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1.
J Environ Manage ; 257: 109983, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31989960

RESUMO

Stakeholders are critical environmental managers in human-dominated landscapes. In some contexts, stakeholders can be forced to personally act following their own observations and risk perception instead of science recommendation. In particular, biological invasions need rapid control actions to reduce potential socio-ecological impacts, while science-based risk assessments are rather complex and time-delayed. Although they can lead to important detrimental effects on biodiversity, potential time-delayed disconnections between stakeholders' action and science recommendations are rarely studied. Using the case study of western European beekeepers controlling the invasive Asian hornet Vespa velutina nigrithorax for its suspected impact on honey bee colonies, we analysed mechanisms underlying personal actions of stakeholders and how they evolved in science disconnection. Personal actions of stakeholders were causal-effect linked with their risk observation but disconnected to time-delayed science predictions and recommendations. Unfortunately, these science-disconnected actions also led to dramatic impacts on numerous species of the local entomofauna. These results highlight the need to improve mutual risk communication between science and action in the early-stages of management plans to improve the sustainably of stakeholders' practices.


Assuntos
Espécies Introduzidas , Vespas , Animais , Abelhas , Biodiversidade , Humanos , Medição de Risco
2.
Bull Entomol Res ; 110(1): 34-43, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31190653

RESUMO

Gall formation is associated with multiple changes in plant cells, which still requires a better understanding. In this study, galls caused by sexual generation (♀♂) of Neuroterus quercusbaccarum (L.) (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) on pedunculate oak trees (Quercus robur L.) were used as a model. Cytoplasmic membrane condition, concentration of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), the activity of antioxidant enzymes and amino acid decarboxylase as well as chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were determined. Changes in physiological and biochemical parameters were analyzed in foliar tissues with galls and gall tissues themselves and compared to control. The presence of galls on oak leaves caused an increase of lipid peroxidation level. A significant decline in H2O2 and TBARS content with the reduction of guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity were observed in gall tissues. The activity amino acid decarboxylase, i.e., LDC, ODC and TyDC varied between samples, which may affect the content of amino acids. The presence of N. quercusbaccarum galls caused an insignificant increase of the chlorophylls, carotenoids and anthocyanin contents, while the content of pigments and their ratios in gall tissues was extremely low. Moreover, photosynthetic parameters (F0, Fm, Fv/Fm, Y, qP) were significantly decreased. Data generated in this study indicate that the development of N. quercusbaccarum galls on pedunculate oak leaves has a negative effect on host plant related to the disruption of cell membrane integrity, disturbance of photosynthesis and reduction of the antioxidant potential of the host plant.


Assuntos
Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Folhas de Planta/parasitologia , Tumores de Planta , Quercus/parasitologia , Vespas/fisiologia , Animais , Membrana Celular/fisiologia , Feminino , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo , Fotossíntese , Pigmentação , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Quercus/fisiologia
3.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 103(2): e21629, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599031

RESUMO

Parasitoids serve as effective biocontrol agents for agricultural pests. However, they face constant challenges from host immune defense and numerous pathogens and must develop potent immune defense against these threats. Despite the recent advances in innate immunity, little is known about the immunological mechanisms of parasitoids. Here, we identified and characterized potential immune-related genes of the endoparasitoid, Pteromalus puparum, which act in regulating populations of some members of the Pieridae. We identified 216 immune-related genes based on interrogating the P. puparum genome and transcriptome databases. We categorized the cognate gene products into recognition molecules, signal moieties and effector proteins operating in four pathways, Toll, IMD, JAK/STAT, and JNK. Comparative analyses of immune-related genes from seven insect species indicate that recognition molecules and effector proteins are more expanded and diversified than signaling genes in these signal pathways. There are common 1:1 orthologs between the endoparasitoid P. puparum and its relative, the ectoparasitoid Nasonia vitripennis. The developmental expression profiles of immune genes randomly selected from the transcriptome analysis were verified by a quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Our work provides comprehensive analyses of P. puparum immune genes, some of which may be exploited in advancing parasitoid-based biocontrol technologies.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Imunidade Inata/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Vespas/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Proteínas de Transporte/química , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Embrião não Mamífero/química , Embrião não Mamífero/metabolismo , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Insetos/química , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Larva/genética , Larva/metabolismo , Masculino , Filogenia , Pupa/genética , Pupa/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência , Vespas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vespas/metabolismo , Vespas/fisiologia
4.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 103(2): e21628, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599036

