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1.
Gene ; 766: 145117, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920039

RESUMO

The extracellular vesicles (EVs) of uterine flushing fluids (UFs) mediate intrauterine communication between conceptus and uterus in pigs. The small RNAs of UFs-EVs are widely recognized as important factors that influence embryonic implantation. However, small RNAs expression profiles of porcine UFs-EVs during peri-implantation are still unknown. In this study, cup-shaped EVs of porcine UFs on days 10 (D10), 13 (D13) and 18 (D18) of pregnancy were isolated and characterized. The expression of small RNAs in these EVs was comprehensively profiled through sequencing. A total of 152 known microRNAs (miRNAs), 43 novel miRNAs, 6248 known Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) and 110 novel piRNAs were identified. Among these small RNAs, RT-qRCR results indicated that ssc-let-7f-5p, ssc-let-7i-5p and ssc-let-7g were differentially expressed during the three stages. Bioinformatics analysis showed that the miRNAs differentially expressed in the three comparisons (D10 vs D13, D13 vs D18 and D10 vs D18) were involved in important processes and pathways related to immunization, endometrial receptivity and embryo development, which play important roles in embryonic implantation. Our results reveal that EVs from porcine UFs contain various small RNAs with potentially vital effects on implantation. This research also provides resources for studies of miRNAs and piRNAs in the cross-talk between embryo and endometrium.


Assuntos
Implantação do Embrião/genética , Vesículas Extracelulares/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Útero/fisiologia , Animais , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Endométrio/fisiologia , Feminino , Gravidez , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , RNA-Seq/métodos , Suínos
2.
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 36(10): 897-902, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33148384

RESUMO

Objective To compare the efficiency of four methods for extracting extracellular vesicles (EVs) from human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells(hUCMSCs). Methods EVs were isolated from the conditioned medium of hUCMSCs by ultracentrifugation (group A), or ultrafiltration combined with ultracentrifugation (group B), or ultrafiltration combined with polyethylene glycol precipitation (group C), or ultrafiltration combined with aqueous two phase system (group D). The total protein concentration of EVs in each group was determined by BCA method. The expression of Alix, CD9, and calnexin were detected by Western blotting. The morphology of EVs was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. The particle size distribution and particle concentration of EVs were measured by nanoparticle tracking analysis. Results The total protein concentrations of EVs extracted by the above four methods were (1.92±1.77) µg/µL, (18.1±1.07) µg/µL, (6.33±1.02) µg/µL, (36.48±23.13) µg/µL from group A to D respectively. We observed the expression of CD9 and Alix, but not calnexin, in EVs from group A, B and C. However, the expression levels of CD9 and Alix were lowest in group C. In addition, the expression of CD9, Alix and calnexin were undetectable in EVs from group D. The particle concentrations of EVs in group A, B and C were 0.85×1011 particles/mL, 0.63×1011 particles/mL, 1.83×1011 particles/mL, respectively. Meanwhile, the particle distributions were all within the size range of EVs. We also observed the typical saucer-like membrane structure in EVs from group A, B and C. Conclusion The method of ultrafiltration combined with ultracentrifugation could be applied to the experiments demanding large amounts of EVs. The method of ultracentrifugation is recommended for the extraction of little amounts of EVs due to the lower risk of EV fragmentation.


Assuntos
Meios de Cultivo Condicionados , Vesículas Extracelulares , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Humanos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Ultracentrifugação , Ultrafiltração , Cordão Umbilical/citologia
3.
Folia Biol (Praha) ; 66(3): 104-110, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33069189

