Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 4.215
Filtrar
1.
PLoS Biol ; 18(8): e3000790, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776918

RESUMO

Concentrative nucleoside transporters (CNTs), members of the solute carrier (SLC) 28 transporter family, facilitate the salvage of nucleosides and therapeutic nucleoside derivatives across the plasma membrane. Despite decades of investigation, the structures of human CNTs remain unknown. We determined the cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of human CNT (hCNT) 3 at an overall resolution of 3.6 Å. As with its bacterial homologs, hCNT3 presents a trimeric architecture with additional N-terminal transmembrane helices to stabilize the conserved central domains. The conserved binding sites for the substrate and sodium ions unravel the selective nucleoside transport and distinct coupling mechanism. Structural comparison of hCNT3 with bacterial homologs indicates that hCNT3 is stabilized in an inward-facing conformation. This study provides the molecular determinants for the transport mechanism of hCNTs and potentially facilitates the design of nucleoside drugs.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/química , Uridina/química , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Baculoviridae/genética , Baculoviridae/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Transporte Biológico , Clonagem Molecular , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Expressão Gênica , Vetores Genéticos/química , Vetores Genéticos/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica em alfa-Hélice , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Células Sf9 , Spodoptera , Homologia Estrutural de Proteína , Especificidade por Substrato , Uridina/metabolismo
2.
Arch Virol ; 165(10): 2301-2309, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32757056

RESUMO

Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is a major pathogen associated with swine diseases. It is the smallest single-stranded DNA virus, and its genome contains four major open reading frames (ORFs). ORF2 encodes the major structural protein Cap, which can self-assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs) in vitro and contains the primary antigenic determinants. In this study, we developed a high-efficiency method for obtaining VLPs and optimized the purification conditions. In this method, we expressed the protein Cap with a 6× His tag using baculovirus-infected silkworm larvae as well as the E. coli BL21(DE3) prokaryotic expression system. The PCV2 Cap proteins produced by the silkworm larvae and E. coli BL21(DE3) were purified. Cap proteins purified from silkworm larvae self-assembled into VLPs in vitro, while the Cap proteins purified from bacteria were unable to self-assemble. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed the self-assembly of VLPs. The immunogenicity of the VLPs produced using the baculovirus system was demonstrated using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Furthermore, the purification process was optimized. The results demonstrated that the expression system using baculovirus-infected silkworm larvae is a good choice for obtaining VLPs of PCV2 and has potential for the development of a low-cost and efficient vaccine.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/biossíntese , Baculoviridae/genética , Bombyx/virologia , Proteínas do Capsídeo/imunologia , Circovirus/imunologia , Vacinas de Partículas Semelhantes a Vírus/biossíntese , Vacinas Virais/biossíntese , Animais , Antígenos Virais/química , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Baculoviridae/imunologia , Proteínas do Capsídeo/biossíntese , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Infecções por Circoviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Circoviridae/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Circoviridae/virologia , Circovirus/genética , Epitopos/química , Epitopos/imunologia , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Feminino , Vetores Genéticos/química , Vetores Genéticos/metabolismo , Histidina/genética , Histidina/imunologia , Soros Imunes/química , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Larva/virologia , Camundongos , Oligopeptídeos/genética , Oligopeptídeos/imunologia , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/biossíntese , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/imunologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/imunologia , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Vacinas de Partículas Semelhantes a Vírus/administração & dosagem , Vacinas de Partículas Semelhantes a Vírus/genética , Vacinas de Partículas Semelhantes a Vírus/isolamento & purificação , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Virais/genética , Vacinas Virais/isolamento & purificação
3.
PLoS Biol ; 18(8): e3000851, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822389

