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1.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 33(1): 105-108, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33565411

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the predictive value of MB isoenzyme of creatine kinase (CK-MB) and poisoning severity score (PSS) in the clinical prognosis of patients with wasp sting. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted. The clinical data of patients who were stung by wasps admitted to emergency department of the First Affiliated Hospital of Henan University of Science and Technology from July 2017 to November 2019 were collected. The 24-hour acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II), CK-MB and PSS scores of the patients were collected after admission, and 28-day outcome was recorded. Spearman correlation analysis method was used to analyze the correlation between CK-MB and PSS score. Logistic regression model was used to construct joint predictors, and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was drawn to evaluate the predictive value of various indicators for 28-day prognosis of patients with wasp stings. RESULTS: Finally 90 patients were included in the analysis. There were 67 patients survived at 28 days, and 23 dead with the 28-day mortality of 25.6%. APACHE II score, CK-MB and PSS score in the death group were significantly higher than those in the survival group [APACHE II score: 19.7±2.7 vs. 13.7±2.3, CK-MB (U/L): 183 (151, 243) vs. 36 (21, 75), PSS score: 17.7±2.6 vs. 9.3±4.5, all P < 0.01]. The correlation analysis showed that CK-MB and PSS score were positively correlated (r = 0.843, P < 0.01). Logistic regression model fitted CK-MB and PSS score, and Hosmer-Lemeshow test showed that the model fitted well. ROC curve analysis showed that the area under ROC curve (AUC) of CK-MB for predicting 28-day outcome was 0.957, the sensitivity was 91.3%, and the specificity was 88.1%; the AUC of PSS score was 0.908, the sensitivity was 91.3%, and the specificity was 90.8%. The AUC of CK-MB combined with PSS score was 0.964, the sensitivity was 100%, and the specificity was 79.4%, indicating that CK-MB combined with PSS score had higher predictive value and higher sensitivity for 28-day prognosis of patients with wasp sting. CONCLUSIONS: High CK-MB level and high PSS score in early stage of wasp sting injury indicate poor prognosis. Both CK-MB and PSS score can be used as predictors for predicting the prognosis of patients with wasp stings. In addition, CK-MB combined with PSS score have greater predictive value.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas , Sepse , Vespas , Animais , Creatina Quinase , Humanos , Isoenzimas , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos
2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 718, 2021 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33531484

RESUMO

Ficus (figs) and their agaonid wasp pollinators present an ecologically important mutualism that also provides a rich comparative system for studying functional co-diversification throughout its coevolutionary history (~75 million years). We obtained entire nuclear, mitochondrial, and chloroplast genomes for 15 species representing all major clades of Ficus. Multiple analyses of these genomic data suggest that hybridization events have occurred throughout Ficus evolutionary history. Furthermore, cophylogenetic reconciliation analyses detect significant incongruence among all nuclear, chloroplast, and mitochondrial-based phylogenies, none of which correspond with any published phylogenies of the associated pollinator wasps. These findings are most consistent with frequent host-switching by the pollinators, leading to fig hybridization, even between distantly related clades. Here, we suggest that these pollinator host-switches and fig hybridization events are a dominant feature of fig/wasp coevolutionary history, and by generating novel genomic combinations in the figs have likely contributed to the remarkable diversity exhibited by this mutualism.


Assuntos
Ficus/fisiologia , Vespas/fisiologia , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Hibridização Genética , Filogenia , Polinização/fisiologia , Simbiose/fisiologia
3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 775, 2021 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33536437

RESUMO

Phenotypic plasticity, the ability to produce multiple phenotypes from a single genotype, represents an excellent model with which to examine the relationship between gene expression and phenotypes. Analyses of the molecular foundations of phenotypic plasticity are challenging, however, especially in the case of complex social phenotypes. Here we apply a machine learning approach to tackle this challenge by analyzing individual-level gene expression profiles of Polistes dominula paper wasps following the loss of a queen. We find that caste-associated gene expression profiles respond strongly to queen loss, and that this change is partly explained by attributes such as age but occurs even in individuals that appear phenotypically unaffected. These results demonstrate that large changes in gene expression may occur in the absence of outwardly detectable phenotypic changes, resulting here in a socially mediated de-differentiation of individuals at the transcriptomic level but not at the levels of ovarian development or behavior.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Comportamento Social , Transcriptoma/genética , Vespas/genética , Algoritmos , Animais , Feminino , Ontologia Genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Fenótipo
4.
J Insect Sci ; 21(1)2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33580255

