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1.
Holist Nurs Pract ; 36(1): 15-16, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34783696

RESUMO

Through a difficult encounter with a new patient, the author became immersed in the messiness of patient care and learned that goals need to be defined and hard fought. The lesson learned serves as a reminder that compassion for our patients is necessary to help understand their fears and anxieties.


Assuntos
Empatia , Vergonha , Ansiedade , Medo , Humanos
2.
Appetite ; 168: 105715, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582885

RESUMO

The need to examine the associations between emotion regulation and mental health and well-being among adolescents is increasingly recognized. Adolescence is a critical time characterized by increased vulnerability towards emotional struggles and difficulties, especially related with body image and eating behaviours. Thus, it seems particularly important to analyse the processes and mechanisms underlying the relationships between several risk factors (such as the lack of early affiliative memories) and body and eating-related difficulties, in this specific developmental phase. The current study intended to examine whether early affiliative memories are significantly associated with body and eating-related difficulties (i.e., body image shame and eating psychopathology severity), and whether this association is mediated by lower feelings of social safeness and increased levels of fears of receiving compassion from others. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 231 adolescent girls from the community, aged between 12 and 18, who completed self-report measures. Data were examined through descriptive and correlational statistics, and the adequacy of the model was performed via path analysis. Path analysis results revealed that fears of receiving compassion from others and low feelings of social safeness mediated the relationship between early affiliative memories and body and eating-related difficulties. The path model accounted for the variances in the following way: 27% of feelings of social safeness; 23% of fears of receiving compassion from others; 28% of body-image shame; and 54% of eating psychopathology severity, revealing a very good fit. These findings emphasize the relevance of assessing and working on potential processes underlying the adoption of disordered body and eating attitudes and behaviours, not only but especially in female adolescents with scarce recall of early affiliative experiences with close ones.


Assuntos
Empatia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Adolescente , Imagem Corporal , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Emoções , Medo , Feminino , Humanos , Autoimagem , Vergonha
3.
Braz Oral Res ; 35: e133, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34932662

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of oral health-related shame and the associated factors among 8-to-10-year-old Brazilian schoolchildren. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 388 children randomly selected from public and private schools of Diamantina, southeastern Brazil. In order to identify the feeling of shame, self-reports were collected through a single question, "In the last month, did you feel ashamed because of your teeth or mouth? Two calibrated examiners performed the clinical examination for dental caries (DMFT/dmft index), traumatic dental injuries (O' Brien), and malocclusion (Dental Aesthetic Index). Sociodemographic indicators were obtained through a questionnaire answered by the children's caregivers. Descriptive analysis, chi-square test, and hierarchical Poisson regression models were performed (95%CI; p < 0.05). The prevalence of shame was 38.1% (n = 148). The adjusted regression analysis demonstrated a significant association between shame and untreated dental caries (PR: 1.34; 95%CI: 1.04-1.74; p = 0.02), age of 10 years (PR: 1.36; 95%CI: 1.05-1.76; p = 0.01), and with parents with less than eight years of schooling (PR: 1.30; 95%CI: 1.00-1.68; p = 0.04). Older children with untreated dental caries and whose parents had lower education level presented a higher prevalence of oral health-related shame.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Saúde Bucal , Adolescente , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Índice CPO , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Humanos , Prevalência , Qualidade de Vida , Vergonha , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Turk Psikiyatri Derg ; 32(4): 293-295, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34964106

