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1.
Pers Soc Psychol Bull ; 49(1): 32-47, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34802330

RESUMO

We examined the role that witnesses play in triggering humiliation. We hypothesized that witnesses trigger humiliation because they intensify the two core appraisals underlying humiliation: unfairness and internalization of a devaluation of the self. However, we further propose that witnesses are not a defining characteristic of humiliating situations. Results of a preliminary study using an event-recall method confirmed that witnesses were as characteristic of humiliating episodes as of those that elicited shame or anger. In Experiments 1 and 2, we manipulated the presence (vs. absence) of witnesses when a professor devalued participants and the hostile tone of this devaluation. As hypothesized, in both experiments, witnesses indirectly increased humiliation via the appraisal of unfairness. Results of Experiment 2 revealed that the presence of witnesses also interacted with hostility, enhancing humiliation. As expected, this moderating effect occurred via the other key appraisal of humiliation (i.e., internalization).


Assuntos
Ira , Vergonha , Humanos , Hostilidade
3.
Br J Hosp Med (Lond) ; 83(11): 1-3, 2022 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36454068

RESUMO

Stigma in healthcare has been associated with a range of negative outcomes, such as delays in seeking treatment, avoiding clinical encounters and mental distress. This editorial discusses the experience of stigma and argues that understanding shame anxiety and adopting 'shame-sensitive' practice is beneficial in healthcare.


Assuntos
Assistência ao Paciente , Vergonha , Humanos , Ansiedade , Transtornos de Ansiedade
4.
PLoS One ; 17(12): e0279290, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36548282

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study examined the reliability and validity of a Shame and Stigma Scale (SSS) and assessed shame and stigma among patients with facial disfigurement from nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). METHODS: Data were collected from 218 patients with NPC through a cross-sectional survey between January 14, 2020, and December 1, 2020. The original SSS is a 20-item scale with four dimensions (i.e., shame with appearance, sense of stigma, regret, and social/speech concern). We used Cronbach's alpha and McDonald's omega to assess reliability and exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to assess the factor structure. We also used Pearson correlation analysis to examine the relationship between each item and total score of scale items and convergent validity. RESULTS: The final 18-item SSS had a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of .89. The EFA revealed that the SSS has a four-factor structure: sense of stigma, social/speech concern, shame with appearance, and regret. These factors showed satisfactory reliability, with McDonald's omega coefficients of .87, .77, .86, and .79, respectively. The scale showed significant relationship between each item and total score of scale items with respect to item-total correlations, item-subscale correlations, and item-other-subscale correlations. Convergent validity was supported by the significant positively correlated with the total scores for depression and anxiety. CONCLUSION: The SSS is valid and reliable in assessing shame and stigma and monitoring treatment compliance among patients with NPC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas , Estigma Social , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo , Estudos Transversais , Vergonha , Inquéritos e Questionários , Psicometria
5.
BMC Psychol ; 10(1): 308, 2022 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36522690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to examine the effect of different types of shame on prosocial behavior tendency to different help-seekers. METHODS: A total of 120 participants were randomly assigned to a neutral mood condition, a public shame or a private shame condition. RESULTS: All participants rated their willingness to help a benefactor and a stranger in an everyday helping situation and a money-donating situation after emotion-induction. The study found a higher willingness of participants in the public shame group to help strangers than those in neutral mood and private shame groups. CONCLUSION: These findings support a facilitation effect of public shame on prosocial behavior tendency toward strangers, indicating an effect of restoring motive of shame on social interaction. The results are further discussed in light of the functionalism of shame.


Assuntos
Altruísmo , Vergonha , Humanos , Emoções , Motivação , Afeto , Comportamento Social
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36497817