RESUMO

The multifunctional insect cuticle serves as the exoskeleton, determines body shape, restricts water loss, provides attachment sites for muscles and internal organs and is a formidable barrier to invaders. It is morphologically divided into three layers, including envelope, epicuticle, and procuticle and is composed of chitin and cuticular proteins (CPs). Annotation of CPs and their cognate genes may help understand the structure and functions of insect cuticles. In this paper, we interrogated the genome of Pteromalus puparum, an endoparasitoid wasp that parasitizes Pieris rapae and Papilio xuthus pupae, and identified 82 genes encoding CPs belonging to six CP families, including 62 in the CPR family, 8 in CPAP3, 5 in CPF/CPFL, 2 low complexity proteins, 2 in TWDL, and 3 in Apidermin. We used six RNA-seq libraries to determine CP gene expression profiles through development and compared the cuticle hydrophobicity between the P. puparum and the ectoparasitoid Nasonia vitripennis based on GRAVY values of CPR sequences. In the Nasonia-Pteromalus comparison, we found in both N. vitripennis and P. puparum, the peak of their CPR hydrophobicity displayed at their pupal stage, whereas their adult stage showed the lowest level. Except at the adult stage, the CPR hydrophobicity in N. vitripennis is always higher than P. puparum. Finally, we identified three novel Apidermin genes, a family found solely in Hymenoptera and revealed a new sequence feature of this family. This new information contributes to a broader understanding of insect CPs generally.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Vespas/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Embrião não Mamífero/química , Embrião não Mamífero/metabolismo , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Insetos/química , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Larva/genética , Larva/metabolismo , Masculino , Filogenia , Pupa/genética , Pupa/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Vespas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vespas/metabolismo
5.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 103(2): e21632, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621105

RESUMO

Biogenic amines (BAs), such as octopamine, tyramine, dopamine, serotonin, and acetylcholine regulate various behaviors and physiological functions in insects. Here, we identified seven genes encoding BA biosynthetic enzymes and 16 genes encoding BA G protein-coupled receptors in the genome of the endoparasitoid wasp, Pteromalus puparum. We compared the genes with their orthologs in its host Pieris rapae and the related ectoparasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis. All the genes show high (>90%) identity to orthologs in N. vitripennis. P. puparum and N. vitripennis have the smallest number of BA receptor genes among the insect species we investigated. We then analyzed the expression profiles of the genes, finding those acting in BA biosynthesis were highly expressed in adults and larvae and those encoding BA receptors are highly expressed in adults than immatures. Octα1R and 5-HT7 genes were highly expressed in salivary glands, and a high messenger RNA level of 5-HT1A was found in venom apparatuses. We infer that BA signaling is a fundamental component of the organismal organization, homeostasis and operation in parasitoids, some of the smallest insects.


Assuntos
Aminas Biogênicas/metabolismo , Borboletas/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Vespas/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Borboletas/química , Borboletas/metabolismo , Borboletas/parasitologia , Embrião não Mamífero/química , Embrião não Mamífero/metabolismo , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Proteínas de Insetos/química , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Larva/genética , Larva/metabolismo , Masculino , Filogenia , Pupa/genética , Pupa/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência , Vespas/enzimologia , Vespas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vespas/metabolismo
6.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 295(1): 107-120, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506717

RESUMO

The oriental gall wasp Dryocosmus kuriphilus represents a limiting pest for the European Chestnut (Castanea sativa, Fagaceae) as it creates severe yield losses. The European Chestnut is a deciduous tree, having major social, economic and environmental importance in Southern Europe, covering an area of 2.53 million hectares, including 75,000 ha devoted to fruit production. Cultivars show different susceptibility and very few are resistant to gall wasp. To deeply investigate the plant response and understand which factors can lead the plant to develop or not the gall, the study of transcriptome is basic (fundamental). To date, little transcriptomic information are available for C. sativa species. Hence, we present a de novo assembly of the chestnut transcriptome of the resistant Euro-Japanese hybrid 'Bouche de Bétizac' (BB) and the susceptible cultivar 'Madonna' (M), collecting RNA from buds at different stages of budburst. The two transcriptomes were assembled into 34,081 (BB) and 30,605 (M) unigenes, respectively. The former was used as a reference sequence for further characterization analyses, highlighting the presence of 1444 putative resistance gene analogs (RGAs) and about 1135 unigenes, as putative MiRNA targets. A global quantitative transcriptome profiling comparing the resistant and the susceptible cultivars, in the presence or not of the gall wasp, revealed some GO enrichments as "response to stimulus" (GO:0050896), and "developmental processes" (e.g., post-embryonic development, GO:0009791). Many up-regulated genes appeared to be transcription factors (e.g., RAV1, AP2/ERF, WRKY33) or protein regulators (e.g., RAPTOR1B) and storage proteins (e.g., LEA D29) involved in "post-embryonic development". Our analysis was able to provide a large amount of information, including 7k simple sequence repeat (SSR) and 335k single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)/INDEL markers, and generated the first reference unigene catalog for the European Chestnut. The transcriptome data for C. sativa will contribute to understand the genetic basis of the resistance to gall wasp and will provide useful information for next molecular genetic studies of this species and its relatives.