RESUMO

Cancer development is a highly complicated process in which tumour growth depends on the development of its vascularization system. To support their own growth, tumour cells significantly modify their microenvironment. One of such modifications inflicted by tumours is stimulation of endothelial cell migration and proliferation. There is accumulating evidence that extracellular vesicles (EVs) secreted by tumour cells (tumour-derived EVs, TEVs) may be regarded as "messengers" with the potential for affecting the biological activities of target cells. Interaction of TEVs with different cell types occurs in an auto- and paracrine manner and may lead to changes in the function of the latter, e.g., promoting motility, proliferation, etc. This study analysed the proangiogenic activity of EVs derived from human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line (HPC-4, TEVHPC) in vitro and their effect in vivo on Matrigel matrix vascularization in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. TEVHPC enhanced proliferation of HPC-4 cells and induced their motility. Moreover, TEVHPC stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation and migration in vitro. Additionally, TEVHPC influenced secretion of proangiogenic factors (IL-8, VEGF) by HUVEC cells and supported Matrigel matrix haemoglobinization in vivo. These data show that TEVs may support tumour propagation in an autocrine manner and may support vascularization of the tumour. The presented data are in line with the theory that tumour cells themselves are able to modulate the microenvironment via TEVs to maximize their growth potential.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Vesículas Extracelulares/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Animais , Comunicação Autócrina , Divisão Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Quimiotaxia , Colágeno , Combinação de Medicamentos , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Interleucina-8/genética , Interleucina-8/metabolismo , Laminina , Camundongos , Camundongos SCID , Transplante de Neoplasias , Neovascularização Patológica/etiologia , Proteoglicanas , RNA Mensageiro/biossíntese , Microambiente Tumoral , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
4.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 6975-6991, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33061363

RESUMO

Purpose: Small extracellular vesicles (sEV) are a heterogeneous group of vesicles that consist of proteins, lipids and miRNA molecules derived from the cell of origin. Although xenogeneic sEV have been applied for soft tissue regeneration successfully, the regeneration effect of allogeneic and xenogeneic sEV has not been compared systematically. Methods: Our previous study has shown that sEV derived from rat adipose tissue successfully induced neoadipose regeneration. In this study, sEV were isolated from rat adipose tissue (r-sEV-AT) and porcine adipose tissue (p-sEV-AT), the morphology, size distribution and marker proteins expression of r-sEV-AT and p-sEV-AT were characterized. Besides, the sEV/AT ratio was evaluated and compared between r-sEV-AT and p-sEV-AT. Rat adipose-derived stromal/stem cells (rASCs) and rat aorta endothelial cells (rECs) were adopted to test the cellular response to allogeneic and xenogeneic sEV-AT. The effects of allogeneic and xenogeneic sEV-AT on host cells migration and neoadipose formation were evaluated in a subcutaneous custom-designed model. A full-thickness skin wound healing model was used to further compare the ability of allogeneic and xenogeneic sEV-AT in inducing complex soft tissue regeneration. Results: p-sEV-AT showed similar morphology and size distribution to r-sEV-AT. Marker proteins of sEV were detected in both r-sEV-AT and p-sEV-AT. The sEV/AT ratio of porcine was slightly higher than that of rat. The effects of r-sEV-AT and p-sEV-AT on the differentiation of rASCs and rECs showed no significant difference. When allogeneic and xenogeneic sEV-AT were subcutaneously implanted into the back of SD rats, the host cells chemotactic infiltration was observed in 1 week and neoadipose tissue formation was induced in 8 weeks; no significant difference was observed between allogeneic and xenogeneic sEV-AT. For complex soft tissue regeneration, both allogeneic and xenogeneic sEV-AT significantly promoted wound re-epithelialization, granulation tissue formation and hair follicle regeneration and then accelerated skin wound healing. Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that sEV derived from the same tissues of different species might be loaded with similar therapeutic substance benefitting tissue repair and regeneration, and paved the way for future research aimed at xenogeneic sEV application.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/fisiologia , Vesículas Extracelulares/transplante , Transplante Heterólogo , Transplante Homólogo , Adipócitos , Tecido Adiposo/citologia , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Movimento Celular , Células Cultivadas , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Espaço Extracelular , MicroRNAs , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Regeneração , Suínos , Transplante Heterólogo/métodos , Transplante Homólogo/métodos , Cicatrização
5.
Viruses ; 12(10)2020 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33096825

RESUMO

Most cells can release extracellular vesicles (EVs), membrane vesicles containing various proteins, nucleic acids, enzymes, and signaling molecules. The exchange of EVs between cells facilitates intercellular communication, amplification of cellular responses, immune response modulation, and perhaps alterations in viral pathogenicity. EVs serve a dual role in inhibiting or enhancing viral infection and pathogenesis. This review examines the current literature on EVs to explore the complex role of EVs in the enhancement, inhibition, and potential use as a nanotherapeutic against clinically relevant viruses, focusing on neurotropic viruses: Zika virus (ZIKV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Overall, this review's scope will elaborate on EV-based mechanisms, which impact viral pathogenicity, facilitate viral spread, and modulate antiviral immune responses.


