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1.
Hautarzt ; 71(2): 124-129, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712973

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Skin shame plays an important role in the psychological distress of dermatological patients. However, it is rarely examined in research or clinical practice due to the lack of availability of a robust measure of skin shame. This study sought to adapt and validate the Skin Shame Scale (SSS-24) for use in the German-speaking population. METHODS: The SSS-24 questionnaire was completed by 488 dermatologically healthy (DH) individuals (66.6% women) and 339 dermatological patients (DP; 66.7% women). Participants also completed measures of general shame (SHAME) and of psychological distress (BSI[Brief Symptom Inventory]-18). RESULTS: The SSS-24 showed adequate psychometric properties and a high internal consistency in both samples (DH: α = 0.91; DP: α = 0.95). DP reported more skin shame than DH (p < 0.001) but in both samples more skin shame was associated with more general shame and more psychological distress (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the psychometric properties of the English original version were replicated in the German version of the SSS-24. Due to the strong associations with general shame and psychological distress, skin shame should be considered an important parameter in psychodermatology. The SSS-24 enables further research into the role of shame in skin conditions and provides a useful tool for identifying patients who might benefit from psychosocial interventions.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Vergonha , Dermatopatias , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Dermatopatias/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 68(7): 639-653, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711401

RESUMO

Shame and Compassion: Potential Mechanisms Behind Bullying and Depressive Symptoms With a prevalence of 11 % depression is a relevant topic for child- and adolescent-psychiatry. Different factors play a role in genesis and maintenance of depressive symptoms. Shame-proneness and experience with bullying are discussed as reinforcing factors. On the other hand self-compassion is considered to be a protective factor. In this study it is analyzed, whether shame-proneness and self-compassion moderate the influence of bully-experience on depressive symptoms. Data of depressive adolescent in-patients (n = 37) and healthy controls (n = 19) is analyzed. It could be shown that high shame-proneness reinforces the influence of bully-experience on depressive symptoms. General self-compassion has no moderating influence. However, self-kindness is a protective factor against the negative impact of bully-experience on depressive symptoms. Results are discussed regarding their relevance for therapy and prevention.


Assuntos
Bullying/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Empatia , Fatores de Proteção , Vergonha , Adolescente , Depressão/prevenção & controle , Depressão/terapia , Transtorno Depressivo/prevenção & controle , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/terapia , Humanos
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597365

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Urinary incontinence (UI) represents a complex problem which commonly affects women and influences their physical, mental, and social wellbeing. The objective of this study was to explore the experiences of a group of women with urinary incontinence. METHODS: A qualitative exploratory study. Purposeful sampling was used. Recruited patients were females aged >18 years old with positive symptoms, signs of urinary incontinence, and attending a specialized urinary incontinence center for the first time. We collected data using interviews and participants' personal letters. A thematic analysis was performed. RESULTS: 18 women participated with a mean age of 47.32 years. Four themes emerged: a) Experiencing uncontrolled urinary leakage, b) Information based on beliefs and myths regarding UI, c) Adapting to change and developing strategies, d) The role of education. Women's experiences were accompanied by feelings of stress and shame. A lack of information regarding UI was found, together with numerous misconceptions. Urinary incontinence triggers many changes in women. Some women may develop feelings of rejection towards their own body. Family involvement during these times is essential for education and promoting healthy sexual practices. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the importance of developing educational programs that focus on women's information and education regarding triggering factors and coping strategies.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Vergonha , Incontinência Urinária/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Espanha , Adulto Jovem
6.
PLoS Med ; 16(9): e1002908, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539373