RESUMO

Dear Editor, The chapter on mental, behavioural and neurodevelopmental disorders of the 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-11) has been now finalized. Reporting of health statistics by Member States to the World Health Organization (WHO) using the new diagnostic system will begin in 2022. The section on mood disorders of the ICD-11 is overall consistent with the corresponding section of the ICD-10. However, the definitions of a depressive and a manic episode have been slightly changed, making them consistent with the DSM-5 (see below), and an independent category of bipolar II disorder has been introduced. A significant effort has been made by the WHO and the American Psychiatric Association to harmonize the diagnostic systems they produce (the ICD-11 and the DSM-5). Indeed, the organizational framework ("metastructure") is now the same in the two systems. Nonetheless, several intentional differences between the two classifications remain, or have emerged as a consequence of changes made in the DSM- 5. Here we briefly summarize the convergences and the divergences between the ICD-11 and the DSM-5 regarding the section on mood disorders (see Table 1). A major convergence between the two diagnostic systems regards the minimum number of symptoms required for the diagnosis of major depression ("depressive episode" in the ICD-11). In the ICD-11, contrary to the ICD-10, the threshold for the diagnosis of depression is the same as in the DSM: at least five depressive symptoms. However, the ICD-11 requires at least five symptoms out of a list of ten (instead of nine as in the DSM-5). The additional symptom is "hopelessness", which has been found to outperform more than half of DSM symptoms in differentiating depressed from non-depressed people (McGlinchey et al. 2006). Table 1. Some Main Differences Between ICD-10, ICD-11 and DSM-5 Concerning the Diagnosis Of Mood Disorders ICD-10 ICD-11 DSM-5 Threshold for diagnosis of depressive episode At least four out of ten symptoms, two of which must be depressed mood, loss of interest and enjoyment, or increased fatigability At least five out of ten symptoms, one of which must be depressed mood or diminished interest or pleasure At least five out of nine symptoms, one of which must be depressed mood or diminished interest or pleasure The threshold for the diagnosis of depression is higher if the person is bereaved Not made explicit Yes No Antidepressant-related mania qualifies as a manic episode No Yes Yes Mixed episode is a separate diagnostic entity Yes Yes No Dysthymia is a separate diagnostic entity Yes Yes No Bipolar II disorder is a separate diagnostic entity No Yes Yes "Qualifiers" ("specifiers") for the diagnoses of mood disorders are provided No Yes Yes CONVERGENCES AND DIVERGENCES IN THE ICD-11 VS. DSM-5 CLASSIFICATION OF MOOD DISORDERS 294 The ICD-11 is also following the DSM-5 in requiring the presence of increased activity or a subjective experience of increased energy, in addition to euphoria (or irritability or expansiveness), for the diagnosis of a manic episode, in order to reduce the chance of false positive cases. The two diagnostic systems also converge in considering that a manic or hypomanic syndrome arising during antidepressant treatment, and enduring beyond the known physiological effects of that treatment, qualifies as a manic or hypomanic episode. Bipolar II disorder has become an independent category in the ICD-11 (it was just mentioned as an example of "other bipolar affective disorders" in the ICD-10). Furthermore, for the first time, the ICD follows the DSM in introducing "qualifiers" (corresponding to DSM-5 "specifiers") to the diagnoses of mood disorders, based on specific aspects of symptomatology or course. There are, however, three important aspects in which the two diagnostic systems diverge. All of them are a consequence of changes made in the DSM-5 that the relevant ICD-11 Committee has regarded as not sufficiently supported by the available research evidence. The first of these divergences concerns the issue of bereavement. In the ICD-11, in line with the DSM-IV and ICD-10 approach, it is stated that "a depressive episode should not be considered if the depressive symptoms are consistent with the normative response for grieving within the individual's religious and cultural context". However, the diagnosis of depression is not excluded if the person is bereaved; the diagnostic threshold is just raised, exactly as it happens in ordinary clinical practice. A depressive episode during bereavement is suggested by the persistence of symptoms for at least one month, and the presence of at least one symptom which is unlikely to occur in normal grief (such as extreme beliefs of low self-worth or guilt not related to the lost loved one, presence of psychotic symptoms, suicidal ideation, or psychomotor retardation). In contrast, the special status conferred by the DSM-IV to bereavement among