RESUMO

High levels of the amyloid-beta (Aß) peptide have been shown to disrupt neuronal function and induce hyperexcitability, but it is unclear what effects Aß-associated hyperexcitability may have on tauopathy pathogenesis or propagation in vivo. Using a novel transgenic mouse line to model the impact of human APP (hAPP)/Aß accumulation on tauopathy in the entorhinal cortex-hippocampal (EC-HIPP) network, we demonstrate that hAPP overexpression aggravates EC-Tau aggregation and accelerates pathological tau spread into the hippocampus. In vivo recordings revealed a strong role for hAPP/Aß, but not tau, in the emergence of EC neuronal hyperactivity and impaired theta rhythmicity. Chronic chemogenetic attenuation of EC neuronal hyperactivity led to reduced hAPP/Aß accumulation and reduced pathological tau spread into downstream hippocampus. These data strongly support the hypothesis that in Alzheimer's disease (AD), Aß-associated hyperactivity accelerates the progression of pathological tau along vulnerable neuronal circuits, and demonstrates the utility of chronic, neuromodulatory approaches in ameliorating AD pathology in vivo.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Precursor de Proteína beta-Amiloide/genética , Córtex Entorrinal/metabolismo , Tauopatias/genética , Proteínas tau/genética , Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Doença de Alzheimer/terapia , Precursor de Proteína beta-Amiloide/metabolismo , Animais , Proteína Quinase Tipo 2 Dependente de Cálcio-Calmodulina/genética , Proteína Quinase Tipo 2 Dependente de Cálcio-Calmodulina/metabolismo , Dependovirus/genética , Dependovirus/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Eletrodos Implantados , Córtex Entorrinal/patologia , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Vetores Genéticos/química , Vetores Genéticos/metabolismo , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Hipocampo/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Agregados Proteicos , Técnicas Estereotáxicas , Tauopatias/metabolismo , Tauopatias/patologia , Tauopatias/terapia , Ritmo Teta/fisiologia , Transdução Genética , Transgenes , Proteínas tau/metabolismo
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3834, 2020 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737309

RESUMO

The transcriptional inducer anhydrotetracycline (aTc) and the bacteriostatic antibiotic tetracycline (Tc) are commonly used in all fields of biology for control of transcription or translation. A drawback of these and other small molecule inducers is the difficulty of their removal from cell cultures, limiting their application for dynamic control. Here, we describe a simple method to overcome this limitation, and show that the natural photosensitivity of aTc/Tc can be exploited to turn them into highly predictable optogenetic transcriptional- and growth-regulators. This new optogenetic class uniquely features both dynamic and setpoint control which act via population-memory adjustable through opto-chemical modulation. We demonstrate this method by applying it for dynamic gene expression control and for enhancing the performance of an existing optogenetic system. We then expand the utility of the aTc system by constructing a new chemical bandpass filter that increases its aTc response range. The simplicity of our method enables scientists and biotechnologists to use their existing systems employing aTc/Tc for dynamic optogenetic experiments without genetic modification.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Optogenética/métodos , Biossíntese de Proteínas/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores da Síntese de Proteínas/farmacologia , Tetraciclina/farmacologia , Tetraciclinas/farmacologia , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Clonagem Molecular , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Genes Reporter , Vetores Genéticos/química , Vetores Genéticos/metabolismo , Proteínas Luminescentes/genética , Proteínas Luminescentes/metabolismo , Fotólise , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Raios Ultravioleta
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3841, 2020 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737323

RESUMO

Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are key enzymes in epigenetics and important drug targets in cancer biology. Whilst it has been established that HDACs regulate many cellular processes, far less is known about the regulation of these enzymes themselves. Here, we show that HDAC8 is allosterically regulated by shifts in populations between exchanging states. An inactive state is identified, which is stabilised by a range of mutations and resembles a sparsely-populated state in equilibrium with active HDAC8. Computational models show that the inactive and active states differ by small changes in a regulatory region that extends up to 28 Å from the active site. The regulatory allosteric region identified here in HDAC8 corresponds to regions in other class I HDACs known to bind regulators, thus suggesting a general mechanism. The presented results pave the way for the development of allosteric HDAC inhibitors and regulators to improve the therapy for several disease states.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/química , Histona Desacetilases/química , Ácidos Hidroxâmicos/química , Indóis/química , Proteínas Repressoras/química , Vorinostat/química , Regulação Alostérica , Sítio Alostérico , Domínio Catalítico , Clonagem Molecular , Cristalografia por Raios X , Ativação Enzimática , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Vetores Genéticos/química , Vetores Genéticos/metabolismo , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/metabolismo , Histona Desacetilases/genética , Histona Desacetilases/metabolismo , Humanos , Ácidos Hidroxâmicos/metabolismo , Indóis/metabolismo , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Mutação , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica em alfa-Hélice , Conformação Proteica em Folha beta , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Proteínas Repressoras/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Especificidade por Substrato , Termodinâmica , Vorinostat/metabolismo
6.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236185, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730344