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mental illness stigma is a fundamental barrier to improving mental health worldwide, but little is known about how to durably reduce it. Understanding of mental illness as a treatable medical condition may influence stigmatizing beliefs, but available evidence to inform this hypothesis has been derived solely from high-income countries. We embedded a randomized survey experiment within a whole-population cohort study in rural southwestern Uganda to assess the extent to which portrayals of mental illness treatment effectiveness influence personal beliefs and perceived norms about mental illness and about persons with mental illness. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Study participants were randomly assigned to receive a vignette describing a typical woman (control condition) or one of nine variants describing a different symptom presentation (suggestive of schizophrenia, bipolar, or major depression) and treatment course (no treatment, treatment with remission, or treatment with remission followed by subsequent relapse). Participants then answered questions about personal beliefs and perceived norms in three domains of stigma: willingness to have the woman marry into their family, belief that she is receiving divine punishment, and belief that she brings shame on her family. We used multivariable Poisson and ordered logit regression models to estimate the causal effect of vignette treatment assignment on each stigma-related outcome. Of the participants randomized, 1,355 were successfully interviewed (76%) from November 2016 to June 2018. Roughly half of respondents were women (56%), half had completed primary school (57%), and two-thirds were married or cohabiting (64%). The mean age was 42 years. Across all types of mental illness and treatment scenarios, relative to the control vignette (22%-30%), substantially more study participants believed the woman in the vignette was receiving divine punishment (31%-54%) or believed she brought shame on her family (51%-73%), and most were unwilling to have her marry into their families (80%-88%). In multivariable Poisson regression models, vignette portrayals of untreated mental illness, relative to the control condition, increased the risk that study participants endorsed stigmatizing personal beliefs about mental illness and about persons with mental illness, irrespective of mental illness type (adjusted risk ratios [ARRs] varied from 1.7-3.1, all p < 0.001). Portrayals of effectively treated mental illness or treatment followed by subsequent relapse also increased the risk of responses indicating stigmatizing personal beliefs relative to control (ARRs varied from 1.5-3.0, all p < 0.001). The magnitudes of the estimates suggested that portrayals of initially effective treatment (whether followed by relapse or not) had little moderating influence on stigmatizing responses relative to vignettes portraying untreated mental illness. Responses to questions about perceived norms followed similar patterns. The primary limitations of this study are that the vignettes may have omitted context that could have influenced stigma and that generalizability beyond rural Uganda may be limited. CONCLUSIONS: In a population-based, randomized survey experiment conducted in rural southwestern Uganda, portrayals of effectively treated mental illness did not appear to reduce endorsement of stigmatizing beliefs about mental illness or about persons with mental illness. These findings run counter to evidence from the United States. Further research is necessary to understand the relationship between mental illness treatment and stigmatizing attitudes in Uganda and other countries worldwide. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The experimental procedures for this study were registered with ClinicalTrials.gov as "Measuring Beliefs and Norms About Persons With Mental Illness" (NCT03656770).


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Preconceito/etnologia , Opinião Pública , População Rural , Estereotipagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/etnologia , Saúde Mental/etnologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva , Religião e Medicina , Vergonha , Resultado do Tratamento , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Behav Addict ; 8(3): 603-612, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545098

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Theoretical models of morbid exercise behavior (MEB) suggest that it may emerge as a result of complex interactions between a range of psychosocial factors. However, in spite of fitness-related self-conscious emotions involving such factors, their relationship with the risk of MEB has never been investigated. Consequently, this study had two objectives. First, to explore the relationship that fitness-related self-conscious emotions have with (a) symptoms reflecting MEB as assessed by the Exercise Addiction Inventory (EAI) and the Exercise Dependence Scale-Revised (EDS-R) and (b) exercise frequency. Second, to examine whether these relationships might vary according to disordered eating symptoms. METHODS: A sample of 646 undergraduate students (59% males; Mage = 21.25; SDage = 2.94) completed a self-reported questionnaire. RESULTS: After controlling for age, sex, and disordered eating symptoms, it was found that shame, hubristic pride, and authentic pride positively explained MEB; for their part, guilt (negatively) and authentic pride (positively) explained exercise frequency. The positive relationships between pride and MEB were weaker (in the case of the hubristic facet) or stronger (in the case of the authentic facet) under higher levels of disordered eating symptoms. The independent variables explained 29% (EAI), 28% (EDS-R), and 27% (exercise frequency) of the variance in dependent variables. DISCUSSION: Tempering fitness-related emotions of shame, guilt, hubristic pride, and authentic pride may contribute to healthier exercise behavior.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/fisiopatologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Exercício/fisiologia , Autoimagem , Adulto , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Exercício/psicologia , Feminino , Culpa , Humanos , Masculino , Vergonha , Adulto Jovem
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394769

