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1.
Coimbra; s.n; 01-08-2020. tab.
Tese em Português | BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1119702

RESUMO

A farda clínica pode tornar-se um veículo de transmissão e de contaminação por microrganismos de elevada relevância epidemiológica, constituindo-se como foco para a disseminação de microrganismos patogénicos por utentes, profissionais e ambientes. Cabe ao enfermeiro gerir o seu vestuário tendo em conta os padrões de qualidade e as medidas de prevenção de contaminação e propagação de microrganismos, e assim, minimizar o risco de infeção. Com este estudo pretendeu-se verificar a relação existente entre os cuidados de enfermagem, em que há contato da farda clínica com o recém-nascido e criança pequena (até 3 anos), com o modo como é feita a gestão da farda clínica pelos enfermeiros e com os microrganismos presentes na mesma. Trata-se de um estudo quantitativo, descritivo-correlacional transversal, uma amostra de 24 enfermeiros, aos quais foram aplicados questionários e realizadas colheitas microbiológicas das fardas clínicas. As bactérias encontradas nas fardas clínicas foram: Staphylococcus Aureus; outras bactérias do grupo Staphylococcus; bactérias do grupo dos bacilos; bactérias do grupo Streptococcus e Acinetobacter baumannii, sendo as regiões com maior percentagem de microrganismos as do abdómen e tórax à esquerda. Verificou-se existir relação estatística significativa entre os cuidados de enfermagem de contato ao recém-nascido e/ou criança pequena e o risco de contaminação microbiológica, nomeadamente entre: O método de canguru ou colo para conforto e a presença das bactérias Acinetobacter Baumannii e Streptococcus; O colo para transporte, contenção, ou outro, e a presença da bactéria Acinetobacter Baumannii; Outros cuidados referidos pelos enfermeiros e a presença de bactérias do grupo de Outros Bacilos. Conclui-se haver necessidade de, no contexto profissional de saúde infantil e pediatria, uniformizar práticas e comportamentos adequados dos profissionais. Recomenda-se o uso de Equipamentos de Proteção Individual descartáveis e a mudança diária da farda clínica. As instituições devem garantir o adequado tratamento das fardas clínicas.


The clinical uniform may become a vehicle for transmission and contamination by microorganisms of high epidemiological relevance, and contribute to the spread of pathogenic microorganisms to different users and environments. It is up to the nurse to manage his clinical uniform taking into account quality standards and measures to prevent the contamination and spread of microoganisms, and thus minimize the risk of infection. This study aims to verify the relationship between nursing care, where the clinical uniform is in contact with the newborn and small child (up to 3 years) with the way the management of the clinical uniform is done by nurses and the microorganisms present in it. This is a quantitative, descriptive-correlational cross-sectional study, with an accessible population of 24 nurses, to whom questionnaires were applied and microbiological samples of the clinical uniforms were collected. The bacteria found in the clinical uniforms were: Staphylococcus Aureus; other bacteria from the Staphylococcus group; bacteria from the bacilli group; Streptococcus and Acinetobacter baumannii, the regions with the highest percentage of microorganisms being those of the abdomen and chest on the left. There was a significant statistical relationship between the nursing care of contact with the newborn and/or young child and the risk of microbiological contamination, particularly between them: The kangaroo or colon method for comfort and the bacteria Acinetobacter Baumannii and Streptococcus; The colon for transport, containment, or other, and the bacteria Acinetobacter Baumannii; Other care referred by nurses and bacteria from the group of Other Bacilli. It is concluded that there is a need, in the professional context of children's health and pediatrics, to standardize practices and behaviors of professionals. The use of disposable Personal Protective Equipment is recommended, as well as a minimum daily change in the clinical uniform. Institutions should also guarantee the appropriate treatment of clinical uniforms.


Assuntos
Recém-Nascido , Criança , Vestuário , Poluição Ambiental , Infecções , Cuidados de Enfermagem
2.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1262: 59-94, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32613580