RESUMO

Fluorescent markers are a powerful tool and have been widely applied in biology for different purposes. The genome sequence of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (X. citri) revealed that approximately 30% of the genes encoded hypothetical proteins, some of which could play an important role in the success of plant-pathogen interaction and disease triggering. Therefore, revealing their functions is an important strategy to understand the bacterium pathways and mechanisms involved in plant-host interaction. The elucidation of protein function is not a trivial task, but the identification of the subcellular localization of a protein is key to understanding its function. We have constructed an integrative vector, pMAJIIc, under the control of the arabinose promoter, which allows the inducible expression of red fluorescent protein (mCherry) fusions in X. citri, suitable for subcellular localization of target proteins. Fluorescence microscopy was used to track the localization of VrpA protein, which was visualized surrounding the bacterial outer membrane, and the GyrB protein, which showed a diffused cytoplasmic localization, sometimes with dots accumulated near the cellular poles. The integration of the vector into the amy locus of X. citri did not affect bacterial virulence. The vector could be stably maintained in X. citri, and the disruption of the α-amylase gene provided an ease screening method for the selection of the transformant colonies. The results demonstrate that the mCherry-containing vector here described is a powerful tool for bacterial protein localization in cytoplasmic and periplasmic environments.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Periplasma/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/metabolismo , Xanthomonas/metabolismo , Arabinose/farmacologia , Cromossomos Bacterianos/genética , Vetores Genéticos/metabolismo , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Transporte Proteico/efeitos dos fármacos , Amido/metabolismo , Frações Subcelulares/efeitos dos fármacos , Xanthomonas/patogenicidade
7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3253, 2020 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32591505

RESUMO

Optogenetics has become an indispensable tool for investigating brain functions. Although non-human primates are particularly useful models for understanding the functions and dysfunctions of the human brain, application of optogenetics to non-human primates is still limited. In the present study, we generate an effective adeno-associated viral vector serotype DJ to express channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) under the control of a strong ubiquitous CAG promoter and inject into the somatotopically identified forelimb region of the primary motor cortex in macaque monkeys. ChR2 is strongly expressed around the injection sites, and optogenetic intracortical microstimulation (oICMS) through a homemade optrode induces prominent cortical activity: Even single-pulse, short-duration oICMS evokes long-lasting repetitive firings of cortical neurons. In addition, oICMS elicits distinct forelimb movements and muscle activity, which are comparable to those elicited by conventional electrical ICMS. The present study removes obstacles to optogenetic manipulation of neuronal activity and behaviors in non-human primates.


Assuntos
Membro Anterior/fisiologia , Córtex Motor/fisiologia , Movimento/fisiologia , Optogenética , Animais , Channelrhodopsins/metabolismo , Dependovirus/genética , Técnicas de Transferência de Genes , Vetores Genéticos/metabolismo , Macaca , Neurônios/fisiologia , Estimulação Física
8.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235362, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584895