RESUMO

Insecticides can have consequences for beneficial arthropods. Insect parasitoids can contact insecticides through direct exposure spray droplets or residues on crop foliage. Here, we focus on better understand the response of Meteorus pulchricornis (Wesmael), a parasitoid wasp of lepidopteran pests, and its detoxification mechanisms on stress caused by phoxim and cypermethrin. Hence, we determined the dose-mortality curves and estimating the sublethal concentrations (LC30 and LC50). Then, we applied the sublethal concentrations against adult parasitoids to assess its survival, parasitism efficacy, and also developmental and morphometric parameters of their offspring. Simultaneously, we check the activities of glutathione S-transferase (GST), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and peroxidase (POD) after sublethal exposure of both insecticides, which has measured until 48 h after treatment. Overall, phoxim and cypermethrin exhibited acute lethal activity toward the parasitoid with LC50 values 4.608 and 8.570 mg/liter, respectively. Also, we detect that LC30 was able to trigger the enzymatic activity of GST, AChE, and POD, suggesting a potential detoxification mechanism. However, even when subjected to sublethal exposure, our results indicate strong negatives effects, in particular for phoxim, which has affected the parasitism efficacy and also the developmental and morphometric parameters of M. pulchricornis offspring. Therefore, it can be concluded that both phoxim and cypermethrin have negative impacts on M. pulchricornis and we suggest cautioning their use and the need for semifield and field assessments to confirm such an impact.


Assuntos
Inseticidas/toxicidade , Compostos Organotiofosforados/toxicidade , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Spodoptera/parasitologia , Vespas/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Vespas/fisiologia
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(4): e24492, 2021 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530269

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Multiple wasp stings is an emergency result from systemic reactions to the toxin with a wide range of manifestations, and we presented 2 patients with distinct clinical and transcriptomic findings. PATIENT CONCERNS: Two patients without systemic disease presented with nearly 90 painful papules after attacked by a swarm of wasps (Vespa basalis). DIAGNOSIS: Patient 1 was a 44-year-old healthy male whose clinical manifestations mainly comprised hemolysis, hepatic injury, rhabdomyolysis, and acute kidney injury. Patient 2 was a 49-year-old healthy female who presented with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in addition to certain clinical manifestations that were also found in patient 1. We used ribo- nucleic acid sequencing (RNA-Seq) to characterize the inflammatory responses of 2 patients with distinct clinical manifestations after multiple wasp stings. INTERVENTIONS: Both 2 patients received 5 sessions of plasmapheresis, and patient-1 further received mechanical ventilation for 8 days as well as 8 sessions of hemodialysis until day 17. OUTCOMES: Both patients recovered uneventfully after the aforementioned management. We used RNA-Seq to demonstrate a largely regulated neutrophil-predominated immune response in patient 1. In patient 2, we found a profound neutrophilc response on week 1 and a robust neutrophilic as well as pro-inflammatory responses on week 2. Furthermore, we found increased expression of signals that were associated with renal system process on week 2. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, we report 2 patients who manifested with shared and distinct presentations after an attack by the same swarm of wasps. Both patients had hemolysis, rhabdomyolysis, hepatic injury and acute kidney injury, and 1 patient had ARDS. The whole transcriptomic analyses were consistent with the distinct clinical manifestation, and these results suggest the potential of RNA-Sequencing to disentangle complex inflammatory responses in patients with multiple wasp stings. Plasmapheresis and corticosteroid were administered to both patients and case 2 also underwent 8 sessions of hemodialysis.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/complicações , Venenos de Vespas/efeitos adversos , Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/imunologia , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plasmaferese , Rabdomiólise/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Venenos de Vespas/imunologia , Vespas
6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 234, 2021 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33431897