life stressors has been eliminated in the DSM-5. However, two independent follow-up studies (Mojtabai 2011, Wakefield and Schmitz 2012) have reported that, in people with baseline bereavement-related depression, the risk for the occurrence of a further depressive episode during follow-up is significantly lower than in individuals with baseline non-bereavement-related depression, and not significantly different from the risk of people without a baseline history of depression to develop a first depressive episode during follow-up. This research evidence strongly supports the ICD-11 (and DSM-IV) approach. Furthermore, an intensive public debate has highlighted the consequences that the DSM-5 approach to the bereavement issue could have in several cultures, including a high rate of false positives and a trivialization of the concept of depression and consequently of mental disorder (Kleinman 2012). A second divergence between the ICD-11 and DSM-5 sections on mood disorders concerns mixed states. The category of mixed episode is kept in the ICD-11, defined by several prominent manic and depressive symptoms which either occur simultaneously or alternate very rapidly (from day to day or within the same day) during a period of at least two weeks. The mood state is altered throughout the episode (i.e., the mood should be depressed, dysphoric, euphoric or expansive for at least two weeks). When depressive symptoms predominate, common contrapolar symptoms are irritability, racing or crowded thoughts, increased talkativeness, and increased activity. When manic symptoms predominate, common contrapolar symptoms are dysphoric mood, expressed beliefs of worthlessness, hopelessness, and suicidal ideation. This definition is in line with the ICD-10 and completely consistent with both classic and recent research evidence, as well as with clinical experience. In contrast, the DSM-5 solution to eliminate the category of mixed episode and to introduce a specifier "with mixed features", applicable to manic, hypomanic and depressive episodes, has had the consequence to reduce the visibility of "mixity" in ordinary clinical practice (especially since the specifier is not codable, and is therefore at risk of not being recorded in clinical settings). Moreover, the DSM-5 definition of major depression with mixed features, requiring the presence of at least three "classic" manic symptoms (such as elevated mood, grandiosity, and increased involvement in risky activities) has been criticized for being inconsistent with the concept of mixed depression as delineated in both the classic and recent literature (e.g., Koukopoulos and Sani 2014). A third divergence between the two diagnostic systems consists in the fact that the ICD-11 has not followed the DSM-5 in combining dysthymic disorder and chronic major depressive disorder into a single category ("persistent depressive disorder"). In fact, the relevant ICD-11 Committee expert considered that the evidence that the two disorders represent the same condition, to be addressed therapeutically in the same way, is insufficient. The category of dysthymic disorder is kept in the ICD-11, while a qualifier "current episode persistent" is to be used when the diagnostic requirements for depressive episode have been met continuously for at least the past two years. For a discussion of other aspects of the classification of mood disorders, with the relevant therapeutic implications, as well as for information about the differences between the ICD-11 and the DSM-5 concerning other sections of the classification of mental disorders, we refer the reader to previous contributions (Demyttenaere et al. 2015, Fried et al. 2016, Haroz et al. 2017, Boschloo et al. 2019, Bryant 2019, Forbes et al. 2019, Fusar-Poli et al. 2019, Gureje et al. 2019, 295 Received: 13.09.2021, Accepted: 19.09.2021, Available Online Date: 30.11.2021 MD., University of Campania L. Vanvitelli, WHO Collaborating Centre for Research and Training in Mental Health, Naples, Italy. Dr. Arcangelo Di Cerbo, e-mail: ardice77@gmail.com https://doi.org/10.5080/u26899 Reed et al. 2019, Kendall 2019, van Os et al. 2019, Cuijpers et al. 2020, Fava and Guidi 2020, Gaebel et al. 2019, 2020, Hasler 2020, Jarrett 2020, Kato et al. 2020, Maj et al. 2020, Reynolds 2020, Sanislow 2020, Stein et al. 2020). An International Advisory Group has been established to supervise the activities of translation, training of professionals and implementation of the ICD-11 chapter on mental disorders (see Giallonardo 2019, Pocai 2019, Perris 2020). The experience in the field will tell whether the above divergences from the DSM-5 in the ICD-11 classification of mood disorders are justified. Indeed, divergences in the description of the same mental health condition may sometimes be useful in order toallow the empirical comparison of different approaches to issues that are controversial. Arcangelo DI CERBO REFERENCES Boschloo L, Bekhuis E, Weitz