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death worldwide. Obesity-related metabolic disorders including dyslipidemia cause impaired collateralization under ischemic conditions, thereby resulting in exacerbated cardiovascular dysfunction. Pemafibrate is a novel selective PPARα modulator, which has been reported to improve atherogenic dyslipidemia, in particular, hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL-cholesterol. Here, we investigated whether pemafibrate modulates the revascularization process in a mouse model of hindlimb ischemia. METHODS AND RESULTS: Male wild-type (WT) mice were randomly assigned to two groups, normal diet or pemafibrate admixture diet from the ages of 6 weeks. After 4 weeks, mice were subjected to unilateral hindlimb surgery to remove the left femoral artery and vein. Pemafibrate treatment enhanced blood flow recovery and capillary formation in ischemic limbs of mice, which was accompanied by enhanced phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). Treatment of cultured endothelial cells with pemafibrate resulted in increased network formation and migratory activity, which were blocked by pretreatment with the NOS inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). Pemafibrate treatment also increased plasma levels of the PPARα-regulated gene, fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21 in WT mice. Systemic administration of adenoviral vectors expressing FGF21 (Ad-FGF21) to WT mice enhanced blood flow recovery, capillary density and eNOS phosphorylation in ischemic limbs. Treatment of cultured endothelial cells with FGF21 protein led to increases in endothelial cell network formation and migration, which were canceled by pretreatment with L-NAME. Furthermore, administration of pemafibrate or Ad-FGF21 had no effects on blood flow in ischemic limbs in eNOS-deficient mice. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that pemafibrate can promote revascularization in response to ischemia, at least in part, through direct and FGF21-mediated modulation of endothelial cell function. Thus, pemafibrate could be a potentially beneficial drug for ischemic vascular disease.


Assuntos
Benzoxazóis/farmacologia , Butiratos/farmacologia , Isquemia/patologia , Neovascularização Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/sangue , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Vetores Genéticos/genética , Vetores Genéticos/metabolismo , Membro Posterior/irrigação sanguínea , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , NG-Nitroarginina Metil Éster/farmacologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/antagonistas & inibidores , PPAR alfa/química , PPAR alfa/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Nat Chem Biol ; 16(7): 783-790, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393899

RESUMO

Leukotrienes (LT) are lipid mediators of the inflammatory response that are linked to asthma and atherosclerosis. LT biosynthesis is initiated by 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) with the assistance of the substrate-binding 5-LOX-activating protein at the nuclear membrane. Here, we contrast the structural and functional consequences of the binding of two natural product inhibitors of 5-LOX. The redox-type inhibitor nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) is lodged in the 5-LOX active site, now fully exposed by disordering of the helix that caps it in the apo-enzyme. In contrast, the allosteric inhibitor 3-acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid (AKBA) from frankincense wedges between the membrane-binding and catalytic domains of 5-LOX, some 30 Å from the catalytic iron. While enzyme inhibition by NDGA is robust, AKBA promotes a shift in the regiospecificity, evident in human embryonic kidney 293 cells and in primary immune cells expressing 5-LOX. Our results suggest a new approach to isoform-specific 5-LOX inhibitor development through exploitation of an allosteric site in 5-LOX.


Assuntos
Araquidonato 5-Lipoxigenase/química , Produtos Biológicos/química , Inibidores de Lipoxigenase/química , Masoprocol/química , Triterpenos/química , Sítio Alostérico , Araquidonato 5-Lipoxigenase/genética , Araquidonato 5-Lipoxigenase/metabolismo , Produtos Biológicos/metabolismo , Domínio Catalítico , Clonagem Molecular , Cristalografia por Raios X , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Vetores Genéticos/química , Vetores Genéticos/metabolismo , Humanos , Ácidos Hidroxieicosatetraenoicos/química , Ácidos Hidroxieicosatetraenoicos/metabolismo , Leucotrieno B4/química , Leucotrieno B4/metabolismo , Inibidores de Lipoxigenase/metabolismo , Masoprocol/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica em alfa-Hélice , Conformação Proteica em Folha beta , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Multimerização Proteica , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Especificidade por Substrato , Triterpenos/metabolismo
11.
Nat Chem Biol ; 16(7): 776-782, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32367018

RESUMO

In type II polyketide synthases (PKSs), the ketosynthase-chain length factor (KS-CLF) complex catalyzes polyketide chain elongation with the acyl carrier protein (ACP). Highly reducing type II PKSs, represented by IgaPKS, produce polyene structures instead of the well-known aromatic skeletons. Here, we report the crystal structures of the Iga11-Iga12 (KS-CLF) heterodimer and the covalently cross-linked Iga10=Iga11-Iga12 (ACP=KS-CLF) tripartite complex. The latter structure revealed the molecular basis of the interaction between Iga10 and Iga11-Iga12, which differs from that between the ACP and KS of Escherichia coli fatty acid synthase. Furthermore, the reaction pocket structure and site-directed mutagenesis revealed that the negative charge of Asp 113 of Iga11 prevents further condensation using a ß-ketoacyl product as a substrate, which distinguishes IgaPKS from typical type II PKSs. This work will facilitate the future rational design of PKSs.