Assuntos
Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Viroses/metabolismo , Antivirais/farmacologia , Comunicação Celular/fisiologia , Coronavirus/metabolismo , Coronavirus/patogenicidade , Exossomos/metabolismo , HIV/metabolismo , HIV/patogenicidade , Infecções por HIV/metabolismo , Humanos , Retroviridae/metabolismo , Simplexvirus/metabolismo , Terapêutica/métodos , Viroses/tratamento farmacológico , Viroses/virologia , Zika virus/metabolismo , Zika virus/patogenicidade , Infecção por Zika virus/metabolismo
7.
Anticancer Res ; 40(10): 5509-5516, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988874

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) can mediate drug resistance within the tumor microenvironment by delivering bioactive molecules, including proteins. Here, we performed a comparative proteomic analysis of EVs secreted by A549 lung cancer cells and their cisplatin-resistant counterparts in order to identify proteins involved in drug resistance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cells were co-cultivated using a transwell system to evaluate EV exchange. EVs were isolated by ultracentrifugation and analyzed using microscopy and nanoparticle tracking. EV proteome was analyzed by mass spectrometry. RESULTS: EV-mediated communication was observed between co-cultured A549 and A549/CDDP cells. EVs isolated from both cells were mainly exosome-like structures. Extracellular matrix components, cell adhesion proteins, complement factors, histones, proteasome subunits and membrane transporters were found enriched in the EVs released by cisplatin-resistant cells. CONCLUSION: Proteins identified in this work may have a relevant role in modulating the chemosensitivity of the recipient cells and could represent useful biomarkers to monitor cisplatin response in lung cancer.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Proteoma/genética , Células A549 , Cisplatino/efeitos adversos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Exossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Exossomos/genética , Vesículas Extracelulares/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Espectrometria de Massas , Proteômica/métodos , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4489, 2020 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895384

RESUMO

We report a covalent chemistry-based hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)-specific extracellular vesicle (EV) purification system for early detection of HCC by performing digital scoring on the purified EVs. Earlier detection of HCC creates more opportunities for curative therapeutic interventions. EVs are present in circulation at relatively early stages of disease, providing potential opportunities for HCC early detection. We develop an HCC EV purification system (i.e., EV Click Chips) by synergistically integrating covalent chemistry-mediated EV capture/release, multimarker antibody cocktails, nanostructured substrates, and microfluidic chaotic mixers. We then explore the translational potential of EV Click Chips using 158 plasma samples of HCC patients and control cohorts. The purified HCC EVs are subjected to reverse-transcription droplet digital PCR for quantification of 10 HCC-specific mRNA markers and computation of digital scoring. The HCC EV-derived molecular signatures exhibit great potential for noninvasive early detection of HCC from at-risk cirrhotic patients with an area under receiver operator characteristic curve of 0.93 (95% CI, 0.86 to 1.00; sensitivity = 94.4%, specificity = 88.5%).


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/isolamento & purificação , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Vesículas Extracelulares/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/sangue , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Química Click/instrumentação , Química Click/métodos , Química Computacional , Simulação por Computador , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Dimetilpolisiloxanos/química , Progressão da Doença , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/instrumentação , Feminino , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Biópsia Líquida/instrumentação , Biópsia Líquida/métodos , Cirrose Hepática/sangue , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/sangue , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Masculino , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas/instrumentação , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nanoestruturas/química , Nanofios/química , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/isolamento & purificação , Curva ROC , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/instrumentação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/métodos
9.
Kidney Blood Press Res ; 45(5): 661-670, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957112

