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1.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud; 20190700. 14 p. tab.
Monografia em Espanhol | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1005707

RESUMO

Contribuir al cumplimiento de los principios de bioseguridad y los lineamientos de vigilancia, prevención y control de las infecciones asociada a la atención de la salud; así como a la adecuada identificación del personal de la salud por parte de los usuarios de los servicios, al estandarizar la indumentaria de trabajo del personal técnico y auxiliar asistencial de la salud de las entidades conformantes del Sector Salud.


Assuntos
Vestuário , Normas Técnicas , Instalações de Saúde , Recursos Humanos
2.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 261: 128-133, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31156103

RESUMO

Heart Rate Variability (HRV) derived from standard one-lead electrocardiography (ECG) was compared with HRV computed by a commercial ECG shirt and with the inter-beat-intervals (IBI) measured by a research-grade photoplethysmographic (PPG) wristband. Signals from 8 subjects were recorded in three experimental phases: during sit; in upright position ("stand"); during controlled respiration. HRV and IBI from both the wearables were computed online (i.e. during the experiment) and stored for subsequent analyses, while the standard ECG was processed offline with state-of-the-art methods to obtain a clean reference HRV. Shirt and wristband signals accuracies were assessed, with respect to the reference HRV, through a between-phase and a beat-to-beat analyses. The former considered several time and frequency domain parameters; the latter was carried out through the Bland-Altman method. Time and frequency domain parameters computed from shirt HRV resulted very similar to the ones extracted from the reference HRV and generally more accurate than the parameters computed from wristband IBI. The Bland-Altman analysis showed that wristband IBI is significantly different from ECG-derived HRV, especially during "stand". Therefore, our results support the idea that some care should be paid in the interpretation of online PPG-derived IBI, while HRV measures online-derived from ECG-shirts seem to be more reliable in the analyzed conditions. The high number of missing beats also suggest that the design of wristband devices should be taken into account to reduce the rate of incorrect measurements, by maximizing sensor adhesion to the skin.


Assuntos
Vestuário , Frequência Cardíaca , Fotopletismografia , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Eletrocardiografia , Humanos , Registros
3.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 62(2): 19-21, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213586

RESUMO

The objective of the present study was to elucidate the objective signs and features of damages to the closing produced by shots fired from a 12-gauge hunting rifle with 'cylinder' and 'choke' muzzle threads that allow to determine the concrete distance of the injurious 'compact' and 'relatively compact' action of the multiple-element projectile (shotgun pellets) or that of the container wad used with regular cartridges.


Assuntos
Vestuário , Armas de Fogo , Balística Forense , Modelos Teóricos , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo , Humanos
4.
J Surg Orthop Adv ; 28(1): 18-23, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31074732

RESUMO

Muscle fatigue can result in scapular dyskinesis, which has been implicated in impingement, labral injury, and rotator cuff injury. This study evaluated the ability of a compression shirt to maintain scapular alignment after fatiguing of periscapular musculature. Subjects' scapular movements were monitored before and after a periscapular muscle- fatiguing exercise program. In the anterior and posterior tilt and medial and lateral rotation dimensions, control and shirt subjects both exhibited differences between the prefatigue and postfatigue measurements throughout humeral elevation. In the retraction and protraction dimension, control subjects exhibited differences between prefatigue and postfatigue measurements for a large portion of elevation, while shirt subjects only had different measurements toward the extreme of shoulder flexion. Thus the shirt does not stabilize the scapula in the anterior and posterior tilt and medial and lateral rotation dimensions. In the retraction and protraction dimension, the shirt provides stability to the scapula and maintains prefatigue position. It is currently unclear if preserving one plane of scapular motion has clinical significance. (Journal of Surgical Orthopaedic Advances 28(1):18-23, 2019).