Assuntos
Proteína de Transporte de Acila/química , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/química , Escherichia coli/enzimologia , Ácido Graxo Sintases/química , Policetídeo Sintases/química , Policetídeos/química , Proteína de Transporte de Acila/genética , Proteína de Transporte de Acila/metabolismo , Biocatálise , Domínio Catalítico , Clonagem Molecular , Cristalografia por Raios X , Escherichia coli/genética , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Ácido Graxo Sintases/genética , Ácido Graxo Sintases/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Vetores Genéticos/química , Vetores Genéticos/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Policetídeo Sintases/genética , Policetídeo Sintases/metabolismo , Policetídeos/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica em alfa-Hélice , Conformação Proteica em Folha beta , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Multimerização Proteica , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Streptomyces/enzimologia , Streptomyces/genética , Especificidade por Substrato
12.
J Vis Exp ; (157)2020 03 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32225142

RESUMO

Tartary buckwheat (TB) [Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn] possesses various biological and pharmacological activities because it contains abundant secondary metabolites such as flavonoids, especially rutin. Agrobacterium rhizogenes have been gradually used worldwide to induce hairy roots in medicinal plants to investigate gene functions and increase the yield of secondary metabolites. In this study, we have described a detailed method to generate A. rhizogenes-mediated hairy roots in TB. Cotyledons and hypocotyledonary axis at 7-10 days were selected as explants and infected with A. rhizogenes carrying a binary vector, which induced adventitious hairy roots that appeared after 1 week. The generated hairy root transformation was identified based on morphology, resistance selection (kanamycin), and reporter gene expression (green fluorescent protein). Subsequently, the transformed hairy roots were self-propagated as required. Meanwhile, a myeloblastosis (MYB) transcription factor, FtMYB116, was transformed into the TB genome using the A. rhizogenes-mediated hairy roots to verify the role of FtMYB116 in synthesizing flavonoids. The results showed that the expression of flavonoid-related genes and the yield of flavonoid compounds (rutin and quercetin) were significantly (p < 0.01) promoted by FtMYB116, indicating that A. rhizogenes-mediated hairy roots can be used as an effective alternative tool to investigate gene functions and the production of secondary metabolites. The detailed step-by-step protocol described in this study for generating hairy roots can be adopted for any genetic transformation or other medicinal plants after adjustment.


Assuntos
Agrobacterium/metabolismo , Fagopyrum/genética , Fagopyrum/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Transformação Genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes Reporter , Vetores Genéticos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Luz , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Rutina/biossíntese , Rutina/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
13.
Hum Genet ; 139(10): 1233-1246, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32277284

RESUMO

Approximately 3% of the human genome is composed of short tandem repeat (STR) DNA sequence known as microsatellites, which can be found in both coding and non-coding regions. When associated with genic regions, expansion of microsatellite repeats beyond a critical threshold causes dozens of neurological repeat expansion disorders. To better understand the molecular pathology of repeat expansion disorders, precise cloning of microsatellite repeat sequence and expansion size is highly valuable. Unfortunately, cloning repeat expansions is often challenging and presents a significant bottleneck to practical investigation. Here, we describe a clear method for seamless and systematic cloning of practically any microsatellite repeat expansion. We use cloning and expansion of GGGGCC repeats, which are the leading genetic cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD), as an example. We employ a recursive directional ligation (RDL) technique to build multiple GGGGCC repeat-containing vectors. We describe methods to validate repeat expansion cloning, including diagnostic restriction digestion, PCR across the repeat, and next-generation long-read MinION nanopore sequencing. Validated cloning of microsatellite repeats beyond the critical expansion threshold can facilitate step-by-step characterization of disease mechanisms at the cellular and molecular level.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Proteína C9orf72/genética , Clonagem Molecular/métodos , Expansão das Repetições de DNA , Demência Frontotemporal/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/metabolismo , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/patologia , Sequência de Bases , Proteína C9orf72/metabolismo , Enzimas de Restrição do DNA/química , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Demência Frontotemporal/metabolismo , Demência Frontotemporal/patologia , Expressão Gênica , Vetores Genéticos/química , Vetores Genéticos/metabolismo , Genoma Humano , Genótipo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo
14.
Nat Chem Biol ; 16(7): 756-765, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32284601