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome ß-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has the potential to become a long-lasting global health crisis. The number of people infected with the novel coronavirus has surpassed 22 million globally, resulting in over 700,000 deaths with more than 15 million people having recovered (https://covid19.who.int). Enormous efforts are underway for rapid vaccine and treatment developments. Amongst the many ways of tackling the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, extracellular vesicles (EVs) are emerging. SUMMARY: EVs are lipid bilayer-enclosed structures secreted from all types of cells, including those lining the respiratory tract. They have established roles in lung immunity and are involved in the pathogenesis of various lung diseases, including viral infection. In this review, we point out the roles and possible contribution of EVs in viral infections, as well as ongoing EV-based approaches for the treatment of COVID-19, including clinical trials. Key Messages: EVs share structural similarities to viruses and recent findings demonstrate that viruses exploit EVs for cellular exit and EVs exploit viral entry mechanisms for cargo delivery. Moreover, EV-virus interplay could be exploited for future antiviral drug and vaccine development. EV-based therapies, especially the mesenchymal stem cell-derived EVs, are being intensively studied for the treatment of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Vesículas Extracelulares/virologia , Pneumopatias/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Terapia Genética/tendências , Humanos , Pneumopatias/metabolismo , Pneumopatias/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Eliminação de Partículas Virais/efeitos dos fármacos , Eliminação de Partículas Virais/fisiologia
10.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 6485-6502, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32922012

RESUMO

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are a class of cell-derived, lipid bilayer membrane composed vesicles, and some of them such as exosomes and ectosomes have been proven, playing remarkable roles in transmitting intercellular information, and being involved in each property of cell physiological activities. Nowadays, EVs are considered as potential nanocarriers which could partially resolve the problems of current chemotherapy because of their distinctive advantages. As endogenous membrane encompassed vesicles with nanosize, EVs are able to pass through the natural barriers with prolonged circulation time in vivo and have intrinsic cell targeting properties, they are less toxic, and less immunogenic. Recently, studies focusing on EV-based drug delivery system for cancer therapy have exploded dramatically. This review aims to outline the current applications of EVs as potential nanosized drug carriers in cancer therapy. Firstly, the characteristics and biofunctions of each EV subtype are described. Then the variety of therapeutic cargoes, the loading methods, and the targeting strategy of engineered EVs are emphatically introduced. Thereafter the pros and cons of EVs applied as therapeutic carriers, as well as the future prospects in this field, are discussed.


Assuntos
Portadores de Fármacos/química , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/química , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Humanos
12.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(9): e0008618, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986706

RESUMO

Schistosomes are the causative agent of schistosomiasis, which affects more than 200 million people worldwide. Unlike other trematode parasites, schistosomes (along with the Didymozoidae) have evolved separate sexes. Pairing of males and females is a prerequisite for female sexual development and subsequent egg production. However, the mechanisms underlying these processes remain poorly understood. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been shown to play important roles in many biological processes. In the present study, we characterized EVs isolated from adult male and female Schistosoma japonicum. Proteomic analyses of the isolated EVs revealed that some proteins are significantly enriched in male or female EVs. RNA-sequencing analysis of a small RNA population associated with EVs identified 18 miRNAs enriched in male and female S. japonicum EVs. Among these, miR-750 was specifically enriched in female EVs. Additionally, the inhibition of miR-750 by a miRNA inhibitor led to decreased egg production in female schistosomes cultured in vitro. Collectively, our results suggest that miR-750 within female EV cargo may be involved in regulating ovary development and egg production in S. japonicum females.


Assuntos
Vesículas Extracelulares/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Proteínas de Protozoários/isolamento & purificação , Schistosoma japonicum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , MicroRNAs/antagonistas & inibidores , Óvulo/efeitos dos fármacos , Óvulo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteoma/genética , Coelhos , Schistosoma japonicum/genética , Esquistossomose/parasitologia
14.
J Chromatogr A ; 1629: 461513, 2020 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889296