RESUMO

Parasitoids are ubiquitous in natural ecosystems. Parasitic strategies are highly diverse among parasitoid species, yet their underlying genetic bases are poorly understood. Here, we focus on the divergent adaptation of a specialist and a generalist drosophilid parasitoids. We find that a novel protein (Lar) enables active immune suppression by lysing the host lymph glands, eventually leading to successful parasitism by the generalist. Meanwhile, another novel protein (Warm) contributes to a passive strategy by attaching the laid eggs to the gut and other organs of the host, leading to incomplete encapsulation and helping the specialist escape the host immune response. We find that these diverse parasitic strategies both originated from lateral gene transfer, followed with duplication and specialization, and that they might contribute to the shift in host ranges between parasitoids. Our results increase our understanding of how novel gene functions originate and how they contribute to host adaptation.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Parasitos/fisiologia , Estruturas Animais/metabolismo , Animais , Drosophila/parasitologia , Genoma de Inseto , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Imunidade , Masculino , Mucinas/química , Filogenia , Domínios Proteicos , Especificidade da Espécie , Vespas/genética , Vespas/imunologia , Vespas/fisiologia
8.
Pest Manag Sci ; 77(1): 224-233, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673424

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parasitoid wasps are valuable natural enemies for controlling pests. To ensure successful parasitism, these wasps inject venoms along with their eggs that are deposited either into or on their hosts. Parasitoid venoms regulate host behaviors, development, metabolism and immune responses. Pteromalus puparum is a pupal endoparasitoid that parasitizes a number of butterflies, including the worldwide pest cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae. Venom from P. puparum has a variety of effects on host hemocytes, including alteration of absolute and relative hemocyte counts, and inhibition of hemocyte spreading and encapsulation. In particular, P. puparum venom causes hemocyte cell death in vivo and in vitro. RESULTS: Using assay-guided chromatography, a cell death-inducing venom fraction was identified and defined as P. puparum endonuclease-like venom protein (PpENVP). It belongs to the DNA/RNA nonspecific endonuclease family, which contains two conserved endonuclease activation sites. We analyzed its expression profiles and demonstrated that PpENVP inhibits gene expression in transfected cells relying on two activation sites. However, RNA interference of PpENVP did not significantly reduce P. puparum venom cytotoxicity, suggesting that PpENVP may not be the sole cytotoxic factor present. CONCLUSION: Our results provide novel insight into the function of the P. puparum venom cocktail and identify a promising insecticide candidate endonuclease that targets insect hemocytes.


Assuntos
Borboletas , Vespas , Animais , Morte Celular , Endonucleases , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Pupa
9.
Pest Manag Sci ; 77(1): 502-509, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816401

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: (E)-4,8-dimethylnona-1,3,7-triene (DMNT), one of the homoterpenes, is thought to contribute to plant indirect defense against insect herbivores. DMNT-enriched plants have great application potential to regulate insect behavior in the 'push & pull' strategy of pest management. However, de novo biosynthesis of DMNT in plants without a homoterpene metabolic pathway in their wild type is still not achieved, and the role of DMNT played in these plants and their interacted insects remains unclear. RESULTS: Cytochrome P450s and terpene synthases involved in homoterpenes biosynthesis in cotton plants were employed to generate DMNT-releasing tobacco plants. Single GhTPS14 transgenic Nicotiana tabacum only emitted (E)-nerolidol, the precursor of DMNT. Transgenic tobaccos expressing single GhCYP82Ls were unable to produce DMNT or TMTT, while DMNT was detected when exogenous (E)-nerolidol was added. Compared to wild-type plants, only co-expression of GhCYP82Ls and GhTPS14 in transgenic tobaccos triggered the constitutive release of single-component DMNT. Furthermore, DMNT-emitting transgenic tobacco plants, whether infested with Helicoverpa armigera larvae or not, significantly incited orientation behavior of parasitoid wasps Microplitis mediator. CONCLUSION: Wild type N. tabacum plants have no DMNT metabolic pathway. DMNT could be de novo biosynthesized via co-expression of GhCYP82Ls and GhTPS14. What is more, the parasitoid wasp M. mediator could be recruited by DMNT-releasing transgenic tobaccos, especially by H. armigera-infested transgenic tobaccos, suggesting the potential roles of engineered N. tabacum in regulating the behavioral preference of M. mediator.