RESUMO

Soluble prion proteins contingently encounter foreign prion aggregates, leading to cross-species prion transmission. However, how its efficiency is regulated by structural fluctuation of the host soluble prion protein remains unsolved. In the present study, through the use of two distantly related yeast prion Sup35 proteins, we found that a specific conformation of a short disordered segment governs interspecies prion transmissibility. Using a multidisciplinary approach including high-resolution NMR and molecular dynamics simulation, we identified critical residues within this segment that allow interspecies prion transmission in vitro and in vivo, by locally altering dynamics and conformation of soluble prion proteins. Remarkably, subtle conformational differences caused by a methylene group between asparagine and glutamine sufficed to change the short segment structure and substantially modulate the cross-seeding activity. Thus, our findings uncover how conformational dynamics of the short segment in the host prion protein impacts cross-species prion transmission. More broadly, our study provides mechanistic insights into cross-seeding between heterologous proteins.


Assuntos
Asparagina/química , Glutamina/química , Proteínas Intrinsicamente Desordenadas/química , Fatores de Terminação de Peptídeos/química , Príons/química , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Asparagina/metabolismo , Clonagem Molecular , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Vetores Genéticos/química , Vetores Genéticos/metabolismo , Glutamina/metabolismo , Proteínas Intrinsicamente Desordenadas/genética , Proteínas Intrinsicamente Desordenadas/metabolismo , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Fatores de Terminação de Peptídeos/genética , Fatores de Terminação de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Príons/genética , Príons/metabolismo , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Isoformas de Proteínas/química , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Termodinâmica
15.
Protein Sci ; 29(7): 1596-1605, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32304108

RESUMO

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is rapidly spreading around the world. There is no existing vaccine or proven drug to prevent infections and stop virus proliferation. Although this virus is similar to human and animal SARS-CoVs and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoVs), the detailed information about SARS-CoV-2 proteins structures and functions is urgently needed to rapidly develop effective vaccines, antibodies, and antivirals. We applied high-throughput protein production and structure determination pipeline at the Center for Structural Genomics of Infectious Diseases to produce SARS-CoV-2 proteins and structures. Here we report two high-resolution crystal structures of endoribonuclease Nsp15/NendoU. We compare these structures with previously reported homologs from SARS and MERS coronaviruses.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/química , Endorribonucleases/química , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/química , Oligonucleotídeos/química , Vírus da SARS/química , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Domínio Catalítico , Clonagem Molecular , Cristalografia por Raios X , Endorribonucleases/genética , Endorribonucleases/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Vetores Genéticos/química , Vetores Genéticos/metabolismo , Humanos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/genética , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Oligonucleotídeos/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica em alfa-Hélice , Conformação Proteica em Folha beta , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Vírus da SARS/genética , Vírus da SARS/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Especificidade por Substrato , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo
16.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0228511, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348309

