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1.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 81(3): 432-437, 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34137705

RESUMO

Vector-borne diseases (VBDs) continue to pose a challenge to the efforts of public health agencies by increasing their impact on the health of the affected communities. The common feature of VBDs is that the only way of preventing them is by avoiding the contact between vectors and humans. There are no vaccines, and they will not be available shortly as tools for prevention and control in Argentina. Although dengue outbreaks attracted the attention of mass media from 2009, other VBDs have been affecting public health in Argentina for many decades, as Chagas disease and leishmaniasis. Over these, and others that could potentially settle in the national territory (West Nile, Lyme, etc.), there are repeated mass media claims and political declarations justifying their increase because of climate changes. The argument asserts that the "tropicalization" of the climate in temperate regions promotes the installation of VBDs in areas previously unfavorable for them. Although much evidence exists showing that the climate is changing, there is very little evidence that the climate is the main factor promoting the increase of VBDs. In this article, the influence of the so-called climate change on the situation of disease vectors in Argentina (with emphasis on triatomines) and vector control activities implemented by governmental public health agencies are discussed.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores , Argentina/epidemiologia , Vetores de Doenças , Humanos , Saúde Pública
3.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e237789, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33978078

RESUMO

Aedes aegypti is a culicide that has gained relevance over the years due to its ability to transmit various viruses that cause diseases in humans that all the years cause high mortality rates in the world population. The main problem is that Ae. aegypti has managed to establish and maintain a close relationship with humans and their habitat, which is why the search for alternatives to control vector populations becomes imperative. The objective of the present work was to study the effects of two Beauveria bassiana strains on Aedes aegypti. Third instar larvae of Ae. aegypti in 250 mL plastic containers were inoculated with the GHA and NB3 strains at different concentrations (1.5 × 104, 1.5× 105, 1.5 × 106 and 1.5 × 107 conidia/mL). The NB3 strain presented highest mortality values ​​with 63% in the highest concentration i.e., 1.5 × 107, while for the GHA strain the highest mortality value was 30.7% at the same concentration. The results showed significant difference in mortality with respect to the strain and days post treatment (P = 0.0001), but not with respect to the conidial concentration (P = 0.634). The average mortality of larvae per day for the NB3 for different concentrations ranged from 20 to 25 larvae per day, while for the GHA daily mortality ranged from 5 to 12 larvae. In post-treatment mortality, the highest mortality was recorded in the third stage larvae for the NB3, while for GHA the highest percentage mortality was observed in individuals who managed to reach the adult state. The findings of the current research depicted the noteworthy role of B. bassiana for the management of an important vector of human disease.


Assuntos
Aedes , Beauveria , Animais , Vetores de Doenças , Humanos , Larva , Mosquitos Vetores
4.
Acta Trop ; 220: 105953, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33979638

RESUMO

Several light trap devices have been invented and developed to assess the abundance of sand flies. Traps available in the market have different designs and attractant combinations to catch sand fly vectors. We evaluated the efficacy of four commercial light traps and determined the effect of trap placement and carbon dioxide (CO2) on sand fly collection in northern Thailand. Trap evaluations were conducted at two natural caves located in Chiang Rai province, Thailand. In the first part of the study, the efficacies of four trap types including the Centers for Disease Control miniature light trap (CDC LT), Encephalitis Vector Survey trap (EVS), CDC Updraft Blacklight trap (CDC UB), and Laika trap (LK) were evaluated and compared using a Latin square experimental design. The second half of the study evaluated the influence of trap placement and CO2 on sand fly collection. Additionally, CDC LT were placed inside, outside, and at the entrance of caves to compare the number of sand flies collected. For the trap efficacy experiment, a total of 11,876 phlebotomine sand flies were collected over 32 trap-nights. Results demonstrated that CDC LT, CDC UB, and LK collected significantly more sand flies than EVS (P > 0.05). However, there were no significant differences between the numbers of sand flies collected by CDC LT, CDC UB, and LK. A total of 6,698 sand flies were collected from the trap placement and CO2 experiment over 72 trap-nights. Results showed that CO2 did not influence the numbers of sand flies captured (P < 0.05), whereas trap placement at the entrance of the caves resulted in collection of significantly more sand flies than traps placed inside and outside of the caves. We found the CDC LT, CDC UB, and LK without CO2 captured the greatest amount of sand flies. This was particularly observed when traps were placed at the entrance of a cave, perhaps because of the greater passage of stimuli caused by wind flow at the entrance of the cave. The light traps in this study can be used effectively to collect sand fly vectors in northern Thailand.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Phlebotomus , Psychodidae , Animais , Cavernas , Vetores de Doenças , Controle de Insetos/instrumentação , Tailândia
5.
Acta Trop ; 220: 105950, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33979639