Assuntos
Bandagens Compressivas , Síndrome de Colisão do Ombro , Articulação do Ombro , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Vestuário , Humanos , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Rotação , Escápula , Ombro , Síndrome de Colisão do Ombro/fisiopatologia , Síndrome de Colisão do Ombro/terapia
5.
Waste Manag ; 87: 454-463, 2019 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31109546

RESUMO

Despite the fact that studies have indicated that a large proportion of textiles is disposed in the waste, only few studies have looked at the content of textiles in waste, and even less have considered the quality of these textiles. However, it is crucial to know both quantity and quality, in order to assess the potential for improved reuse and recycling. Following a new method for assessing the quantity and quality of textile waste, this study assessed residual household waste from 17 areas and small combustible waste from six recycling stations throughout Denmark. The average contents of Clothing and Household textiles in residual household waste were 1.4 ±â€¯0.5% and 0.6 ±â€¯0.3%, respectively, whereas the content was 4.5 ±â€¯2.1% for Clothing and 2.6 ±â€¯1.2% for Household textiles in the small combustibles. On an annual basis each resident discards to 2.4 ±â€¯0.9 kg of Clothing and 1.1 ±â€¯0.5 kg/resident/year of Household textiles with the residual household waste. The quality assessments showed, that an average of 65 ±â€¯8.0% and 65 ±â€¯19.3% of the Clothing and Household textiles were reusable in the residual household waste, while in small combustibles it were an average of 69 ±â€¯5.8% and 66 ±â€¯9.6% of the Clothing and Household textiles. In addition, an average of 12 ±â€¯5.3% and 15 ±â€¯10.5% of the Clothing and Household textiles in residual waste, and an average of 14 ±â€¯3.9% and 16 ±â€¯8.7% of the Clothing and Household textiles in small combustibles, could be recycled. This emphasizes that there is good potential for improving textile waste management, as most of the identified Clothing and Household textiles were misplaced and little were actually waste.


Assuntos
Têxteis , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Vestuário , Dinamarca , Reciclagem
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 683: 109-115, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129321

RESUMO

Clothing easily adsorbed the chemicals in the environment, and became a source of human exposure to chemicals. However, large contacted surface area and long exposure duration have elevated human exposure to chemicals from clothing, such as phthalates. Among them, cotton clothing, which infants prefer to wear, has been proven to adsorb phthalates more easily than other fabrics. While infants are developing, they are easily affected by phthalates. In this study, in order to study accumulation of phthalates in infant cotton clothing during the whole process from production to the first wearing, 24 infant cotton clothing samples were collected from shopping malls in Harbin, China. High detection rates and concentrations suggest that phthalates in the environment are widely adsorbed to infant cotton clothing, and traditional laundering for infant clothing cannot remove phthalates completely. The median concentration of the total phthalates was 4.15 µg/g. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) has become the dominant phthalate. For the estimated daily intakes (EDIs) for infants, dibutyl phthalate (DBP) had the highest contribution, followed by di-iso-butyl phthalate (DiBP) and DEHP. Dermal absorption has become the main route of infant exposure to phthalates, and ingestion contributed very little. The result of comparing with the EDIs via dermal absorption from house air and dust suggests that clothing plays an important role of dermal absorption exposure to phthalates. For risk assessment, the carcinogenic risk of BBP and DEHP indicates that the level of DEHP in infant cotton clothing might pose potential adverse effects to infant health.


Assuntos
Vestuário , Fibra de Algodão/análise , Exposição Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Ácidos Ftálicos/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco
7.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 3893049, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31093498

RESUMO

Objective: This study was performed to assess neurosurgery patients' preference for surgeon's attire and appearance in the hospital. Methods: A total of 100 patients were investigated using a questionnaire comprising 13 questions. We first asked patients about neurosurgeon's appearance including accessories, hair color, mustache, and beard. Then, based on their preferences, they were asked to rank a series of photographs which illustrated a variety of neurosurgeon attires worn by a doctor. Results: Professional attire with white coat was the most ideal for patients compared to any other attire (preference scale 5.28 ± 1.24), and there was a significant preference gap between wearing a white coat and not wearing a white coat (p <0.01). Patients expressed a preference for neurosurgeon's shoes (30%) but the majority of the respondents answered that it does not matter which shoes their neurosurgeon wears (43%). Furthermore, the patients did not have any preferences regarding accessories, dyeing, and mustache or beard (58%, 67%, and 51%, respectively), and they did not have negative view towards doctor wearing accessories (71.7%) and growing mustache or beard (71.6%). Conclusion: The patients in this study preferred professional attire along with a white coat compared to any other form of outfit. This result is similar to those of many other studies conducted in other departments or other countries. However, patients did not have a strong negative view on accessories, dyeing, and facial hair. With regard to medical training, patients did not show a preference for their neurosurgeon's educational background.