Assuntos
Fagaceae/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Vespas/patogenicidade , Animais , Europa (Continente) , Fagaceae/parasitologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Anotação de Sequência Molecular/métodos , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Árvores/genética , Árvores/parasitologia , Regulação para Cima/genética
7.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 103(2): e21625, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31565815

RESUMO

In insects, neuropeptides constitute a group of signaling molecules that act in regulation of multiple physiological and behavioral processes by binding to their corresponding receptors. On the basis of the bioinformatic approaches, we screened the genomic and transcriptomic data of the parasitoid wasp, Pteromalus puparum, and annotated 36 neuropeptide precursor genes and 33 neuropeptide receptor genes. Compared to the number of precursor genes in Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera), Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera), Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera), Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera), Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera), and Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera), P. puparum (Hymenoptera) has the lowest number of neuropeptide precursor genes. This lower number may relate to its parasitic life cycle. Transcriptomic data of embryos, larvae, pupae, adults, venom glands, salivary glands, ovaries, and the remaining carcass revealed stage-, sex-, and tissue-specific expression patterns of the neuropeptides, and their receptors. These data provided basic information about the identity and expression profiles of neuropeptides and their receptors that are required to functionally address their biological significance in an endoparasitoid wasp.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Neuropeptídeos/genética , Receptores de Neuropeptídeos/genética , Vespas/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Embrião não Mamífero/química , Embrião não Mamífero/metabolismo , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Insetos/química , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Larva/genética , Larva/metabolismo , Masculino , Neuropeptídeos/química , Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , Filogenia , Pupa/genética , Pupa/metabolismo , Receptores de Neuropeptídeos/química , Receptores de Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência , Vespas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vespas/metabolismo
9.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 103(2): e21635, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31625210

RESUMO

Among insects, lifespans vary over a broad range, from the short-lived mayflies to the 17-year periodical cicadas. Generally, lifespans are determined by a phase in life, the reproductive lifespan, which varies among species. Numerous pathways, such as the insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling pathway, the target of rapamycin pathway and the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinases pathways, influence aging and lifespan. Components of these pathways were identified as lifespan-related genes, including genes mediating growth, metabolism, development, resistance, and other processes. Many age-related genes have been discovered in fruit flies, honeybees, and ants among other insect species. Studies of insect aging and longevity can help understand insect biology and develop new pest management technologies. In this paper, we interrogated the new Pteromalus puparum genome, from which we predicted 133 putative lifespan-related genes based on their homology with known lifespan-related genes of Drosophila melanogaster. These genes function in five signaling pathways and three physiological processes. The conserved domain structures of these genes were predicted and their expression patterns were analyzed. Amino acid sequence alignments and domain structure analysis indicate that most components remain conserved across at least six insect orders. The data in this paper will facilitate future work on parasitoid lifespans, which may have economic value in biocontrol programs.


Assuntos
Genoma de Inseto , Longevidade/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Transcriptoma , Vespas/fisiologia , Animais , Vespas/genética
10.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 103(2): e21634, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587360

RESUMO

Pteromalus puparum is a gregarious pupal endoparasitoid with a wide host range. It deposits eggs into pierid and papilionid butterfly pupae. Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a family of multifunctional detoxification enzymes that act in xenobiotic metabolism in insects. Insect genome projects have facilitated identification and characterization of GST family members. We identified 20 putative GSTs in the P. puparum genome, including 19 cytosolic and one microsomal. Phylogenetic analysis showed that P. puparum GSTs are clustered into Hymenoptera-specific branches. Transcriptomic data of embryos, larvae, female pupae, male pupae, female adults, male adults, venom glands, carcass, salivary glands, and ovaries revealed stage-, sex-, and tissue-specific expression patterns of GSTs in P. puparum. This is the most comprehensive study of genome-wide identification, characterization, and expression profiling of GST family in hymenopterans. Our results provide valuable information for understanding the metabolic adaptation of this wasp.


