µg/kg and 4 µg/kg. Moreover, the matrix effect was acceptable in wheat extracts for 84 molecules but strong suppression of the chromatographic signal was observed for 16 molecules for the GC-Q-Orbitrap method. The injection of unpurified wheat extracts spiked at 10 µg/kg proved the potential of the GC-Q-Orbitrap method for use in performing high-throughput pesticide screening.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Frutas/química , Praguicidas/análise , Verduras/química
17.
Food Chem ; 360: 129818, 2021 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33964653

RESUMO

QuEChERS and solid phase extraction (SPE) methods were optimized and applied for the extraction of triazines in fruit and vegetables. These extraction methods are easy, effective, rugged and safe. Also, they have the ability to purify the extracts which leads to lower detection limits and higher recoveries of the analytes. The analysis were conducted using liquid chromatography coupled to photodiode array detector. The limits of detection and quantification ranged from 0.4 -1.4 µg/kg and 1.5 - 4.5 µg/kg, respectively, for QuEChERS and 0.3 - 1.8 µg/kg and 1.4 - 4.9 µg/kg respectively, for SPE. The recoveries ranged from 84 to 102% for QuEChERS and 76-119% for SPE, with relative standard deviation less than 20% for both methods. The fruits and vegetables analysed were apples, pears, carrots, potatoes, tomatoes, avocado, cucumber, spinach, bananas, and oranges. The concentrations detected ranged between 6 and 46 µg/kg in fruits and 4 - 84 µg/kg in vegetables. Simazine was detected in all fruits and vegetable samples except in pear, while terbutylazine was not detected in all samples analysed. Propazine and ametryn were only found in carrot while pear sample only had atrazine. The proposed methods proved to be sensitive and accurate indicating their applicability for detection and monitoring of the selected triazines in fruits and vegetables. However, QuEChERS can be recommended for routine analysis of these triazines due to its fewer extraction steps compared to SPE which is important for turn-around time.


Assuntos
Frutas/química , Triazinas/análise , Verduras/química , Extração em Fase Sólida , Supermercados , Triazinas/química
18.
Food Chem ; 360: 130145, 2021 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34034049

RESUMO

Green leafy vegetables (GLVs) are a key element of healthy eating patterns and are an important source of lutein. To clarify the evidence for associations between GLVs and lutein intake and multiple health outcomes, we performed a review. A total of 24 meta-analyses with 29 health outcomes were identified by eligibility criteria. Dose-response analyses revealed that, per 100 g/d GLV intake was associated with a decreased risk (ca. 25%) of all-cause mortality, coronary heart disease and stroke. Beneficial effects of GLV intake were found for cardiovascular disease and bladder and oral cancer. Dietary lutein intake was inversely associated with age-related macular degeneration, age-related cataracts, coronary heart disease, stroke, oesophageal cancer, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, metabolic syndrome, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Caution was warranted for contamination with potentially pathogenic organisms, specifically Escherichia coli. GLV consumption and lutein intake therein are generally safe and beneficial for multiple health outcomes in humans.


Assuntos
Dieta , Luteína/metabolismo , Verduras/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Humanos , Luteína/química , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Neoplasias/patologia , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/patologia , Verduras/química
19.
Food Chem ; 360: 130085, 2021 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34038840

RESUMO

Biomass, originates from plant- or animal-based materials with a huge potential to be reused. Here we report a simple, rapid and inexpensive method for preparation of modified biochars derived from the banana peel followed by their applications in pipette-tip micro solid-phase extraction (PT-µSPE). Due to the contribution of various effective parameters on modification of banana peel biochars (BPBs), Taguchi design was used to optimize activation temperature, activation repetition, treatment material and impregnation ratio. Efficiency of the prepared BPBs were studied by extraction of twelve various pesticides, as model analytes with an extended range of log P values (1.4-5.7), followed by their determination using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. After finding the most suitable BPB, the affecting parameters on the PT-µSPE performance were optimized. Accordingly, the LOD values of 0.03-10 µg L-1, linear dynamic range of 0.1-200 µg L-1 and a range of RSD values of 5.3-19% were obtained. Eventually, five fruiting vegetables were analyzed and screened for their possible contaminations. Among the tested pesticides, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, malathion, phosalone, propargite and thiophanate-methyl were detected in eggplant, sweet pepper, zucchini and tomato.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal/química , Musa/química , Praguicidas/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Verduras/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cucumis sativus/química , Cucumis sativus/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Limite de Detecção , Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Praguicidas/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Componente Principal , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Temperatura , Verduras/metabolismo
20.
Food Chem ; 359: 129984, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33964660

RESUMO

A boron nitride modified multiwalled carbon nanotube material (BN@MWCNTs) was synthesized, and the synthesis conditions were optimized. The BN@MWCNTs was then used as the SPME fiber coating adsorbent for the extraction of eleven organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) from fruit and vegetable samples. Under the optimal conditions, the SPME coupled with the detection by GC-ECD had a linear response for the determination of the target analytes in the range of 0.03 to 200 ng g-1 with the coefficients of determination (r2) ≥ 0.9977. Based on the signal-to-noise ratios of 3 and 10, the limits of detection and the limits of quantification were measured to be 0.01-0.20 ng g-1 and 0.03-0.67 ng g-1, respectively. The relative recoveries of the analytes for spiked samples under three concentration levels (1.0, 10.0 and 100 ng g-1) were between 83.7% and 124% with the relative standard deviations ≤ 10.9%. The established method was successfully applied to the determination of OCPs in real fruit and vegetable samples.


Assuntos
Compostos de Boro/química , Frutas/química , Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Praguicidas/análise , Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Verduras/química , Cromatografia Gasosa/métodos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Limite de Detecção
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