Assuntos
Vestuário , Neurocirurgiões , Preferência do Paciente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Environ Pollut ; 248: 1028-1035, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31091635

RESUMO

Microplastics (synthetic polymers <5 mm) have been recently recognized as a big environmental concern, as their ubiquity is an undeniable fact. Their wide variety regarding shapes, sizes, and materials turn them into an intrinsically risky pollutant capable of causing several environmental impacts. Textile microfibers (MF) are a microplastic sub-group. These are mostly shed when a normal laundry of any garment takes place. Special attention has been put onto them, as high concentrations have been found in products for human consumption as shellfish and tap water. However, as there is no consensus on the methodologies to quantify and report the results of MFs detached from textile garments, the degree of similarity between published studies is very low. Hence, the aim of this research was to evaluate the microfibers' detachment rates of finished garments and to provide a set of comparable units to report the results. These were found to range between 175 and 560 MF/g or 30000-465000 MF/m2 of garment. In addition, there was a high correlation between the MF detachment and the textile article superficial density. Finally, our results were compared with a recent paper that estimated the annual mass flow of MFs to the oceans. This previous publication is 30 times higher when related to the mass but 40 times lower if related to the number of MFs.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Plásticos/análise , Têxteis/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Vestuário , Humanos , Oceanos e Mares , Plásticos/química
9.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 201, 2019 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31053177

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pediculus humanus, the human body louse, is widespread where overcrowding and lack of hygiene are present, in areas of the world affected by poverty, war, famine and presence of refugees. It has recently been considered re-emerging among homeless populations in developed countries. In Italy, it was last reported in 1945. Pediculus humanus is a vector of highly relevant human pathogens. METHODS: In October 2018, a woman found small insects on a T-shirt bought second-hand in a local street market in a village 35 km south of Rome (central Italy). Insects were identified both morphologically and by molecular analysis. Moreover, they were analyzed molecularly for the presence of Rickettsia prowazekii, Borrelia recurrentis, Bartonella quintana, Coxiella burnetii and Yersinia pestis. RESULTS: Morphological and molecular analyses of the insects identified them as 26 lice (12 females, 10 males and 4 nymphs) of the species P. humanus. Many nits were found on the T-shirt seams. DNA of the investigated pathogens was not detected in any of the lice. CONCLUSIONS: The exceptionality of the described case lies both in the report of P. humanus from a country where it had not been reported since 1945, and in its finding from second-hand clothes for sale in a market, constituting a potential source of infection for people buying this type of goods. The question arises, how did adults and nits of P. humanus infest clothes for sale on a market stall in a country where it had not been reported for decades. Given that the body louse requires frequent blood meals to survive and develop, its arrival on clothes imported from abroad is highly improbable. Hence, it must be presumed that people infected with the human body louse are present in Italy. This report points out a serious regulatory problem regarding the management of second-hand clothes prior to sale and, more generally, of controls in street markets.


Assuntos
Vestuário/economia , Insetos Vetores/classificação , Pediculus/classificação , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Insetos Vetores/genética , Insetos Vetores/fisiologia , Itália , Masculino , Pediculus/genética , Pediculus/fisiologia , Filogenia
10.
Forensic Sci Int ; 300: 28-31, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31075564

RESUMO

This paper details the review of the gunshot residue (GSR) evidence relating to a 2002 murder involving the discharge of a pistol where the Prosecution used the GSR findings together with voice identification evidence and obtained a conviction in the case of R v Dwaine George. Mr George was subsequently represented by Cardiff University Law School's Innocence Project who made representations to the Criminal Cases Review Commission (CCRC) based on issues relating to the GSR evidence. The CCRC commissioned their own expert review and based on these findings referred the conviction to the Court of Appeal stating that in their opinion the weight of the GSR evidence was not appropriately conveyed to the jury at the original Trial and there should have been a warning relating to the limited significance that could be attached to the evidence. The Court of Appeal concluded that had the jury been aware of the full extent of the potential alternative sources of GSR in the case and the limited number of particles found on a jacket related to Mr George then this would have affected the decision of the Trial jury. The appeal was allowed and the convictions were quashed.