RESUMO

Smoking is a harmful habit, causing a range of severe consequences which could lead to premature death. This habit is still prevalent amongst young people. In order to protect children, effective early interventions supported by public instances need to be set in place. Raising awareness and educating the youth is crucial to change their mindset about the severity of smoking. Emerging technologies, such as augmented reality (AR) on mobile devices, have been shown to be useful in providing engaging experiences and educating children about a range of issues, including health and anatomy. This chapter presents a research which explores the use of AR as an exciting and engaging medium to effectively help educating children from 5 to 13 years about the effects of smoking. A mobile application, called SmokAR, was developed. This app includes AR visualization amongst other functionalities, whereby children are presented a realistic model of the human lungs of a healthy person and of a smoker. The aim of this research is to propose a transformative experience in order to put children off this dangerous habit whilst they gain knowledge about the effect of smoking on their organs. The anatomical accuracy of the 3D models and animations proposed by the app has been verified by an expert anatomist. A group of children (n = 17) also took part in usability and knowledge acquisition testing at the Glasgow Science Centre. Findings showed a significant high usability suggesting a user-friendly app design. Moreover, results also suggested that participants gained knowledge to a certain extent and felt discouraged from smoking after seeing the model of the smoker's lungs. Although there were several limitations to the study, the potential of the app to support learning and raising awareness is encouragingly positive. In addition, user testing in a more controlled environment, such as a classroom, can help gain further insights into the effectiveness and usability of the app. In the future, this simple but engaging approach to raise public awareness and support education could be used to further communicate with children about negative health effects of other harmful habits such as alcohol or drug consumption.


Assuntos
Realidade Aumentada , Vestuário , Aplicativos Móveis , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Aplicativos Móveis/normas , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar/normas
3.
J Spec Oper Med ; 20(2): 83-94, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32573743

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sometimes tourniquets are applied over clothing. This study explored clothing effects on pressures and application process. METHODS: Generation 7 Combat Application Tourniquets (C-A-T7), Generation 3 SOF® Tactical Tourniquets-Wide (SOFTTW), Tactical Ratcheting Medical Tourniquets (Tac RMT), and Stretch Wrap And Tuck Tourniquets (SWATT) were used with different clothing conditions (Bare, Scrubs, Uniform, Tights) mid-thigh and on models (ballistic gel and yoga mats). RESULTS: Clothing affected pressure responses to controlled force applications (weight hangs, n=5 thighs and models, nonlinear curve fitting, p < .05). On models, clothing affected secured pressures by altering surface interactions (medians: Gel Bare C-A-T7 247mmHg, SOFTTW 99mmHg, Tac RMT 101mmHg versus Gel Clothing C-A-T7 331mmHg, SOFTTW 170mmHg, Tac RMT 148mmHg; Mats Bare C-A-T7 246mmHg, SOFTTW 121mmHg, Tac RMT 99mmHg versus Mats Clothing C-A-T7 278mmHg, SOFTTW 145mmHg, Tac RMT 138mmHg). On thighs, clothing did not significantly influence secured pressures (n=15 kneeling appliers, n=15 standing appliers) or occlusion and completion pressures (n=15). Eleven of 15 appliers reported securing on clothing as most difficult. Fourteen of 15 reported complete applications on clothing as most difficult. CONCLUSIONS: Clothing will not necessarily affect tourniquet pressures. Surface to tourniquet interactions affect the ease of strap sliding, so concern should still exist as to whether applications over clothing are dislodged in a distal direction more easily than applications on skin.


Assuntos
Vestuário , Coxa da Perna , Torniquetes , Humanos , Pressão
5.
Aesthetic Plast Surg ; 44(5): 1937-1939, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32500322

RESUMO

In this letter, we describe an attachment on conventional headbands recommended for the postoperative period in prominent ear patients to confidently wear surgical masks without disturbing the posterior auricular incision. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE V: This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .


Assuntos
Vestuário , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pavilhão Auricular/cirurgia , Máscaras/efeitos adversos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Cirurgia Plástica/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pavilhão Auricular/anormalidades , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos
7.
Aesthetic Plast Surg ; 44(5): 1937-1939, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-526553

RESUMO

In this letter, we describe an attachment on conventional headbands recommended for the postoperative period in prominent ear patients to confidently wear surgical masks without disturbing the posterior auricular incision. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE V: This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .


Assuntos
Vestuário , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pavilhão Auricular/cirurgia , Máscaras/efeitos adversos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Cirurgia Plástica/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pavilhão Auricular/anormalidades , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos
8.
J Vis Exp ; (159)2020 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32538901

RESUMO

This article reports the pressure characteristic measurement of compressed hosiery via direct and indirect methods. In the direct method, an interface sensor is used to measure the pressure value exerted on the lower limbs. In the indirect method, the necessary parameters mentioned by the cone and cylinder model are tested to calculate the pressure value. The necessary parameters involve course density, wales density, circumference, length, thickness, tension, and deformation of the compressed hosiery. Compared with the results of the direct method, the cone model in the indirect method is more suitable for calculating the pressure value because the cone model considers the change in radius of the lower limb from the knee to the ankle. Based on this measurement, the relationship among fabrication, structure, and pressure is further investigated in this study. We find that graduation is the main influence that can change the wales density. On the other hand, elastic motors directly affect the course density and the circumference of the stockings. Our reported work provides the fabrication-structure-pressure relationship and a design guide for gradually compressed hosiery.