RESUMO

The aim of this paper is to examine cross-cultural differences in body stigmatization between the individualistic Christian culture of guilt (Poland) and the collectivistic Buddhist/Confucian culture of honor and shame (Vietnam). The study included 1290 university students from Poland (n = 586) and Vietnam (n = 704). Subjects filled in the body esteem scale and the perceived stigmatization questionnaire, and body measurements were collected to calculate anthropometric indices. Participants from Vietnam were less satisfied with their appearance than their Polish peers. Men in both countries assessed themselves more favorably. No anthropometric index predicted body esteem in Vietnamese women, while only indices related to fat levels were predictors in Polish women. Men with a V-shaped body assessed themselves as stronger and as having a better physical condition. A possible explanation of the observed cross-cultural differences is that interdependent self-construal makes young adults in collectivistic societies more susceptible to criticism, and the Confucian values of modesty and shame lead to them not perceiving their bodies as sexual objects. The Christian sense of guilt does not influence the perception of sexuality. Absence of friendly behavior mediated the relation between anthropometric indices and body esteem in both cultures.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Culpa , Estereotipagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Polônia , Vergonha , Vietnã , Adulto Jovem
10.
Rev. psicol. trab. organ. (1999) ; 35(2): 135-143, ago. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-184738

RESUMO

Despite their poor mental health, many UK construction workers do not seek out help, because of shame for mental health problems relating to masculinity. The purposes of this study were to investigate relationships among mental health shame, mental health problems, masculinity, self-compassion, and motivation, and examine whether self-compassion would mediate the relationship between mental health shame and mental health problems. Construction workers (N = 155) completed measures for those five constructs. The five constructs were adequately correlated with each other, but masculinity and motivation were not related to shame. Self-compassion partially mediated the relationship between mental health shame and mental health problems. Findings may help construction workers understand the importance of mental health shame with mental health problems, and identify better solutions for poor mental health. Brief online self-compassion training was recommended to reduce shame and enhance self-compassion, and may be accessible for construction workers who work at diverse sites and hours


A pesar de su estado de salud mental, muchos trabajadores de la construcción del Reino Unido no buscan ayuda debido a la vergüenza que provocan los problemas de salud mental relacionados con la masculinidad. Los propósitos de este estudio fueron investigar las relaciones entre esta vergüenza, los problemas de salud mental, la masculinidad, la autocompasión y la motivación y examinar si la autocompasión mediaría la relación entre la vergüenza por su estado de salud mental y los problemas de salud mental en sí. Trabajadores de la construcción (N = 155) cumplimentaron medidas para esos cinco componentes. Estos se correlacionaban adecuadamente entre sí, pero la masculinidad y la motivación no se relacionaban con la vergüenza. La autocompasión medió parcialmente la relación entre la vergüenza y la salud mental y los problemas de salud mental. Los resultados pueden ayudar a los trabajadores de la construcción a entender la importancia de la vergüenza para los problemas de salud mental e identificar mejores soluciones para estos problemas de salud mental. Se recomendó una breve capacitación online en autocompasión para reducir esta vergüenza y mejorar la autocompasión, que pueda ser accesible a los trabajadores de la construcción que trabajan en diversos lugares y diferentes jornadas


Assuntos
Humanos , Vergonha , Estereotipagem , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Masculinidade , Motivação , Indústria da Construção/estatística & dados numéricos , Empatia , Educação em Saúde/métodos
12.
J UOEH ; 41(2): 203-209, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292365