Assuntos
Antimônio/análise , Bário/análise , Balística Forense/legislação & jurisprudência , Homicídio/legislação & jurisprudência , Chumbo/análise , Vestuário , Humanos , Reino Unido , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo
11.
J Therm Biol ; 81: 118-127, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30975408

RESUMO

Thermal characteristics of local body parts of a human subject are markedly different in cold or hot environments. Some body segments are known to be much more susceptible to heat loss than the others, thus strongly influencing the overall thermal sensation of a subject. If these body parts can be effectively cooled in a hot environment or warmed in a cold environment using personal environmental control systems, thermal comfort of human occupants can be achieved at the minimum cost of energy without heavily relying on centralized heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems. With an objective to understand the influence of local thermal sensation on the subjects' overall thermal comfort perception, experiments in the two sets of climate chambers were carried out simulating summer and winter conditions, respectively. A total of 24 subjects (12 females and 12 males) were recruited for this study, and their local skin temperature, conductive heat flux, and thermal sensations were recorded during the experiments. The local thermal characteristics of the subjects were compared between the 'neutral' and 'hot' conditions to identify predominant body segments in the summer scenario. Moreover, the comparison was also made between the 'neutral' and 'cold' conditions to derive predominant body segments in the winter scenario. The analysis of the results indicated that leg, thigh, and back are the key segments desirable for local cooling; whilst leg, thigh, back, and upper arm are the crucial segments for local heating. The findings can have important implications for the design of low-energy cost-effective personal heating/cooling devices. Finally, the results identified the conductive heat flux of skin as a useful physiological parameter in examining human thermal sensation.


Assuntos
Regulação da Temperatura Corporal , Temperatura Baixa , Temperatura Alta , Temperatura Cutânea , Sensação Térmica , Adulto , Vestuário , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Hosp Infect ; 101(4): 414-421, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30940360

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since hand hygiene might prevent the risk of bacterial transmission from healthcare personnel attire (HCPA), the present study investigates the effect of alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR) use on bacterial load and pathogenic species on HCPA. METHODS: HCPA from doctors and nurses was investigated for bacterial contamination post duty. Samples from distinct areas of HCPA were obtained and analysed for bacterial load and species. A standardized questionnaire was performed regarding time of duty and profession, and ABHR from each ward was calculated according to a national standard. FINDINGS: Bacterial load on HCPA (700 samples from 200 HCPA) was found to be up to four-fold higher when wearing for more than one shift. Moreover, doctors had a lower bacterial load on attire compared to nurses. In a multivariate linear regression model, negative correlations with bacterial load on HCPA were found for ABHR (t = -2.080, P = 0.0379) and being a doctor (t = -6.009, P < 0.0001), and a positive correlation for the time of duty (t = 10.572; P < 0.0001). Detection of Staphylococcus aureus as the most prominent pathogen found on HCPA was influenced by the time of duty (odds ratio: 3.27; 95% confidence interval: 1.93-5.72; P < 0.0001) but not by ABHR (1.22; 0.30-3.42). CONCLUSION: ABHR, profession, and time of duty significantly affect the bacterial load on HCPA. Since the time of duty has the strongest impact on bacterial load, a daily change of HCPA is recommended.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Carga Bacteriana , Vestuário , Microbiologia Ambiental , Higiene das Mãos/métodos , Higiene das Mãos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoal de Saúde , Bactérias/classificação , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Local de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 672: 798-805, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30978542