Assuntos
Glutationa Transferase/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Vespas/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Embrião não Mamífero/química , Embrião não Mamífero/metabolismo , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Glutationa Transferase/química , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/química , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Larva/genética , Larva/metabolismo , Masculino , Filogenia , Pupa/genética , Pupa/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência , Vespas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vespas/metabolismo
11.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 103(2): e21633, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587364

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a form of endogenous small noncoding RNAs that regulate protein-coding gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. So far, knowledge of miRNAs in parasitoids remains rudimentary. We investigated miRNAs in Pteromalus puparum, a pupal endoparasitoid wasp with genome and transcriptome sequences completed. In this study, we constructed eight small RNA libraries from selected developmental stages and genders: male embryos, male larvae, male pupae, male adults, mixed-sex embryos, mixed-sex larvae, mixed-sex pupae, and female adults. We identified 254 mature miRNAs with 5p/3p arm features originated from 75 known and 119 novel miRNA genes in P. puparum, 88 of which reside in 26 clusters. The miRNAs in more than half of the clusters exhibit a consistent expression pattern, indicating they were co-transcribed from a long transcript. Comparing miRNA expression in the eight libraries, we found that 84 mature miRNAs were differentially expressed between embryos and larvae, 20 between larvae and pupae, and 26 between pupae and adults. We found some miRNAs were differentially expressed between sexes in embryos (10), larvae (29), pupae (8), and adults (14). Target predictions resulted in 211,571 miRNA-mRNA interactions for 254 different mature miRNAs. These miRNAs may be involved in sexual and developmental regulation of gene expression.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Vespas/genética , Animais , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/metabolismo , Masculino , MicroRNAs/química , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Pupa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pupa/metabolismo , Vespas/química , Vespas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vespas/metabolismo
12.
Insect Sci ; 27(1): 122-132, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29659142

RESUMO

Although the Neotropical territorially dominant arboreal ant Azteca chartifex Forel is very aggressive towards any intruder, its populous colonies tolerate the close presence of the fierce polistine wasp Polybia rejecta (F.). In French Guiana, 83.33% of the 48 P. rejecta nests recorded were found side by side with those of A. chartifex. This nesting association results in mutual protection from predators (i.e., the wasps protected from army ants; the ants protected from birds). We conducted field studies, laboratory-based behavioral experiments and chemical analyses to elucidate the mechanisms allowing the persistence of this association. Due to differences in the cuticular profiles of the two species, we eliminated the possibility of chemical mimicry. Also, analyses of the carton nests did not reveal traces of marking on the envelopes. Because ant forager flows were not perturbed by extracts from the wasps' Dufour's and venom glands, we rejected any hypothetical action of repulsive chemicals. Nevertheless, we noted that the wasps "scraped" the surface of the upper part of their nest envelope using their mandibles, likely removing the ants' scent trails, and an experiment showed that ant foragers were perturbed by the removal of their scent trails. This leads us to use the term "erasure hypothesis." Thus, this nesting association persists thanks to a relative tolerance by the ants towards wasp presence and the behavior of the wasps that allows them to "contain" their associated ants through the elimination of their scent trails, direct attacks, "wing-buzzing" behavior and ejecting the ants.


Assuntos
Formigas/fisiologia , Comportamento de Nidação , Vespas/fisiologia , Agressão , Animais , Guiana Francesa , Territorialidade , Árvores
13.
Insect Sci ; 27(1): 170-184, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29938899

RESUMO

Elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO2 can alter plant secondary metabolites, which play important roles in the interactions among plants, herbivorous insects and natural enemies. However, few studies have examined the cascading effects of host plant secondary metabolites on tri-trophic interactions under elevated CO2 (eCO2 ). In this study, we determined the effects of eCO2 on the growth and foliar phenolics of Medicago truncatula and the cascading effects on two color genotypes of Acyrthosiphon pisum (pink vs. green) and their parasitoid Aphidius avenae in the field open-top chambers. Our results showed that eCO2 increased photosynthetic rate, nodule number, yield and the total phenolic content of M. truncatula. eCO2 had contrasting effects on two genotypes of A. pisum; the green genotype demonstrated increased population abundance, fecundity, growth and feeding efficiency, while the pink genotype showed decreased fitness and these were closely associated with the foliar genstein content. Furthermore, eCO2 decreased the parasitic rate of A. avenae independent of aphid genotypes. eCO2 prolonged the emergence time and reduced the emergence rate and percentage of females when associated with the green genotype, but little difference, except for increased percentage of females, was observed in A. avenae under eCO2 when associated with the pink genotype, indicating that parasitoids can perceive and discriminate the qualities of aphid hosts. We concluded that eCO2 altered plant phenolics and thus the performance of aphids and parasitoids. Our results indicate that plant phenolics vary by different abiotic and biotic stimuli and could potentially deliver the cascading effects of eCO2 to the higher trophic levels. Our results also suggest that the green genotype is expected to perform better in future eCO2 because of decreased plant resistance after its infestation and decreased parasitic rate.