RESUMO

It is not easy for nurses to estimate a patient's degree of shame, as the sense of shame depends on each person's personality, but nurses are requested to evaluate it as correctly as possible and to reduce the patient's mental load. We presume that most of the sense of shame is generated by body defects or disadvantages recognized by the patient. In this study, we tried to measure the degree of shame and to improve the basic nursing curriculum, depending on students' school year, under the assumption of what cases the nurses would frequently meet in a hospital. We prepared 13 figures that show common cases in hospitals. In these figures: 1) 6 figures show cases in which a nurse touched a patient's body; 2) 3 figures show common daily life; and 3) 4 figures show cases in which there are other people around the patient. A questionnaire was given to the first and second year students in A Nursing University, and we allocated scores of 1 to 10: 1 is "no-shame", and 10 is "very much shame". The students answered that patients must feel shame when: 1) they take off their clothes, 2) they show their disability to another person even without taking their clothes off, and 3) having people other than medical staff around them. In the results, as 2) appeared more strongly in the second year students than in the first, we thought that the second year students could surmise a patient's position in a hospital through the effect of the nursing education.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Educação em Enfermagem/métodos , Pacientes/psicologia , Vergonha , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Currículo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Personalidade , Melhoria de Qualidade , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
J Bioeth Inq ; 16(3): 365-374, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264137

RESUMO

This paper discusses the findings of qualitative research that examined the accounts of five "mostly recovered" ex-patients who had experienced transition between two or more eating disorder diagnoses. This study found that, in the minds of participants, the different diagnostic labels were associated with various good or bad character traits. This contributed to the belief in a diagnostic hierarchy, whereby individuals diagnosed with anorexia nervosa were viewed as morally better than those diagnosed with bulimia nervosa or binge eating disorder. Consequently, diagnostic crossover from a "better" to a "worse" eating disorder was often experienced as shameful moral failing, and a new diagnosis impacted the individual's sense of self-identity. These findings are of significance for both ethicists and clinicians; the paper concludes by outlining the relevance and possible clinical implications of shame in diagnostic crossover and suggesting avenues for future research.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa/diagnóstico , Anorexia Nervosa/psicologia , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/psicologia , Bulimia Nervosa/diagnóstico , Bulimia Nervosa/psicologia , Autoimagem , Adulto , Atitude , Ética Médica , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Princípios Morais , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Vergonha , Adulto Jovem
15.
Body Image ; 30: 150-158, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31336262

RESUMO

Cognitive and behavioural models of body dysmorphic disorder posit that selective self-focused attention via mirror gazing plays a key role in the aetiology and maintenance of the disorder. However, there is little empirical support for these theoretical claims. This study aimed to induce self-focused attention via mirror gazing to examine the proposed theoretical effects on body image, distress, body-focused shame, and self-esteem. Fifty-one non-clinical participants (78.43% female) were randomly allocated to one of the two conditions: low self-focused attention (i.e., looking into a mirror placed 100 cm/ 39 in away) vs. high self-focused attention (i.e., focusing on a disliked part in a mirror placed 10 cm/ 4 in away). Following 5 min of mirror gazing, the high self-focused attention condition experienced decreased satisfaction with appearance, perceived attractiveness, and self-esteem, and increased distress about appearance, distress about disliked parts, urges to change appearance, and body-focused shame. Approaching the mirror from a distance appeared to have no effect. Findings are consistent with theories suggesting that self-focused attention and mirror behaviours might contribute to the development of body dysmorphic disorder and maintain its psychological effects.


Assuntos
Atenção , Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/psicologia , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Satisfação Pessoal , Autoimagem , Vergonha , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
16.
Pan Afr Med J ; 32: 146, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303917

RESUMO

Introduction: there are controversies surrounding the practice of abortion especially in developing countries of Africa. Cameroon is not an exception to this and hence this study aims at assessing knowledge on the awareness of abortion laws, the factors that determine abortion and people's perceptions on the legality of abortion in Cameroon. Methods: the study is cross-sectional in its design. A total of 224 women were randomly sampled. Data for the study were collected through the use of questionnaires from the sampled women of child bearing age. These were used to assess knowledge on the awareness of abortion laws and the determinants of abortion. The data were analysed using STATA 15. Results: the prevalence of induced abortion was 21%. The major determinants of abortion among these women were; desire to stay in school (28%), fear of parents (24%) and shame of being pregnant out of wedlock (26%). Furthermore, many women are not aware of the situations where abortion is allowed and hence some still undertake illegal abortions even when they find themselves in situations deserving a legal abortion. Conclusion: induced abortion is still common in Buea, Cameroon despite the fact that it is illegal. Cameroon's legal and health system needs to work in harmony in order to lessen the legal processes of having a legal abortion.