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate intraperitoneal (IP) tumor engraftment, metastasis and growth in a pre-clinical murine epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) model using both transabdominal ultrasound (TAUS) and bioluminescence in vivo imaging system (IVIS). METHODS: Ten female C57Bl/6J mice at six weeks of age were included in this study. Five mice underwent IP injection of 5x106 ID8-luc cells (+ D- luciferin) and the remaining five mice underwent IP injection of ID8-VEGF cells. Monitoring of tumor growth and ascites was performed weekly starting at seven days post-injection until study endpoint. ID8-luc mice were monitored using both TAUS and IVIS, and ID8-VEGF mice underwent TAUS monitoring only. Individual tumor implant dimension and total tumor volume were calculated. Average luminescent intensity was calculated and reported per mouse abdomen. Tumor detection was confirmed by gross evaluation and histopathology. All data are presented as mean +/- standard deviation. RESULTS: Overall, tumors were successfully detected in all ten mice using TAUS and IVIS, and tumor detection correlated with terminal endpoint histology/ H&E staining. For TAUS, the smallest confirmed tumor measurements were at seven days post-injection with mean long axis of 2.23mm and mean tumor volume of 4.17mm3. However, IVIS imaging was able to detect tumor growth at 14 days post-injection. Ascites formation was detected in mice at 21 days post-injection. CONCLUSIONS: TAUS is highly discriminatory for monitoring EOC in pre-clinical murine model, allowing for detection of tumor dimension as small as 2 mm and as early as seven days post-injection compared to IVIS. In addition, TAUS provides relevant information for ascites development and detection of multiple small metastatic tumor implants. TAUS provides an accurate and reliable method to detect and monitor IP EOC growth in mouse xenografts.


Assuntos
Abdome/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/patologia , Transplante de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Peritoneais/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Peritoneais/patologia , Ultrassonografia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Vetores Genéticos/metabolismo , Lentivirus/genética , Luciferases/genética , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Necrose , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
17.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1334, 2020 03 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32170079

RESUMO

Prolonged expression of the CRISPR-Cas9 nuclease and gRNA from viral vectors may cause off-target mutagenesis and immunogenicity. Thus, a transient delivery system is needed for therapeutic genome editing applications. Here, we develop an extracellular nanovesicle-based ribonucleoprotein delivery system named NanoMEDIC by utilizing two distinct homing mechanisms. Chemical induced dimerization recruits Cas9 protein into extracellular nanovesicles, and then a viral RNA packaging signal and two self-cleaving riboswitches tether and release sgRNA into nanovesicles. We demonstrate efficient genome editing in various hard-to-transfect cell types, including human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, neurons, and myoblasts. NanoMEDIC also achieves over 90% exon skipping efficiencies in skeletal muscle cells derived from Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patient iPS cells. Finally, single intramuscular injection of NanoMEDIC induces permanent genomic exon skipping in a luciferase reporter mouse and in mdx mice, indicating its utility for in vivo genome editing therapy of DMD and beyond.


Assuntos
Proteína 9 Associada à CRISPR/genética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Éxons/genética , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/química , RNA Guia/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , Sobrevivência Celular , Dimerização , Edição de Genes , Vetores Genéticos/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Protease de HIV/metabolismo , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Ligantes , Luciferases/metabolismo , Processamento de RNA/genética , RNA Catalítico/metabolismo , Ribonucleoproteínas/metabolismo , Doadores de Tecidos , Produtos do Gene tat do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/metabolismo
18.
Nat Struct Mol Biol ; 27(3): 249-259, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32157247

RESUMO

Aggregation of human α-synuclein (αSyn) is linked to Parkinson's disease (PD) pathology. The central region of the αSyn sequence contains the non-amyloid ß-component (NAC) crucial for aggregation. However, how NAC flanking regions modulate αSyn aggregation remains unclear. Using bioinformatics, mutation and NMR, we identify a 7-residue sequence, named P1 (residues 36-42), that controls αSyn aggregation. Deletion or substitution of this 'master controller' prevents aggregation at pH 7.5 in vitro. At lower pH, P1 synergises with a sequence containing the preNAC region (P2, residues 45-57) to prevent aggregation. Deleting P1 (ΔP1) or both P1 and P2 (ΔΔ) also prevents age-dependent αSyn aggregation and toxicity in C. elegans models and prevents αSyn-mediated vesicle fusion by altering the conformational properties of the protein when lipid bound. The results highlight the importance of a master-controller sequence motif that controls both αSyn aggregation and function-a region that could be targeted to prevent aggregation in disease.