ES et al (2019) The symptom-specific efficacy of antidepressant medication vs. cognitive behavioral therapy in the treatment of depression: results from an individual patient data meta-analysis. World Psychiatry 18:183-91. Bryant RA (2019) Post-traumatic stress disorder: a state-of-the-art review of evidence and challenges. World Psychiatry 18:259-69. Cuijpers P, Noma H, Karyotaki E et al (2020) A network meta-analysis of the effects of psychotherapies, pharmacotherapies and their combination in the treatment of adult depression. World Psychiatry 19:92-107. Demyttenaere K, Donneau AF, Albert A et al (2015) What is important in being cured from depression? Discordance between physicians and patients (1). J Affect Disord 174:390-6. Fava GA, Guidi J (2020) The pursuit of euthymia. World Psychiatry 19:40-50. Fried EI, Epskamp S, Nesse RM et al (2016) What are "good" depression symptoms? Comparing the centrality of DSM and non-DSM symptoms of depression in a network analysis. J Affect Disord 189:314-20. Forbes MK, Wright AGC, Markon KE et al (2019) The network approach to psychopathology: promise versus reality. World Psychiatry 18:272-3. Fusar-Poli P, Solmi M, Brondino N et al (2019) Transdiagnostic psychiatry: a systematic review. World Psychiatry 8:192-207. Gaebel W, Reed GM, Jakob R (2019) Neurocognitive disorders in ICD-11: a new proposal and its outcome. World Psychiatry 18:232-3. Gaebel W, Stricker J, Riesbeck M et al (2020) Accuracy of diagnostic classification and clinical utility assessment of ICD-11 compared to ICD-10 in 10 mental disorders: findings from a web-based field study. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 270:281-9. Giallonardo V (2019) ICD-11 sessions within the 18th World Congress of Psychiatry. World Psychiatry 18:115-6. Gureje O, Lewis-Fernandez R, Hall BJ et al (2019) Systematic inclusion of culture-related information in ICD-11. World Psychiatry 18:357-8. Haroz EE, Ritchey M, Bass JK et al (2017) How is depression experienced around the world? A systematic review of qualitative literature. Soc Sci Med 183:151-62. Hasler G (2020) Understanding mood in mental disorders. World Psychiatry 19:56-7. Jarrett RB (2020) Can we help more? World Psychiatry 19:246-7. Kato TA, Kanba S, Teo AR (2020) Defining pathological social withdrawal: proposed diagnostic criteria for hikikomori. World Psychiatry 19:116-7. Kendall T (2019) Outcomes help map out evidence in an uncertain terrain, but they are relative. World Psychiatry 18:293-5. Kleinman A (2012) Culture, bereavement, and psychiatry. Lancet 379:608-9. Koukopoulos A, Sani G (2014) DSM-5 criteria for depression with mixed features: a farewell to mixed depression. Acta Psychiatr Scand 129:4-16. Kotov R, Jonas KG, Carpenter WT et al (2020) Validity and utility of Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP): I. Psychosis superspectrum. World Psychiatry 19:151-72. Maj M, Stein DJ, Parker G et al (2020) The clinical characterization of the adult patient with depression aimed at personalization of management. World Psychiatry 19:269-93. McGlinchey JB, Zimmerman M, Young D et al (2006) Diagnosing major depressive disorder VIII. Are some symptoms better than others? J Nerv Ment Dis 194:785-90. Mojtabai R (2011) Bereavement-related depressive episodes: characteristics, 3-year course, and implications for the DSM-5. Arch Gen Psychiatry 68:920-8. Perris F (2020) ICD-11 sessions at the 19th World Congress of Psychiatry. World Psychiatry 19:263-4. Pocai B (2019) The ICD-11 has been adopted by the World Health Assembly. World Psychiatry 18:371-2. Reed GM, First MB, Kogan CS et al (2019) Innovations and changes in the ICD-11 classification of mental, behavioural and neurodevelopmental disorders. World Psychiatry 18:3-19. Reynolds CF 3rd (2020) Optimizing personalized management of depression: the importance of real-world contexts and the need for a new convergence paradigm in mental health. World Psychiatry 19:266-8. Sanislow CA (2020) RDoC at 10: changing the discourse for psychopathology. World Psychiatry 19:311-2. Stein DJ, Szatmari P, Gaebel W et al (2020) Mental, behavioural and neurodevelopmental disorders in the OCD-11: an international perspective on key changes and controversies. BMC Med 18:21. van Os J, Guloksuz S, Vijn TW et al (2019) The evidence-based group-level symptom-reduction model as the organizing principle for mental health care: time for change? World Psychiatry 18:88-96. Wakefield JC, Schmitz MF (2012) Recurrence of bereavement-related depression: evidence for the validity of the DSM-IV bereavement exclusion from the Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study. J Ment Dis 200:480-5.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Adulto , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Transtornos do Humor/diagnóstico , Fobia Social , Vergonha
5.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258782, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662349