RESUMO

Several studies indicate that human exposure to plasticizers via dermal pathway is not negligible, but the dermal bioaccessibility of phthalates and alternative plasticizers from the important environmental matrix including indoor dust and clothing and the importance weight of dermal exposure to those pollutants have been poorly studied. An in vitro physiologically based extraction test was employed to investigate the dermal bioaccessibility of target phthalates and alternative plasticizers from indoor dust and clothing. Temperature, incubation time, sweat/sebum ratio and solid/liquid ratio were selected to study their effects on the bioaccessibility. The bioaccessibility of Diethyl phthalates (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), bis-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), Acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC), bis-2-ethylhexyladipate (DEHA) and bis-2-ethylhexyl terephthalate (DEHT) in indoor dust were 66.20 ±â€¯1.93%, 94.27 ±â€¯1.31%, 80.37 ±â€¯8.09%, 75.02 ±â€¯2.12%, 94.50 ±â€¯3.42% and 74.09 ±â€¯3.79%, respectively, under the condition of 1:1 sweat/sebum ratio, 1/100 solid/liquid ratio (indoor dust), 1:1 area/area ratio (1:1, clothing) and 90 min incubation time at 36.3 °C which are chosen based on the experimental results and human physical conditions. DBP showed the highest bioaccessibility in all samples. The time course of the plasticizer release was fitted to a first-order one-compartment model. DBP showed the highest release rate (k1) calculated from the model, which was consistent with the bioaccessibility result. Risk assessment indicated that dermal exposure of DBP was an important exposure route, accounting for about 21.58% of total intake, and indoor dust was an important exposure media when considering the dermal bioaccessibility.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Vestuário , Poeira/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Plastificantes/análise , Pele/metabolismo , Dibutilftalato , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Ácidos Ftálicos , Medição de Risco
14.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 31(3): 355-358, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30914100

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To design a new modified sick clothes for electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring, and to observe its clinical application effect. METHODS: In order to overcome the shortcomings of the existing modified ECG monitoring clothes, a new type of modified sick clothes was designed on the basis of the traditional sick clothes, and a national utility model patent was obtained. 408 conscious patients with ECG monitoring admitted to department of neurology of the First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University from January 2015 to June 2018 were enrolled, and they were randomly divided into three groups according to the order of admission for comparing the wearing effect of three kinds of sick clothes. 133 patients dressed traditional clothes, while 139 patients dressed modified ECG monitoring clothes. According to the method reported in the literature, the pockets were removed on the basis of the traditional patient clothes, and a circular hole 5 cm in diameter was made at the position of the electrodes for ECG monitoring, which was used to pass through the lead wire and the electrodes. 136 patients dressed the new modified sick clothes. In view of the inconvenience of ECG monitoring and stimulation of patients' thoracic and abdominal skin by traditional sick clothes, the existing modified ECG monitoring clothes were not easy to operate, the location of electrodes sticking was not easy to judge and the lead line was messy, the new modified sick clothes were still based on the traditional ones. The three circular holes of the existing modified ECG monitoring clothes were made into incisions about 12 cm in length to facilitate the ECG monitoring lead line and electrodes sticking. A compression band or a simple patch was added to each side near the shoulder for tidying up the fixed lead. The self-evaluation of patient's comfort, the operation time of ECG monitoring by nurses, skin allergy rate and lead damage rate were recorded and compared among the three groups. RESULTS: Compared with the traditional sick clothes and the modified ECG monitoring clothes groups, the patients in the new modified sick clothes group had higher comfort [the proportion of no discomfort: 11.0% (15/136) vs. 0% (0/133), 5.8% (8/139); the proportion of severe discomfort: 0% (0/136) vs. 4.5% (6/133), 0.7% (1/139), all P < 0.05], the installation and disassembly time of ECG monitoring by nurses was significantly shortened [installation time (s): 69.12±16.47 vs. 96.74±3.89, 88.24±9.83; disassembly time (s): 50.24±4.54 vs. 75.76±4.98, 66.54±7.86, all P < 0.01], and the skin allergies rate [3.7% (5/136) vs. 15.8% (21/133), 8.6% (12/139)] and the insulation loss rate of the lead wires [2.9% (4/136) vs. 15.8% (21/133), 7.9% (11/139)] were significantly lowered (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The ECG monitoring patients using new modified sick clothes could increase their comfort, reduce the workload of nurses, save medical consumables, and have beautiful appearance and high practicability, which was worthy of clinical application.