Assuntos
Vestuário , Pressão , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior/irrigação sanguínea
10.
Cutis ; 105(3): 118-120, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32352435

RESUMO

Compared to head and pubic lice, body lice (Pediculus humanus corporis) carry increased morbidity in the form of greater body surface area involvement, possible infectious disease transmission, and the potential for secondary iron-deficiency anemia. They thrive in high-density urban populations in which hygiene is poor, such as among the homeless. Treatment includes washing of affected individuals, their possessions, and treatment with topical insecticides. Growing patterns of treatment resistance seen in body lice necessitate development of new strategies, with oral medications serving as a promising option.


Assuntos
Infestações por Piolhos/diagnóstico , Infestações por Piolhos/terapia , Pediculus , Animais , Banhos , Vestuário , Humanos , Higiene , Infestações por Piolhos/complicações , Higiene da Pele
11.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231719, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315361

RESUMO

In the field of fashion design, designing garment image according to texture is actually changing the shape of texture image, and image-to-image translation based on Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) can do this well. This can help fashion designers save a lot of time and energy. GAN-based image-to-image translation has made great progress in recent years. One of the image-to-image translation models--StarGAN, has realized the function of multi-domain image-to-image translation by using only a single generator and a single discriminator. This paper details the use of StarGAN to complete the task of garment design. Users only need to input an image and a label for the garment type to generate garment images with the texture of the input image. However, it was found that the quality of the generated images is not satisfactory. Therefore, this paper introduces some improvements on the structure of the StarGAN generator and the loss function of StarGAN, and a model was obtained that can be better applied to garment design. It is called GD-StarGAN. This paper will demonstrate that GD-StarGAN is much better than StarGAN when it comes to garment design, especially in texture, by using a set of seven categories of garment datasets.


Assuntos
Vestuário , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Humanos , Redes Neurais de Computação
12.
J Vis ; 20(3): 7, 2020 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32232377

RESUMO

Color constancy involves disambiguating the spectral characteristics of lights and surfaces, for example to distinguish red in white light from white in red light. Solving this problem appears especially challenging for bluish tints, which may be attributed more often to shading, and this bias may underlie the individual differences in whether people described the widely publicized image of #thedress as blue-black or white-gold. To probe these higher-level color inferences, we examined neural correlates of the blue-bias, using frequency-tagging and high-density electroencephalography to monitor responses to 3-Hz alternations between different color versions of #thedress. Specifically, we compared relative neural responses to the original "blue" dress image alternated with the complementary "yellow" image (formed by inverting the chromatic contrast of each pixel). This image pair produced a large modulation of the electroencephalography amplitude at the alternation frequency, consistent with a perceived contrast difference between the blue and yellow images. Furthermore, decoding topographical differences in the blue-yellow asymmetries over occipitoparietal channels predicted blue-black and white-gold observers with over 80% accuracy. The blue-yellow asymmetry was stronger than for a "red" versus "green" pair matched for the same component differences in L versus M or S versus LM chromatic contrast as the blue-yellow pair and thus cannot be accounted for by asymmetries within either precortical cardinal mechanism. Instead, the results may point to neural correlates of a higher-level perceptual representation of surface colors.


Assuntos
Vestuário , Percepção de Cores/fisiologia , Células Fotorreceptoras Retinianas Cones/fisiologia , Neurônios Retinianos/fisiologia , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Individualidade , Iluminação/normas , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
13.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 524, 2020 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32306950