RESUMO

Victims of childhood trauma report shame and anticipation of stigma, leading to non-disclosure and avoidance of help. Stigma is potentially aggravating the mental health consequences of childhood trauma. So far there is no comprehensive study examining stigma toward adult survivors of various forms of childhood trauma, and it is unclear whether stigma interferes with reaching out to affected individuals. In a vignette study based on a representative sample of the German general population (N = 1320; 47.7% male) we randomly allocated participants to brief case vignettes pertaining to past childhood sexual/physical abuse or accidents, and adult physical abuse. Stigma was elicited by applying the Social Distance Scale, assessing respondents' attitudes/stereotypes toward the persons in the vignette and their reluctance to address the specific trauma in conversation. While one aim was to establish the prevalence of stigma toward persons with CT, we hypothesized that attitudes differ according to type of trauma. Of the respondents, 45% indicated they were unlikely to reach out to a victim of childhood sexual abuse, 38% to a victim of childhood physical abuse, 31% to someone reporting a childhood accident and 25% to someone reporting adult physical abuse. Contrary to our expectations, childhood sexual abuse did not consistently elicit more stigma than childhood physical abuse in Krukall-Wallis tests. Equally, childhood interpersonal trauma did not consistently elicit more stigma than childhood accidental trauma. Structural equation modeling revealed social distance as mediator of the relationship between negative stereotypes and reluctance to address childhood trauma in conversation. Our analyses further revealed an ambiguous role of negative stereotypes in addressing childhood trauma in conversation with trauma victims, which has yet to be examined. There is evidence for stigma associated with having survived childhood trauma, which is interfering with offering help.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Abuso Sexual na Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Abuso Físico/estatística & dados numéricos , Vergonha , Estigma Social , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Abuso Sexual na Infância/psicologia , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Abuso Físico/psicologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
6.
Clin Psychol Rev ; 90: 102088, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34598054

RESUMO

This paper is the first systematic review of the literature on the relationship between shame and social anxiety (SA). We reviewed a total of 60 peer-reviewed empirical articles that met criteria for inclusion. We begin by summarizing literature investigating the empirical association between shame and SA and review literature on whether this association is impacted by cultural or diagnostic differences. Next, we briefly describe the updated version of Rapee and Heimberg's (1997) cognitive-behavioral model of social anxiety disorder (SAD; Heimberg, Brozovich, & Rapee, 2014) and propose how shame may interact with five processes described therein: environmental experiences, observations/images of the self, perceived negative evaluation by others, post-event cognitive processes, and behavioral manifestations of SA. We review the current literature on shame and SA as it relates to each of these domains. Thereafter, we discuss existing research on the role of shame in the treatment of SAD and the implications of the research discussed in this review. Finally, we conclude with a discussion of some key limitations in the existing literature and areas for future research.


Assuntos
Fobia Social , Transtornos Fóbicos , Ansiedade , Medo , Humanos , Vergonha
7.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 168, 2021 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34715929

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a knowledge gap in whether psychopathology aspects can shape and mark the social representations about health and lifestyle. In this work, we investigated the association of psychopathology and shame with the centrality of the words describing eight common social representations of health and lifestyle. METHODS: A convenience sample of 288 adults participated with an average age of 44.7, and 62.6% were women. The participants were asked to express three consecutive words associated with eight different health and lifestyle experiences by utilizing the free association method. The participants also were completed the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R), the Experiences of Shame Scale (ESS), and the Other as Shamer Scale (OAS). Canonical correlation analysis was applied to investigate the relationship between the set of the eight-word centralities and the psycho-demographic variables consisting of the subject's age and gender, the SCL 90 subscales, the OAS, and the ESS. Based on these findings, a structural equation explorative model was formed to test the unidimensionality of the five centralities construct. RESULTS: Τhe psychological characteristics of interpersonal sensitivity, depression, external shame, and hostility were found to affect the word selection process on the social representations concerning nightlife, health, diet, lifestyle, and alcohol consumption. Participants with increased levels of depression tend to choose more centrally positioned words when the stimulus word was diet and more decentralized responses when the stimulus word was health. At the same time, higher external shame corresponded to more decentralized words for the categories of health and lifestyle. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that there is a potential interaction between the psychological state and how a social representation of health and lifestyle is constructed through selected words. Graph theory emerged as an additional tool to use to study these relations.


Assuntos
Associação Livre , Transtornos Mentais , Adulto , Depressão , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vergonha
8.
Psychiatr Danub ; 33(Suppl 4): 697-701, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34718305

RESUMO

Optimal psychic response during the COVID-19 pandemic is the result of many different factors. One of the main factors is the psychodynamic understanding of essential emotions such as shame. Despite the immense effort by health workers to address stress- and trauma-related disorders in the course of the COVID-19 pandemic, a large proportion of the people affected by the disorder do not have information regarding the emotion of shame. Lack of mentalizing capacity implies disturbed shame dynamics. The therapeutic relationship and optimal alliance offer the frame for acceptance of shame as useful for psychological growth. Empathy should be a cure for dysfunctional shame, at the individual or social level. We believe that including a psychodynamic approach in the national public and mental health emergency system will empower national prevention strategies.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Emoções , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , Vergonha
9.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 8(10): 866-867, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537100
10.
Psychopathology ; 54(6): 305-314, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492657

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Recent research has focused on the relationship between shame and psychopathology. It has been shown that shame predicts depressive and anxious symptoms, as well as substance abuse, non-suicidal self-injury, and aggression. However, it remains unclear, how one emotion can influence psychiatric symptoms of such a broad spectrum. It is assumed that as shame is such an intense and painful emotion, it needs to be coped with and that the coping-strategies influence the effect shame has on psychopathologies. The Compass of Shame Scale (CoSS) is a questionnaire measuring 4 shame coping-strategies (withdrawal, avoidance, attacking others, and attacking the self) and the ability to adapt to shame. METHODS: In this article, a German version of the CoSS (CoSS-d) is validated in a community sample and is used to predict psychopathology in a clinical and non-clinical sample. RESULTS: The CoSS-d shows a 4-factorial structure, good reliability, and validity and is stable over time. The 4 poles of shame-coping show an impact on depressive symptoms, aggression, and self-injury. CONCLUSION: The CoSS serves as a reliable and unique measurement of trait shame-coping. Shame-coping styles are associated with psychopathology.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Vergonha , Adaptação Psicológica , Emoções , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
11.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 297, 2021 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344429

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Shame contains external and internal aspects. However, a Japanese language scale for simultaneously assessing both aspects of shame has not been developed to date. This study aimed to standardize the Japanese version of the External and Internal Shame Scale (EISS-J). An online survey was conducted among university students (N = 203) at six universities in Japan (Study 1). A retest questionnaire was sent to the participants by email three weeks after the first survey (Study 2). Study 1 examined the internal consistency, factor structure, and criterion-related validity of the EISS-J, while Study 2 examined its test-retest reliability. Moreover, an additional study was conducted to examine the criterion-related validity of the scale. RESULTS: Study 1 demonstrated the high internal consistency of the EISS-J. Moreover, confirmatory factor analysis indicated a two-factor model: external and internal shame. However, exploratory factor analysis indicated a three-factor structure. Study 2 confirmed the test-retest reliability of the scale. Furthermore, both studies indicated correlations between the EISS-J and fear of compassion, anger, humiliation, depression, anxiety, and stress. In addition, the study established the criterion-related validity of the scale. These results confirmed adequate reliability and validity of the EISS-J.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade , Vergonha , Humanos , Japão , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Acad Med ; 96(11S): S23-S30, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34348391

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Shame occurs when an individual blames a globally flawed self for a negative outcome. Much of the focus on shame in medical education has been directed toward graduate medical education with less recognition paid to shame occurring in medical school. In particular, while research has explored the triggers of medical students' shame, little is known about what shame feels like, what it makes an individual want to do, and what perceived effects it causes. Thus, this study asks: After shame has been triggered in medical students, how is it experienced? METHOD: The authors selected hermeneutic phenomenology to provide a rich description of the structures and meaning of medical students' lived experiences of shame. Sixteen medical students from a private medical school in the United States were recruited for the study. Data were collected using one-on-one semistructured interviews and analyzed in accordance with Ajjawi and Higgs' 6 steps of hermeneutic analysis. RESULTS: Data analysis yielded component parts of participants' shame experiences, including affective feelings, physical manifestations, cognitive processes, action tendencies, and effects. Analysis of the relationships among these component parts yielded specific phenomenological structures, including patterns of shame (e.g., chronic shame, flashbacks), self-evaluative processes (e.g., battling voices, skewed frames of reference), and perceived effects of shame (e.g., isolation, psychological distress). An overarching theme of shame as a destabilizing emotion emerged across the dataset. CONCLUSIONS: Shame is a complex emotion in medical students that, through its destabilizing effects, can lead to withdrawal, isolation, psychological distress, altered professional identity formation, and identity dissonance. The authors highlight the possibility that shame may be occurring as a response to educational trauma, present a metaphor of dominoes to conceptualize the destabilizing nature of shame, and outline the implications for individuals and institutions in medical education.


Assuntos
Vergonha , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Faculdades de Medicina , Autoavaliação (Psicologia) , Estados Unidos
13.
Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol ; 27(4): 630-637, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410754

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Ending the HIV epidemic requires addressing structural determinants of health, including stigma. In this qualitative study, we applied an intersectional framework to study various forms of stigma among Latinx people living with HIV (PLWH). METHOD: We conducted focus groups and individual interviews with Spanish- and English-speaking Latinx PLWH (N = 19) at an HIV safety-net clinic in San Francisco, California. Using thematic analysis, we identified co-occurring forms of stigma impacting the participants' lives. RESULTS: Participants described the weight of co-occuring stigma related to their multiple identities, including homophobia and HIV-related stigma, both of which participants experienced in the U.S. and in their Latin American home countries. Importantly, many participants faced anti-immigrant stigma in their day-to-day interactions, which manifested as structural inequities such as difficulty finding stable housing and employment. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings illustrate experiences of intersectional stigma and systems of oppression. They can be used to inform policies that address social exclusion, discrimination, and stigma among Latinx PLWH. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Estigma Social , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , São Francisco , Vergonha
14.
Hosp Pediatr ; 11(9): e192-e194, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362760
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205692

RESUMO

Slut shaming is defined as the stigmatization of an individual based on his or her appearance, sexual availability, and actual or perceived sexual behavior. It can take place in physical or virtual spaces. The present study questions the impact of this form of sexism in virtual spaces on girls and interrogates the interaction between the values that girls integrate through their life experiences, especially in the family sphere, and slut shaming victimization. We conducted a paper-pencil questionnaire with 605 girls between the ages of 10 and 18 (average age: 15.18 years). Our data confirm the impact of slut shaming on the physical and psychological well-being of young girls as early as adolescence. Second, mediation analyses provide insights into the revictimization and Poly-victimization processes, from childhood adverse experiences to sexist victimization in virtual spaces and their combined impact on the physical and psychic health of girls. Finally, we address prevention strategies and the involvement of socializing institutions in the deconstruction of gender stereotypes.


Assuntos
Bullying , Vítimas de Crime , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Sexual , Vergonha , Violência
16.
J Youth Adolesc ; 50(10): 2096-2107, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34240253

RESUMO

Although Chinese parents are seen as employing guilt and shame induction to socialize children's culturally appropriate behavior, research has focused primarily on Chinese parents' use of these inductions and their links with child adjustment rather than on children's evaluations of them. Furthermore, this research typically does not examine variations in children's appraisals based on the type of behavior being socialized. The present study addressed these gaps in the literature by examining 206 Hong Kong Chinese children's and early adolescents' (Ms = 9.76, 13.35 years, SDs = 0.78, 0.54; 50% and 61% female, respectively) appraisals of maternal guilt induction (act- vs. parent-focused) and shame induction (social comparison vs. denigration) following a hypothetical moral and academic transgression. Overall, act-focused guilt induction was evaluated as more appropriate, respectful, effective, and reflective of mothers' love and concern than parent-focused guilting, and in turn, social comparison shaming, and then denigration and more so overall for the moral than the academic transgression. Early adolescents judged act-focused guilting for the moral transgression as more effective and eliciting more positive feelings than did children. Although culturally valued, social comparison shame (and also denigration) were judged as less appropriate, less effective, as reflecting less maternal love and concern, and as eliciting less positive feelings (but only for social comparison shaming in response to lower-than-expected academic performance) by early adolescents as compared to younger peers, suggesting that youth become more critical of these culturally appropriate practices in the transition to adolescence.


Assuntos
Culpa , Vergonha , Adolescente , Criança , China , Feminino , Hong Kong , Humanos , Masculino , Mães
17.
Subst Use Misuse ; 56(11): 1715-1725, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34253147

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Depression and problem drinking are comorbid in emerging adulthood, yet the processes that link them are not well understood. Research has argued that shame has a unique influence on the experience of problematic drinking, but this has rarely been assessed at the state level. Using ecological momentary assessments (EMAs), we assessed whether shame, and not guilt, mediated the association between baseline depression and alcohol use and problems. METHODS: One hundred and eighty-four emerging adults (Mage= 19.27) completed a 12-day EMA study. Multilevel models were used to test hypotheses. RESULTS: In a model with alcohol use as the outcome, there were no significant associations between shame or guilt and alcohol use at the within- or between-subjects level. In a model with alcohol problems as the outcome, guilt was positively associated with alcohol problems but only at the daily level. At the between-subjects level and after controlling for guilt, there was a significant association between depression, shame, and alcohol problems; average levels of shame mediated the association between depression and alcohol problems. In post-hoc reverse directionality models, average alcohol problems mediated the relationship between depression and shame and guilt at the between-person level. No mediation was present for alcohol use. CONCLUSION: After controlling for guilt, shame is an emotion that helps explain risk for alcohol problems among depressed emerging adults, which has implications for targeted interventions. Reciprocal associations between shame, guilt, and alcohol problems emerged highlighting the need for more fulsome assessments of shame and guilt in future EMA research.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Depressão , Adulto , Depressão/epidemiologia , Emoções , Culpa , Humanos , Vergonha , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Anxiety Disord ; 82: 102443, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34265540

RESUMO

Existing empirical findings are inconsistent on the correlations of shame and guilt with posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). This study aimed to quantitatively summarize the strength of the associations of shame and guilt with PTSS and explore potential moderators. Based on a three-level meta-analytic method, shame was positively correlated with PTSS, no matter whether the effects of guilt were controlled; guilt also had a positive correlation with PTSS, regardless of whether the effects of shame were partialling out. Moderator analyses showed that type of shame measure (generalized vs. contextual vs. trauma-specific shame) moderated the relation between shame and PTSS, and type of guilt measure (generalized vs. contextual vs. trauma-specific guilt) moderated the relation between guilt and PTSS. In addition, culture had a marginally significant moderating effect on the relation between guilt and PTSS, with a stronger association of guilt with PTSS in Western culture than in Eastern culture. These results supported the links of shame and guilt to PTSS and implied that we should focus on the conceptual underpinnings of the manifest psychometric issue and maintain cultural sensitivity in future research. The implications for posttraumatic stress disorder treatment were also discussed.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Culpa , Humanos , Psicometria , Vergonha , Comportamento Social
19.
Nurs Stand ; 36(11): 40-44, 2021 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34291617

RESUMO

Moral injury may be experienced when a person perpetrates, witnesses or fails to prevent an act that conflicts with their moral values and beliefs. The concept of moral injury has its origins in the context of military personnel encountering ethically challenging decisions during armed conflict. The term has been applied to healthcare and moral injury is increasingly acknowledged to be a challenge for healthcare professionals. Nurses across all specialties and settings are frequently required to make or witness ethically challenging decisions about patient care. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has increased nurses' risk of sustaining moral injury. This article discusses the manifestations of moral injury and its associated risk factors, including the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. It also outlines various strategies that can be used to mitigate and/or prevent moral injury in nurses.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Tomada de Decisões/ética , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Assistência ao Paciente/ética , Resiliência Psicológica , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Esgotamento Profissional/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Saúde do Trabalhador , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Vergonha , Recursos Humanos
20.
Int J Eat Disord ; 54(11): 1899-1945, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34302369

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Numerous empirical studies and theoretical models posit that shame is a common experience among individuals across the eating disorder spectrum. In this study we aim to investigate the association between shame and eating disorders symptoms using a meta-analytical approach. METHOD: In this meta-analysis, we synthesized findings from 195 studies to examine the proposed association between shame and eating disorders symptoms. We looked at the associations with both general eating disorders symptoms and with specific eating disorders symptoms (i.e., anorexic, bulimic, and binge-eating symptoms). Moderation analyses testing for the effect of type of shame, type of eating symptoms, clinical status, quality of the study, age, and gender were conducted. RESULTS: Shame was significantly associated with a medium to large effect size with all types of eating disorders symptoms (rs between .40 and .52). Body shame (r = .55) and shame around eating (r = .59) were more strongly related with eating disorders pathology. Type of eating disorders symptoms did not moderate the relationship between shame and disturbed eating. DISCUSSION: Overall, the magnitude of the effect size of the association between shame and eating disorders symptoms is a medium to large one. Body shame and shame around eating seem to be the types of shame most closely tied with eating disorders symptoms, suggesting that directly targeting them in interventions might be highly beneficial. Findings highlight current gaps in the literature (e.g., mostly correlational studies, low quality studies) with implications for future research.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar , Bulimia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Anorexia , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/diagnóstico , Humanos , Inventário de Personalidade , Vergonha
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