RESUMO

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) exist in biological fluids such as blood, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid, and these have shown promise for use as biomarkers of cancers. Conventional methods for determination of EVs include direct detection via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and detection of their membrane proteins via western blotting. These techniques, however, have individual shortcomings in terms of the need for large sample consumption, processes that are time-consuming, and a lack of the capacity for quantification. In this study, we developed a method to determine the EV membrane protein, CD63, by coupling capillary electrophoresis immunoassay with laser-induced fluorescence (CEIA-LIF). In this process, the EVs were isolated from a culture medium and were subsequently reacted with a fluorescently labeled anti-CD63 antibody to form a CD63 complex localized on the surface of EVs. After removing the EVs containing the CD63 immune complex by centrifugation, the supernatant containing the free fluorescent antibody was injected into a capillary to serve as a sample. A decrease in the peak area of the free fluorescent antibody became apparent when the amount of EVs was increased while that of the fluorescent antibody remained constant. The peak areas were decreased proportionally against the increased amounts of EVs. The concentration of the CD63 could then be estimated based on the slope of the linear relationship. This study is the first to quantify CD63 immobilized on EVs via CEIA-LIF, which is a novel method with the potential to determine membrane proteins localized on the surface of EVs.


Assuntos
Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/análise , Anticorpos Imobilizados/química , Anticorpos Imobilizados/imunologia , Eletroforese Capilar , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Células HeLa , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Tetraspanina 30/análise , Tetraspanina 30/imunologia
15.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238879, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915887

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) appear to be a very exciting treatment option for heart disease. Here, we used a swine model of chronic myocardial ischemia to evaluate the efficacy of a less-invasive method of injection of EVs via a peripheral intravenous route. METHODS: Sixteen Yorkshire swine underwent placement of an ameroid constrictor on the left circumflex (LCx) artery at age 11 weeks to induce chronic myocardial ischemia. Two weeks later, they were divided into two groups: control (CON; n = 8), and intravenous injection of EVs (EVIV; n = 8). At 18 weeks of age, animals underwent final analysis and euthanasia. The chronically ischemic myocardium (LCx territory) was harvested for analysis. RESULTS: Intravenous injection (IV) of EVs induced several pro-angiogenic markers such as MAPK, JNK but not Akt. Whereas IV injections of EVs decreased VEGFR2 expression and inhibited apoptotic signaling (caspase 3), they increased expression of VEGFR1 that is believed to be anti-angiogenic. Injection of EVs did not result in an increase in vessel density and blood flow when compared to the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Although IV injection of EVs upregulated several pro-angiogenic signaling pathways, it failed to induce changes in vascular density in the chronically ischemic myocardium. Thus, a lack of increase in vascular density at the doses tested failed to elicit a functional response in ischemic myocardium.


Assuntos
Modelos Animais de Doenças , Vesículas Extracelulares/transplante , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/terapia , Neovascularização Fisiológica , Animais , Apoptose , Doença Crônica , Circulação Coronária , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Masculino , Suínos
16.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238591, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886718

RESUMO

Extracellular vesicles (EVs), are important for intercellular communication in both physiological and pathological processes. To explore the potential of cancer derived EVs as disease biomarkers for diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment decision, it is necessary to thoroughly characterize their biomolecular content. The aim of the study was to characterize and compare the protein content of EVs derived from three different cancer cell lines in search of a specific molecular signature, with emphasis on proteins related to the carcinogenic process. Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and melanoma brain metastasis cell lines were cultured in CELLine AD1000 flasks. EVs were isolated by ultrafiltration and size-exclusion chromatography and characterized. Next, the isolated EVs underwent liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis for protein identification. Functional enrichment analysis was performed for a more general overview of the biological processes involved. More than 600 different proteins were identified in EVs from each particular cell line. Here, 14%, 10%, and 24% of the identified proteins were unique in OSCC, PDAC, and melanoma vesicles, respectively. A specific protein profile was discovered for each cell line, e.g., EGFR in OSCC, Muc5AC in PDAC, and FN1 in melanoma vesicles. Nevertheless, 25% of all the identified proteins were common to all cell lines. Functional enrichment analysis linked the proteins in each data set to biological processes such as "biological adhesion", "cell motility", and "cellular component biogenesis". EV proteomics discovered cancer-specific protein profiles, with proteins involved in processes promoting tumor progression. In addition, the biological processes associated to the melanoma-derived EVs were distinct from the ones linked to the EVs isolated from OSCC and PDAC. The malignancy specific biomolecular cues in EVs may have potential applications as diagnostic biomarkers and in therapy.