Assuntos
Aborto Criminoso/estatística & dados numéricos , Aborto Induzido/estatística & dados numéricos , Aborto Legal/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Aborto Induzido/legislação & jurisprudência , Aborto Induzido/psicologia , Camarões , Estudos Transversais , Países em Desenvolvimento , Medo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Vergonha
18.
Scand J Psychol ; 60(5): 464-472, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31148181

RESUMO

According to objectification theory (Fredrickson & Roberts, 1997), being treated as an object leads women to engage in self-objectification, which in turn increases body surveillance and body shame as well as impairs mental health. However, very little is known about what factors could act as buffers against the detrimental consequences of self-objectification. This paper seeks to understand the role of self-compassion (the ability to kindly accept oneself or show self-directed kindness while suffering) in the perception that women have of their own bodies. Results indicate that self-compassion moderated the effect of body surveillance on depression and happiness separately among women. More specifically, for women low in self-compassion, body surveillance was negatively associated with happiness, which was explained by increased depression. In sum, our results indicate that self-compassion protects against the detrimental consequences of body surveillance.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Empatia , Felicidade , Vergonha , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
19.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol ; 125: 15-22, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238157

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Otitis media (OM) in Greenland is a substantial problem and the country prevalence is among the highest in the world. However, little is known about how Greenlandic Inuit parents perceive and manage everyday life with children suffering from OM. We hypothesize that having a child with OM has consequences for the families that go beyond the advice and treatment offered in primary health care. METHODS: We conducted a qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews and focus groups with parents to children suffering from OM. The interviews took place in three different Greenlandic regions; the capital Nuuk and two smaller towns in West and East Greenland. Access to specialized health care differs among the regions, creating an underlying difference on the limitations of referral and thereby level of care. We conducted the data analysis using Systematic Text Condensation. RESULTS: In total, 27 parents participated in the study. Although most parents perceived OM as a result of genetic or environmental dispositions, individual perceptions and cultural beliefs of causal associations between behavior and OM co-existed with the general understanding of medical explanation models. This created a sense of guilt among the parents. Some parents felt in control of managing the disease of the child and used medically well-established strategies. Others felt frustrated and considered contact to the health clinics as futile, thereby managing the disease by 'waiting it out'. Emerging themes were shame and stigma related to the symptoms of OM, which led to social isolation as a consequence for several of the families. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that Greenlandic Inuit families are impacted by OM in a complex and severe manner. Guilt, shame and social isolation were predominant themes influencing the everyday life of the affected families. Perceptions and management strategies go beyond the scope of the medical explanation models which poses a potential challenge for the parents' experiences with the present treatment offer. The results underline the need to develop a broader approach to prevention and treatment for OM - both at the clinical level as well as part of public health promotion at the community level.


Assuntos
Otite Média/epidemiologia , Pais/psicologia , Antibacterianos , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Groenlândia/epidemiologia , Culpa , Humanos , Lactente , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Qualidade de Vida , Autogestão , Vergonha , Isolamento Social , Estereotipagem
20.
Body Image ; 30: 56-63, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129472

RESUMO

In line with sociocultural models of parental influence on body image, we examined the relationship between recall of restrictive/critical caregiver eating messages (RCEM) and current frequency of disclosing self-disparaging fat talk among family in 335 undergraduate women (Mage = 19.4; SD = 1.53; range = 18-27). Additionally, two forms of relational body image (i.e., perceived body acceptance by others, external body image shame) and anti-fat attitudes were tested as potential explanatory pathways. RCEM were positively related to current frequency of self-directed fat talk in the family context. All three proposed mediators helped explain this relationship, with external body image shame demonstrating the largest observed effect. Findings suggest frequent recollections of caregivers' implied weight-stigmatizing comments surrounding eating may contribute to more frequent self-denigrating body talk with family members at present via both positive and negative dimensions of relational body image and endorsed explicit weight bias. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.


Assuntos
Atitude , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Cuidadores/psicologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Vergonha , Adolescente , Adulto , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Estudantes , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
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