RESUMO

The aim of this study has been to analyse whether body shame and age may play a role in appearance-based exercise and positive body image in Women from Poland. It was assumed that women with high body shame and at the stage of young adulthood have significantly greater levels of appearance-based exercise and lower positive body image than those with a low level of body shame and at the stage of middle adulthood. The final sample included 234 Polish women (age: M = 31.58, SD = 13.93; body mass index: M = 23.45, SD = 4.72). Participants completed: the Objectified Body Consciousness Scale (OBCS), the Exercise Appearance Motivations Scale (EAMS), the Body Appreciation Scale-2 (BAS-2) and a socio-demographic survey. The cluster analysis technique indicated four distinct clusters: (a) Cluster 1 (N = 83): high body shame and young adulthood; (b) Cluster 2 (N = 29): high body shame and middle adulthood; (c) Cluster 3 (N = 88): low body shame and young adulthood; (d) Cluster 4 (N = 34): low body shame and middle adulthood. The outcomes partially support the hypothesis, as higher levels of almost all subscales related to appearance-based exercise (EAMS: "muscularity", "societal pressures", "shape/weight concerns", "avoidance/shame") and lower positive body image (BAS-2) were observed in women with high body shame and at the stage of young adulthood compared with women with a low level of body shame and at the stage of middle adulthood. These results indicate that both body shame and age may contribute to the intensity of appearance-based exercise and positive body image deterioration. Clarity on this issue is essential to ensure that an appropriate preventive activity and interventions are made which will be able to take into account the specific sociocultural context in Poland.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal , Autoimagem , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Vergonha , Estado de Consciência , Análise por Conglomerados
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36554745

RESUMO

Homophobic experiences with traumatic characteristics related to shame are more frequent among sexual minority (SM) than heterosexual individuals. Concurrently, SM individuals present higher levels of psychopathology and transdiagnostic processes (e.g., shame) than heterosexual individuals. Self-compassion has been identified as a protective mechanism that counteracts the effects of shame. The current study aimed to analyse which components of self-compassion affect mental health and test the mediating role of self-compassion in the relationship between feelings of shame in traumatic homophobic bullying experiences (THBEs) and psychopathology indicators (depression, anxiety, and social anxiety symptoms). In this study, 190 Portuguese SM individuals (Mage = 28.3, SD = 7.5) completed self-report measures assessing traumatic experiences, self-compassion, and psychopathology. Data were explored with SPSS and AMOS. Regression analyses showed that internal shame felt during THBE and compassionate actions predicted psychopathology outcomes. Mediation analyses revealed that internal shame during a THBE had a significant indirect effect on all psychopathology outcomes through compassionate actions. In other words, internal shame during a THBE was significantly associated with depression, anxiety, and social anxiety, and these relationships were partially mediated by compassionate actions. Our results reinforce the importance of developing compassionate actions towards the self as a possible protective factor for psychopathology among SM individuals.


Assuntos
Bullying , Autocompaixão , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Vergonha , Emoções , Empatia
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36554539

RESUMO

In the U.S., 12.3% of children live with at least one parent who has a substance use disorder. Prior research has shown that men are more likely to seek treatment than women and that the barriers are different; however, there is limited research focusing specifically on opioid use disorder (OUD). We sought to understand the barriers and motivators for parents with OUD. We conducted a qualitative study by interviewing parents with OUD who were part of an outpatient treatment program. Interviews followed a semi-structured format with questions on access to and motivation for treatment. The interviews were recorded and transcribed using OpenAI software. Transcripts were coded by two separate reviewers and then analyzed for themes using Atlas.ti. We interviewed 14 individuals; 3 were men, and 3 of the women identified as LGBTQ+. The participants ranged in age from 27 to 54 years old. All participants had a least one child. Gender differences existed. Mothers reported experiencing more barriers-notably, a lack of childcare, shame, and guilt-while fathers reported higher levels of support from family. Both mothers and fathers identified their children as a motivation for recovery, albeit in differing ways. Mothers and fathers with OUD experience different barriers to treatment and also rely on different resources. Prior efforts to increase access to treatment for parents have focused on physical barriers; however, our research supports the need for expanded treatment services for families and efforts to address the stigma of substance abuse disorder, but more efforts are also needed to address stigma.


Assuntos
Mães , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Masculino , Criança , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/terapia , Vergonha , Culpa , Estigma Social , Pesquisa Qualitativa
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361144

RESUMO

The assessment of stigma among cancer patients is of the utmost importance as stigma may lead to various psychological sequelae and a lower quality of life. This study aimed to translate the English version of the Shame and Stigma Scale (SSS) into Malay and validate the Malay version of the SSS (SSS-M) to assess the degree of stigma among cancer patients in Malaysia. Initially, the concurrent translation and back translation of the SSS-M were performed, and the face and content validity were assessed. Subsequently, the SSS-M was administered to a total of 234 patients with mixed types of cancer to assess its reliability (internal consistency and test-retest reliability), construct validity (convergent and discriminant validity), and conduct an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The SSS-M total score registered a good internal consistency (a Cronbach's α of 0.881) and test-retest reliability (an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.876, p < 0.001). The EFA and CFA confirmed that the SSS-M consisted of 16 items in 3 domains. Its convergent and discriminant validity were achieved. Hence, the SSS-M demonstrated good psychometric properties and is available for use to assess stigma among cancer patients in Malaysia.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Qualidade de Vida , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Malásia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Psicometria , Vergonha
10.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0278122, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36417449

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Suicide is the second leading cause of death among young people worldwide and remains a major public health concern. Research indicates that negative social contexts involving familial and peer relationships, have far-reaching influences on levels of suicidal behaviours in later life. Previous systematic reviews have focused on evaluating associations between negative life events such as abuse and bullying in childhood and subsequent self-harm or suicidality. However, the association between adolescent experiences of humiliation and shame, and subsequent self-harm or suicidal behaviour among children and young adults has not been well examined. As such, this systematic review is conducted to examine the prevalence and association between humiliation and shame and self-harm, suicidal ideation, and death by suicide among adolescents and young adults. METHODS: A systematic literature search in extant electronic databases including; MEDLINE, Web of Science Core Collection, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Embase will be conducted to identify potential studies. Google Scholar, and the reference list of the retrieved articles and/or previous systematic reviews in this area, will also be scanned to identify further potential studies. ProQuest will be searched to identify relevant studies available within grey literature. There are no restrictions on the date of publications. Based on our initial review, the following terms were identified: Population: Adolescent (MESH), young adult (MESH), teen, teenage. Exposure: Humiliation, degradation, shame (MESH) or embarrassment (MESH), harassment victimisation, abasement. Outcome: Self-injurious behaviour (MESH), suicide (MESH), suicide attempted (MESH), suicide completed (MESH), self-harm, intentional self-injury, deliberate self-harm, overdose, deliberate self-poisoning, non-suicidal self-injury, self-mutilation, suicidal thought, suicidal ideation, suicidal intent, suicide. At least one term from each category will be used for conducting the literature search. All original quantitative studies published in the English language which examined the prevalence or association between humiliation or shame and self-harm and/or suicidal ideation and/or completed suicide will be included. The studies will be assessed for methodological quality using the Joanna Briggs Institute critical appraisal tools. Narrative synthesis will be performed for all of the studies. If the studies are sufficiently homogenous, the results will be pooled for a meta-analysis. This systematic review protocol followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis Protocol (PRISMA-P) guidelines. The protocol has been registered with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) [CRD42022289843]. DISCUSSION: This is the first review to synthesise evidence on the prevalence of, and associations between the experiences of humiliation and shame and subsequent self-harm and/or suicidal behaviours among adolescents and young adults. As there is growing evidence on increased self-harm among this age group, it is important to identify population-specific risk factors for self-harm and suicidality which will have significance in formulating tailored and effective treatment and therapeutic services for adolescents and young adults.


Assuntos
Comportamento Autodestrutivo , Ideação Suicida , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Humanos , Criança , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/epidemiologia , Constrangimento , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Metanálise como Assunto , Vergonha
11.
BMJ ; 379: o2852, 2022 11 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36423908
12.
Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr ; 90(10): 471-487, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36252566

RESUMO

It can happen that one behaves in a supposedly embarrassing or insufficient manner; however, short-term feelings such as shame or self-doubt usually remain without significance. However, if there is excessive and persistent fear or significant avoidance behaviour, it may be a case of social anxiety disorder (SAS). This article provides an overview of the current status of the aetiology, diagnosis and therapy of SAS.


Assuntos
Fobia Social , Transtornos Fóbicos , Ansiedade , Emoções , Medo , Humanos , Fobia Social/diagnóstico , Fobia Social/epidemiologia , Fobia Social/terapia , Transtornos Fóbicos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Fóbicos/terapia , Vergonha
13.
JAAPA ; 35(11): 66, 2022 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36282582

Assuntos
Antídotos , Vergonha , Humanos
14.
Child Abuse Negl ; 134: 105902, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36201942

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emerging research on positive and adverse childhood experiences (PCEs and ACEs) indicates that both may be important to adult health, but little is understood about the pathways through which childhood experiences affect adult health. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to 1) examine how shame may mediate the relationship between childhood experiences and health, and 2) whether PCEs moderated the relationship between ACEs, shame, and adult health. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: The sample consisted of 206 low-income adults ages 18-55 who were living in a community in the Intermountain West. METHODS: Participants were recruited at a local food bank and community center where various services for low-income residents were offered. Each participant completed a 15-20-minute survey. The data were analyzed using a structural equation modeling (SEM) framework. RESULTS: Shame mediated the relationship between both ACEs and PCEs with depression in the expected direction. Among participants with low-to-moderate PCEs, ACEs were directly associated with shame and tobacco usage. Among participants with high PCEs, ACEs were not associated with shame, depression, nor stress, and the relationship between ACEs and tobacco usage was attenuated. CONCLUSION: Shame may be an important pathway through which childhood experiences affect adult health. Additionally, promoting high levels of PCEs may mitigate the negative effects of early adversity on adult health.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância , Adulto , Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde Mental , Pobreza , Vergonha , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Int J Psychophysiol ; 182: 81-89, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36241126

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study examines whether adolescents who are prone to shame show intense performance monitoring in order to avoid mistakes. Higher amplitudes of error-related negativity (ERN) or error positivity (Pe) are potential proxies to measure performance monitoring from a neurophysiological perspective. Depressive symptom severity has been found to correlate with increased ERN and Pe amplitudes. However, research on the influence of shame proneness on this correlation is lacking, although it is known that depression comes with greater shame proneness. METHODS: A total of 112 adolescent participants (61 inpatients with a clinical diagnosis of depression and 51 healthy volunteers) performed two rounds of the Eriksen flanker task. In one round, incorrect responses led to derogatory feedback, in the other round, correct responses led to encouraging feedback. ERN and Pe after incorrect responses were measured. RESULTS: Repeated measures ANOVAs revealed that after derogatory feedback, ERN-latencies were longer, also when controlling for shame-proneness. Shame-proneness and ERN-amplitudes correlated. LIMITATIONS: Despite the methodological soundness of the present study, its strongest limitation lies in the lack of insight into the subjective level of shame after derogatory feedback. CONCLUSION: The results are discussed in light of punishment sensitivity of shame-prone adolescents. Future research is needed to gain greater insight into the relationship between shame proneness and punishment sensitivity.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia , Vergonha , Adolescente , Humanos , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Punição , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia
16.
Psychiatr Clin North Am ; 45(3): 375-414, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36055729

RESUMO

A practical, common-sense framework for recognizing and addressing comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the substance use disorder (SUD) clinic is outlined. The article focuses on strategies that can help establish trauma-informed care or augment an existing approach. Interventions are organized around the task of ameliorating shame (or shame sensitivity), which represents a transdiagnostic mediator of psychopathology and, potentially, capacity for change. Countershaming strategies can guide a trauma-responsive leadership approach. Considering the striking rate of underdiagnosis of PTSD among patients with SUD, implementing routine systematic PTSD screening likely represents the single most consequential trauma-informed intervention that SUD clinics can adopt.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Comorbidade , Humanos , Liderança , Vergonha , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/diagnóstico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia
17.
Rev Colomb Psiquiatr (Engl Ed) ; 51(3): 240-244, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36075853

RESUMO

The ego-dystonic experience refers to the negative assessment that the subject makes of some of their thoughts or emotions, in the context of a conserved state of consciousness, as well as other aspects of their social and intrapersonal life that are relatively intact. Ego-dystonia is a widely used construct, but one that has not been defined in reasonably operational terms. Perhaps this explains why it is no longer used in contemporary classifications of mental disorders such as the ICD-11 and DSM-5. It is related to the awareness of the mental illness, with feelings of guilt and shame, but intuitively we perceive relevant differences between all these experiences. Psychoanalytic theory conceives the ego-dystonic as an alteration in the early structuring of the ego. Cognitive psychology conceives it as a dysfunction of the corrective mechanisms that harmonise the cognitive and the metacognitive. Evolutionary theory has not addressed the issue directly, but through the analysis of guilt, to which it attributes a high adaptive value, since it limits aggression and promotes reparative behaviours. Given the importance of the concept of self-attunement, it is surprising how little theoretical and empirical research there is on the subject, the clarification of which could represent a considerable advance in the field of mental health.


Assuntos
Distonia , Ego , Culpa , Humanos , Teoria Psicanalítica , Vergonha
18.
Pediatrics ; 150(4)2022 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36120743

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Survivors of child sex trafficking (CST) experience many health and social sequelae as a result of stigma, discrimination, and barriers to health care. Our objective was to obtain a cross-cultural understanding of these barriers and to explore the relationship between stigmatization and health outcomes through application of the Health Stigma and Discrimination Framework (HSDF). METHODS: In-depth, semistructured interviews were conducted with 45 recognized CST expert service providers. Interview data were analyzed using established content analysis procedures and applied to the HSDF. RESULTS: Barriers to medical and mental health services span each socioecological level of the HSDF, indicating the various contexts in which stigmatization leads to adverse health and social outcomes. Stigmatization of CST survivors is a complex process whereby various factors drive and facilitate the marking of CST survivors as stigmatized. Intersecting stigmas multiply the burden, and manifest in stigma experiences of self-stigmatization, shame, family and community discrimination, and stigma practices of provider discrimination. These lead to reduced access to care, lack of funding, resources, and trained providers, and ultimately result in health and social disparities such as social isolation, difficulty reintegrating, and a myriad of physical health and mental health problems. CONCLUSIONS: The HSDF is a highly applicable framework within which to evaluate stigmatization of CST survivors. This study suggests the utility of stigma-based public health interventions for CST and provides a global understanding of the influence and dynamics of stigmatization unique to CST survivors.


Assuntos
Mudança Social , Estigma Social , Criança , Humanos , Vergonha , Estereotipagem , Sobreviventes
19.
Body Image ; 43: 125-133, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36152479

RESUMO

Social media use is pervasive among youth and is associated with body image disturbance and self-objectification. The present study investigated whether a 3-day social media fast in a sample for whom social media is especially salient, female adolescent dancers, can mitigate such negative effects. Through an online survey, 65 pre-teen and teen girls, aged 10-19, completed measures of self-objectification (body surveillance and body shame), self-esteem and self-compassion both prior to and following three days of abstaining from all social media. During the fast, girls reflected on their experiences in group messages on the messaging app, WhatsApp. Overall, the fast had positive effects on participants, for whom body surveillance and body shame was significantly reduced after the fast. Self-compassion significantly mediated the change in both body surveillance and body shame, and self-esteem was a significant mediator of improvements in body shame. The content of girls' group messages revealed a number of themes, such as more positive mental states during the fast. Future research should continue to examine the potential of brief social media fasts as a means to alleviate appearance pressures adolescent girls face on these platforms in daily life.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal , Mídias Sociais , Criança , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Autoimagem , Vergonha
20.
Med Leg J ; 90(4): 189-194, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36112942

RESUMO

Autoerotic deaths occur in the context of sexual activity when different devices and objects are used to increase stimulation and sexual pleasure, resulting in unintentional deaths. A common feature of autoerotic deaths s the presence of a self-rescue mechanism to ensure survival and escape a dangerous situation. By definition, autoerotic deaths are accidental. Thus, it is essential to exclude suicide or homicide. An atypical case of autoerotic asphyxia is presented, in which the victim showed a ligature mark produced by a soft belt with maximum pressure on the posterior aspect of the neck and the point of suspension located anteriorly. A detailed scene investigation and the autopsy findings helped determine the manner of death. Determining the manner of death in AADs can be challenging and has a significant legal, social, and economic impact. A multidisciplinary approach is required to reach the correct conclusion. We present a case of AAD with atypical findings.


Assuntos
Asfixia , Transtornos Parafílicos , Humanos , Asfixia/etiologia , Medicina Legal , Comportamento Sexual , Vergonha
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