Assuntos
Vesículas Extracelulares/patologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Proteínas/análise , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Neoplasias Encefálicas/química , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/secundário , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/química , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/química , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Vesículas Extracelulares/química , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas , Melanoma/química , Melanoma/diagnóstico , Melanoma/patologia , Neoplasias Bucais/química , Neoplasias Bucais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , Neoplasias/química , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/química , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Proteômica
17.
Br J Radiol ; 93(1115): 20200319, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997527

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Ionising radiation-induced alterations affecting intercellular communication in the bone marrow (BM) contribute to the development of haematological pathologies. Extracellular vesicles (EVs), which are membrane-coated particles released by cells, have important roles in intercellular signalling in the BM. Our objective was to investigate the effects of ionising radiation on the phenotype of BM-derived EVs of total-body irradiated mice. METHODS: CBA mice were irradiated with 0.1 Gy or 3 Gy X-rays. BM was isolated from the femur and tibia 24 h after irradiation. EVs were isolated from the BM supernatant. The phenotype of BM cells and EVs was analysed by flow cytometry. RESULTS: The mean size of BM-derived EVs was below 300 nm and was not altered by ionising radiation. Their phenotype was very heterogeneous with EVs carrying either CD29 or CD44 integrins representing the major fraction. High-dose ionising radiation induced a strong rearrangement in the pool of BM-derived EVs which were markedly different from BM cell pool changes. The proportion of CD29 and CD44 integrin-harbouring EVs significantly decreased and the relative proportion of EVs with haematopoietic stem cell or lymphoid progenitor markers increased. Low-dose irradiation had limited effect on EV secretion. CONCLUSIONS: Ionising radiation induced selective changes in the secretion of EVs by the different BM cell subpopulations. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: The novelty of the paper consists of performing a detailed phenotyping of BM-derived EVs after in vivo irradiation of mice.


Assuntos
Células da Medula Óssea/efeitos da radiação , Vesículas Extracelulares/efeitos da radiação , Fenótipo , Animais , Medula Óssea/efeitos da radiação , Células da Medula Óssea/ultraestrutura , Vesículas Extracelulares/química , Vesículas Extracelulares/patologia , Citometria de Fluxo , Receptores de Hialuronatos/análise , Integrina beta1/análise , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos CBA , Radiação Ionizante , Irradiação Corporal Total
18.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(9): e0008626, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898175

RESUMO

Parasite-released extracellular vesicles (EVs) deliver signals to the host immune system that are critical to maintaining the long-term relationship between parasite and host. In the present study, total EVs (FhEVs) released in vitro by adults of the helminth parasite Fasciola hepatica were isolated using a recently described gravity flow method that protects their structural integrity. The FhEVs molecular cargo was defined using proteomic analysis and their surface topology characterised by glycan microarrays. The proteomic analysis identified 618 proteins, 121 of which contained putative N-linked glycosylation sites while 132 proteins contained putative O-linked glycosylation sites. Glycan arrays revealed surface-exposed glycans with a high affinity for mannose-binding lectins indicating the predominance of oligo mannose-rich glycoproteins, as well as other glycans with a high affinity for complex-type N-glycans. When added to bone-marrow derived dendritic cells isolated FhEV induced a novel phenotype that was categorised by the secretion of low levels of TNF, enhanced expression of cell surface markers (CD80, CD86, CD40, OX40L, and SIGNR1) and elevation of intracellular markers (SOCS1 and SOCS3). When FhEV-stimulated BMDCs were introduced into OT-II mice by adoptive transfer, IL-2 secretion from skin draining lymph nodes and spleen cells was inhibited in response to both specific and non-specific antigen stimulation. Immunisation of mice with a suspension of FhEV did not elicit significant immune responses; however, in the presence of alum, FhEVs induced a mixed Th1/Th2 immune response with high antigen specific antibody titres. Thus, we have demonstrated that FhEVs induce a unique phentotype in DC capable of suppressing IL-2 secretion from T-cells. Our studies add to the growing immuno-proteomic database that will be an important source for the discovery of future parasite vaccines and immunotherapeutic biologicals.