RESUMO

The occurrence of triatomine species, their bloodmeal sources and the discrete typing units (DTUs) of Trypanosoma cruzi isolated from them were determined in different municipalities of the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Triatomine captures were carried out in the rural areas of 23 municipalities. The genotyping of T. cruzi isolates was performed using the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 2 (coii) gene, the D7 region of the 24Sα rDNA, and the spliced leader intergenic region (SL-IR). Five triatomine species were captured, and the most frequent was Triatoma brasiliensis (84.3%; 916/1086), which was found in 16 of the 23 municipalities surveyed, and infested all types of environment investigated. The TcI DTU was found in all mesoregions surveyed in 51.5% (17/33) of the culture-positive samples. In contrast, TcII (9.1%; 3/33) was detected in the Central mesoregion, while TcIII (27.3%; 9/33) was found in all mesoregions. The geographic distribution and spatial overlap of different DTUs was inferred using the superposition of the radius of occurrence of isolates and using ecological niche distribution modelling. Triatoma brasiliensis was found infected in all mesoregions and with all three T. cruzi DTUs, including mixed infections. With regard to bloodmeal sources, the DNA of rodents was found in triatomines infected with either TcI or TcIII, while that of domestic animals and humans was associated with both single and mixed infections. Our findings demonstrate that different DTUs of T. cruzi are widely dispersed among triatomines in our study area. The association of T. brasiliensis with several different mammalian hosts, as well as overlapping areas with different DTUs, suggests that this triatomine species may have an important role as a vector in both anthropic and sylvatic environments.


Assuntos
Triatoma/classificação , Trypanosoma cruzi/classificação , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Doença de Chagas/transmissão , DNA Intergênico , Vetores de Doenças/classificação , Secas , Genótipo , Humanos , Triatoma/genética , Triatoma/fisiologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/genética , Trypanosoma cruzi/fisiologia
6.
Proc Biol Sci ; 288(1951): 20210714, 2021 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34004130

RESUMO

Aedes aegypti is the dominant vector of dengue, a potentially fatal virus whose incidence has increased eightfold in the last two decades. As dengue has no widely available vaccine, vector control is key to reducing the global public health burden. A promising method is the release of self-limiting Ae. aegypti, which mate with wild Ae. aegypti and produce non-viable offspring. The resultant decrease in Ae. aegypti population size may impact coexistence with Ae. albopictus, another vector of dengue. A behavioural mechanism influencing coexistence between these species is reproductive interference, where incomplete species recognition results in heterospecifics engaging in mating activities. We develop a theoretical framework to investigate the interaction between self-limiting Ae. aegypti releases and reproductive interference between Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus on patterns of coexistence. In the absence of self-limiting Ae. aegypti release, coexistence can occur when the strength of reproductive interference experienced by both species is low. Results show that substantial overflooding with self-limiting Ae. aegypti prevents coexistence. For lower release ratios, as the release ratio increases, coexistence can occur when the strength of reproductive interference is increasingly high for Ae. albopictus and increasingly low for Ae. aegypti. This emphasizes the importance of including behavioural ecological processes into population models to evaluate the efficacy of vector control.


Assuntos
Aedes , Dengue , Animais , Vetores de Doenças , Mosquitos Vetores , Densidade Demográfica , Reprodução
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 468, 2021 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34022823

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vector control plays a critical role in the prevention, control and elimination of vector-borne diseases, and interventions of vector control continue to depend largely on the action of chemical insecticides. A global survey was conducted on the management practices of vector control insecticides at country level to identify gaps to inform future strategies on pesticide management, seeking to improve efficacy of interventions and reduce the side-effects of chemicals used on health and the environment. METHODS: A survey by questionnaire on the management practices of vector control insecticides was disseminated among all WHO Member States. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics in MS Excel. RESULTS: Responses were received from 94 countries, or a 48% response rate. Capacity for insecticide resistance monitoring was established in 68-80% of the countries in most regions, often with external support; however, this capacity was largely lacking from the European & Others Region (i.e. Western & Eastern Europe, North America, Australia and New Zealand). Procurement of vector control insecticides was in 50-75% of countries taking place by agencies other than the central-level procuring agency, over which the central authorities lacked control, for example, to select the product or assure its quality, highlighting the importance of post-market monitoring. Moreover, some countries experienced problems with estimating the correct amounts for procurement, especially for emergency purposes. Large fractions (29-78%) of countries across regions showed shortcomings in worker safety, pesticide storage practices and pesticide waste disposal. Shortcomings were most pronounced in countries of the European & Others Region, which has long been relatively free from mosquito-borne diseases but has recently faced challenges of re-emerging vector-borne diseases. CONCLUSIONS: Critical shortcomings in the management of vector control insecticides are common in countries across regions, with risks of adverse pesticide effects on health and the environment. Advocacy and resource mobilization are needed at regional and country levels to address these challenges.


Assuntos
Vetores de Doenças , Saúde Global , Resistência a Inseticidas/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores/prevenção & controle , Animais , Ásia/epidemiologia , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , América do Norte/epidemiologia , América do Sul/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 22(5): 363-375, 2021 May.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33960979

RESUMO

In over a year, the COVID-19 pandemic caused 2.69 million deaths and 122 million infections. Social isolation and distancing measures have been the only prevention available for months. Scientific research has done a great deal of work, developing in a few months safe and effective vaccines against COVID-19. In the European Union, nowadays, four vaccines have been authorized for use: Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna, ChAdOx1 (AstraZeneca/Oxford), Janssen (Johnson & Johnson), and three others are currently under rolling review.Vaccine allocation policy is crucial to optimize the advantage of treatment preferring people with the highest risk of contagion. These days the priority in the vaccination program is of particular importance since it has become clear that the number of vaccines is not sufficient for the entire Italian population in the short term. Cardiovascular diseases are frequently associated with severe COVID-19 infections, leading to the worst prognosis. The elderly population suffering from cardiovascular diseases is, therefore, to be considered a particularly vulnerable population. However, age cannot be considered the only discriminating factor because in the young-adult population suffering from severe forms of heart disease, the prognosis, if affected by COVID-19, is particularly ominous and these patients should have priority access to the vaccination program. The aim of this position paper is to establish a consensus on a priority in the vaccination of COVID-19 among subjects suffering from different cardiovascular diseases.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Consenso , Fatores Etários , Animais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , Cardiologia , Doença das Coronárias/complicações , Vetores de Doenças , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Transplante de Coração , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/complicações , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/complicações , Itália/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Insuficiência Renal/complicações , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Sociedades Médicas , Vacinas Sintéticas/administração & dosagem
9.
Front Public Health ; 9: 611152, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34046385

RESUMO

The extreme north of Chile presents a subtropical climate permissive of the establishment of potential disease vectors. Anopheles (Ano.) pseudopunctipennis is distributed from the south of the United States to the north of Argentina and Chile, and is one of the main vectors of malaria in Latin America. Malaria was eradicated from Chile in 1945. Nevertheless, the vector persists in river ravines of the Arica and Tarapacá regions. The principal effect of climate change in the north of Chile is temperature increase. Precipitation prediction is not accurate for this region because records were erratic during the last century. The objective of this study was to estimate the current and the projected distribution pattern of this species in Chile, given the potential impact due to climate change. We compiled distributional data for An. (Ano.) pseudopunctipennis and constructed species distribution models to predict the spatial distribution of this species using the MaxEnt algorithm with current and RCP 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios, using environmental and topographic layers. Our models estimated that the current expected range of An. (Ano.) pseudopunctipennis extends continuously from Arica to the north of Antofagasta region. Furthermore, the RCP 4.5 and 8.5 projected scenarios suggested that the range of distribution of An. (Ano.) pseudopunctipennis may increase in longitude, latitude, and altitude limits, enhancing the local extension area by 38 and 101%, respectively, and local presence probability (>0.7), from the northern limit in Arica y Parinacota region (18°S) to the northern Antofagasta region (23°S). This study contributes to geographic and ecologic knowledge about this species in Chile, as it represents the first local study of An. (Ano.) pseudopunctipennis. The information generated in this study can be used to inform decision making regarding vector control and surveillance programs of Latin America. These kinds of studies are very relevant to generate human, animal, and environmental health knowledge contributing to the "One Health" concept.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Malária , Animais , Argentina , Chile , Vetores de Doenças , Humanos , Mosquitos Vetores
11.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 54: e0851, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33886822

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Ourinhos is a municipality located between the Pardo and Paranapanema rivers, and it has been characterized by the endemic transmission of schistosomiasis since 1952. We used geospatial analysis to identify areas prone to human schistosomiasis infections in Ourinhos. We studied the association between the sewage network, co-occurrence of Biomphalaria snails (identified as intermediate hosts [IHs] of Schistosoma mansoni), and autochthonous cases. METHODS: Gi spatial statistics, Ripley's K12-function, and kernel density estimation were used to evaluate the association between schistosomiasis data reported during 2007-2016 and the occurrence of IHs during 2015-2017. These data were superimposed on the municipality sewage network data. RESULTS: We used 20 points with reported IH; they were colonized predominantly by Biomphalaria glabrata, followed by B. tenagophila and B. straminea. Based on Gi statistics, a significant cluster of autochthonous cases was superimposed on the Christoni and Água da Veada water bodies, with distances of approximately 300 m and 2200 m from the points where B. glabrata and B. straminea were present, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The residence geographical location of autochthonous cases allied with the spatial analysis of IHs and the coverage of the sewage network provide important information for the detection of human-infection areas. Our results demonstrated that the tools used for direct surveillance, control, and elimination of schistosomiasis are appropriate.


Assuntos
Biomphalaria , Esquistossomose mansoni , Esquistossomose , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Vetores de Doenças , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Schistosoma mansoni , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/epidemiologia , Esgotos
12.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 6619175, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33884266

RESUMO

Background: To date, dengue is considered an important public health problem in Sri Lanka. Irrational use of insecticides without evidence-based applications has primed the development of resistance in mosquito vectors. Method: The present study investigated the resistance status of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus to commonly used insecticides in three selected Medical Officer of Health (MOH) areas (i.e., Attanagalla, Dompe, and Negombo) in Gampaha District, Western Province of Sri Lanka. Entomological surveys were performed using ovitraps and larval collections. Larval bioassays were carried out to determine the LC50, LC90, and LC95 and susceptibility status for organophosphate temephos, whereas adult bioassays were performed to test the 0.03% deltamethrin and 0.8% malathion susceptibility. Results: The study revealed that the temephos concentrations required to control Ae. aegypti (13.7-17.7 times) and Ae. albopictus (4.6-7.6 times) are higher than the diagnostic concentration (0.012 mg/L) proposed by the World Health Organization. The highest resistance levels were observed for both Ae. aegypti (14 ± 1.87) and Ae. albopictus (36 ± 1.87) collected from the Negombo MOH area. Therefore, the WHO recommended diagnostic concentration is no longer effective in controlling Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus larvae in these areas. Both the dengue vectors have evolved a high level of insecticide resistance to malathion and deltamethrin in the Gampaha District except Ae. albopictus mosquitoes in rural areas. Further, vectors in rural areas are indicated susceptible (>98%) to pyrethroids and emergence of resistance (<97%) for organophosphate insecticides. Conclusion: The results of this study warrant the vector management authorities on the proper application of insecticides and rational use in vector control. The susceptibility status of vector mosquitoes should be continuously monitored especially in dengue-endemic areas parallel to the routine surveillance programme. Further molecular studies are strongly recommended to determine the Knockdown Resistance (kdr) mutations among Aedes populations.


Assuntos
Aedes/fisiologia , Dengue/prevenção & controle , Dengue/parasitologia , Vetores de Doenças , Resistência a Inseticidas , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Geografia , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Sri Lanka , Temefós/toxicidade
13.
Vet J ; 271: 105638, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33840483

RESUMO

Quantitative anti-Leishmania antibody titres are critical in the management of dogs with leishmaniosis, from diagnosis to treatment and follow-up, and there is a paucity of data relating changes in antibody titres to sand fly vector seasonality. This study aimed to evaluate seasonal variations in anti-Leishmania infantum antibody titres in dogs from a hyperendemic area for canine leishmaniosis (CanL). Leishmania infantum-seropositive and clinically healthy dogs (n=65) were sampled in June 2019 (sand fly season) and again in February-March 2020 (non-transmission season) to monitor clinical status and serological titres. There was a reduction in anti-L. infantum antibody titres during the non-transmission season in most dogs (n=36; 55.4%), and 44% of those dogs (n=16/36) became seronegative (i.e. below the cut-off value of 1:80). Given the relevance of serology to epidemiological, preventive and clinical studies related to CanL, seasonal variations in antibody titres are important in areas where phlebotomine vectors have seasonal patterns of activity. Sand fly seasonal period must be considered in the interpretation of annual anti-L. infantum antibody screening test results in asymptomatic dogs, to make clinical decisions about staging, treatment and prevention.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Leishmania infantum/imunologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Estações do Ano , Animais , Vetores de Doenças , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Feminino , Itália/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Masculino , Psychodidae/parasitologia
14.
Proc Biol Sci ; 288(1949): 20203217, 2021 04 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33906411

RESUMO

Laboratory-derived temperature dependencies of life-history traits are increasingly being used to make mechanistic predictions for how climatic warming will affect vector-borne disease dynamics, partially by affecting abundance dynamics of the vector population. These temperature-trait relationships are typically estimated from juvenile populations reared on optimal resource supply, even though natural populations of vectors are expected to experience variation in resource supply, including intermittent resource limitation. Using laboratory experiments on the mosquito Aedes aegypti, a principal arbovirus vector, combined with stage-structured population modelling, we show that low-resource supply in the juvenile life stages significantly depresses the vector's maximal population growth rate across the entire temperature range (22-32°C) and causes it to peak at a lower temperature than at high-resource supply. This effect is primarily driven by an increase in juvenile mortality and development time, combined with a decrease in adult size with temperature at low-resource supply. Our study suggests that most projections of temperature-dependent vector abundance and disease transmission are likely to be biased because they are based on traits measured under optimal resource supply. Our results provide compelling evidence for future studies to consider resource supply when predicting the effects of climate and habitat change on vector-borne disease transmission, disease vectors and other arthropods.


Assuntos
Aedes , Mosquitos Vetores , Animais , Vetores de Doenças , Aptidão Genética , Temperatura
15.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(4): e0009391, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33905415

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aedes albopictus is one of the most invasive species in the world as well as the important vector for mosquito-borne diseases such as dengue fever, chikungunya fever and zika virus disease. Chemical control of mosquitoes is an effective method to control mosquito-borne diseases, however, the wide and improper application of insecticides for vector control has led to serious resistance problems. At present, there have been many reports on the resistance to pyrethroid insecticides in vector mosquitoes including deltamethrin to Aedes albopictus. However, the fitness cost and vector competence of deltamethrin resistant Aedes albopictus remain unknown. To understand the impact of insecticide resistant mosquito is of great significance for the prevention and control mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A laboratory resistant strain (Lab-R) of Aedes albopictus was established by deltamethrin insecticide selecting from the laboratory susceptible strain (Lab-S). The life table between the two strains were comparatively analyzed. The average development time of Lab-R and Lab-S in larvae was 9.7 days and 8.2 days (P < 0.005), and in pupae was 2.0 days and 1.8 days respectively (P > 0.05), indicating that deltamethrin resistance prolongs the larval development time of resistant mosquitoes. The average survival time of resistant adults was significantly shorter than that of susceptible adults, while the body weight of resistant female adults was significantly higher than that of the susceptible females. We also compared the vector competence for dengue virus type-2 (DENV-2) between the two strains via RT-qPCR. Considering the results of infection rate (IR) and virus load, there was no difference between the two strains during the early period of infection (4, 7, 10 day post infection (dpi)). However, in the later period of infection (14 dpi), IR and virus load in heads, salivary glands and ovaries of the resistant mosquitoes were significantly lower than those of the susceptible strain (IR of heads, salivary glands and ovaries: P < 0.05; virus load in heads and salivary glands: P < 0.05; virus load in ovaries: P < 0.001). And then, fourteen days after the DENV-2-infectious blood meal, females of the susceptible and resistant strains were allow to bite 5-day-old suckling mice. Both stains of mosquito can transmit DENV-2 to mice, but the onset of viremia was later in the mice biting by resistant group as well as lower virus copies in serum and brains, suggesting that the horizontal transmission of the resistant strain is lower than the susceptible strain. Meanwhile, we also detected IR of egg pools of the two strains on 14 dpi and found that the resistant strain were less capable of vertical transmission than susceptible mosquitoes. In addition, the average survival time of the resistant females infected with DENV-2 was 16 days, which was the shortest among the four groups of female mosquitoes, suggesting that deltamethrin resistance would shorten the life span of female Aedes albopictus infected with DENV-2. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: As Aedes albopictus developing high resistance to deltamethrin, the resistance prolonged the growth and development of larvae, shorten the life span of adults, as well as reduced the vector competence of resistant Aedes albopictus for DENV-2. It can be concluded that the resistance to deltamethrin in Aedes albopictus is a double-edged sword, which not only endow the mosquito survive under the pressure of insecticide, but also increase the fitness cost and decrease its vector competence. However, Aedes albopictus resistant to deltamethrin can still complete the external incubation period and transmit dengue virus, which remains a potential vector for dengue virus transmission and becomes a threat to public health. Therefore, we should pay high attention for the problem of insecticide resistance so that to better prevent and control mosquito-borne diseases.


Assuntos
Aedes/virologia , Vetores de Doenças , Resistência a Inseticidas , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Nitrilas/farmacologia , Piretrinas/farmacologia , Animais , Dengue/transmissão , Vírus da Dengue/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas , Controle de Insetos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Glândulas Salivares/virologia
16.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(4): e0009358, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33930033

RESUMO

Interventions to control the vectors of human diseases, notably malaria, leishmaniasis and dengue, have relied mainly on the action of chemical insecticides. However, concerns have been raised regarding the management of insecticides in vector-borne disease-endemic countries. Our study aimed to analyze how vector control insecticides are managed in selected countries to extract lessons learned. A qualitative analysis of the situation of vector control insecticides management was conducted in six countries. Multi-stakeholder meetings and key informer interviews were conducted on aspects covering the pesticide lifecycle. Findings were compared and synthesized to extract lessons learned. Centrally executed guidelines and standards on the management of insecticides offered direction and control in most malaria programs, but were largely lacking from decentralized dengue programs, where practices of procurement, application, safety, storage, and disposal were variable between districts. Decentralized programs were better at facilitating participation of stakeholders and local communities and securing financing from local budgets. However, little coordination existed between malaria, visceral leishmaniasis and dengue programs within countries. Entomological capacity was concentrated in malaria programs at central level, while dengue and visceral leishmaniasis programs were missing out on expertise. Monitoring systems for insecticide resistance in malaria vectors were rarely used for dengue or visceral leishmaniasis vectors. Strategies for insecticide resistance management, where present, did not extend across programs or sectors in most countries. Dengue programs in most countries continued to rely on space spraying which, considering the realities on the ground, call for revision of international guidelines. Vector control programs in the selected countries were confronted with critical shortcomings in the procurement, application, safety measures, storage, and disposal of vector control insecticides, with implications for the efficiency, effectiveness, and safety of vector control. Further international support is needed to assist countries in situation analysis, action planning and development of national guidelines on vector control insecticide management.


Assuntos
Vetores de Doenças , Resistência a Inseticidas/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores/prevenção & controle , Animais , Ásia/epidemiologia , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Saúde Global , Humanos , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia
17.
J Theor Biol ; 524: 110726, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33895180

RESUMO

The life cycle of parasitic organisms that are the cause of much morbidity in humans often depend on reservoirs of infection for transmission into their hosts. Understanding the daily, monthly and yearly movement patterns of individuals between reservoirs is therefore of great importance to implementers of control policies seeking to eliminate various parasitic diseases as a public health problem. This is due to the fact that the underlying spatial extent of the reservoir of infection, which drives transmission, can be strongly affected by inputs from external sources, i.e., individuals who are not spatially attributed to the region defined by the reservoir itself can still migrate and contribute to it. In order to study the importance of these effects, we build and examine a novel theoretical model of human movement between spatially-distributed focal points for infection clustered into regions defined as 'reservoirs of infection'. Using our model, we vary the spatial scale of human moment defined around focal points and explicitly calculate how varying this definition can influence the temporal stability of the effective transmission dynamics - an effect which should strongly influence how control measures, e.g., mass drug administration (MDA), define evaluation units (EUs). Considering the helminth parasites as our main example, by varying the spatial scale of human movement, we demonstrate that a critical scale exists around infectious focal points at which the migration rate into their associated reservoir can be neglected for practical purposes. This scale varies by species and geographic region, but is generalisable as a concept to infectious reservoirs of varying spatial extents and shapes. Our model is designed to be applicable to a very general pattern of infectious disease transmission modified by the migration of infected individuals between clustered communities. In particular, it may be readily used to study the spatial structure of hosts for macroparasites with temporally stationary distributions of infectious focal point locations over the timescales of interest, which is viable for the soil-transmitted helminths and schistosomes. Additional developments will be necessary to consider diseases with moving reservoirs, such as vector-born filarial worm diseases.


Assuntos
Helmintos , Animais , Reservatórios de Doenças , Vetores de Doenças , Humanos , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos , Solo
18.
J Parasitol ; 107(2): 349-357, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33906231

RESUMO

Schistosoma mansoni, which causes human intestinal schistosomiasis, continues to be a major public health concern in the Lake Victoria basin in western Kenya, with Biomphalaria sudanica (a shoreline inhabiting snail) and Biomphalaria choanomphala (a deep-water snail) playing roles in transmission. A recent study showed that B. sudanica was abundantly present near all study villages on the lakeshore, but B. choanomphala was significantly more abundant near villages known to be persistent transmission hotspots. The present study investigated the relative compatibility of B. sudanica and B. choanomphala with S. mansoni. A reciprocal cross-infection experiment used young adult F1 generation B. sudanica and B. choanomphala that were exposed to either 1, 5, or 10 sympatric or allopatric human-derived S. mansoni miracidia. Three weeks post-exposure (PE) and weekly thereafter, the snails were counted and screened for schistosome cercariae, and at 7 wk PE, total cercariae shed during a 2 hr period by each infected snail was determined. Pre-patent periods for S. mansoni in both B. sudanica and B. choanomphala were similar, and most snails in all exposure combinations started shedding cercariae 5 wk PE. Prevalences were significantly higher in B. choanomphala (12.2-80.9%) than in B. sudanica (5.2-18.6%) at each dose, regardless of whether miracidia were of an allopatric or a sympatric source (P < 0.0001). Overall, the odds of a snail becoming infected with 5 or 10 miracidia were significantly higher than the odds of being infected with 1 miracidium, (P < 0.0001), and fewer cercariae were produced by snails exposed to single as compared to 5 or 10 miracidia. On average, B. choanomphala produced more cercariae ( = 458, SD = 414) than B. sudanica ( = 238, SD = 208) (P < 0.0001). These results suggest that B. choanomphala is more compatible with S. mansoni than B. sudanica. Though B. choanomphala can be found in shallow shoreline waters, it is, for the most part, a deeper-water taxon. Because dredging is a relatively inefficient means of sampling, B. choanomphala is likely underestimated with respect to its population size, the number of S. mansoni-positive snails, and its role in maintaining transmission.


Assuntos
Biomphalaria/fisiologia , Biomphalaria/parasitologia , Vetores de Doenças , Schistosoma mansoni/fisiologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/transmissão , Animais , Biomphalaria/classificação , Biomphalaria/imunologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/epidemiologia
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668472

RESUMO

The emergence and spread of vector-borne diseases (VBDs) is a function of biotic, abiotic and socio-economic drivers of disease while their economic and societal burden depends upon a number of time-varying factors. This work is concerned with the development of an early warning system that can act as a predictive tool for public health preparedness and response. We employ a host-vector model that combines entomological (mosquito data), social (immigration rate, demographic data), environmental (temperature) and geographical data (risk areas). The output consists of appropriate maps depicting suitable risk measures such as the basic reproduction number, R0, and the probability of getting infected by the disease. These tools consist of the backbone of a semi-automatic early warning system tool which can potentially aid the monitoring and control of VBDs in different settings. In addition, it can be used for optimizing the cost-effectiveness of distinct control measures and the integration of open geospatial and climatological data. The R code used to generate the risk indicators and the corresponding spatial maps along with the data is made available.


Assuntos
Mosquitos Vetores , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores , Animais , Número Básico de Reprodução , Vetores de Doenças , Fatores de Risco
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