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1.
Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd ; 129(1): 23-30, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35015389

RESUMO

The development of the jaws and dentition during half a billion years of evolution is described in broad lines and two theories regarding the origin of the dentition are discussed in detail. It is highly likely our dentition developed from dermal ossification 'denticles' originally protecting, in particular, the head of primitive extinct vertebrates. Simple, at first tubercular, later conical teeth developed into complex tooth and molar forms, especially in mammals. Special attention is given to the development of molar cusps. The process of continuous replacement of the dentition is also discussed in more detail.


Assuntos
Dentição , Dente , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Humanos , Arcada Osseodentária , Vertebrados
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 4): 151308, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34756905

RESUMO

Rivers are generally considered critical habitats for biodiversity; however, this often ignores the fact that many rivers may run dry and support terrestrial as well as aquatic fauna. Here, we investigated the ecological value of intermittent rivers for terrestrial vertebrates by installing camera traps along rivers subject to varying dry periods in two contrasting European climatic zones. We then analysed i) species presence and behaviours (as a proxy of ecological functions) on perennial and intermittent streams; ii) environmental (hydrological and geomorphological) and anthropogenic factors affecting the frequency of occurrence and number of species recorded; and iii) the importance of hydrological factors as regards ecological functioning. In both study areas, we recorded a higher number of species and individuals along intermittent streams than perennial streams, with highest values in intermittent reaches exhibiting shorter dry periods. Both abundance and species richness were strongly affected by hydrological factors in both study areas, including not only the occurrence but also the duration of the dry period. Dry channels played a key role as migration corridors and as a source of food, being used more frequently than riparian habitats when the river ran dry. Our findings indicate that terrestrial vertebrate fauna benefit from dry phases in rivers. Intermittent rivers, supporting a high abundance and diversity of fauna, should be considered as target ecosystems for wildlife conservation. Not doing so will jeopardise urgently needed conservation strategies in the face of accelerating global climate change.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Rios , Animais , Biodiversidade , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Vertebrados
3.
Ecol Lett ; 25(1): 240-251, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34784650

RESUMO

Maintaining the resilience of natural populations, their ability to resist and recover from disturbance, is crucial to prevent biodiversity loss. However, the lack of appropriate data and quantitative tools has hampered our understanding of the factors determining resilience on a global scale. Here, we quantified the temporal trends of two key components of resilience-resistance and recovery-in >2000 population time-series of >1000 vertebrate species globally. We show that the number of threats to which a population is exposed is the main driver of resilience decline in vertebrate populations. Such declines are driven by a non-uniform loss of different components of resilience (i.e. resistance and recovery). Increased anthropogenic threats accelerating resilience loss through a decline in the recovery ability-but not resistance-of vertebrate populations. These findings suggest we may be underestimating the impacts of global change, highlighting the need to account for the multiple components of resilience in global biodiversity assessments.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Vertebrados , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema
4.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2377: 109-122, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34709613

RESUMO

Cells with a loss-of-function mutation in a gene (knockout cells) are powerful tools for characterizing the function of such gene product. However, for essential genes, conditional knockout cell lines must be generated. The auxin-inducible degron (AID) technique enables us to conditionally and rapidly deplete a target protein from various eukaryotic cell lines. A combination of CRISPR-/Cas9-based gene editing and AID technique allows us to generate AID-based conditional knockout cell lines. Using these two techniques, we recently proposed a simple and quick way to generate conditional knockout cells for essential genes. In this chapter, we introduce the reader to the experimental procedures to generate these AID-based conditional knockout cell lines.


Assuntos
Genes Essenciais , Animais , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Linhagem Celular , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Ácidos Indolacéticos , Vertebrados
5.
Physiol Rev ; 102(1): 61-154, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34254835

RESUMO

The biological olfactory system is the sensory system responsible for the detection of the chemical composition of the environment. Several attempts to mimic biological olfactory systems have led to various artificial olfactory systems using different technical approaches. Here we provide a parallel description of biological olfactory systems and their technical counterparts. We start with a presentation of the input to the systems, the stimuli, and treat the interface between the external world and the environment where receptor neurons or artificial chemosensors reside. We then delineate the functions of receptor neurons and chemosensors as well as their overall input-output (I/O) relationships. Up to this point, our accounts of the systems go along similar lines. The next processing steps differ considerably: whereas in biology the processing step following the receptor neurons is the "integration" and "processing" of receptor neuron outputs in the olfactory bulb, this step has various realizations in electronic noses. For a long period of time, the signal processing stages beyond the olfactory bulb, i.e., the higher olfactory centers, were little studied. Only recently has there been a marked growth of studies tackling the information processing in these centers. In electronic noses, a third stage of processing has virtually never been considered. In this review, we provide an up-to-date overview of the current knowledge of both fields and, for the first time, attempt to tie them together. We hope it will be a breeding ground for better information, communication, and data exchange between very related but so far little-connected fields.


Assuntos
Bulbo Olfatório/fisiologia , Neurônios Receptores Olfatórios/fisiologia , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/fisiologia , Olfato/fisiologia , Animais , Humanos , Odorantes , Vertebrados/fisiologia
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 805: 150223, 2022 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537710

RESUMO

Light and noise pollution from human activity are increasing at a dramatic rate. These sensory stimuli can have a wide range of effects on animal behavior, reproductive success, and physiology. However, less is known about the functional and community-level consequences of these sensory pollutants, especially when they co-occur. Using camera traps in a manipulative field experiment, we studied the effects of anthropogenic light and noise, singularly and in tandem, on richness and community turnover at both the taxa and functional group level as well as foraging activity. We showed that both light and noise pollution did alter taxonomic richness and that these effects can differ depending on the scale of observation. Increases in light levels had a negative effect on richness at the camera-level scale, but light-treated sites had the highest pooled (i.e., cumulative) richness of all treatment types. In contrast, noise was found to have a negative effect on cumulative richness; however, when both stimuli were present, the addition of night-lighting mitigated the effects of noise. Artificial light and moonlight had the strongest influence on community turnover, and results remained consistent at both the taxa and functional group level. Additionally, increases in ambient noise and moonlight, but not artificial light, reduced foraging activity. Our study provides evidence that alterations to the sensory environment can alter the richness and composition of communities and that effects can be scale-dependent and also alter foraging behavior. Unexpectedly, the addition of artificial light may have mitigated the negative effects of noise on cumulative taxonomic richness. This highlights the importance of researching the consequences of co-exposure to these globally common pollutants.


Assuntos
Iluminação , Ruído , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Humanos , Luz , Iluminação/efeitos adversos , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Reprodução , Vertebrados
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(51)2021 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34903649

RESUMO

Two classes of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules, MHC class I and class II, play important roles in our immune system, presenting antigens to functionally distinct T lymphocyte populations. However, the origin of this essential MHC class divergence is poorly understood. Here, we discovered a category of MHC molecules (W-category) in the most primitive jawed vertebrates, cartilaginous fish, and also in bony fish and tetrapods. W-category, surprisingly, possesses class II-type α- and ß-chain organization together with class I-specific sequence motifs for interdomain binding, and the W-category α2 domain shows unprecedented, phylogenetic similarity with ß2-microglobulin of class I. Based on the results, we propose a model in which the ancestral MHC class I molecule evolved from class II-type W-category. The discovery of the ancient MHC group, W-category, sheds a light on the long-standing critical question of the MHC class divergence and suggests that class II type came first.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/genética , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/genética , Complexo Principal de Histocompatibilidade/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Análise por Conglomerados , Evolução Molecular , Peixes/classificação , Peixes/genética , Peixes/imunologia , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade/química , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade/genética , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/química , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/química , Humanos , Família Multigênica , Filogenia , Domínios Proteicos , Multimerização Proteica , Vertebrados/classificação , Vertebrados/genética , Vertebrados/imunologia
9.
Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci ; 379(2213): 20200270, 2021 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34743605

RESUMO

Periodic patterns form intricate arrays in the vertebrate anatomy, notably the hair and feather follicles of the skin, but also internally the villi of the gut and the many branches of the lung, kidney, mammary and salivary glands. These tissues are composite structures, being composed of adjoined epithelium and mesenchyme, and the patterns that arise within them require interaction between these two tissue layers. In embryonic development, cells change both their distribution and state in a periodic manner, defining the size and relative positions of these specialized structures. Their placement is determined by simple spacing mechanisms, with substantial evidence pointing to a variety of local enhancement/lateral inhibition systems underlying the breaking of symmetry. The nature of the cellular processes involved, however, has been less clear. While much attention has focused on intercellular soluble signals, such as protein growth factors, experimental evidence has grown for contributions of cell movement or mechanical forces to symmetry breaking. In the mesenchyme, unlike the epithelium, cells may move freely and can self-organize into aggregates by chemotaxis, or through generation and response to mechanical strain on their surrounding matrix. Different modes of self-organization may coexist, either coordinated into a single system or with hierarchical relationships. Consideration of a broad range of distinct biological processes is required to advance understanding of biological pattern formation. This article is part of the theme issue 'Recent progress and open frontiers in Turing's theory of morphogenesis'.


Assuntos
Modelos Biológicos , Pele , Animais , Morfogênese , Vertebrados
10.
Rev Environ Contam Toxicol ; 256: 1-69, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34724574

RESUMO

Metalliferous mining, a major source of metals and metalloids, has severe potential environmental impacts. However, the number of papers published in international peer-reviewed journals seems to be low regarding its effects in terrestrial wildlife. To the best of our knowledge, our review is the first on this topic. We used 186 studies published in scientific journals concerning metalliferous mining or mining spill pollution and their effects on terrestrial and semi-terrestrial vertebrates. We identified the working status of the mine complexes studied, the different biomarkers of exposure and effect used, and the studied taxa. Most studies (128) were developed in former mine sites and 46 in active mining areas. Additionally, although several mining accidents have occurred throughout the world, all papers about effects on terrestrial vertebrates from mining spillages were from Aznalcóllar (Spain). We also observed a lack of studies in some countries with a prominent mining industry. Despite >50% of the studies used some biomarker of effect, 42% of them only assessed exposure by measuring metal content in internal tissues or by non-invasive sampling, without considering the effect in their populations. Most studied species were birds and small mammals, with a negligible representation of reptiles and amphibians. The information gathered in this review could be helpful for future studies and protocols on the topic and it facilitates a database with valuable information on risk assessment of metalliferous mining pollution.


Assuntos
Poluição Ambiental , Mineração , Animais , Aves , Monitoramento Ambiental , Metais/toxicidade , Vertebrados
11.
F1000Res ; 10: 246, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34621504

RESUMO

In October 2020, 62 scientists from nine nations worked together remotely in the Second Baylor College of Medicine & DNAnexus hackathon, focusing on different related topics on Structural Variation, Pan-genomes, and SARS-CoV-2 related research.   The overarching focus was to assess the current status of the field and identify the remaining challenges. Furthermore, how to combine the strengths of the different interests to drive research and method development forward. Over the four days, eight groups each designed and developed new open-source methods to improve the identification and analysis of variations among species, including humans and SARS-CoV-2. These included improvements in SV calling, genotyping, annotations and filtering. Together with advancements in benchmarking existing methods. Furthermore, groups focused on the diversity of SARS-CoV-2. Daily discussion summary and methods are available publicly at  https://github.com/collaborativebioinformatics provides valuable insights for both participants and the research community.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animais , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Vertebrados
12.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0257370, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597314

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The neuroendocrine stress response allows vertebrates to cope with stressors via the activation of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis, which ultimately results in the secretion of glucocorticoids (GCs). Glucocorticoids have pleiotropic effects on behavior and physiology, and might influence telomere length dynamics. During a stress event, GCs mobilize energy towards survival mechanisms rather than to telomere maintenance. Additionally, reactive oxygen species produced in response to increased GC levels can damage telomeres, also leading to telomere shortening. In our systematic review and meta-analysis, we tested whether GC levels impact telomere length and if this relationship differs among time frame, life history stage, or stressor type. We hypothesized that elevated GC levels are linked to a decrease in telomere length. METHODS: We conducted a literature search for studies investigating the relationship between telomere length and GCs in non-human vertebrates using four search engines: Web of Science, Google Scholar, Pubmed and Scopus, last searched on September 27th, 2020. This review identified 31 studies examining the relationship between GCs and telomere length. We pooled the data using Fisher's Z for 15 of these studies. All quantitative studies underwent a risk of bias assessment. This systematic review study was registered in the Open Science Framework Registry (https://osf.io/rqve6). RESULTS: The pooled effect size from fifteen studies and 1066 study organisms shows no relationship between GCs and telomere length (Fisher's Z = 0.1042, 95% CI = 0.0235; 0.1836). Our meta-analysis synthesizes results from 15 different taxa from the mammalian, avian, amphibian groups. While these results support some previous findings, other studies have found a direct relationship between GCs and telomere dynamics, suggesting underlying mechanisms or concepts that were not taken into account in our analysis. The risk of bias assessment revealed an overall low risk of bias with occasional instances of bias from missing outcome data or bias in the reported result. CONCLUSION: We highlight the need for more targeted experiments to understand how conditions, such as experimental timeframes, stressor(s), and stressor magnitudes can drive a relationship between the neuroendocrine stress response and telomere length.


Assuntos
Glucocorticoides/sangue , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/fisiologia , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/fisiologia , Encurtamento do Telômero , Animais , Vertebrados
13.
Adv Virus Res ; 111: 111-156, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34663497

RESUMO

Alphaviruses are positive-strand RNA viruses, typically transmitted by mosquitoes between vertebrate hosts. They encode four essential replication proteins, the non-structural proteins nsP1-4, which possess the enzymatic activities of RNA capping, RNA helicase, site-specific protease, ADP-ribosyl removal and RNA polymerase. Alphaviruses have been key models in the study of membrane-associated RNA replication, which is a conserved feature among the positive-strand RNA viruses of animals and plants. We review new structural and functional information on the nsPs and their interaction with host proteins and membranes, as well as with viral RNA sequences. The dodecameric ring structure of nsP1 is likely to be one of the evolutionary innovations that facilitated the success of the progenitors of current positive-strand RNA viruses.


Assuntos
Alphavirus , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais , Alphavirus/genética , Animais , RNA Viral/genética , Vertebrados/genética , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética , Replicação Viral
14.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6094, 2021 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34667153

RESUMO

Zygotic genome activation (ZGA) initiates regionalized transcription underlying distinct cellular identities. ZGA is dependent upon dynamic chromatin architecture sculpted by conserved DNA-binding proteins. However, the direct mechanistic link between the onset of ZGA and the tissue-specific transcription remains unclear. Here, we have addressed the involvement of chromatin organizer Satb2 in orchestrating both processes during zebrafish embryogenesis. Integrative analysis of transcriptome, genome-wide occupancy and chromatin accessibility reveals contrasting molecular activities of maternally deposited and zygotically synthesized Satb2. Maternal Satb2 prevents premature transcription of zygotic genes by influencing the interplay between the pluripotency factors. By contrast, zygotic Satb2 activates transcription of the same group of genes during neural crest development and organogenesis. Thus, our comparative analysis of maternal versus zygotic function of Satb2 underscores how these antithetical activities are temporally coordinated and functionally implemented highlighting the evolutionary implications of the biphasic and bimodal regulation of landmark developmental transitions by a single determinant.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação à Região de Interação com a Matriz/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Vertebrados/embriologia , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/embriologia , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Animais , Cromatina/genética , Cromatina/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Masculino , Proteínas de Ligação à Região de Interação com a Matriz/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Transcriptoma , Vertebrados/genética , Vertebrados/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética , Zigoto/metabolismo
15.
PLoS Genet ; 17(10): e1009812, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648490

RESUMO

Oscillatory and sequential processes have been implicated in the spatial patterning of many embryonic tissues. For example, molecular clocks delimit segmental boundaries in vertebrates and insects and mediate lateral root formation in plants, whereas sequential gene activities are involved in the specification of regional identities of insect neuroblasts, vertebrate neural tube, vertebrate limb, and insect and vertebrate body axes. These processes take place in various tissues and organisms, and, hence, raise the question of what common themes and strategies they share. In this article, we review 2 processes that rely on the spatial regulation of periodic and sequential gene activities: segmentation and regionalization of the anterior-posterior (AP) axis of animal body plans. We study these processes in species that belong to 2 different phyla: vertebrates and insects. By contrasting 2 different processes (segmentation and regionalization) in species that belong to 2 distantly related phyla (arthropods and vertebrates), we elucidate the deep logic of patterning by oscillatory and sequential gene activities. Furthermore, in some of these organisms (e.g., the fruit fly Drosophila), a mode of AP patterning has evolved that seems not to overtly rely on oscillations or sequential gene activities, providing an opportunity to study the evolution of pattern formation mechanisms.


Assuntos
Padronização Corporal/genética , Insetos/genética , Vertebrados/genética , Animais , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Humanos
16.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6001, 2021 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34650041

RESUMO

Teeth act as tools for acquiring and processing food, thus holding a prominent role in vertebrate evolution. In mammals, dental-dietary adaptations rely on tooth complexity variations controlled by cusp number and pattern. Complexity increase through cusp addition has dominated the diversification of mammals. However, studies of Mammalia alone cannot reveal patterns of tooth complexity conserved throughout vertebrate evolution. Here, we use morphometric and phylogenetic comparative methods across fossil and extant squamates to show they also repeatedly evolved increasingly complex teeth, but with more flexibility than mammals. Since the Late Jurassic, multiple-cusped teeth evolved over 20 times independently from a single-cusped common ancestor. Squamates frequently lost cusps and evolved varied multiple-cusped morphologies at heterogeneous rates. Tooth complexity evolved in correlation with changes in plant consumption, resulting in several major increases in speciation. Complex teeth played a critical role in vertebrate evolution outside Mammalia, with squamates exemplifying a more labile system of dental-dietary evolution.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Dente/fisiologia , Animais , Dieta , Fósseis , Mamíferos , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Vertebrados
17.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(19)2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34640694

RESUMO

Biological mechanosensation has been a source of inspiration for advancements in artificial sensory systems. Animals rely on sensory feedback to guide and adapt their behaviors and are equipped with a wide variety of sensors that carry stimulus information from the environment. Hair and hair-like sensors have evolved to support survival behaviors in different ecological niches. Here, we review the diversity of biological hair and hair-like sensors across the animal kingdom and their roles in behaviors, such as locomotion, exploration, navigation, and feeding, which point to shared functional properties of hair and hair-like structures among invertebrates and vertebrates. By reviewing research on the role of biological hair and hair-like sensors in diverse species, we aim to highlight biological sensors that could inspire the engineering community and contribute to the advancement of mechanosensing in artificial systems, such as robotics.


Assuntos
Robótica , Vertebrados , Animais , Retroalimentação Sensorial , Locomoção
18.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17794, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493758

RESUMO

The metazoan 70-kDa heat shock protein (HSP70) family contains several members localized in different subcellular compartments. The cytosolic members have been classified into inducible HSP70s and constitutive heat shock cognates (HSC70s), but their distinction and evolutionary relationship remain unclear because of occasional reports of "constitutive HSP70s" and the lack of cross-phylum comparisons. Here we provide novel insights into the evolution of these important molecular chaperones. Phylogenetic analyses of 125 full-length HSP70s from a broad range of phyla revealed an ancient duplication that gave rise to two lineages from which all metazoan cytosolic HSP70s descend. One lineage (A) contains a relatively small number of genes from many invertebrate phyla, none of which have been shown to be constitutively expressed (i.e., either inducible or unknown). The other lineage (B) included both inducible and constitutive genes from diverse phyla. Species-specific duplications are present in both lineages, and Lineage B contains well-supported phylum-specific clades for Platyhelminthes, Rotifera, Nematoda, Porifera/Cnidaria, and Chordata. Some genes in Lineage B have likely independently acquired inducibility, which may explain the sporadic distribution of "HSP70" or "HSC70" in previous phylogenetic analyses. Consistent with the diversification history within each group, inducible members show lower purifying selection pressure compared to constitutive members. These results illustrate the evolutionary history of the HSP70 family, encouraging us to propose a new nomenclature: "HSP70 + subcellular localization + linage + copy number in the organism + inducible or constitutive, if known." e.g., HSP70cA1i for cytosolic Lineage A, copy 1, inducible.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/genética , Invertebrados/genética , Família Multigênica , Vertebrados/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência Consenso , Filogenia , Alinhamento de Sequência , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Especificidade da Espécie , Frações Subcelulares/enzimologia
19.
Cells ; 10(9)2021 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34571831

RESUMO

With more than 70,000 living species, vertebrates have a huge impact on the field of biology and research, including karyotype evolution. One prominent aspect of many vertebrate karyotypes is the enigmatic occurrence of tiny and often cytogenetically indistinguishable microchromosomes, which possess distinctive features compared to macrochromosomes. Why certain vertebrate species carry these microchromosomes in some lineages while others do not, and how they evolve remain open questions. New studies have shown that microchromosomes exhibit certain unique characteristics of genome structure and organization, such as high gene densities, low heterochromatin levels, and high rates of recombination. Our review focuses on recent concepts to expand current knowledge on the dynamic nature of karyotype evolution in vertebrates, raising important questions regarding the evolutionary origins and ramifications of microchromosomes. We introduce the basic karyotypic features to clarify the size, shape, and morphology of macro- and microchromosomes and report their distribution across different lineages. Finally, we characterize the mechanisms of different evolutionary forces underlying the origin and evolution of microchromosomes.


Assuntos
Cromossomos/genética , Vertebrados/genética , Animais , Evolução Molecular , Humanos , Cariótipo , Cariotipagem/métodos
20.
Dev Cell ; 56(17): 2405-2418, 2021 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520764

RESUMO

A striking property of vertebrate embryos is the emergence of a conserved body plan across a wide range of organisms through the process of gastrulation. As the body plan unfolds, gene regulatory networks (GRNs) and multicellular interactions (cell regulatory networks, CRNs) combine to generate a conserved set of morphogenetic events that lead to the phylotypic stage. Interrogation of these multilevel interactions requires manipulation of the mechanical environment, which is difficult in vivo. We review recent studies of stem cell models of early embryogenesis from different species showing that, independent of species origin, cells in culture form similar structures. The main difference between embryos and in vitro models is the boundary conditions of the multicellular ensembles. We discuss these observations and suggest that the mechanical and geometric boundary conditions of different embryos before gastrulation hide a morphogenetic ground state that is revealed in the stem-cell-based models of embryo development.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Embrionário/fisiologia , Gastrulação/fisiologia , Morfogênese/fisiologia , Células-Tronco/citologia , Animais , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/fisiologia , Humanos , Vertebrados/genética
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