Assuntos
Afídeos/fisiologia , Afídeos/parasitologia , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Medicago truncatula/química , Fenóis/metabolismo , Vespas/fisiologia , Animais , Afídeos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Herbivoria , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia , Ninfa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ninfa/parasitologia , Ninfa/fisiologia , Vespas/crescimento & desenvolvimento
14.
J Chem Ecol ; 45(11-12): 982-992, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31784860

RESUMO

Plants have evolved intricate defence strategies against herbivore attack which can include activation of defence in response to stress-related volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by neighbouring plants. VOCs released by intact molasses grass (Melinis minutiflora), have been shown to repel stemborer, Chilo partellus (Swinhoe), from maize and enhance parasitism by Cotesia sesamiae (Cameron). In this study, we tested whether the molasses grass VOCs have a role in plant-plant communication by exposing different maize cultivars to molasses grass for a 3-week induction period and then observing insect responses to the exposed plants. In bioassays, C. partellus preferred non-exposed maize landrace plants for egg deposition to those exposed to molasses grass. Conversely, C. sesamiae parasitoid wasps preferred volatiles from molasses grass exposed maize landraces compared to volatiles from unexposed control plants. Interestingly, the molasses grass induced defence responses were not observed on hybrid maize varieties tested, suggesting that the effect was not simply due to absorption and re-emission of VOCs. Chemical and electrophysiological analyses revealed strong induction of bioactive compounds such as (R)-linalool, (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene and (E,E)-4,8,12-trimethyl-1,3,7,11-tridecatetraene from maize landraces exposed to molasses grass volatiles. Our results suggest that constitutively emitted molasses grass VOCs can induce direct and indirect defence responses in neighbouring maize landraces. Plants activating defences by VOC exposure alone could realize enhanced levels of resistance and fitness compared to those that launch defence responses upon herbivore attack. Opportunities for exploiting plant-plant signalling to develop ecologically sustainable crop protection strategies against devastating insect pests such as stemborer C. partellus are discussed.


Assuntos
Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Zea mays/metabolismo , /química , Animais , Produtos Agrícolas , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Herbivoria , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Melaço , Mariposas/parasitologia , Oviposição/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Vespas/fisiologia , Zea mays/parasitologia
15.
Biol Lett ; 15(12): 20190572, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847747

RESUMO

Phenological differences between host plants can promote temporal isolation among host-associated populations of insects with life cycles tightly coupled to plant phenology. Divergence in the timing of spring budbreak between two sympatric sister oak species has been shown to promote temporal isolation between host plants and their host-associated populations of a cynipid gall wasp. Here, we examined the generality of this mechanism by testing the hypothesis of cascading temporal isolation for five additional gall-formers and three natural enemy species associated with these same oak species. The timing of adult emergence from galls differed significantly between host-associated populations for all nine species and parallels the direction of the phenological differences between host plants. Differences in emergence timing can reduce gene flow between host-associated populations by diminishing mating opportunities and/or reducing the fitness of immigrants due to differences in the availability of ephemeral resources. Our study suggests that cascading temporal isolation could be a powerful 'biodiversity generator' across multiple trophic levels in tightly coupled plant-insect systems.


Assuntos
Insetos , Vespas , Animais , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Plantas , Simpatria
16.
Zootaxa ; 4612(3): zootaxa.4612.3.7, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717056