Assuntos
Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Fasciola hepatica/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/fisiologia , Fenótipo , Animais , Antígenos de Helmintos/análise , Biomarcadores , Medula Óssea , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fasciola hepatica/isolamento & purificação , Fasciolíase/imunologia , Fasciolíase/parasitologia , Glicoproteínas , Manose , Lectinas de Ligação a Manose/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Proteômica , Linfócitos T/imunologia
19.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236439, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813744

RESUMO

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) in human blood are a potential source of biomarkers. To which extent anticoagulation affects their concentration, cellular origin and protein composition is largely unexplored. To study this, blood from 23 healthy subjects was collected in acid citrate dextrose (ACD), citrate or EDTA, or without anticoagulation to obtain serum. EVs were isolated by ultracentrifugation or by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) for fluorescence-SEC. EVs were analyzed by micro flow cytometry, NTA, TEM, Western blot, and protein mass spectrometry. The plasma EV concentration was unaffected by anticoagulants, but serum contained more platelet EVs. The protein composition of plasma EVs differed between anticoagulants, and between plasma and serum. Comparison to other studies further revealed that the shared EV protein composition resembles the "protein corona" of synthetic nanoparticles incubated in plasma or serum. In conclusion, we have validated a higher concentration of platelet EVs in serum than plasma by contemporary EV methods. Anticoagulation should be carefully described (i) to enable study comparison, (ii) to utilize available sample cohorts, and (iii) when preparing/selecting biobank samples. Further, the similarity of the EV protein corona and that of nanoparticles implicates that EVs carry both intravesicular and extravesicular cargo, which will expand their applicability for biomarker discovery.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteínas Sanguíneas/isolamento & purificação , Vesículas Extracelulares/genética , Proteoma/genética , Adulto , Plaquetas/química , Proteínas Sanguíneas/genética , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo/métodos , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(9): 2293-2309, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32757648

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have the potential to act as intercellular communicators. The aims were to characterize circulating EVs in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and to explore whether these EVs contribute to endothelial activation and angiogenesis. Approach and Results: Patients with PAH (n=70) and healthy controls (HC; n=20) were included in this cross-sectional study. EVs were characterized and human pulmonary endothelial cells (hPAECs) were incubated with purified EVs. Endothelial cell activity and proangiogenic markers were analyzed. Tube formation analysis was performed for hPAECs, and the involvement of PSGL-1 (P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1) was evaluated. The numbers of CD62P+, CD144+, and CD235a EVs were higher in blood from PAH compared with HC. Thirteen proteins were differently expressed in PAH and HC EVs, where complement fragment C1q was the most significantly elevated protein (P=0.0009) in PAH EVs. Upon EVs-internalization in hPAECs, more PAH compared with HC EVs evaded lysosomes (P<0.01). As oppose to HC, PAH EVs stimulated hPAEC activation and induced transcription and translation of VEGF-A (vascular endothelial growth factor A; P<0.05) and FGF (fibroblast growth factor; P<0.005) which were released in the cell supernatant. These proangiogenic proteins were higher in patient with PAH plasma compered with HC. PAH EVs induced a complex network of angiotubes in vitro, which was abolished by inhibitory PSGL-1antibody. Anti-PSGL-1 also inhibited EV-induced endothelial cell activation and PAH EV dependent increase of VEGF-A. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with PAH have higher levels of EVs harboring increased amounts of angiogenic proteins, which induce activation of hPAECs and in vitro angiogenesis. These effects were partly because of platelet-derived EVs evasion of lysosomes upon internalization within hPAEC and through possible involvement of P-selectin-PSGL-1 pathway.


Assuntos
Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Neovascularização Fisiológica , Hipertensão Arterial Pulmonar/metabolismo , Artéria Pulmonar/metabolismo , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Células Cultivadas , Estudos Transversais , Células Endoteliais/ultraestrutura , Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Endotélio Vascular/ultraestrutura , Vesículas Extracelulares/ultraestrutura , Feminino , Fator 2 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Humanos , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/metabolismo , Masculino , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Selectina-P/metabolismo , Hipertensão Arterial Pulmonar/patologia , Hipertensão Arterial Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Artéria Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Artéria Pulmonar/ultraestrutura , Transdução de Sinais , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Receptor 1 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
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