Assuntos
Vespas , Animais , Herbivoria , Insetos , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Tabaco/genética , Vespas/genética
10.
Pest Manag Sci ; 77(1): 104-112, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841491

RESUMO

BACKGOUND: Biological invasions are a global concern in agriculture, food production and biodiversity. Among the invasive species, some hornets are known to have serious effects on honey bees, as found during the invasion of Vespa velutina in Europe. The recent findings of Vespa mandarinia individuals in Washington state in the west coast of the USA have raised alarm in the whole country. Here we estimate the potential spread of V. mandarinia in the USA, analyzing its potential impacts on honey bee colonies, economic losses in the honey bee industry and bee-pollinated croplands. RESULTS: We found that V. mandarinia could colonize Washington and Oregon states in the west coast and a significant proportion of the east coast. If this species spread across the country, it could threaten 95 216 ± 5551 honey bee colonies, threatening an estimated income of US$11.9 and 101.8 million for hive derived products and bee-pollinated crops production, respectively, while colonizing 60 837.8 km2 of bee-pollinated croplands. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that V. mandarinia will have serious effects in the USA, raising the need for prompt monitoring actions and planning at different administrative levels to avoid its potential spread.


Assuntos
Vespas , Animais , Abelhas , Europa (Continente) , Espécies Introduzidas , Oregon , Estados Unidos , Washington
11.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0242486, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326432

RESUMO

Paper wasps (Polistes dominula), parasitized by the strepsipteran Xenos vesparum, are castrated and desert the colony to gather on plants where the parasite mates and releases primary larvae, thus completing its lifecycle. One of these plants is the trumpet creeper Campsis radicans: in a previous study the majority of all wasps collected from this plant were parasitized and focused their foraging activity on C. radicans buds. The unexpected prevalence and unusual feeding strategy prompted us to investigate the influence of this plant on wasp behavior and physiology through a multidisciplinary approach. First, in a series of laboratory bioassays, we observed that parasitized wasps spent more time than non-parasitized ones on fresh C. radicans buds, rich of extra-floral nectaries (EFNs), while the same wasps ignored treated buds that lacked nectar drops. Then, we described the structure and ultra-structure of EFNs secreting cells, compatible with the synthesis of phenolic compounds. Subsequently, we analysed extracts from different bud tissues by HPLC-DAD-MS and found that verbascoside was the most abundant bioactive molecule in those tissues rich in EFNs. Finally, we tested the immune-stimulant properties of verbascoside, as the biochemical nature of this compound indicates it might function as an antibacterial and antioxidant. We measured bacterial clearance in wasps, as a proxy for overall immune competence, and observed that it was enhanced after administration of verbascoside-even more so if the wasp was parasitized. We hypothesize that the parasite manipulates wasp behavior to preferentially feed on C. radicans EFNs, since the bioactive properties of verbascoside likely increase host survival and thus the parasite own fitness.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Holometábolos/fisiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Fenóis/farmacologia , Vespas/parasitologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Bignoniaceae/parasitologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucosídeos/química , Glucosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunocompetência , Larva/fisiologia , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Néctar de Plantas/química , Vespas/efeitos dos fármacos , Vespas/imunologia
12.
Zootaxa ; 4891(1): zootaxa.4891.1.1, 2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311100

RESUMO

New and unusual host records for 133 species and subspecies of Pompilidae predominantly from the southwestern United States, Mexico, Central America, and South America are presented in modified taxonomic order. First-time species host records are given for Calopompilus Ashmead, Pepsis Fabricius, Hemipepsis Dahlbom, Priocnessus Banks, Entypus Dahlbom, Pompilocalus Roig-Alsina, Sphictostethus Kohl, Auplopus Spinola, Ageniella Banks, Eragenia Banks, Aporus Spinola, Poecilopompilus Ashmead, Tachypompilus Ashmead, Anoplius Dufour, Priochilus (Fabricius) and Notocyphus Smith. New host spider families are introduced for Calopompilus, Pepsis, Hemipepsis, Priocnessus, Entypus, Cryptocheilus Panzer, Priocnemis Schiødte, Auplopus, Ageniella, Eragenia, Aporus, Tachypompilus, Anoplius, Priochilus and Notocyphus. Eight host spider families are reported from the Western Hemisphere for the first time: Halonoproctidae (Notocyphus dorsalis dorsalis Cresson); Dipluridae (Pepsis pretiosa Dahlbom, P. montezuma Smith, P. infuscate Spinola, P. atripennis Fabricius, P. martini Vardy, Priocnessus vancei Waichert and Pitts); Nemesiidae (Pepsis pallidolimbata Lucas, P. viridis Lepeletier, P. spp., Pompilocalus hirticeps (Guérin), Sphictostethus gravesii (Haliday), S. striatulus Roig-Alsina, Priocnemis oregona Banks); Barychelidae (Eragenia sp.); Paratropididae (Pepsis stella Montet); Trechaleidae (Hemipepsis toussainti (Banks), Entypus unifasciatus cressoni (Banks), Tachypompilus ferrugineus (Say), Tachypompilus unicolor cerinus Evans, Priochilus gloriosum (Cresson); Desidae (Ageniella accepta (Cresson), Sphictostethus isodontus Roig-Alsina) and Selenopidae (Priochilus scrupulum (Fox), Tachypompilus erubescens (Taschenberg) or xanthopterus (Rohwer)). The first known host records for the rare South American pompilid genera Chirodamus (Lycosidae: Lycosa sp.) and Herbstellus (Nemesiidae: Diplothelopsis cf bonariensis Mello-Leitão) are presented.


Assuntos
Himenópteros , Vespas , Animais
13.
Zootaxa ; 4885(4): zootaxa.4885.4.5, 2020 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311260

RESUMO

Taxonomy of eusocial wasps (Polistinae and Vespinae) occurring in Sulawesi Island, the central island of Wallacea, is reviewed. Sixteen (12 polistine and four vespine) species are recognized. Polistes (Polistella) stigma, known to be widely distributed in southern Asia and Australasia, is newly recorded for Sulawesi Island. A key to the Sulawesian eusocial wasp species is provided. Their biogeographical characteristics are discussed to show that the Sulawesian eusocial wasp fauna is composed of Oriental elements.


Assuntos
Himenópteros , Vespas , Animais , Indonésia , Ilhas
14.
Zootaxa ; 4884(1): zootaxa.4884.1.1, 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311298

RESUMO

The species of the genus Campyloneurus Szépligeti and Iphiaulax Foerster (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Braconinae) from China are revised and 32 species are recognized, including 14 new species (Campyloneurus brachyurus sp. nov., C. lasiofacialis sp. nov., C. longitergum sp. nov., C. longitudinalis sp. nov., C. micromacularis sp. nov., C. nigriventris sp. nov., C. promiscuus sp. nov., C. pachypus sp. nov., C. quadraticeps sp. nov., C. robusticella sp. nov., C. rugifacialis sp. nov., C. stigmosus sp. nov., C. tergipunctatus sp. nov. and Iphiaulax longinervis sp. nov.), which are described and fully illustrated. Campyloneurus kirbyi (Cameron, 1905) is reported from China for the first time. A key to taxonomically similar genera, Campyloneurus, Craspedolcus Enderlein, Cyanopterus Haliday, Iphiaulax and Maculibracon Li, van Achterberg Chen), and a key to the Chinese species of the genera Campyloneurus and Iphiaulax are provided.


Assuntos
Himenópteros , Vespas , Animais , China
15.
Zootaxa ; 4869(4): zootaxa.4869.4.3, 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311343

RESUMO

A new gall wasp species, Cerroneuroterus yukawamasudai Pujade-Villar Melika sp. nov., is described from China. The asexual generation induces leaf lenticular galls, and the sexual generation induces catkin galls on Q. acutissima and Q. variabilis. Sexual females and males are not described yet. Data on the diagnosis, distribution, and biology of the new species are provided, including a key to sexual and asexual females of all described Cerroneuroterus species. Previous misidentifications of host galls recorded in Japan are commented on. Molecular analyses were performed to assess the validity of the genus Cerroneuroterus and the affiliation of the new species.


Assuntos
Himenópteros , Vespas , Animais , Feminino , Folhas de Planta
16.
Zootaxa ; 4894(2): zootaxa.4894.2.9, 2020 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311088

RESUMO

Oxybelus lusitanicus spec. nov., a new European Crabronid wasp species is described and diagnosed. It is currently known only from two regions of Portugal. An amendment to the relevant section of Guichard's (1993) most recent English language key to European Oxybelus Latreille, 1796 is included.


Assuntos
Himenópteros , Vespas , Animais , Portugal
17.
Zootaxa ; 4890(4): zootaxa.4890.4.7, 2020 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311109

RESUMO

A new sexual form of a gallwasp, Andricus forni Pujade-Villar Nicholls n. sp., is described from China (Zhejiang province) based on males, females and galls collected on Quercus serrata. Data on the morphology, diagnosis, distribution and biology of the new species are provided. Molecular data are also provided to support this species. A key to Asian Andricus gallwasp species with similar integral leaf galls is presented. Finally we discuss the taxonomic status of Asian Andricus making these integral leaf galls, including uncertainty on the validity of both Andricus quercicola and A. marmoratus.


Assuntos
Himenópteros , Quercus , Vespas , Animais , China , Feminino , Folhas de Planta
18.
Zootaxa ; 4861(2): zootaxa.4861.2.7, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311227

RESUMO

Two new species of the genus Alysson Panzer, namely, A. bengalensis Girish Kumar sp. nov. and A. himachalensis Girish Kumar sp. nov. are described from the Indian Himalayas. Alysson triangularis Krombein, 1985 is reported here for the first time from India. Analysson rufescens Krombein, 1985 is reported here for the first time from Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand. A key to species of Alysson of the Indian subcontinent is provided.


Assuntos
Himenópteros , Vespas , Animais , Índia
19.
Zootaxa ; 4890(1): zootaxa.4890.1.3, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311244

RESUMO

An annotated list of Iranian digger wasps of the genus Tachysphex Kohl, 1883 (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Crabronidae) is presented based on the material collected in the southern part of the country and on data published from the period 1933-March 2020 (87 years). In all, 46 species of eight species-groups are documented (T. persa has two subspecies: T. persa persa Gussakovskij, 1933 and T. persa nigripes Pulawski, 1967). Of the eight species-groups, the pompiliformis species-group (17 species) and the panzer species-group (11 species) are the most species-rich, whereas the brevipennis species-group is represented by only one species. The following three species are newly recorded from Iran, all from Fars Province: T. helveticus Kohl, 1885, T. melas Kohl, 1898 and T. palopterus (Dahlbom, 1845). About 19 (41.30%) of the species included here are exclusively Palaearctic, whereas 15 species (32.61%) have wider distributions in the Afrotropical, Palaearctic and Oriental zoogeographic regions. Neighboring countries have many species that overlap with the Iranian Tachysphex fauna; Iran shares 36 species (78.20%) with Turkey, 28 species (60.86%) with Turkmenistan and 18 species (39.13%) with United Arab Emirates.


Assuntos
Himenópteros , Vespas , Animais , Abelhas , Irã (Geográfico)
20.
Zootaxa ; 4890(1): zootaxa.4890.1.10, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311251

RESUMO

The digger wasp genus Kohliella Brauns, 1910, a member of the tribe Larrini, subfamily Crabroninae of the family Crabronidae, is a rarely occurring genus comprising only three known species worldwide (Pulawski 1991; 2020). The genus has been recorded from the Ethiopian (South Africa and Zimbabwe; two species) and Oriental (Sri Lanka; one species) regions. Brauns (1910) erected the genus based on the type species Kohliella alaris from South Africa. The genus is characterized by a V-shaped swelling on the frons, an oblong tubercle on the mandible and a petiolate third submarginal cell of the forewing (Bohart Menke 1976; Pulawski 1991). The nesting habits are known only for Kohliella alaris. Gess and Gess (1980) studied the life history of this species. It preys on nymphal tree cricket Oecanthus filiger Walker, and nests in the ground in flat, sandy areas with sparse vegetation; nests are constructed prior to hunting. In this paper, Kohliella anula Pulawski, 1991, previously known from Sri Lanka only, is recorded for the first time from India.


Assuntos
Himenópteros , Vespas , Animais , Índia
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