Assuntos
Vestuário , Eletrocardiografia , Monitorização Fisiológica , Eletrodos , Humanos
15.
Appl Ergon ; 77: 50-57, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30832778

RESUMO

Applied ergonomics research examines not only the fit, form and function of military uniforms, but also their ability to effectively camouflage personnel as they perform job-related tasks. Many of these job-related tasks involve moving through environments, but existing literature examining camouflage effectiveness often assumes that movement effectively "breaks" even the best camouflage patterns, rendering them of limited utility for reducing the visual signature of a moving target. However, recent research demonstrates that animals equipped with adaptive camouflage change their patterning in predictable ways during movement and this adaptation decreases detectability, suggesting that uniform patterning may still hold value for reducing conspicuity during movement. The present experiment examined whether three visual pattern characteristics, local contrast, orientation, and spatial frequency, would influence the detectability of a moving human target. Participants attempted to detect and localize a simulated human target moving across a background scene, and a factorial design varied target movement speed, and the local contrast, spatial frequency, and orientation of its camouflage patterning. Results showed that target detectability was strongly influenced by target movement rate, pattern local contrast, and pattern spatial frequency, and these effects persisted even under conditions of very fast movement. Importantly, we found that the effect of local contrast was most robust under conditions of movement, suggesting its importance for reducing detectability of moving personnel. We conclude that movement is not always sufficient to break the concealment offered by a pattern with low contrast and a spatial frequency match with its background. Results are discussed in the context of visual processing theories and the application of these findings to the design and development of static and adaptive camouflage patterns for military personnel.


Assuntos
Vestuário/psicologia , Militares/psicologia , Percepção de Movimento , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Mimetismo Biológico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Movimento , Velocidade de Caminhada , Adulto Jovem
16.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 72(1): 111-117, 2019 Jan-Feb.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30916275

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the symbolic effects of the official military uniform of the nurses from Brazilian Army in World War II. METHOD: This research was developed using the historical method, with iconographic sources. The data were discussed based on the concepts of the social world theory, by Pierre Bourdieu. RESULTS: The images selected demonstrate the own meaning of the uniforms, evidencing the functions and the social position of those who wear it, being private and obligatory to use it in the military field. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: In the case of the nurses from the Brazilian Expeditionary Force, the appropriation of uniforms promoted the visual communication representing military nurse in the context of war, at the same time it served for distinction purposes in the army, but not necessarily in the nursing field. Symbolically, they remained amongst the walls of the barracks even after the end of the war and, thus, they remained unknown and marked by the symbols of forgetfulness.


Assuntos
Vestuário/normas , Militares/psicologia , Identificação Social , Brasil , Vestuário/psicologia , Humanos , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , II Guerra Mundial
17.
Forensic Sci Int ; 298: 48-57, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30877948

RESUMO

This study investigated the prevalence of eight OGSR compounds in a civilian and a police population. Specimens were collected from the hands and sleeves of 122 civilians and 115 individuals working in police services using carbon stubs. Data was acquired using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Results indicated a non-negligible prevalence in the civilian sample, with 18% of the 122 civilians sampled having one or more OGSR related compounds on their hands and 11.5% on their wrists or sleeves. For the police population, the prevalence was logically higher than for civilians, with 36.5% of the hand specimens and 33% of the wrist specimens positive for one or more compounds. A higher prevalence was expected for the second population due to the possession of service weapons regularly used during shooting exercises. These results demonstrate that the presence of one OGSR compound is not a rare occurrence, even in a civilian population. Considering the results of this research together with information on alternative sources of the targeted OGSR compounds can serve as a basis for OGSR interpretation in casework.


Assuntos
Armas de Fogo , Polícia , Pele/química , Antimônio/análise , Bário/análise , Cromatografia Líquida , Vestuário , Humanos , Chumbo/análise , Suíça , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 665: 937-943, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30893753