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, two billion workers are employed informally but there is limited research on the relationship between informal work and health. Existing studies have focused on informality as an employment condition, with little emphasis on the diversity of physical and social contexts in which informal work takes place. The study considers the diversity of informal workplaces and explores the ways in which this diversity might influence health and well-being of two informal occupational groups in Yangon, the former capital of Myanmar. METHODS: We conducted 21 field observations and 47 semi-structured interviews with street vendors and home-based garment workers based in Yangon, Myanmar. A constant comparative method was used to identify and compare how the physical characteristics of their informal workplaces affect their health for these two informal subgroups. RESULTS: Although both street vendors and home-based garment workers work informally, their exposure to occupational health and income risks are specific to the physical features of their informal workplaces. Street vendors, who work in public spaces with minimal coverage, are more likely to experience the direct effects of outdoor pollution, inclement weather and ergonomic risks from lifting, carrying and transporting heavy merchandise while home-based garment workers, many of whom live and work in unsanitary housing and deprived neighborhoods, are more likely to experience pollution in or near their homes, and ergonomic risks from poor posture. Similarly, although both groups face safety challenges, street vendors face urban violence and abuse during their commute and at vending points whereas home-based garment workers felt unsafe in their home-based workplaces due to the presence of crime and violence in their neighborhoods. CONCLUSION: While informal employment is universally characterized by lack of social protection, exposure to occupational health and income risks for subpopulations of informal workers is determined by the specific physical and social environments of their workplaces. Efforts to improve the health of informal workers should consider the contexts in which informal work takes place to develop tailored interventions for subpopulations of informal workers.


Assuntos
Emprego/psicologia , Ocupações/estatística & dados numéricos , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto , Vestuário , Comércio , Emprego/métodos , Feminino , Habitação , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Mianmar , Saúde do Trabalhador , Pesquisa Qualitativa
15.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230112, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32168340

RESUMO

Current literature on women's sexual signaling focuses on modes of attracting potential, new sexual partners, but says little about women's subtle sexual signals in committed, romantic relationships. Subtle sexual signals are inherently private and are only visible to the intended audience; a woman might use these signals to elicit or accept a sexual response from her partner or to increase her overall attractiveness, or attractivity. In this study, we sought to identify women's use of intimate apparel as a proceptive or receptive behavior as well as the effects of relative mate value, relationship commitment, relationship satisfaction, and sexual functioning. A total of N = 353 women in the United States aged 25-45 who were in committed, heterosexual relationships completed the survey; 88.7% of the sample indicated wearing or having worn sexy underwear. Results indicate that women report wearing sexier underwear the day taking the survey if they anticipate sexual activity that same day. However, during the most recent sexual activity, women did not report wearing sexier underwear if they initiated (proceptive) that activity. While relative mate value was not directly related to sexiness of intimate apparel, women who report higher mate value tend to wear sexier underwear. Women's use of intimate apparel might be viewed as a method of increasing attractivity and underlying receptivity to aid relationship maintenance, though caveats regarding measures and alternative interpretations are also discussed. Findings suggest that these women use intimate apparel to feel sexy, desired, aroused, and to prepare for sex with their partners. This study is the first to examine intimate apparel in relationships and as a subtle sexual signal of proceptivity and receptivity.


Assuntos
Vestuário/psicologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Heterossexualidade/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Casamento/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Adulto , Vestuário/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(3): e0008120, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130213

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trachoma elimination efforts are hampered by limited understanding of Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) transmission routes. Here we aimed to detect Ct DNA at non-ocular sites and on eye-seeking flies. METHODS: A population-based household survey was conducted in Oromia Region, Ethiopia. Ocular and non-ocular (faces, hands, clothing, water containers and sleeping surfaces) swabs were collected from all individuals. Flies were caught from faces of children. Flies, ocular swabs and non-ocular swabs were tested for Ct by quantitative PCR. RESULTS: In total, 1220 individuals in 247 households were assessed. Active trachoma (trachomatous inflammation-follicular) and ocular Ct were detected in 10% and 2% of all-ages, and 21% and 3% of 1-9-year-olds, respectively. Ct was detected in 12% (95% CI:8-15%) of tested non-ocular swabs from ocular-positive households, but in none of the non-ocular swabs from ocular-negative households. Ct was detected on 24% (95% CI:18-32%) of flies from ocular-positive households and 3% (95% CI:1-6%) of flies from ocular-negative households. CONCLUSION: Ct DNA was detected on hands, faces and clothing of individuals living in ocular-positive households suggesting that this might be a route of transmission within Ct infected households. In addition, we detected Ct on flies from ocular-positive households and occasionally in ocular-negative households suggesting that flies might be a vector for transmission within and between Ct infected and uninfected households. These potential transmission routes may need to be simultaneously addressed to suppress transmission.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Infecções por Chlamydia/transmissão , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/diagnóstico , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/transmissão , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Chlamydia trachomatis/genética , Vestuário , Estudos Transversais , Dípteros/microbiologia , Etiópia , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Fômites/microbiologia , Mãos/microbiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Adulto Jovem
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(9): e19305, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32118750