RESUMO

New additions to the knowledge of the subfamily Eumeninae in Russia are provided. Leptochilus (Lionotulus) leleji Fateryga, sp. nov. is described from Altai Republic. Males of Ancistrocerus hangaicus Kurzenko, 1977 and Jucancistrocerus (Eremodynerus) minutepunctatus Giordani Soika, 1970 are described for the first time; the latter species is transferred from the nominotypical subgenus to the subgenus Eremodynerus Blüthgen, 1939. The genus Tachyancistrocerus Giordani Soika, 1952 and six species of eumenine wasps are reported from Russia for the first time: Discoelius pictus Kostylev, 1940a, Euodynerus (Euodynerus) curictensis Blüthgen, 1940, E. (E.) hellenicus Blüthgen, 1942, E. (E.) rufinus Blüthgen, 1942, Eustenancistrocerus (Eustenancistrocerus) jerichoensis (von Schulthess, 1928), and Tachyancistrocerus schmidti (Kokujev, 1913); E. hellenicus is also reported from Georgia and Azerbaijan. New regional records for nine species are reported. Three species are excluded from the fauna of Russia: Eustenancistrocerus (Eustenancistrocerus) tegularis (Morawitz, 1885), Odynerus (Odynerus) tristis (Blüthgen, 1939), and Stenodynerus aequisculptus (Kostylev, 1940b). The known fauna of Russia now numbers 34 genera and 162 species of eumenine wasps.


Assuntos
Himenópteros , Vespas , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Azerbaijão , Georgia , Masculino , Federação Russa
17.
Zootaxa ; 4609(3): zootaxa.4609.3.12, 2019 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717102

RESUMO

A new species of Limaytilla from Argentina is described and illustrated based on males, L. diaguita Torréns Fidalgo sp. nov.. Diagnoses for both sexes of the genus and an illustrated key for the Argentinian species are provided as well as new record data for L. pampa Casal and L. pehuenche Casal. Habitus photographs of all Argentinian species and L. orlandoi Cambra, Quintero Pagliano from Chile, are also provided.


Assuntos
Himenópteros , Vespas , Animais , Argentina , Chile , Feminino , Masculino
18.
Zootaxa ; 4609(2): zootaxa.4609.2.1, 2019 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717104

RESUMO

Four species of velvet ants (Mutillidae) were reared from nests of solitary bees and wasps collected using trap nests in southwest Australia and identified using morphological and DNA barcoding approaches. All four species, Aglaotilla micra sp. nov., A. lathronymphos sp. nov., A. chalcea sp. nov. and A. schadophaga sp. nov., are described as new, the last three from both sexes. A. micra, A. lathronymphos and A. chalcea are parasitoids of wasps in the genera Pison and Aulacophilinus (Crabronidae), with A. chalcea also recorded from Paralastor (Vespidae). Aglaotilla schadophaga is a parasitoid of bees in the genus Megachile (Megachilidae). The biologies and known hosts of Australian Mutillidae are reviewed. Photographs are also provided of type material for Ephutomorpha aeneidorsis Turner, 1914 (=Aglaotilla discolor Brothers, 2018), Mutilla metallica Smith, 1855 and Ephutomorpha subelegans Rayment, 1933. The lectotype of E. subelegans is formally designated.


Assuntos
Formigas , Himenópteros , Vespas , Animais , Austrália , Abelhas , Biologia , Feminino , Masculino
19.
Zootaxa ; 4609(1): zootaxa.4609.1.7, 2019 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717123

RESUMO

Two female Thraxan sp. (Diptera: Bombyliidae: Anthracinae) emerged from parasitised Pison simillimum Smith (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae) larvae found inside a Sceliphron formosum Smith (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae) mud wasps nest. Thraxan sp. larvae are endoparasites of P. simillimum larvae. The endoparasite pupates inside the host larva, kills it, and emerges free of the host body. We describe and illustrate the pupal exuviae of the newly found species and two known species, T. luteus Yeates Lambkin and T. misatulus Yeates Lambkin, and we compare these pupal exuviae to those of Anthrax Scopoli.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Himenópteros , Parasitos , Vespas , Animais , Feminino , Larva , Pupa
20.
Zootaxa ; 4609(1): zootaxa.4609.1.9, 2019 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717125

RESUMO

 Some polysphinctine wasps of the genus Zatypota complete their life cycles upon theridiid host spiders. The host range of these wasps is usually species-specific, although in some less common associations more than one wasp species interacts with the same host spider. Here we describe and illustrate the polysphinctine wasps Zatypota baezae sp. n. and Zatypota mulunguensis sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), both koinobiont ectoparasitoids of the spider Anelosimus baeza (Theridiidae). The two parasitoid wasps show the same development time (12 days) which was longer when compared with other parasitoid wasps Z. anomala Holmgren and Z. riverai Gauld (nine days). As described for other species of Zatypota and Hymenoepimecis, the second larval instar remains attached to the spider by the remains of the chorion and also by a rigid brownish-semitransparent membrane called a saddle.


Assuntos
Himenópteros , Aranhas , Vespas , Animais , Brasil , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Larva
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