RESUMO

Permeation of oxides of nitrogen and sulfur gases through skin and the consequences of dermal exposure are still poorly understood. We measured the penetration profile of three common industrial gases through skin, for short-term exposures relevant to HAZMAT scenarios. Time variations of gas concentration, clothing effects, temperature and humidity on epidermal absorption and penetration were assessed. Fabric off-gassing profiles were also investigated. The results show oxides of nitrogen (NO and NO2) at airborne concentrations up to lethal inhalation levels (e.g. 3000 ppm) have little skin penetration ability. Skin absorption and reservoir effects were noted. Skin exposed to SO2 (3000 ppm/30 min) shows negligible skin absorption or penetration. Fabric on skin marginally increased SO2 absorption and subsequent ventilation did not reduce the absorbed fraction. Increased temperature and humidity had limited additional effect on skin penetration. Importantly, clothing demonstrated sink properties, especially for SO2. Short-term skin exposure relevant to accidents will not significantly contribute to body burden. The greatest concern will likely be off-gassing of chemical-laden fabric for asthma suffers. The risk-based management approach is to avoid potential secondary inhalation from fabric off-gassing by removal of outer layer of bulky clothing. Decontamination and moving into an area of enhanced ventilation may also be advised.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/metabolismo , Exposição Ambiental , Epiderme/metabolismo , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Absorção Cutânea , Óxidos de Enxofre/metabolismo , Vestuário , Substâncias Perigosas/efeitos adversos , Substâncias Perigosas/metabolismo , Humanos , Umidade , Técnicas In Vitro , Temperatura Ambiente
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 667: 594-600, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30833258

RESUMO

This study aims to investigate the characteristics of typical per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in indoor dust from clothing shops and urine sampled from saleswomen. A total of 58 indoor dust samples and 73 urine samples from saleswomen were collected from clothing shops in Shanghai, China. All samples were analyzed for PFCs using high-performance liquid chromatography tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The mean PFC concentrations in indoor dust ranged from 0.42 (PFDA) to 5.04 ng g-1 (PFDoA). PFDoA and PFHxS were the most prominent PFCs, with median concentrations of 2.95 ng g-1 and 1.49 ng g-1, respectively. The median PFC concentrations in urine ranged from 10.15 (PFDS) to 666.1 ng l-1 (PFOA) and PFOA was the most abundant chemical with concentrations ranging from 207 to 907 ng l-1. A significant positive correlation was obtained between long-chain PFCs in dust and in urine (p < 0.01). Daily intake values of PFCs via dust ingestion were also calculated, and even under high-end exposure scenarios, the intake of PFOA (36.5 pg day-1) and PFOS (56.7 pg day-1) were well within the tolerable daily intake values. These results are important to both characterize PFC levels and estimate the saleswomen's exposure to PFCs from indoor dust.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/urina , Poluentes Atmosféricos/urina , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Vestuário , Poeira/análise , Fluorcarbonetos/urina , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Adulto , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/estatística & dados numéricos , China , Feminino , Humanos
20.
J Vet Med Sci ; 81(3): 466-472, 2019 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30713281

RESUMO

The inhibitory activities of grapefruit seed extract (GSE) on avian influenza virus (AIV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), Salmonella Infantis (SI) and Escherichia coli (EC) were evaluated. Original GSE contained 0.24% benzalkonium chloride (BZC), however, 0.0025% BZC solution could not inactivate bacteria. The activity of diluted GSE (×100, ×500 and ×1,000 with redistilled water) against selected viruses and bacteria was evaluated in this study. The GSE solutions were incubated with the pathogens over a period of time after which the remaining viruses were titrated and the bacterial colonies were counted. In the presence of organic material-5% fetal bovine serum (FBS), the test solutions were sprayed at 1 cm and 30 cm distances to test the efficacy of GSE in a spray form. Furthermore, the efficacy of GSE against bacteria on clothes was tested using non-woven cloth. GSE×100 reduced the viral titer of both AIV and NDV even in 5% FBS condition. IBDV showed high resistance to GSE. GSE×1,000 inactivated both SI and EC within 5 sec, even in the presence of 5% FBS. The disinfectant was able to maintain its efficacy in the spray form at 30 cm distance. GSE was also effective against SI and EC inoculated on fabric. GSE is a potential novel disinfectant against viruses and bacteria, effective even within a short contact time.


Assuntos
Citrus paradisi/química , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Aerossóis , Animais , Aves/microbiologia , Aves/virologia , Vestuário , Cães , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Doença Infecciosa da Bursa , Vírus da Influenza A/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonella/efeitos dos fármacos
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