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Numerous reports in the media have suggested that children could be hurt due to their clothing, yet there are few medical reports that discussed children's clothing-related injuries. This study therefore, aimed to describe the epidemiological characteristics of media-reported injury cases related to children's clothing in Mainland of China. METHODS: This study systematically collected a total of 192 cases of children's clothing-related injuries reported in the news reports and medical literatures published by the Chinese media before December 2017. A content analysis of these cases was conducted to obtain information on the characteristics of these injuries. RESULTS: Cases of clothing-related injuries were most common in children aged 3 to 6 years (54.7%); the ratio of the number of boys to the number of girls in the 192 cases was 1.5: 1. In addition, approximately 51% of the cases occurred in the region of East China. The most common location of the incidents was in the home (35%). Furthermore, the zippers are the most common cause of injuries (15.1%), and the most common injured body part was the genital organs (29.2%). Besides, there were 24 cases reported death related to clothing injuries (13%). Moreover, the locations where the injuries occurred, the reasons for the occurrence of the injuries and the injured body parts differed significantly by gender and age (P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that future unintentional injuries could be prevented by implementing 2 major initiatives: improving the promotion of the safety of children clothing design in China and educating consumers on the potential risk associated with children's clothing.


Assuntos
Vestuário/estatística & dados numéricos , Meios de Comunicação de Massa/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/etiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Vestuário/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ferimentos e Lesões/diagnóstico , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia
18.
Support Care Cancer ; 28(8): 3481-3484, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32215735

RESUMO

An important aspect of breast cancer survivorship is finding comfortable undergarments that work for women's post-treatment bodies. Patients who undergo mastectomy, including both those who do and do not receive reconstruction, need bras that can accommodate new breast shape, size, and feel, as well as scarring and skin sensitivity. Our research with breast cancer patients and the literature reveal that ready-to-wear bras are inadequate for the variety of patients' needs, and many women lack support and guidance to make decisions about undergarments after cancer. This commentary describes a major quality-of-life challenge for breast cancer survivors and makes recommendations for future research. Healthcare providers need more guidance and resources to be able to help their patients prepare for this aspect of survivorship. New technologies, such as biomechanical modeling, 3D body scanning, and manufacturing techniques, should be pursued in collaboration with patients, healthcare providers, and clothing designers to ease this burden for breast cancer patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Vestuário/normas , Mastectomia/reabilitação , Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Vestuário/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Mastectomia/psicologia , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Preferência do Paciente , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários , Sobrevivência
20.
Chemosphere ; 249: 126100, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062207

RESUMO

To assess the effects of weathering on per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) from durable water repellent (DWR) clothing, thirteen commercial textile samples were exposed to elevated ultra violet (UV) radiation, humidity, and temperature in an aging device for 300 h, which mimics the lifespan of outdoor clothing. Before and after aging, the textile samples were extracted and analysed for the ionic PFASs (perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA)) and volatile PFASs (fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs), acrylates (FTACs) and methacrylates (FTMACs)). Results showed that weathering can have an effect on PFASs used in DWR of outdoor clothing, both on the PFAS profile and on the measured concentrations. In most weathered samples the PFAA concentrations increased by 5- to more than 100-fold, while PFAAs not detected in the original textiles were detected in the weathered samples. DWR chemistries are based on side-chain fluorinated polymers. A possible explanation for the increase in concentration of the PFAAs is hydrolysis of the fluorotelomer based polymers (FTPs), or degradation of the FTOHs, which are used in the manufacturing of the FTPs. The concentrations of volatile PFASs also increased, by a factor up to 20. Suggested explanations are the degradation of the DWR polymers, making non-extractable fluorines extractable, or the transformation or degradation of unknown precursors. Further research is needed to unravel the details of these processes and to determine the transformation routes. This study shows that setting maximum tolerance limits only for a few individual PFASs is not sufficient to control these harmful substances in outdoor clothing.


Assuntos
Vestuário , Fluorcarbonetos/química , Acrilatos , Álcoois , Monitoramento Ambiental , Polímeros de Fluorcarboneto/análise , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Umidade , Modelos Químicos , Têxteis/análise , Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Tempo (Meteorologia)
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