Assuntos
Neurônios/química , Doença de Parkinson/metabolismo , Agregados Proteicos , alfa-Sinucleína/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Caenorhabditis elegans , Clonagem Molecular , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Genes Reporter , Vetores Genéticos/química , Vetores Genéticos/metabolismo , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Proteínas Luminescentes/genética , Proteínas Luminescentes/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Doença de Parkinson/genética , Doença de Parkinson/patologia , Fosfatidilserinas/química , Multimerização Proteica , Proteolipídeos/química , Proteolipídeos/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência , alfa-Sinucleína/genética , alfa-Sinucleína/metabolismo
19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 185, 2020 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111171

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) arthritis is one of the most detrimental joint diseases known and leads to severe joint destruction within days. We hypothesized that the provision of auxiliary immunoregulation via an expanded compartment of T regulatory cells (Tregs) could dampen detrimental aspects of the host immune response whilst preserving its protective nature. Administration of low-dose interleukin 2 (IL2) preferentially expands Tregs, and is being studied as a treatment choice in several autoimmune conditions. We aimed to evaluate the role of IL2 and Tregs in septic arthritis using a well-established mouse model of haematogenously spred S. aureus arthritis. METHODS: C57BL/6 or NMRI mice we intravenously (iv) injected with a defined dose of S. aureus LS-1 or Newman and the role of IL2 and Tregs were assessed by the following approaches: IL2 was endogenously delivered by intraperitoneal injection of a recombinant adeno-associated virus vector (rAAV) before iv S. aureus inoculation; Tregs were depleted before and during S. aureus arthritis using antiCD25 antibodies; Tregs were adoptively transferred before induction of S. aureus arthritis and finally, recombinant IL2 was used as a treatment starting day 3 after S. aureus injection. Studied outcomes included survival, weight change, bacterial clearance, and joint damage. RESULTS: Expansion of Tregs induced by IL2 gene therapy prior to disease onset does not compromise host resistance to S. aureus infection, as the increased proportions of Tregs reduced the arthritis severity as well as the systemic inflammatory response, while simultaneously preserving the host's ability to clear the infection. CONCLUSIONS: Pre-treatment with IL2 gene therapy dampens detrimental immune responses but preserves appropriate host defense, which alleviates S. aureus septic arthritis in a mouse model.


Assuntos
Artrite Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Terapia Genética , Interleucina-2/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/patogenicidade , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Artrite Infecciosa/etiologia , Dependovirus/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Vetores Genéticos/metabolismo , Interleucina-2/metabolismo , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-2/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteínas Recombinantes/biossíntese , Proteínas Recombinantes/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos T Reguladores/citologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo
20.
Nat Struct Mol Biol ; 27(3): 288-296, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32123390

RESUMO

The iota toxin produced by Clostridium perfringens type E is a binary toxin comprising two independent polypeptides: Ia, an ADP-ribosyltransferase, and Ib, which is involved in cell binding and translocation of Ia across the cell membrane. Here we report cryo-EM structures of the translocation channel Ib-pore and its complex with Ia. The high-resolution Ib-pore structure demonstrates a similar structural framework to that of the catalytic ϕ-clamp of the anthrax protective antigen pore. However, the Ia-bound Ib-pore structure shows a unique binding mode of Ia: one Ia binds to the Ib-pore, and the Ia amino-terminal domain forms multiple weak interactions with two additional Ib-pore constriction sites. Furthermore, Ib-binding induces tilting and partial unfolding of the Ia N-terminal α-helix, permitting its extension to the ϕ-clamp gate. This new mechanism of N-terminal unfolding is crucial for protein translocation.


Assuntos
ADP Ribose Transferases/química , Antígenos de Bactérias/química , Toxinas Bacterianas/química , Clostridium perfringens/química , Subunidades Proteicas/química , ADP Ribose Transferases/genética , ADP Ribose Transferases/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Antígenos de Bactérias/genética , Antígenos de Bactérias/metabolismo , Toxinas Bacterianas/genética , Toxinas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Clonagem Molecular , Clostridium perfringens/genética , Clostridium perfringens/metabolismo , Clostridium perfringens/patogenicidade , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Cristalografia por Raios X , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Vetores Genéticos/química , Vetores Genéticos/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica em alfa-Hélice , Conformação Proteica em Folha beta , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Multimerização Proteica , Subunidades Proteicas/genética , Subunidades Proteicas/metabolismo , Transporte Proteico , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Especificidade por Substrato
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA